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Sample records for australian public sector

  1. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  2. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  3. Measuring Public Sector Efficiency: A Study of Economics Departments at Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gary; Savage, Scott; Kemp, Steven

    1997-01-01

    The 1987 Green Paper on Australian higher education recommended abandoning the binary system. The Dawkins plan effectively transferred resources from established universities to the former colleges of advanced education. This study compares initial and subsequent performance of economics departments, using a nonparametric data-envelopment-analysis…

  4. Measuring Public Sector Efficiency: A Study of Economics Departments at Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gary; Savage, Scott; Kemp, Steven

    1997-01-01

    The 1987 Green Paper on Australian higher education recommended abandoning the binary system. The Dawkins plan effectively transferred resources from established universities to the former colleges of advanced education. This study compares initial and subsequent performance of economics departments, using a nonparametric data-envelopment-analysis…

  5. Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Hurley, John; Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme

    2016-02-01

    Public sector organizations have been shown to have high levels of workplace bullying, despite widespread adoption of zero-tolerance policy. Given the level of harm that stems from bullying, it has been suggested that it might be one of the most serious problems facing modern organizations. The qualitative findings from a large cross sectional study of public servants in Australia are reported in the present study. The results highlight palpable mental distress and illness stemming from exposure to workplace bullying. This distress was exacerbated by failures in prohibitive workplace procedures. Reporting bullying through formal organization processes did not lead to resolution of the problem; it instead highlighted feelings of powerlessness and mistrust. In light of the findings, we suggest that an alternative discourse is required, one that gives attention to enhancing employee resilience and self-healing behaviours to the emotional trauma of workplaces. Organizations might be better placed investing resources in fostering the resilience and emotional intelligence of their workforce, rather than continuing to invest resources in prohibitive policies that fail to address the problem. Employees should be supported to prioritize responsibility for their own mental health, rather than an overreliance on organizational responses. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. The impact of rationing of health resources on capacity of Australian public sector nurses to deliver nursing care after-hours: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Willis, Eileen; Toffoli, Luisa; Hamilton, Patricia; Blackman, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Australia, along with other countries, has introduced New Public Management (NPM) into public sector hospitals in an effort to contain healthcare costs. NPM is associated with outsourcing of service provision, the meeting of government performance indicators, workforce flexibility and rationing of resources. This study explores the impact of rationing of staffing and other resources upon delivery of care outside of business hours. Data was collected through semistructured interviews conducted with 21 nurses working in 2 large Australian metropolitan hospitals. Participants identified four strategies associated with NPM which add to workload after-hours and impacted on the capacity to deliver nursing care. These were functional flexibility, vertical substitution of staff, meeting externally established performance indicators and outsourcing. We conclude that cost containment alongside of the meeting of performance indicators has extended work traditionally performed during business hours beyond those hours when less staffing and material resources are available. This adds to nursing workload and potentially contributes to incomplete nursing care.

  7. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  8. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  9. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  10. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  11. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  12. Public Sector Industrial Relations: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Phil; Leopold, John

    1985-01-01

    This issue reviews trends in public sector employment (particularly in the light of government policy to reduce it), wages (in a context of cash limits), and strikes and other forms of industrial action. It also considers recent developments in the structure, organization, and policy of the "actors" in public sector industrial relations.…

  13. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  14. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  15. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  16. Benchmarking management practices in Australian public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of management practices of public hospitals in the Australian healthcare system, specifically those in the state-managed health systems of Queensland and New South Wales (NSW). Further, the authors assess the management practices of Queensland and NSW public hospitals jointly and globally benchmark against those in the health systems of seven other countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. In this study, the authors adapt the unique and globally deployed Bloom et al. (2009) survey instrument that uses a "double blind, double scored" methodology and an interview-based scoring grid to measure and internationally benchmark the management practices in Queensland and NSW public hospitals based on 21 management dimensions across four broad areas of management - operations, performance monitoring, targets and people management. The findings reveal the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in the Queensland and NSW Health hospital management practices when compared with public hospitals in seven countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. Together, Queensland and NSW Health hospitals perform best in operations management followed by performance monitoring. While target management presents scope for improvement, people management is the sphere where these Australian hospitals lag the most. This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators and health care policy-makers aiming to lift management quality at the hospital level as well as at the institutional level, as a vehicle to consistently deliver sustainable high-quality health services. This study provides the first internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in Australian public hospitals, where hospitals are run independently by the state-run healthcare systems. Additionally, this research study contributes to the empirical evidence base on the quality of

  17. Public Sector Bargaining and Strikes. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Research Council, Vienna, VA.

    It is the opinion of the authors of this position paper that collective bargaining in the public sector causes an increase in strikes and employee unrest, resulting in a diminution of public services. The authors assert that public employee collective bargaining means giving unions the power to control government through intimidation of the…

  18. NAICS Sector 92: Public Administration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find the public administration industries EPA regulations affect, with their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. On those pages you can find a list of laws and regulations that affect your industry as well as compliance information

  19. Implementing Montessori Education in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David, Ed.

    This book on implementing Montessori education in the public sector begins with a historical and social overview that reveals the usefulness of Montessori pedagogy as a means of national public school reform. The second chapter discusses equipment needed for Montessori schools, the scope and sequence of curriculum used, and minimal expectations…

  20. The Writing on the Wall: Responses of Australian Public Universities to Competition in Global Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradmore, Donald J.; Smyrnios, Kosmas X.

    2009-01-01

    Australian public universities are struggling to maintain parity with international counterparts in an environment that is becoming increasingly competitive globally. While most universities are now heeding calls from sector leaders to become more competitive, any strategies that they implement to effect change in this regard might be too late to…

  1. School Sector Differences in Student Achievement in Australian Primary and Secondary Schools: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines school sector differences in student performance Years 3, 5, and 7 in numeracy, reading, writing, spelling and grammar using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the national testing program (NAPLAN). At each of the 3 Year levels, there are sizable school sector differences with students from…

  2. Structural imbalance and resource shortage in the Australian mental health sector.

    PubMed

    Doessel, Darrel P; Williams, Ruth F G; Whiteford, Harvey

    2010-03-01

    the other hand, a group of 591,600 people consume mental health services and do not meet the criteria of mental illness. This group is 4.4 per cent of the Australian population. In the absence of a measure of expenditure, this study adopted 'people' as a proxy for expenditure. The available data do not enable us to determine how much 'met non-need' is due to the 'Worried Well', or to those who use government-subsidised services for other reasons (sport, executive performance etc). Commitment to quantification within the mental health sector is a relatively recent habit by the Australian Government. Policy formation often simply follows scandals to cope with adverse publicity and evidence-based policy is needed. Preliminary evidence of this study indicates resource insufficiency in the Australian mental health sector. This is a policy issue to be distinguished from the 'unmet need' and 'met non-need' arising from structurally imbalanced resource allocation. Separate policy targets require separate policy instruments.

  3. Current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Eagar, Kathy; Currow, David; Green, Janette

    2009-07-01

    This article overviews current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector. Within Australia, the major responsibilities for managing the health care system are shared between two levels of government. Funding arrangements vary according to the type of care. The delivery of palliative care services is a State/Territory responsibility. Recently, almost all States/Territories have developed overarching frameworks to guide the development of palliative care policies, including funding and service delivery structures. Palliative care services in Australia comprise a mix of specialist providers, generalist providers, and support services in the public, nongovernment, and private sectors. The National Palliative Care Strategy is a joint strategy of the Commonwealth and States that commenced in 2002 and includes a number of major issues. Following a national study in 1996, the Australian National Subacute and Nonacute Patient (AN-SNAP) system was endorsed as the national casemix classification for subacute and nonacute care. Funding for palliative care services varies depending on the type of service and the setting in which it is provided. There is no national model for funding inpatient or community services, which is a State/Territory responsibility. A summary of funding arrangements is provided in this article. Palliative care continues to evolve at a rapid rate in Australia. Increasingly flexible evidence-based models of care delivery are emerging. This article argues that it will be critical for equally flexible funding and financing models to be developed. Furthermore, it is critical that palliative care patients can be identified, classified, and costed. Casemix classifications such as AN-SNAP represent an important starting point but further work is required.

  4. Quality in the Australian VET Sector: What Has Been Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2015-01-01

    VET (vocational education and training) is a fascinating sector. Aligned closely with the labour market and sandwiched between two major sectors, it is continually buffeted by political winds, susceptible to the ideologies of different governments. Often labelled the "poor cousin", debates continue to rage about its quality. This paper…

  5. Quality in the Australian VET Sector: What Has Been Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2015-01-01

    VET (vocational education and training) is a fascinating sector. Aligned closely with the labour market and sandwiched between two major sectors, it is continually buffeted by political winds, susceptible to the ideologies of different governments. Often labelled the "poor cousin", debates continue to rage about its quality. This paper…

  6. Competition and Market Reform in the Australian VET Sector. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Damon

    This report examines current knowledge about the nature, development, and consequences of competition and market reform in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. In the process, the policy context and key aspects of the theory and practice of a competitive training market are analyzed. These other topics related to the…

  7. Competition and Market Reform in the Australian VET Sector. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Damon

    This report examines current knowledge about the nature, development, and consequences of competition and market reform in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. In the process, the policy context and key aspects of the theory and practice of a competitive training market are analyzed. These other topics related to the…

  8. The Australian Way: Competency-Based Training in the Corporate Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Examples from road construction, mining, and other Australian industries show that the corporate sector has responded slowly to the introduction of a national framework for competency-based training. As industry bears more of the costs of training, it has yet to see returns in terms of productivity gains. (SK)

  9. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  10. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  11. Public-Sector Information Security: A Call to Action for Public-Sector CIOs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    together.”1 —Richard Clarke Special Advisor on Cybersecurity White House Office of Homeland Security PUBLIC-SECTOR INFORMATION SECURITY In November 2001...Human Genome Project (March 2002) W. Henry Lambright Leveraging Networks to Meet National Goals: FEMA and the Safe Construction Networks (March 2002

  12. Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

    2009-11-01

    Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective.

  13. Price-based promotions of alcohol: legislative consistencies and inconsistencies across the Australian retail, entertainment and media sectors.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health issue internationally, with alcohol consumption being recognised as a leading cause of preventable illness and major social burden. To help ameliorate the risks and harms associated with alcohol consumption, all levels of governments have explored various legislative and regulatory provisions to support responsible alcohol consumption, service and promotion. In this article, using Australia as a case study, the legislative environment around responsible alcohol promotion and consumption across the Australian retail, entertainment and media sectors will be explored, with a focus on pricing and volume-based discounts. Whilst the potential harm and effect of both the licensed and non-licensed sectors appears to be widely acknowledged as similar in both scope and size of effect, legislative protections overwhelmingly focus solely on reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption in licensed premises. This article explores the legislative provisions around preventing excessive alcohol consumption through promotional and marketing activities, and notes that whilst the licensed premises sector is facing increasing legislative restrictions, the off-premises sector remains unregulated and in some cases has even had existing restrictions removed, despite forming an increasing part of the alcohol chain in Australia. There appear to be inconsistencies and regulatory gaps in relation to price-based and volume-based discount alcohol promotions. Regulatory loopholes allow the retail sector in particular to use discounted alcohol as a promotional tool, in a way that is inconsistent with the goals of public health alcohol legislation, and in a way which would be illegal in any other sector. There appears to be a compelling case for introducing new restrictions, or extending existing restrictions, on these forms of promotion across all sectors involved in alcohol promotion, and there is considerable evidence that there

  14. Formulating an effective higher education curriculum for the Australian waste management sector

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the current literature relating to the drivers and barriers for a successful waste management curriculum at higher education level. The intention is to use this review to advise educational standards within the tertiary education sector so as to meet industry requirements. The paper presents a review of the UK's system for education and training within the waste management sector over the past decade, and discusses in what ways this approach could be successfully applied to the Australian sector. The paper concludes with a rationale for current research being undertaken within Australia, which seeks to identify which curriculum and pedagogic approaches are best suited for developing the skills of effective waste management practitioners both within the industry and for those graduating from higher education. The case made is that there is an absence of clear standards, educational provisions and certification for this growing industry within Australia, which inhibits the development of an effective waste management sector.

  15. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  16. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  17. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  18. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  19. Partnerships with the Public Sector: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package contains information on successful partnership programs between California Community Colleges (CCC) and public sector entities. Following a brief overview of public sector partnerships, the report presents…

  20. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers.

  1. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. What are the similarities and differences in antimicrobial prescribing between Australian public and private hospitals?

    PubMed

    Cotta, M O; Chen, C; Tacey, M; James, R S; Buising, K L; Marshall, C; Thursky, K A

    2016-10-01

    Identifying themes associated with inappropriate prescribing in Australian public and private hospitals will help target future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. To describe current antimicrobial prescribing practices, identify similarities and differences between hospital sectors and provide target areas for improvement specific to each hospital sector. All hospitals included in the study were part of the 2014 national antimicrobial prescribing survey and conducted one of the following: a whole hospital point prevalence survey, serial point prevalence surveys or a sample of randomly selected patients. Data on the types of antibiotics used, their indications for use and the quality of prescription based on compliance with national and local prescribing guidelines were collected. Two hundred and two hospitals (166 public and 36 private) comprising 10 882 patients and 15 967 antimicrobial prescriptions were included. Public hospitals had higher proportions of prescriptions for treatment (81.5% vs 48.4%) and medical prophylaxis (8.8% and 4.6%), whilst private hospitals had significantly higher surgical prophylaxis use (9.6% vs 46.9%) (P < 0.001). In public hospitals, the main reasons for non-compliance of treatment prescriptions were spectrum being too broad (30.5%) while in private it was incorrect dosing. Prolonged duration was the main reason for non-compliance among surgical prophylaxis prescriptions in both types of hospitals. Australian hospitals need to target specific areas to improve antimicrobial use. Specifically, unnecessary broad-spectrum therapy should be a priority area in public hospitals, whilst emphasis on curtailing antimicrobial overuse in surgical prophylaxis needs to be urgently addressed across in the private hospital sector. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  4. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  5. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans

    PubMed Central

    BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

  6. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2011-04-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans.

  7. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  8. Journal publications by Australian chiropractic academics: are they enough?

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Reggars, John; Vitiello, Andrew; Bonello, Rod

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To document the number of journal publications attributed to the academic faculty of Australian chiropractic tertiary institutions. To provide a discussion of the significance of this output and to relate this to the difficulty the profession appears to be experiencing in the uptake of evidence based healthcare outcomes and cultures. Methods The departmental websites for the three Australian chiropractic tertiary institutions were accessed and a list of academic faculty compiled. It was noted whether each academic held a chiropractic qualification or research Doctoral (not professional) degree qualification A review of the literature was conducted using the names of the academics and cross-referencing to publications listed independently in the PubMed and Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) databases (from inception to February 27 2006). Publications were excluded that were duplicates, corrected reprints, conference abstracts/proceedings, books, monographs, letters to the editor/comments or editorials. Using this information an annual and recent publication rate was constructed. Results For the 41 academics there was a total of 155 PubMed listed publications (mean 3.8, annual rate per academic 0.31) and 415 ICL listed publications (mean 10.1, annual rate 0.62). Over the last five years there have been 50 PubMed listed publications (mean 1.2, annual rate 0.24) and 97 ICL listed publications (mean 2.4, annual rate 0.47). Chiropractor academics (n = 31) had 29 PubMed listed publications (mean 2.5, annual rate 0.27) and 265 ICL listed publications (mean 8.5, annual rate 0.57). Academics with a doctoral degree (n = 13) had 134 PubMed listed publications (mean 10.3, annual rate 0.70) and 311 ICL listed publications (mean 23.9, annual rate 1.44). Academics without a Doctoral degree (n = 28) had 21 PubMed listed publications (mean 0.8, annual rate 0.13) and 104 ICL listed publications (mean 3.7, annual rate 0.24). Conclusion While several academics have compiled

  9. A fair day's wage? Perceptions of public sector pay.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.

  10. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  11. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  12. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not.

  13. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  14. Problems in Managing Research Institutions in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putti, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The administrative problems of public sector research programs in developing nations include lack of major public policies and too many minor ones, inadequate or haphazard planning, budgetary constraints, inadequate evaluation and monitoring, inadequate or obsolete equipment and facilities, trained manpower shortages, and limited motivation. (MSE)

  15. Public sector risk management: a specific model.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Ted

    2002-07-01

    Risk management programs for state mental health authorities are generally limited in scope and reactive in nature. Recent changes in how mental health care is provided render it necessary to redirect the risk management focus from its present institutional basis to a statewide, network-based paradigm that is integrated across public and private inpatient and community programs alike. These changes include treating an increasing number of individuals in less-secure settings and contracting for an increasing number of public mental health services with private providers. The model proposed here is closely linked to the Quality Management Process.

  16. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  17. Going up? Women in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Limerick, Brigid; Cranston, Neil; Andersen, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to document women's reflections on their careers over a ten-year period to provide quantitative baseline data on which to frame follow-up in-depth interviews. The participants work in the public service in Queensland (Australia) and had been recommended for, and participated in, women in management (WIM) courses conducted…

  18. Public perceptions of cancer risk factors: a Western Australian study.

    PubMed

    MacTiernan, Anna; Fritschi, Lin; Slevin, Terry; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Rob; Heyworth, Jane

    2014-08-01

    People's perceptions of risk may influence health-related behaviours. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of cancer risk factors among Western Australian adults in order to inform health promotion policies. Cross-sectional surveys of 2094 adults were undertaken in 2007/2008 in which respondents were asked whether they thought factors increased or decreased the risk of cancer. Factors included both established and unestablished risk factors for cancer. The distribution of perceptions was compared according to age and sex. The study found high levels of endorsement for some unestablished risk factors (74-91%) and comparatively lower levels of endorsement for many established risk factors (33-80%). The established risk factors of smoking and asbestos received high levels of endorsement (94-98%). It appears that the alignment between scientifically established risk factors and the Western Australian public's perception of cancer risk factors could be improved. SO WHAT? Health promotion strategies are needed to improve the public's awareness of cancer risk factors. The high levels of endorsement attributed to unestablished risk factors highlight the need to dispel myths surrounding cancer and to reinforce the key factors in cancer prevention. Ongoing assessment of the alignment between community perceptions of cancer risk and the scientific evidence for cancer risk is important for guiding prioritisation within public health organisations.

  19. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  20. Managing Uncertainty and Risk in Public-sector Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    private sector, Capital Asset Pricing Models ( CAPM ) models provide valuation tools, of which the Black-Scholes equation is the most well known and...provides little guidance for dealing with public-sector investment. The result is a general absence of computationally efficient, predictive models ...successful example. These models are based on the observation that equity markets have properties that can be analyzed using models based on the “Law

  1. The shape of public health policy: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, C

    1997-01-01

    Public health policy is shaped by many factors. A brief historical reflection is given on policy development in Australia to illustrate the various influences on health policy. Medical technology; ethical trade-offs; environmental, social, and political imperatives; popular movements; and changing patterns of disease; as well as market forces have helped to shape Australian contemporary public health policy. These multiple and often competing forces, however, can work against individual consumer choice in health care decisions. This article demonstrates through the eyes of history the factors that shape public health policy. As Australia has a short history compared to most industrialized democratic societies and can be viewed as a microcosm, it is used as the exemplar.

  2. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    PubMed

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements.

  3. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  4. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  5. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  6. Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and

  7. Public sector health financing in Pakistan: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khalif Bile; Hafeez, Assad; Nishter, Sania

    2007-06-01

    To assess the existing situation relating to investments made by development partners in the health sector in Pakistan. This was a retrospective study completed over a period of 6 months in which financial data for the year July 2004 to June 2005 was collected. A uniform matrix was circulated to all the stakeholders in public sector and international donors who had a stake in health. Details of expenses in health over the last 5 years and plans for the next 10 years were requested. Initial draft was shared with all concerned for concurrence before finalization. Simple analysis was carried out on the collected data. About 80% of the financial resources in the public sector are provided by the Government of Pakistan with non-development and recurring expenses predominating in these allocations. The study shows that Pakistan's per capita spending on health by the public sector is Rs 375.00 (US$ 6.4) out of which Rs 80 (US$ 1.3) is being contributed by the partners. Majority of the partners contributions are used for development projects. The study concludes that an additional amount of about 250 billion rupees per year (keeping in mind the recommendations of Commission for Macroeconomics and Health) are required by the health sector. This can only be achieved by allocating at least 50% more for health every year for next 10 years in order to catch up on the lagging targets set by Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan.

  8. Public Employee Unions: A Study of the Crisis in Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, A. Lawrence, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers examines various aspects of public employee collective bargaining and unionization. Public employee unions in the United States have caused growing concern since the mid-1960s when wages in the public sector began to rise more rapidly than those of private employees. Public employee strikes became significant for the…

  9. Changing Times: A Changing Public Sector May Require Changes to Public Management Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that the environment in which Executive Masters in Public Administration programmes operate has changed dramatically in the wake of economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public spending. Changes in the funding of public sector organisations has been compounded by a broader "crisis" in the wider public sector…

  10. Public Employee Unions: A Study of the Crisis in Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, A. Lawrence, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers examines various aspects of public employee collective bargaining and unionization. Public employee unions in the United States have caused growing concern since the mid-1960s when wages in the public sector began to rise more rapidly than those of private employees. Public employee strikes became significant for the…

  11. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  12. Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

  13. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  14. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  15. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  16. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  17. School Effectiveness within the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    gh School and Beyond data are examined using an approach to multilevel data analysis that shows the diversity in school effectiveness within the public and private sectors and provides estimates of private schooling effects for different types of students in schools serving different demographic populations. (PN)

  18. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  19. Negotiations Strategies: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    This guide contains practical, field-tested advice concerning the development of a suitable negotiating strategy for management's use in public sector collective bargaining. The author stresses that strategies are long-term plans of action and that this book does not consider bargaining tactics--the individual methods used to achieve the strategic…

  20. Supported Employment in the Public Sector: Procedural Issues in Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Larry; Drum, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 10 states indicated the presence of hiring procedures that discourage or limit public-sector supported employment for persons having severe disabilities. Survey results, and recommendations for state system change to promote supported employment, are presented in 4 areas: civil service examination requirements, job classification…

  1. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  2. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  3. Recent Court Decisions on Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifman, Burton R.

    This paper focuses on recent, significant court decisions in public sector collective bargaining under the following categories: the job security clause, the choice of instructional materials as the province of the school board under collective bargaining agreements, the effect of open meetings acts on the board of education in collective…

  4. Retrieval Bargaining: A Guide for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    Retrieval bargaining is the process of removing, through collective bargaining, benefits won by employees in previous negotiations. This document treats the retrieval bargaining process, explaining first the factors that could make such cutback management techniques necessary in the public sector, including federal funding reductions, inflationary…

  5. A Knowledge-Building Community for Public Sector Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Tuula

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of expert knowledge as shared, distributed and contextualised has gained ground. The case description in this article focuses on developing expert knowledge in a situation in which both knowledge needs and the definition of expertise fields changed radically in the public sector within a social crisis. The article examines an…

  6. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  7. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  8. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  9. Public knowledge about passive smoking: results from a survey in the Australian Capital Territory.

    PubMed

    Makkai, T; McAllister, I; Goodin, M

    1994-03-01

    Spreading public knowledge about the health consequences of passive smoking is now a major health priority. Using data from a random sample of Australian Capital Territory residents conducted in November-December 1991, this paper examines the level of general and specific knowledge that individuals possess about passive smoking. While 87% of the sample gave an accurate definition of passive smoking, the 13% who did not were distinguished by lack of educational qualifications and by employment outside the government sector. A similar proportion did not see any illnesses being associated with passive smoking, and this group was significantly more likely to consist of current smokers. Employment status emerged as a factor influencing specific knowledge of passive smoking, highlighting the importance of continued moves to restrict smoking within the workplace.

  10. Costs of children with medical complexity in Australian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajendu; Downie, James; Hall, Jane; Reynolds, Graham

    2016-05-01

    To describe the hospital costs, hospital types and differences across states and territories for children with medical complexity cared for in Australian public hospitals. Retrospective national administrative database study of 212 Australian public hospitals from six states (excluding Queensland) and two territories that submitted cost data to the National Hospital Costing Data Collection for 2010-2011. Participants included all hospitalised patients with comparisons between adults and children (17 years of age and younger), and adults with chronic diseases and children with medical complexity. Total hospital costs were the main outcome measure. The National Hospital Costing Data Collection contained data from 212 public hospitals; total admissions (adults and children) were 3 519 140 at a total hospital cost of $16 187 400 000. Children accounted for 350 499 (9.9%) of the admissions at a total hospital cost of $1 931 585 123 (11.9%). Of all children, those with medical complexity accounted for 48 758 (13.9%), and their total hospital costs were $620 948 769 (32.1%). Six children's hospitals had 145 213 (41%) of the total children admissions at a total hospital cost of $936 041 843 (48%). Across the states and territories, the number of childhood admissions ranged from 9164 to 146 618 with 4.7-14.8% for children with medical complexity. Total hospital costs ranged from $44 to $592 million with 15.4-39.4% for children with medical complexity. The national burden of hospitalised children is substantial. Children with medical complexity only account for a small percentage of hospitalisations but almost one third of total hospital costs for children, with children's hospitals bearing the major costs. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  12. Ten dimensions of public-sector managed care.

    PubMed

    Hoge, M A; Jacobs, S; Thakur, N M; Griffith, E E

    1999-01-01

    Managed care in the public sector remains a poorly defined concept. It is currently understood largely through case examples, an approach of limited usefulness because each managed care initiative is shaped by local forces and is constantly changing. The authors describe ten key dimensions on which such initiatives vary and suggest that they can be used to examine essential characteristics of the initiatives and core differences between them. The dimensions are objectives, scope, organizational structures and authority, enrollment, benefit package, strategies for managing utilization, best practices, financing, quality management and outcomes measurement, and the impact of the initiative on the public mental health system. Using these dimensions to assess existing initiatives, the authors conclude that most focus on one principal dimension to the exclusion of other critical dimensions. The authors argue for a comprehensive approach to planning and implementing managed care projects that should ultimately lead to better care for public-sector populations.

  13. Psychoanalysis and the public health sector: The Greek experience.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, D C; Christodoulou, N G; Ploumpidis, D N

    2009-10-01

    The question of whether psychoanalysis -outside the original psychoanalytical setting- can co-exist with the public sector of health services has been substantially answered by the development of relevant psychoanalytic theory and the evolution of novel psychotherapeutic techniques. Psychoanalysis has a non specific and a specific effect on the public sector. The first explores how psychoanalytic concepts formulate a special understanding of mental disorders in everyday clinical practice; both in the organisation of services and a personalised approach of particular circumstances and needs of patients. The second explores how different kinds of psychoanalytic therapies are incorporated in the public sector. The setting is as crucially important here as are the appropriate funding, the recruitment of an adequate number of specialists and psychoanalytic training. Unfortunately psychoanalysis is not considered as cost-efficient by the majority of decision makers. In Greece, psychoanalysis has been present since the late 20's, initially as an instrument of perfection of children's understanding and education and also as a specific therapeutic method, appropriate for human psyche's understanding and for the treatment of some mental diseases. In the last 30 years psychoanalysis has been more closely implicated in the development of public health services and, by extension, in the psychiatric reform taking place in the country. Psychoanalytic supervision is mainly implemented in outpatient clinical practice. Brief psychoanalytic psychotherapies are implemented in outpatient and inpatient settings.

  14. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  15. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  16. [Public sector psychiatry in Martinique in 1996: handicaps and hopes].

    PubMed

    Dauga, M; Guinard, C

    1996-01-01

    In the light of political, economic and cultural factors the authors give a historical overview of psychiatric practice in the public sector in Martinique (French West Indies) which was for a long time concentrated at the Colson Specialized Medical Center. The evolution of mental health problems is described in parallel with socio-economic changes. Broad opportunities for daily application of psychiatric practice in problematic social situations call forth the notion of "extended psychiatry". A number of changes are now shaping with the creation of diversified decentralized facilities, e.g. in penitentiaries and in some local hospitals. Other projects now being discussed are less certain and there is a risk of a two-speed system between the Specialized Hospital Center and the Regional University Hospital Center. Their authors place hopes in a project covering the whole island in which public sector psychiatry would represent a metacultural model going beyond ideologic handicaps and opening the way to new solidarity.

  17. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  18. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  19. Evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian Aboriginal maternal and child health sector.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Alexa; Lobo, Roanna C; Griffin, Denese M; Woods, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal maternal and child health (MCH) sector. Fifty-one MCH professionals from five regions in WA who attended one of three health promotion short courses in 2012-2013 were invited to complete an online survey or a telephone interview, between 4 to 17 months post-course. Respondents were asked how they had utilised the information and resources from the training and to identify the enabling factors or barriers to integrating health promotion into their work practices subsequently. Overall response rate was 33% (n=17); 94% of respondents reported they had utilised the information and resources from the course and 76% had undertaken health promotion activities since attending the course. Building contacts with other MCH providers and access to planning tools were identified as valuable components of the course. Barriers to translating knowledge into practice included financial constraints and lack of organisational support for health promotion activity. Health promotion training provides participants with the skills and confidence to deliver health promotion strategies in their communities. The training presents an opportunity to build health professionals' capacity to address some determinants of poor health outcomes among pregnant Aboriginal women and their babies. SO WHAT?: Training would be enhanced if accompanied by ongoing support for participants to integrate health promotion into their work practice, organisational development including health promotion training for senior management, establishing stronger referral pathways among partner organisations to support continuity of care and embedding training into MCH workforce curricula.

  20. Questions and Answers in Public Sector Labor Relations. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    The purpose of this guide is to answer common questions about public sector labor relations with special emphasis on how this sector differs from the private sector. A beginning section offers general information defining and explaining public sector labor relations. A segment on labor relations law details legislation and the function of…

  1. Lost opportunity cost of surgical training in the Australian private sector.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R James

    2012-03-01

    To meet Australia's future demands, surgical training in the private sector will be required. The aim of this study was to estimate the time and lost opportunity cost of training in the private sector. A literature search identified studies that compared the operation time required by a supervised trainee with a consultant. This time was costed using a business model. In 22 studies (34 operations), the median operation duration of a supervised trainee was 34% longer than the consultant. To complete a private training list in the same time as a consultant list, one major case would have to be dropped. A consultant's average lost opportunity cost was $1186 per list ($106,698 per year). Training in rooms and administration requirements increased this to $155,618 per year. To train 400 trainees in the private sector to college standards would require 54,000 training lists per year. The consultants' national lost opportunity cost would be $137 million per year. The average lost hospital case payment was $5894 per list, or $330 million per year nationally. The total lost opportunity cost of surgical training in the private sector would be about $467 million per year. When trainee salaries, other specialties and indirect expenses are included, the total cost will be substantially greater. It is unlikely that surgeons or hospitals will be prepared to absorb these costs. There needs to be a public debate about the funding implications of surgical training in the private sector. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  3. Performance Contracting as a Performance Management Tool in the Public Sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…

  4. Performance Contracting as a Performance Management Tool in the Public Sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…

  5. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  6. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    PubMed

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  8. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing.

  9. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  10. Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

  11. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  12. Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

  13. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of dentists in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, Matthew Scott; Milford, Elizabeth; Yapp, Kehn; Lim, Yujin; Tan, Vanessa; Goh, Leo; Low, Cheng Cheng; Phan, Tung

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for public dental services in Australia, with many community dental clinics unable to meet this demand because of an inadequate number of dentists in the workforce. The aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to the recruitment and retention of dentists in the public sector. A postal questionnaire survey of 180 dentists (response rate 75.6 percent) working in the Victorian public sector was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of public sector dentists, job satisfaction, remuneration, perceptions of public dentistry, future career intentions, and issues that relate to recruitment and retention of staff. Victorian public dentists' main reason for entering the public sector was to work in a community-based setting in a supportive and mentored environment. The main factors related to dentists leaving the public sector were poor remuneration, lack of clinical experience, and frustration with administrative policies. Victoria's oral health workforce shortages in the public sector are mainly attributed to retention issues. The potential for mentoring and a desire for helping those in need were factors attracting dentists to work in the public sector. There was a disproportionate number of female dentists in the public sector compared with the general population, and female dentists had a lower mean salary than male dentists regardless of experience. A range of factors were associated with retention, and gradual frustration because of poor remuneration and lack of professional autonomy were significant reasons for the decision to leave the public sector.

  14. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  15. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  16. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  17. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  18. Public Accountability in Australian Education: A Discussion Paper. Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, S. S.

    After discussing the demand for public accountability in Australian education, the first section of this paper treats the scope of accountability and details the responsibilities of a state minister of education, other key administrators, schools and teachers, and the national system itself. The second section examines what the public wants to…

  19. The Location and Siting of Public Libraries in Australian Capital Cities with Special Reference to Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Douglas Warwick

    Provisions for the control and planning of public libraries in Australian capital cities are examined from an urban planning viewpoint. Discussion focuses on: (1) attitudes, statements, and the availability of data regarding locational planning of public libraries in urban areas; (2) planning techniques and principles which are of value to urban…

  20. "I Feel Different Though": Narratives of Young Indonesian Muslims in Australian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulfikar, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines six Indonesian Muslim youth's narratives and those of their parents in relation to their experiences of being Muslim in Australian public schools. Previous studies on similar issue found a certain degree of exclusion and discrimination for being Muslims in public school, this present article however, perceives Muslims'…

  1. The Louisiana Public Health Institute: a cross-sector approach for improving the public's health.

    PubMed

    Kimbrell, Joseph D; Witmer, Anne; Flaherty, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana Public Health Institute (LPHI) is a new governance structure that embodies cross-sector approaches to improving the public's health. Formed in 1996, LPHI's first grant was from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for the Turning Point initiative. The lessons learned from Turning Point have been instrumental in developing the strategic direction of LPHI and Turning Point will be sustained through ongoing projects at LPHI. LPHI is part of a growing trend in America, and a new national network has been created to support the development of public health institutes in many states.

  2. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  3. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L.; Barnes, Michael D.; Davis, Siena F.; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes. PMID:28824899

  4. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    PubMed

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  5. Performance reporting for consumers: issues for the Australian private hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Margo; Little, Russ; Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-05-30

    A group of consumers of private hospital services and their carers collaborated with staff of a Melbourne private hospital and with industry representatives to develop a consumer-driven performance report on cardiac services. During the development process participating consumers identified situational and structural barriers to their right to be informed of costs, to choice and to quality care. Their growing appreciation of these barriers led them to a different perspective on performance reporting, which resulted in their redirecting the project. The consumer participants no longer wanted a performance report that provided comparative quantitative data. Instead they designed a report that outlined the structures, systems and processes the hospital had in place to address the quality and safety of services provided. In addition, consumer participants developed a decision support tool for consumers to use in navigating the private health care sector. The journey of these consumers in creating a consumer driven performance report for a private hospital service may assist those responsible for governance of Australia's health system in choosing appropriate strategies and mechanisms to enhance private hospital accountability. The situational and institutional industry barriers to choice, information and quality identified by these consumers need to be addressed before public performance reporting for private hospitals is introduced in Australia.

  6. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  7. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P J; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China's water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  8. Management practices in Australian healthcare: can NSW public hospitals do better?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of best management practices in an Australian state-run healthcare system, namely New South Wales (NSW), and studies the impact of a range of hospital factors in driving best management practices as a means of enhancing healthcare delivery. Design/methodology/approach - This study adapts a unique survey instrument globally tested to quantify the multi-dimensional nature of hospital management practices in 42 acute care public hospitals of NSW. The authors then analysed the role of hospital-specific characteristics in driving best management practices, namely hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds, employees and doctors), level of skill and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. Findings - The findings of this study show the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in NSW hospitals. The authors find a positive association between the adoption of better management practices and hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds and employees), level of skills and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. However, hospital size as measured by the number of doctors did not have a statistically significant relationship. Practical implications - This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators, clinical doctors and healthcare policy-makers who want to improve and develop strategies for better management in the healthcare sector. Originality/value - This study provides an internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in public hospitals, and contributes to the evidence-base of management practices and performance in hospitals.

  9. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  10. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  11. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  12. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-09

    Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  13. Public health aspects of tattooing among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Houghton, S; Durkin, K; Turbett, Y

    1995-08-01

    Medical, criminological and psychiatric literatures have pointed to risks associated with tattooing, but most of this work has been conducted with samples which have other known risk factors or disturbances. This paper investigates the reasons, experiences, methods, and perceived consequences of obtaining tattoos among a sample of Australian adults. The findings complement, extend and in some respects contrast with earlier research. Like other researchers, we found that most people acquire tattoos when they are relatively young. Unlike earlier research, we did not find widespread dissatisfaction and regret. Sex differences emerged in location and design of tattoos. A majority of tattooed people report awareness of others' negative stereotypes of them.

  14. Queensland public sector nurse executives: professional development needs.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Mary; Yacopetti, Jane; James, Catherine; Walsh, Anne; Montgomery, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In a time of health care reform and rapid change, nurse executives need effective leadership skills to be able to respond to a challenging environment, provide quality cost-effective care and promote the professional development of nursing. This research aimed to provide an understanding of nursing executives' roles and professional development needs and obtain concise information for the development of strategies and professional development programs to enhance the effectiveness of the present and future roles of nursing executives. A descriptive cross-sectional postal survey was sent to all public sector Level 4 and 5 nursing executives in Queensland (n = 281), with a response rate of 52.3% (n = 147). Financial management, human resource management and information technologies were identified as the areas where professional development was most needed. Structured educational activities such as short courses or seminars covering information technology, financial and budget management and general business management were identified as the type of activities best suited to nurse executives' needs. The most frequently reported barriers to professional development were difficulties obtaining relief staff, inadequate time, financial cost and inadequate district manager and regional support to enable access to professional development programs.

  15. Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

  16. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  17. Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

  18. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  19. Public Sector Rules and Regulations in the Midwest. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    The state administrative agency in public sector labor relations acts as an impartial third party, administering legislation concerning public sector labor relations. When a dispute arises about any aspect of the labor-management relationship covered by law, the administrative agency steps in to resolve the dispute in a fair and impartial way. The…

  20. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  1. An Analysis of Workers' Choice between Employment in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rebecca M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper estimates the extent to which workers with different personal characteristics are likely to be employed in the public versus the private sector. Results show that government employment is preferred by veterans, nonwhites, and women; and that highly educated and more experienced workers are more likely to choose the public sector. (CT)

  2. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  3. Handbook of Training and Development for the Public Sector: A Comprehensive Resource. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wart, Montgomery; And Others

    This handbook is intended to assist trainers, design specialists, training managers, technical trainers, and other members of the public sector who conduct training on an occasional basis. The following topics are covered: understanding human resource development (HRD) and its role in the public sector--expanding the scope and significance of HRD…

  4. The Experience of Evidence-Based Practice in an Australian Public Library: An Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Ann; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Howlett, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents the findings from a project that investigated the lived experiences of library and information professionals in relation to evidence-based practice within an Australian public library. Method: The project employed ethnography, which allows holistic description of people's experiences within a particular community…

  5. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  6. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  7. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.

  8. A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

  9. A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

  10. A dataset for examining trends in publication of new Australian insects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Australian Faunal Directory data were used to create a new, publicly available dataset, nai50, which lists 18318 species and subspecies names for Australian insects described in the period 1961–2010, together with associated publishing data. The number of taxonomic publications introducing the new names varied little around a long-term average of 70 per year, with ca 420 new names published per year during the 30-year period 1981–2010. Within this stable pattern there were steady increases in multi-authored and 'Smith in Jones and Smith' names, and a decline in publication of names in entomology journals and books. For taxonomic works published in Australia, a publications peak around 1990 reflected increases in museum, scientific society and government agency publishing, but a subsequent decline is largely explained by a steep drop in the number of papers on insect taxonomy published by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO. PMID:25057256

  11. The Empowering of Public Sector Officers in the Mauritian Public Sector in the Context of Reforms: How Far Has Management Education Helped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insights about the usefulness of management education for the public sector in the Republic of Mauritius, which embarked on reforms initiatives around two decades ago. In this context, public officers were encouraged to follow specialised management courses. However, as at date, there is…

  12. The Empowering of Public Sector Officers in the Mauritian Public Sector in the Context of Reforms: How Far Has Management Education Helped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insights about the usefulness of management education for the public sector in the Republic of Mauritius, which embarked on reforms initiatives around two decades ago. In this context, public officers were encouraged to follow specialised management courses. However, as at date, there is…

  13. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  14. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    PubMed

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and

  15. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)

    PubMed Central

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed. PMID:15560841

  16. How to improve collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors to reduce health inequalities? - A study in sixteen municipalities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Storm, Ilse; den Hertog, Frank; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-06-22

    The causes of health inequalities are complex. For the reduction of health inequalities, intersectoral collaboration between the public health sector and both social policy sectors (e.g. youth affairs, education) and physical policy sectors (e.g. housing, spatial planning) is essential, but in local practice difficult to realize. The aim of this study was to examine the collaboration between the sectors in question more closely and to identify opportunities for improvement. A qualitative descriptive analysis of five aspects of collaboration within sixteen Dutch municipalities was performed to examine the collaboration between the public health sector and other policy sectors: 1) involvement of the sectors in the public health policy network, 2) harmonisation of objectives, 3) use of policies by the relevant sectors, 4) formalised collaboration, and 5) previous experience. Empirical data on these collaboration aspects were collected based on document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The study found that the policy workers of social sectors were more involved in the public health network and more frequently supported the objectives in the field of health inequality reduction. Both social policy sectors and physical policy sectors used policies and activities to reduce health inequalities. More is done to influence the determinants of health inequality through policies aimed at lifestyle and social setting than through policies aimed at socioeconomic factors and the physical environment. Where the physical policy sectors are involved in the public health network, the collaboration follows a very similar pattern as with the social policy sectors. All sectors recognise the importance of good relationships, positive experiences, a common interest in working together and coordinated mechanisms. This study shows that there is scope for improving collaboration in the field of health inequality reduction between the public health sector and both social policy sectors

  17. Recruitment, motivation, and reinforcement of preprofessionals for public sector mental health careers.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, D S; Fox, J C; Goldman, C R

    1991-06-01

    The labor intensive public mental health system needs to encourage trainees in mental health professions to consider careers in the public sector. Recent evidence is that younger professionals are choosing other career paths following their training. This paper suggests that the availability of relevant training opportunities, positive role models, financial support while in training, and a supportive group of peers are important components of training for public sector careers.

  18. End of an era? Managerial losses of African American and Latinos in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we examine whether "new governance" reforms in public sector work over the last two decades have generated managerial wage losses for African Americans and Latinos. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data across three time points indicate that the new "business logic" encompassing, most notably, increased employer discretion has progressively disadvantaged African American and Latino men and women relative to their White and gender counterparts. Indeed, for both African Americans and Latinos in the managerial ranks, relative parity in wages that were witnessed in the public sector progressively eroded between 2000 and 2010. Qualifications to these findings indicate that levels of inequality become pronounced for African Americans, and more so among men than women. We discuss the historical niche status of public sector work for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. and the importance of conducting further analyses of the public sector because of its fluid nature as a locus of racial stratification.

  19. A description of handover processes in an Australian public hospital.

    PubMed

    Bomba, David T; Prakash, Robert

    2005-02-01

    Handover of patient care has been an ongoing problem within the health care sector. The process remains highly variable and there is a threat to patient safety. Despite the general belief that handover transitions in patient care have become routine, not enough attention or research has been directed at improving this period of care. For this reason there is a need to provide an analysis of the communication processes during handover. A study was conducted of the handover process among doctors during shift changes within a hospital setting. The results suggested a need for process change. Results revealed a handover process which was unstructured, informal and error prone, with the majority of doctors noting that there was no standard or formal procedure for handover. The research found that the majority of hospital doctors recognised the potential benefits of formalising and computerising this process.

  20. Acute appendicitis in the public and private sectors in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Estin; Cook, Colin; Kahn, Delawir

    2015-07-01

    South Africa has a low incidence of acute appendicitis, but poor outcomes. However, South African studies on appendicitis focus solely on public hospitals, neglecting those who utilize private facilities. This study aims to compare appendicitis characteristics and outcomes in public and private hospitals in South Africa. A prospective cohort study was conducted among two public and three private hospitals in the Cape Town metropole, from September 2013 to March 2014. Hospital records, operative notes, and histology results were reviewed for patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and followed up at monthly intervals until normal function was attained. A total of 134 patients were enrolled, with 73 in the public and 61 in the private sector. Education and employment were higher among private sector patients. Public sector patients had a higher rupture rate (30.6 vs 13.2 %, p = 0.023). Times to presentation were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Public sector patients had longer hospital stays (5.3 vs 2.9 days, p = 0.036) and longer return to work times (23.0 vs 12.1 days, p < 0.0001). Although complication rates were similar, complications in public hospitals were more severe. Public sector patients in South Africa with appendicitis have higher rupture rates, worse complications, longer hospital stays, and longer recoveries than private sector patients. Patients with perforation had longer delays in presentation than patients without perforation.

  1. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Between Public Private Sector Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    inhibit public - private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber infonnation sharing, this... private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber information sharing, this thesis examines...26  D.  DHS RESPONSE TO EO REQUIREMENT 8 ...........................................26  III.  PUBLIC - PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN

  2. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  3. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  4. A Survey of Discounting Theory and Its Applications in the Private and Public Sectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    applied in a straight forward manner. The interest rate used is the firms cost of capital. In the public sector discounting should be applied when it...is reasonable to do so. The interest rate should be derived from the rats of return that could have been earned in the private sector had the funds

  5. The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, N. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

  6. Investing in Resilience: Public Education and Voluntary Sector Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Many new ideas arise at the borders of systems. Academics and educators engage in research and reform of the education system itself, but much that is innovative in today's schools originates outside the classroom, in a burgeoning set of programs and partnerships with the voluntary or community sector, and in the relationships being established by…

  7. Publication by Australian LIS Academics and Practitioners: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia; Kennan, Mary Anne; Wilson, Concepcion S.; White, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written about scholarly communication with studies investigating the drivers for research and publishing. For academics in particular, publication is a major determinant of a successful case for continuing employment, promotion and the winning of competitive research funding. The purpose of this paper is to inform understanding of…

  8. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  9. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-22

    High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  10. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required. PMID:22192774

  11. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace.

  12. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied.

  13. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-10-22

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  14. Costs and utilization of public sector family planning services in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Khadija; Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha

    2013-04-01

    The public sector provides a third of family planning (FP) services in Pakistan. However, these services are viewed as being underutilized and expensive. We explored the utilization patterns and costs of FP services in the public sector. We used overall budgets and time allocation by health and population departments to estimate the total costs of FP by these departments, costs per woman served, and costs per couple-year of protection (CYP). The public sector is the predominant provider of FP to the poorest and is the main provider of female sterilization services. The overall costs of FP in the public sector are USD 55 per woman served, annually (USD 17 per CYP). Within the public sector, the population welfare departments provide services at USD 72 per woman served, annually (USD 17 per CYP) and the health departments at USD 39 per woman per year (USD 29 per CYP). While the public sector has a critical niche in serving the poor and providing female sterilization, its services are considerably more expensive compared to international and even some Pakistani non-government organization (NGO) costs. This reflects inefficiencies in services provided, client mistrust in the quality of services provided, and inadequate referrals, and will require specific actions for improving referrals and the quality of services.

  15. Biogeochemical flux and phytoplankton succession: A year-long sediment trap record in the Australian sector of the Subantarctic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilks, Jessica V.; Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Trull, Thomas W.; Bray, Stephen G.; Flores, José-Abel; Armand, Leanne K.

    2017-03-01

    The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) plays a crucial role in global carbon cycling as a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. In the Australian sector, the SAZ exports large quantities of organic carbon from the surface ocean, despite lower algal biomass accumulation in surface waters than other Southern Ocean sectors. We present the first analysis of diatom and coccolithophore assemblages and seasonality, as well as the first annual quantification of bulk organic components of captured material at the base of the mixed layer (500 m depth) in the SAZ. Sediment traps were moored in the SAZ southwest of Tasmania as part of the long-term SAZ Project for one year (September 2003 to September 2004). Annual mass flux at 500 m and 2000 m was composed mainly of calcium carbonate, while biogenic silica made up on average <10% of material captured in the traps. Organic carbon flux was estimated at 1.1 g m-2 y-1 at 500 m, close to the estimated global mean carbon flux. Low diatom fluxes and high fluxes of coccoliths were consistent with low biogenic silica and high calcium carbonate fluxes, respectively. Diatoms and coccoliths were identified to species level. Diatom and coccolithophore sinking assemblages reflected some seasonal ecological succession. A theoretical scheme of diatom succession in live assemblages is compared to successional patterns presented in sediment traps. This study provides a unique, direct measurement of the biogeochemical fluxes and their main biological carbon vectors just below the winter mixed layer depth at which effective sequestration of carbon occurs. Comparison of these results with previous sediment trap deployments at the same site at deeper depths (i.e. 1000, 2000 and 3800 m) documents the changes particle fluxes experience in the lower ;twilight zone; where biological processes and remineralisation of carbon reduce the efficiency of carbon sequestration.

  16. Publication bias in papers presented to the Australian Orthopaedic Association Annual Scientific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ian A; Mourad, Mohamed S; Kadir, Agus; Solomon, Michael J; Young, Jane M

    2006-06-01

    The selective publication of articles based on factors, such as positive outcome, statistical significance and study size is known as publication bias. If publication bias is present, any clinical decision based on a review of the published work will also be biased. Publication bias has been shown in various specialties, based on review of publication rates for abstracts presented at major scientific meetings. This study was conducted to investigate publication bias in orthopaedics. Abstracts presented at the 1998 Australian Orthopaedic Association Annual Scientific Meeting were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Details of sample size, study setting, country of origin, outcome and study type were recorded for each abstract. Publication within 5 years was ascertained by electronic searching of Medline and Embase databases and direct author contact. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of publication. The overall publication rate was 31%. Publication was more likely if the study was a laboratory study, rather than a clinical study (odds ratio (OR), 3.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-7.01, P < 0.001). Sample size, country of origin, study type, statistical significance and positive outcome were not significantly associated with publication. According to this study, laboratory studies were significantly more likely to be published than clinical studies. In contrast to previous studies, publication bias due to the selective publication of papers with a positive outcome or those reporting statistical significance was not found.

  17. Integrating the issues of global and veterinary public health into the veterinary education curriculum: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, S G; Robertson, L; Wilks, C R

    2009-08-01

    This article discusses the integration of global and veterinary public health issues into the Australian veterinary curriculum. Formal veterinary education in Australia has a history of over 100 years and veterinarians have played a major role in the control of zoonotic and transboundary diseases for an even longer period. Australia is the largest exporter of red meat and live animals in the world. Therefore, educating veterinarians to promote and ensure food safety and animal welfare is prominent in Australian veterinary curricula. Veterinary degrees are accredited to allow Australian graduates to work professionally overseas, including in the United Kingdom and United States of America, and, in recent years, globalisation of the student body at Australian veterinary schools has occurred. For this reason, an appropriately broad curriculum is required to produce graduates who are able to address challenges in veterinary public health throughout the world. A Public Health University Network has been established to harmonise the veterinary public health curricula at the various veterinary schools and to develop the 'Australian veterinary public health philosophy', with its links to global issues and the 'One World, One Health' concept. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the implications of veterinary public health teaching in Australia and the preparation of Australian graduates for the global profession.

  18. The willingness of private-sector doctors to manage public-sector HIV/AIDS patients in the eThekwini metropolitan region of KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Jinabhai, Champaklal C.; Taylor, Myra

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background South Africa is severely affected by the AIDS pandemic and this has resulted in an already under-resourced public sector being placed under further stress, while there remains a vibrant private sector. To address some of the resource and personnel shortages facing the public sector in South Africa, partnerships between the public and private sectors are slowly being forged. However, little is known about the willingness of private-sector doctors in the eThekwini Metropolitan (Metro) region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients. Objectives To gauge the willingness of private-sector doctor to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and to describe factors that may influence their responses. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among private-sector doctors, both general practitioners (GPs) and specialists, working in the eThekwini Metro, using an anonymous, structured questionnaire to investigate their willingness to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and the factors associated with their responses. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to evaluate associations. Odds ratios were determined using a binary logistic regression model. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Most of the doctors were male GPs aged 30–50 years who had been in practice for more than 10 years. Of these, 133 (77.8%) were willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients, with 105 (78.9%) reporting adequate knowledge, 99 (74.4%) adequate time, and 83 (62.4%) adequate infrastructure. Of the 38 (22.2%) that were unwilling to manage these patients, more than 80% cited a lack of time, knowledge and infrastructure to manage them. Another reason cited by five doctors (3.8%) who were unwilling, was the distance from public-sector facilities. Of the 33 specialist doctors, 14 (42.4%) indicated that they would not be willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients

  19. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  20. Introducing clinical supervision across Western Australian public mental health services.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Monica; Harrison, Carole A

    2010-08-01

    Retention and recruitment of the mental health nursing workforce is a critical issue in Australia and more specifically in Western Australia (WA), partly due to the isolation of the state. It has been suggested that these workforce issues might be minimized through the introduction of clinical supervision within WA mental health services, where, historically, it has been misunderstood and viewed with caution by mental health nurses. This may have been partly due to a lack of understanding of clinical supervision, its models, and its many benefits, due to a paucity of information delivered into initial nurse education programs. The aim of this pilot project is to explore and evaluate the introduction of clinical supervision in WA public mental health services. A quantitative approach informed the study and included the use of an information gathering survey initially, which was followed with evaluation questionnaires. The findings show that education can increase the uptake of clinical supervision. Further, the findings illustrate the importance of linking clinicians from all professional groups via a clinical supervision web-based database.

  1. Quantitative methods used in Australian health promotion research: a review of publications from 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Zehle, Katharina; Bauman, Adrian E; Chau, Josephine; Hawkshaw, Barbara; Frost, Steven; Thomas, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the use of quantitative methods in Australian health promotion research in order to identify methodological trends and priorities for strengthening the evidence base for health promotion. Australian health promotion articles were identified by hand searching publications from 1992-2002 in six journals: Health Promotion Journal of Australia, Australian and New Zealand journal of Public Health, Health Promotion International, Health Education Research, Health Education and Behavior and the American Journal of Health Promotion. The study designs and statistical methods used in articles presenting quantitative research were recorded. 591 (57.7%) of the 1,025 articles used quantitative methods. Cross-sectional designs were used in the majority (54.3%) of studies with pre- and post-test (14.6%) and post-test only (9.5%) the next most common designs. Bivariate statistical methods were used in 45.9% of papers, multivariate methods in 27.1% and simple numbers and proportions in 25.4%. Few studies used higher-level statistical techniques. While most studies used quantitative methods, the majority were descriptive in nature. The study designs and statistical methods used provided limited scope for demonstrating intervention effects or understanding the determinants of change.

  2. The need to evaluate public health reforms: Australian perinatal mental health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    To describe the Australian perinatal mental health reforms and explore ways of improving surveillance of maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in this context. We reviewed the Australian perinatal (defined as conception to one year postpartum) mental health reforms, in association with an appraisal of the population health methods that could be used for their evaluation. Despite the increasing focus of public health reforms on maternal mental health in the perinatal period, there is currently no national data available to evaluate these reforms or to provide an evidence base for improved health outcomes. National data development and linkage of relevant datasets would go a long way towards enabling such an endeavour. Inclusion of key mental health items in the Perinatal National Minimum Dataset and use of data linkage techniques will allow for monitoring of trends in maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in response to the Australian reforms. Once this is implemented, cost-benefit analyses can be undertaken. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  4. Importance and performance of managerial skills in the Australian aged care sector - a middle managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Ellen; Radford, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the importance and performance of middle managers' skills to provide a starting point for a sector-wide leadership and management framework. There is an increasing consensus that the quality of management, leadership and performance of any organisation is directly linked to the capabilities of its middle managers and the preparation and on-going training they receive. A total of 199 middle managers from three aged care organisations in Australia participated in a questionnaire conducted during 2010-2011. This study found that middle managers perceived the need to develop their communication skills, self-awareness, change management, conflict resolution and leadership skills. Middle managers perceive a discrepancy between performance and importance of various managerial skills. This study demonstrated that provision of training needs to go beyond clinical skills development and further investigation into managers' needs is necessary, particularly considering the diversity of this critical group in organisations. Future training opportunities provided to middle managers need to address the 'softer' skills (e.g. communication) rather than 'technical' skills (e.g. clinical skills). The provision of training in these skills may improve their performance, which may also lead to increased job satisfaction, continuity in leadership and management and ultimately improvements in the quality of care provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Enhancement of Learning in Public Sector Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    Kolb's Experiential Learning Model suggests that people differ in how they perceive and process information. Public agency training should incorporate knowledge of brain hemisphere dominance and learning style preferences in training design. (SK)

  6. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  7. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  8. Public-private partnerships in the Potuguese health sector.

    PubMed

    Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.

  9. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  10. Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

  11. 75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY Oil and Natural Gas Sector--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... opportunity for public involvement during EPA's review of air regulations affecting the oil and natural gas industry. The review in progress covers oil and natural gas exploration and production, as well as natural...

  12. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  13. State Policy and Postsecondary Education: The Relationship of the Independent and Public Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The relationship between the public and independent sector of higher education in Florida is examined in this conference publication. The problems and issues involved in formulating state policy with respect to postsecondary education in Florida are examined. An overview of policy positions of other states is presented as well as an assessment of…

  14. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  15. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  16. Conducting Public-sector Research on Commercialized Transgenic Seed: In Search of a Paradigm that Works

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public-sector scientists have a mandate to independently evaluate agricultural products available to American farmers on the open market, whereas the companies that sell the products are concerned about protecting their intellectual property. As a consequence of the latter concern, public scientist...

  17. Cooperation and Conflict. The Public and Private Sectors in Higher Education. AGB Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relations between the public and private sectors of higher education are discussed. In the first chapter, John W. Gardner provides a historical perspective to the recent conflict in some states between public and private colleges and universities. In addition to discussing the pluralism and diversity that have characterized U.S. colleges and…

  18. Facilitating the Evaluation of Complexity in the Public Sector: Learning from the NHS in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…

  19. Facilitating the Evaluation of Complexity in the Public Sector: Learning from the NHS in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…

  20. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    2017-08-10

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Service, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  1. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  2. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  3. 7 Elements of Effective Public-Sector Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Andrianna; Tierney, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis at the University of Southern California conducted a national study of public higher education governing board performance. 130 board members, presidents, coordinating board officials, governors, legislators, and education department staff were interviewed about ways to improve performance…

  4. Cross-Validation of the Work Organization Assessment Questionnaire Across Genders: A Study in the Australian Health Care Sector.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Leila; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Meyer, Denny

    2016-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the Work Organization Assessment Questionnaire (WOAQ) across genders in a group of health care employees, using bifactor modeling. There is a very limited research that uses invariance testing of bifactor models, despite their usefulness. Establishing validity of the WOAQ in this way is important for demonstrating its relevance for both men and women. A bifactor modeling procedure was used here to examine the validity of the WOAQ with a sample of 946 paramedics employed in a large Australian organization in the health care sector. The results of this study show that the WOAQ has good psychometric properties across genders in health care settings. In addition, there were significant mean differences between men and women in their perceptions of "quality of relationships with colleagues," and "reward and recognition." There were no differences between men and women in the remaining factors: "quality of relationships with the management," "quality of relationships with colleagues," and "quality of the physical environment." The use of bifactor modeling to establish the cross-validity of the WOAQ across male and female paramedics adds to evidence for the measure's good psychometric properties. The findings confirm those of previous research that has used higher order confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, mean differences between men and women were found to be significant in two of the five WOAQ subscales. These findings have practical implications for health care organizations, in terms of assessing work characteristics and developing activities to support the health and well-being of their employees.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INEQUALITIES BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Dell, A; Kahn, D; Klopper, J

    2017-09-01

    The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown, however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, of hospital beds, the number of surgical beds, the number of general surgeons (specialist and non-specialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public and private sectors. Hospitals were contacted during the period from the 1st October 2014 until the 31st of December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between the public and private sectors, where private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs). Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), is comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.

  6. International patients within the NHS: a case of public sector entrepreneurialism.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints.

  7. Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

    2000-01-01

    New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted.

  8. The role of retiree health insurance in the early retirement of public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2014-12-01

    Most government employees have access to retiree health coverage, which provides them with group health coverage even if they retire before Medicare eligibility. We study the impact of retiree health coverage on the labor supply of public sector workers between the ages of 55 and 64. We find that retiree health coverage raises the probability of stopping full time work by 4.3 percentage points (around 38 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 55-59, and by 6.7 percentage points (around 26 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 60-64. In the younger age group, retiree health insurance mostly seems to facilitate transitions to part-time work rather than full retirement. However, in the older age group, it increases the probability of stopping work entirely by 4.3 percentage points (around 22 percent).

  9. Unlocking the Potential of Public Sector Information with Semantic Web Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Dupplaw, David; Sheridan, John; O'Hara, Kieron; Darlington, John; Shadbolt, Nigel; Tullo, Carol

    Governments often hold very rich data and whilst much of this information is published and available for re-use by others, it is often trapped by poor data structures, locked up in legacy data formats or in fragmented databases. One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating the large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. At the heart of information policy in the UK, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the part of the UK government charged with enabling the greater re-use of public sector information. This paper describes the actions, findings, and lessons learnt from a pilot study, involving several parts of government and the public sector. The aim was to show to government how they can adopt SW technology for the dissemination, sharing and use of its data.

  10. Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2010-01-01

    Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

  11. Australian alcohol policy 2001-2013 and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven J; Gordon, Ross; Jones, Sandra C

    2014-08-15

    Despite a complex and multi-faceted alcohol policy environment in Australia, there are few comprehensive reviews of national and state alcohol policies that assess their effectiveness and research support. In mapping the Australian alcohol policy domain and evaluating policy interventions in each of the core policy areas, this article provides a useful resource for researchers. The implications for protecting public health emanating from this mapping and evaluation of alcohol policy are also discussed. This review considered data from: published primary research; alcohol legislation, strategies and alcohol-related press releases for all levels and jurisdictions of Australian government; international publications by prominent non-governmental organisations; and relevant grey literature. These were organised and evaluated using the established framework offered by Thomas Babor and colleagues. Findings indicated great variability in alcohol initiatives across Australia, many of which do not reflect what is currently considered to be evidence-based best practice. Research showing increasing alcohol-related harms despite steady levels of consumption suggests a need to pursue alcohol policy initiatives that are supported by evidence of harm-reduction. Future initiatives should aim to increase existing alcohol controls in line with suggested best practice in order to protect public health in Australia.

  12. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally.

  13. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  15. Public/private sector partnership for emerging infections.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives examples of public/private partnerships that support research, support drug development and that advance policy development, suggesting that such partnerships can advance our understanding and control of emerging infections. The investment in emerging infectious diseases from government and from industry is currently much larger than that from philanthropy. Nevertheless philanthropy, even with limited dollars, is able to play a catalytic function and provide risk capitol for innovative partnerships and could in the future play an even larger role if the value of such investment is better defined and argued to recruit additional dollars to this area. PMID:11485645

  16. Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

    2007-01-01

    Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

  17. Management of Workplace Change in the Australian Higher Education Sector: A Study of Employee Involvement Provisions in Workplace Agreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Stephen; Van Gramberg, Bernadine

    2007-01-01

    Involvement of employees and unions in workplace decision-making has a long history in Australian industrial relations. The mechanism for employee involvement in workplace change was originally set out in the Termination Change and Redundancy (TCR) clause in Australian awards in 1984. It continues to operate under Enterprise Bargaining Agreements…

  18. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  19. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  20. Barriers to private-sector participation in public transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    Chapter One considers the full range of public-transportation services the private sector could provide looking at current U.S. examples. Chapter Two describes the Federal, state, and local barriers currently limiting private-sector provision of these services. Chapter Three summarizes the unique contribution of this study: an analysis of three New York counties utilizing private operators to provide varying percentages of public transportation under different institutional structures. The full case studies of the three New York counties - Onondaga (Syracuse), Suffolk (eastern Long Island), and Westchester (New York City suburb) - are presented in Appendices A-C. Appendices D and E exemplify purchase of service contracts currently in New York.

  1. Training Australian General Practitioners in Rural Public Health: Impact, Desirability and Adaptability of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…

  2. Training Australian General Practitioners in Rural Public Health: Impact, Desirability and Adaptability of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…

  3. Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janese Marie

    2011-01-01

    Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

  4. Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janese Marie

    2011-01-01

    Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

  5. Compliant, complacent or panicked? Investigating the problematisation of the Australian general public in pandemic influenza control.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark; Stephenson, Niamh; Flowers, Paul

    2011-03-01

    This article examines how pandemic influenza control policies interpellate the public. We analyse Australian pandemic control documents and key informant interviews, with reference to the H1N1 virus in 2009. Our analysis suggests that the episodic and uncertain features of pandemic influenza give control measures a pronounced tactical character. The general public is seen as passive and, in some cases, vulnerable to pandemic influenza. Communication focuses on promoting public compliance with prescribed guidelines, but without inspiring complacency, panic or other unruly responses. These assumptions depend, however, on a limited social imaginary of publics responding to pandemics. Drawing on Foucault, we consider how it is that these assumptions regarding the public responses to pandemics have taken their present form. We show that the virological modelling used in planning and health securitisation both separate pandemic control from its publics. Further, these approaches to planning rely on a restricted view of human agency and therefore preclude alternatives to compliance-complacency-panic and, as we suggest, compromise pandemic control. On this basis we argue that effective pandemic control requires a systematic dialogue with the publics it seeks to prepare in anticipation of the event of pandemic influenza.

  6. Analyzing Differences Between Public and Private Sector Information Resource Management: Chief Information Officer Challenges and Critical Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    TENNECO AUTOMOTIVE INC 965 HARLEYSVILLE MUTUAL INSURANCE 466 HARLEY DAVIDSON INC 966 TEKTRONIX 467 WESTERN GAS RESOURCES INC 967 OGLETHORPE POWER...the public sector employees reported a greater desire to serve the community . The desire for public sector managers to serve the community is also...support the notion that public sector managers are more concerned with serving their community and less concerned about financial compensation than are

  7. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks.

  8. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  9. Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning

    2013-09-01

    The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing.

  10. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  11. Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  12. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  13. The new Australian Primary Health Networks: how will they integrate public health and primary care?

    PubMed

    Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne

    2016-01-28

    On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities.

  14. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  15. Towards a Stakeholder Model for the Co-Production of the Public-Sector Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Zita P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Proposes a systemic approach to Public Sector Information (PSI), defined as comprising entities in four categories--citizens, businesses, policymakers and administrations. This system also comprises four categories of information--on citizenship, economic and social development, policy and administration. Methods: A selective…

  16. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa.

  17. Training in the Public Sector in a Period of Austerity: The Case of the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewson, Nick; Felstead, Alan; Green, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article examines what has happened to training in public sector organisations in the UK in a period of austerity. It draws on individual-level data collected over the period 2000-2012 and establishment-level data collected from employer surveys carried out between 2005 and 2012. To understand these data further, 75 qualitative interviews with…

  18. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  19. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  20. The skills gap in nursing management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Nurse managers are central to health delivery in South Africa. However, there is a paucity of research that analyzes their competence to successfully discharge their managerial role. To identify the competencies perceived to be important for effective nursing management in the South African public sector and the managers' self-assessed proficiency in these. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. 215 senior nursing managers at South African public sector hospitals. Respondents rated the level of importance that 51 proposed competencies had in their job and indicated their proficiency in each. Public sector managers ranked controlling as the most important competency, followed by leading, organizing, and self-management. Health/clinical skills, planning, and legal/ethical competencies were ranked as being relatively less important. They assessed themselves as being most competent in self-management, followed by planning, controlling, leading, and specific health skills. The competency gap was the largest for legal/ethical issues, organizing, and controlling. The competency gap for planning and self-management was relatively smaller. This research confirms that there is a lack of management capacity within the public health sector and also identifies the areas in which the lack of knowledge or skills is most significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  2. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  3. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  4. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  5. Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

  6. School-Based Service Use by Youth with ADHD in Public-Sector Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Lambros, Katina M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates rates and predictors of school-based services (SBSs) for 390 youth meeting criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and served in the San Diego public sectors. Only 60% of youth had received an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis; these youth were younger, male, Caucasian (versus Latino), and…

  7. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  8. Here's Why Public Schools Should Use Private-Sector Marketing Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Public school systems can adapt private sector strategies to make the most of their resources. The superintendent and the board should develop measurable objectives, agreed upon by the consumers and the producer, for delivering the product. Contracting with commercial companies can reduce costs while increasing services. (MLF)

  9. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  10. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  11. The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from…

  12. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  13. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  14. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  15. The Private Sector in the Public School: Can It Improve Education? AEI Symposia 84B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha, Ed.

    The American Enterprise Institute and the National Institute of Education commissioned six authors to prepare papers examining the barriers and incentives to private-sector involvement in public schools. These authors include representatives from two corporations, a former school superintendent and academic, a state policy analyst and attorney,…

  16. Evaluation of Large-Scale Public-Sector Reforms: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidahl, Karen N.; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Hansen, Morten Balle

    2017-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of large-scale public-sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance since the impact of such reforms is considerable and they change the context in which evaluations of other and more delimited policy areas take place. In our…

  17. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  18. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the public sector in the area of education. (MLF)

  19. Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

  20. Choosing Charters: Who Leaves Public School as an Alternative Sector Expands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the number of charter schools in Florida has doubled. We examine five years of data on students moving into these schools from the traditional public sector. We consider student attributes and the school and district contexts that they are leaving. The better students are performing relative to their peers, the less likely they…

  1. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  2. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  3. Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

  4. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the public sector in the area of education. (MLF)

  5. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  6. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  7. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  8. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  9. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  10. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  11. Training in the Public Sector in a Period of Austerity: The Case of the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewson, Nick; Felstead, Alan; Green, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article examines what has happened to training in public sector organisations in the UK in a period of austerity. It draws on individual-level data collected over the period 2000-2012 and establishment-level data collected from employer surveys carried out between 2005 and 2012. To understand these data further, 75 qualitative interviews with…

  12. Public-Sector Managed Care for Children's Mental Health Services: Stakeholders' Perspectives. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangl, Dalene K.; Tweed, Dan L.; Farmer, Betsy; Langmeyer, David; Stelle, Lynn; Behar, Lenore B.; Gagliardi, Julia; Burns, Barbara J.

    This paper presents contributions at a symposium about Carolina Alternatives (CA), a North Carolina program that blends capitated financing with public sector managed care for mental health and substance abuse services for children and youth eligible for Medicaid. The symposium focused on stakeholders' perspectives and on expenditure patterns of…

  13. Disaster preparedness and response: challenges for Australian public health nurses - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rokkas, Philippa; Cornell, Victoria; Steenkamp, Malinda

    2014-03-01

    To date, Australia has not had to respond to a nationwide catastrophic event. However, over the past decade, heat waves, bushfires, cyclones, and floods have significantly challenged Australia's disaster preparedness and the surge capacity of local and regional health systems. Given that disaster events are predicted to increase in impact and frequency, the health workforce needs to be prepared for and able to respond effectively to a disaster. To be effective, nurses must be clear regarding their role in a disaster and be able to articulate the value and relevance of this role to communities and the professionals they work with. Since almost all disasters will exert some impact on public health, it is expedient to prepare the public health nursing workforce within Australia. This paper highlights issues currently facing disaster nursing and focuses on the challenges for Australian public health nurses responding to and preparing for disasters within Australia. The paper specifically addresses public health nurses' awareness regarding their roles in disaster preparation and response, given their unique skills and central position in public health.

  14. Searching for the Public: School Funding and Shifting Meanings of "The Public" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica; Savage, Glenn C.; O'Connor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    School funding is a principal site of policy reform and contestation in the context of broad global shifts towards private- and market-based funding models. These shifts are transforming not only how schools are funded but also the meanings and practices of public education: that is, shifts in what is "public" about schooling. In this…

  15. Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care, a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. Methods A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public. Results Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue. Conclusions The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care. PMID:21708041

  16. Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Meredith J; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2011-06-28

    The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care, a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public. Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue. The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care.

  17. From legitimate consumers to public relations pawns: the tobacco industry and young Australians.

    PubMed

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To document the Australian tobacco industry's activities regarding youth smoking to support tobacco control. 492 industry documents from primary and secondary websites were abstracted and analysed. Australian legislation and rhetoric on youth and tobacco has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, from an unproblematic association of teenagers and smoking in the 1960s, through the industry's aggressive attacks and denials in the 1980s, to the 1990s, when industry became newly compliant with "societal expectations" and youth became a dominant bargaining issue in the industry's public relations strategy. The industry's current policy is to simultaneously blame others for underage smoking, frame the industry as socially responsible via voluntary marketing codes, youth access programmes, and school education, and market actively to young adults. The arbitrary distinction between 17 and 18 year olds is, particularly in Australia's dark market, a liability for tobacco control and an opportunity for the industry, which is attempting to claim the high moral ground traditionally occupied by tobacco control on the youth issue. The current review of Australia's Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act of 1992 should prohibit all forms of industry communication targeting young people, including retail access and schools programmes and below-the-line marketing. Tobacco control advocacy should highlight the industry's attempts to use the youth issue in its own favour while laying the blame elsewhere.

  18. From legitimate consumers to public relations pawns: the tobacco industry and young Australians

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the Australian tobacco industry's activities regarding youth smoking to support tobacco control. Method: 492 industry documents from primary and secondary websites were abstracted and analysed. Results: Australian legislation and rhetoric on youth and tobacco has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, from an unproblematic association of teenagers and smoking in the 1960s, through the industry's aggressive attacks and denials in the 1980s, to the 1990s, when industry became newly compliant with "societal expectations" and youth became a dominant bargaining issue in the industry's public relations strategy. The industry's current policy is to simultaneously blame others for underage smoking, frame the industry as socially responsible via voluntary marketing codes, youth access programmes, and school education, and market actively to young adults. Conclusions: The arbitrary distinction between 17 and 18 year olds is, particularly in Australia's dark market, a liability for tobacco control and an opportunity for the industry, which is attempting to claim the high moral ground traditionally occupied by tobacco control on the youth issue. The current review of Australia's Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act of 1992 should prohibit all forms of industry communication targeting young people, including retail access and schools programmes and below-the-line marketing. Tobacco control advocacy should highlight the industry's attempts to use the youth issue in its own favour while laying the blame elsewhere. PMID:14645951

  19. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-02-23

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. 16 of 29 states in India, 2009-2012. Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009-2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians' prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009-2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to

  20. Injuries among solid waste collectors in the private versus public sectors.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Tang, Minao

    2011-10-01

    Solid waste collection is among the occupations with the highest risk for injuries and illnesses. Solid waste collector injuries were characterized in terms of injury risk and employment industry sector (public versus private) using Kentucky workers' compensation first reports of injury and claims data. When compared to 35-44-year-old workers, solid waste collectors who were under 35 years of age were less likely to have a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim that resulted in awarded benefits. The probability that a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim would result in an awarded benefit was higher if the worker was employed as a solid waste collector in the private sector compared to the public sector, or was injured due to a motor vehicle-related injury or a push-or-pull type of injury. A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation.

  1. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2016-12-30

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  2. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  3. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  4. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.

  5. Workplace romance in the public sector: sex differences in reactions to the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

    PubMed

    Powell, G N

    2000-12-01

    This study examined reactions of part-time MBA students (n = 199) and undergraduate business students (n = 220) to the affair involving U.S. President Bill Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky prior to Clinton's impeachment by the House of Representatives. Consistent with research on attitudes toward workplace romance in the private sector, women believed that this affair occurring in the public sector represented a more serious problem for the nation and more than men were inclined to prefer that some type of action, e.g., resignation or impeachment, be taken. Implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Health Care Spending: Changes in the Perceptions of the Australian Public.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jane; Newby, David A; Walkom, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system 'very adequate' than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer 'concerned' or 'fairly concerned' about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions.

  7. Health Care Spending: Changes in the Perceptions of the Australian Public

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing demand for services and rising health care costs create pressures within the Australian health care system and result in higher health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs for consumers. Objective To measure changes in consumer views on the quality of the Australian health care system, contributors to rising costs and attitudes towards managing these costs. Methods Two computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in 2006 (533 respondents) and 2015 (1318 respondents) and results compared. Results More respondents in 2015 rated the Australian health care system ‘very adequate’ than in 2006 (22.3% vs 8.3%; Odds Ratio OR 3.2, 99% CI 2.1, 5.1) with fewer ‘concerned’ or ‘fairly concerned’ about the health care costs (69.0% vs 85.7%; OR 0.37, 99% CI 0.25, 0.53). The 2015 respondents were more likely to identify new treatments for cancer (77% vs 65.7%; OR 1.75, 99% CI 1.30, 2.35) and community expectations for access to the latest technologies (73.8% vs 67%; OR 1.39, 99% CI 1.04, 1.86) as contributors to rising health care costs. While more 2015 respondents agreed that patients should pay a greater part of the health care costs, this remained a minority view (37.9% vs 31.7%; OR 1.32, 99% CI 0.99, 1.76). They were less likely to agree that doctors should offer medical treatments regardless of the cost and chance of benefit (63.6% vs 82.9%; OR 0.36, 99% CI 0.25, 0.50). Conclusions Satisfaction with the Australian health care system has increased over time. Consumers recognise the cost pressures and have lower expectations that all services should be provided regardless of their costs and potential benefit. Public consultation on the allocation of health care resources and involvement in health care decision-making remains important. There should be community consultation about the principles and values that should guide resource allocation decisions. PMID:27294518

  8. Coordination of Vocational-Technical Education in Virginia: Transfer of Credit between Public & Private Sector Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council on Vocational Education, Richmond.

    A task force on private-public sector education in Virginia concluded that transfer and award of credit between public and private sector education providers should be facilitated. Based on the task force recommendations, the Virginia Council on Vocational Education made three recommendations to the State Board for Community Colleges and…

  9. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  10. Scaling up the health workforce in the public sector: the role of government fiscal policy.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Health workers play a key role in increasing access to health care services. Global and country-level estimates show that staffing in many developing countries - particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa - is far leaner than needed to deliver essential health services to the population. One factor that can limit scaling up the health workforce in developing countries is the government's overall wage policy which sometimes creates restrictions on hiring in the health sector. But while there is considerable debate, the information base in this important area has been quite limited. This paper summarizes the process that determines the budget for health wages in the public sector, how it is linked to overall wage policies, and how this affects staffing in the health sector. The author draws mainly from a recent World Bank report.

  11. Two decades of reforms. Appraisal of the financial reforms in the Russian public healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Gordeev, Vladimir S; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2011-10-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the outcomes of the financial reforms in the Russian public healthcare sector. A systematic literature review identified 37 relevant publications that presented empirical evidence on changes in quality, equity, efficiency and sustainability in public healthcare provision due to the Russian public healthcare financial reforms. Evidence suggests that there are substantial inter-regional inequalities across income groups both in terms of financing and access to public healthcare services. There are large efficiency differences between regions, along with inter-regional variations in payment and reimbursement mechanisms. Informal and quasi-formal payments deteriorate access to public healthcare services and undermine the overall financing sustainability. The public healthcare sector is still underfinanced, although the implementation of health insurance gave some premises for future increases of efficiency. Overall, the available empirical data are not sufficient for an evidence-based evaluation of the reforms. More studies on the quality, equity, efficiency and sustainability impact of the reforms are needed. Future reforms should focus on the implementation of cost-efficiency and cost-control mechanisms; provide incentives for better allocation and distribution of resources; tackle problems in equity in access and financing; implement a system of quality controls; and stimulate healthy competition between insurance companies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  13. School Teacher Parents and the Retreat from Public Secondary Schooling: A View from the Australian Census, 1976-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This article uses data from the Australian Censuses of 1976 and 2001 to measure the extent to which the children of school teachers participated in the middle class shift from public to non-government secondary schooling of the closing decades of the last century. It builds on recent work by Craig Campbell and Geoffrey Sherington on the history of…

  14. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  15. Adapting Washington Circle performance measures for public sector substance abuse treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The Washington Circle, a group focused on developing and disseminating performance measures for substance abuse services, developed three such measures for private health plans. In this article, we explore whether these measures are appropriate for meeting measurement goals in the public sector and feasible to calculate in the public sector using data collected for administrative purposes by state and local substance abuse and/or mental health agencies. Working collaboratively, 12 states specified revised measures and 6 states pilot tested them. Two measures were retained from the original specifications: initiation of treatment and treatment engagement. Additional measures were focused on continuity of care after assessment, detoxification, residential or inpatient care. These data demonstrate that state agencies can calculate performance measures from routinely available information and that there is wide variability in these indicators. Ongoing research is needed to examine the reasons for these results, which might include lack of patient interest or commitment, need for quality improvement efforts, or financial issues.

  16. EXAMINING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF COLQUITT'S ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE SCALE IN A PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, Colquitt developed an Organizational Justice Scale that intended to measure procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice. The dimensionality of the scale has been tested in subsequent studies with diverging results. Given the fact that contextual differences may account for more variation across research sites than individual differences, the deviating research findings may be due to context. This study examined the dimensionality of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale in a new context: the public health sector. The procedural and informational justice dimensions were highly correlated, but confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor solution provided a better fit than a three-factor solution. All fit indices for the four-factor model were consistent with a good model. There was, however, evidence of a potential omitted factor, procedural-voice justice, which has also been found in a previous examination of the measure in the public sector.

  17. A study on moral hazard in dentistry: costs of care in the private and the public sector.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs of subsidized care for an adult population provided by private and public sector dentists. A sample of 210 patients was drawn systematically from the waiting list for nonemergency dental treatment in the city of Turku. Questionnaire data covering sociodemographic background, dental care utilization and marginal time cost estimates were combined with data from patient registers on treatment given. Information was available on 104 patients (52 from each of the public and the private sectors). The overall time taken to provide treatment was 181 days in the public sector and 80 days in the private sector (P<0.002). On average, public sector patients had significantly (P < 0.01) more dental visits (5.33) than private sector patients (3.47), which caused higher visiting fees. In addition, patients in the public sector also had higher other out-of-pocket costs than in the private sector. Those who needed emergency dental treatment during the waiting time for comprehensive care had significantly more costly treatment and higher total costs than the other patients. Overall time required for dental visits significantly increased total costs. The total cost of dental care in the public sector was slightly higher (P<0.05) than in the private sector. There is no direct evidence of moral hazard on the provider side from this study. The observed cost differences between the two sectors may indicate that private practitioners could manage their publicly funded patients more quickly than their private paying patients. On the other hand, private dentists providing more treatment per visit could be explained by private dentists providing more than is needed by increasing the content per visit. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery. PMID:18257936

  19. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-02-08

    South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  20. Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    to managing change imposed by Naval procedural require- and managing innovative people . ments and directives. Topics discussed My thought evolution was...Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector within the Forest Service with food for the concept " people in an...acquisition contracts with- Bechtel Corporation for his skill in out exceeding budget, for his efficient managing innovative people and managing

  1. An Evaluation of Public and Private Sector Housing Alternatives for Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    housing units. Today, the military relies on three primary alternatives in the public and private sector to house its military families: government ... housing (Defense Science Board, 1995:60). Today, housing military families is big business. In 2002, the military family housing budget for the...privatization provides housing faster and less costly to the government and the American taxpayer? 2) What costs are associated with

  2. Public sector refraction and spectacle dispensing in low-resource countries of the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Palagyi, Anna; Williams, Carmel; Brian, Garry

    2008-05-01

    Given that uncorrected refractive error is a frequent cause of vision impairment, and that there is a high unmet need for spectacles, an appraisal of public sector arrangements for the correction of refractive error was conducted in eight Pacific Island countries. Mixed methods (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews) were used to collect information from eye care personnel (from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu) attending a regional eye health workshop in 2005. Fiji, Tonga and Vanuatu had Vision 2020 eye care plans that included refraction services, but not spectacle provision. There was wide variation in public sector spectacle dispensing services, but, except in Samoa, ready-made spectacles and a full cost recovery pricing strategy were the mainstay. There were no systems for the registration of personnel, nor guidelines for clinical or systems management. The refraction staff to population ratio varied considerably. Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu had the best coverage by services, either fixed or outreach. Most services had little promotional activity or community engagement. To be successful, it would seem that public sector refraction services should answer a real and perceived need, fit within prevailing policy and legislation, value, train, retain and equip employees, be well managed, be accessible and affordable, be responsive to consumers, and provide ongoing good quality outcomes. To this end, a checklist to aid the initiation and maintenance of refraction and spectacle systems in low-resource countries has been constructed.

  3. Exploring the costs of a limited public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Andrew; Kenyon, Christopher; Skordis, Jolene; Wood, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The role of antiretroviral treatment for adults in the pubic sector in South Africa is debated with little consideration of programme choices that could impact on the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study seeks to explore the impact of these programme choices at an individual level, as well as explore the total cost of a rationed national public sector antiretroviral treatment programme. Eight scenarios were modelled of limited national treatment programmes over the next 5 years, reflecting different programme design choices. The individual cost-effectiveness of these scenarios were compared. The total costs of the most cost-effective scenario were calculated, and the potential for savings in other areas of health care utilisation was explored. The direct programme costs per life-year saved varied between scenarios from R5,923 to R11,829. All the costs of the most cost-effective scenario could potentially be offset depending on assumptions of health care access and utilisation. The total programme costs for the most cost-effective scenario in 2007 with 107,000 people on treatment are around R409 million. Specific policy choices could almost double the number of people who could benefit from an investment in a limited national antiretroviral treatment programme. Such a programme is affordable within current resource constraints. The consideration of antiretroviral treatment calls for a unique public health approach to the rationing of health services in the public sector.

  4. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433

  5. "That was then, but this is now": historical perspectives on intercountry adoption and domestic child adoption in Australian public policy.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Denise; Spark, Ceridwen; Murphy, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper brings historical perspectives to bear on the ambivalent and contradictory position of adoption in Australian public policy. It examines the divergent histories of Australian domestic and intercountry adoption (ICA) since the mid-1970s and the impact of these histories on adoption policy in Australia. It identifies tendencies in contemporary ICA to repeat elements of pre-reform era domestic adoption. In particular, it is argued that the resistance of ICA to the move to openness in local adoption has been an unacknowledged driver of ICA for many Australian families. We offer corrective readings of the rise of ICA in relation to domestic adoption and conclude by offering alternatives for adoption policy which better align the two kinds of adoption, focusing on the needs of children, as distinct from the desires of adults.

  6. The importance of public sector health care in an underserved population.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Howard P; O'Keefe, Suzanne; Dicamillo, Mark

    2004-01-01

    California's employed Latinos are less likely to have private health insurance than most other segments of the US population and face a variety of other barriers to obtaining health care. To better understand the availability and adequacy of health services for these individuals, researchers analyzed data from a telephone survey of 1,000 randomly-selected, employed adults. Among all survey respondents, a significant percentage obtained their health care from sources fully or partially dependent on government financing. Among the uninsured (30.7 percent of the sample), a majority of those who had a regular source of care received services from publicly-supported providers. Dissatisfaction with care was infrequent (less than 5 percent of the total sample) and apparently no greater among those receiving care from public sources than among those served by private doctors. These findings underscore the importance of the public sector in providing health care for the underserved, the high quality of the services provided (or partially supported) by the public sector, and the seriousness of the consequences for the disadvantaged should public support for their healthcare diminish.

  7. Aging public services and the position of older women: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Colley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary labor markets are characterized by both aging of the workforce and the increase in participation of women. At the intersection of these two policy agendas are older women. Governments and employers recognize the importance of attracting and retaining older workers to address skills shortages, but the aging workforce discourse remains largely gender neutral. This research considers the intersection of age and gender in the context of public services, which are large employers of both women and older workers. It focuses on the agencies in an Australian state public service. The research finds that, despite decades of equal opportunity programs, there is still evidence of subtle inequalities and cumulative disadvantage. While the case study agencies employ a large proportion of older women, these women were generally recruited at younger ages and aged within the workforce. Their advancement and development opportunities were also inferior to those of older men. Despite these lesser opportunities, older women are generally very satisfied with their employment, and the employer should explore these residual inequalities if genuinely seeking to attract and retain all older workers.

  8. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations.

  9. Intervention studies on rational use of drugs in public and private sector in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Kumud Kumar; Shrestha, Naveen; Karkee, Shiba Bahadur; Prasad, Radha Raman; Bhuju, Gajendra Bahadur; Das, Prabhakar Lal

    2005-06-01

    In developing countries, inappropriate, inefficient and ineffective use of pharmaceuticals have resulted into the poor health and medical cares for the community people. For improving the situation, various interventions have been tested and proved effective in different settings. In Nepal also, various strategies have been tested and found effective to improve the prescribing and dispensing practices. This paper has examined the process and results of different studies. The educational intervention, the training has not been effective in improving the prescribing practices but has limited effect on dispensing practices in the public sector. However, it becomes effective in improving prescribing practices if combined with a managerial intervention e.g. peer-group discussion. In private sector, training alone is effective in changing the drug recommendation practices of retailers. But none of interventions have been found to be effective in improving dispensing practices. After examining the effectiveness of different interventions, training combined with peer-group discussion is recommended for piloting in all Primary Health Care (PHC) outlets of a district to improve the prescribing practices. For improving the dispensing practices in both public and private sector, additional studies have to be carried out using different strategies.

  10. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology.

  11. Choice and control: how involved are people with epilepsy and their families in the management of their epilepsy? Results from an Australian survey in the disability sector.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Michelle; Pfeiffer, Wayne; Maurici, Vanessa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which people with epilepsy and their families have choice and control over the management of their epilepsy and the support provided in the Australian disability sector. It measured the level of direct involvement in planning and recording of their epilepsy health-care needs and support required through the use of epilepsy management plans. An Australian online survey was completed by 118 adults with epilepsy and 171 family members of children and adults with epilepsy, providing demographic and diagnostic data and details of their epilepsy management plan, whether they were involved in writing the plan and the extent to which it included their views on how they want to be supported. Results indicate that just over half of all respondents had an epilepsy management plan, with 83% revised within the past 12 months. Although the majority of respondents were directly involved in writing their plan (87%), only two-thirds (66%) felt that their plan included their views on how they wanted to be supported. Open-ended comments from 111 respondents indicated their desire to be actively involved in this process, as either collaborative team members or 'in charge' of the process. In spite of a move towards person-centered approaches and greater choice and control, further emphasis must be placed on actively involving the person with epilepsy and their family in writing and incorporating their views on support within their epilepsy management plans. This research was undertaken by the Epilepsy Foundation to inform the development of epilepsy support resources for the newly introduced Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme.

  12. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  13. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  14. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  15. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  16. Hearing focuses on price of Norplant; Wyeth pledges discount for public sector.

    PubMed

    1993-11-23

    In November 1993, Democratic US Representative Ron Wyden held a hearing on the cost of the contraceptive implant Norplant. Its US distributor, Wyeth-Ayerst, informed the US House Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities and Technology that it would offer the public sector a discounted price for Norplant 5 years after it had been on the US market. Public funds contributed to the development of Norplant. USAID provided $17.2 million of the $41.3 million that the Population Council spent on developing Norplant. Wyeth provided the Council levonorgestrel, the drug used in Norplant, thereby holding the right to market Norplant in the US and Canada. USAID buys Norplant from the distributor for all other countries for $23, while Wyeth sells Norplant in a package of insertion and educational materials for $365. This large gap infuriates groups providing family planning services to low-income women. Medicaid pays for Norplant and its insertion for the poorest women. Wealthier women either pay for Norplant themselves, or their health insurance pays for it. This leaves low-income women with no access to Norplant. Wyeth has formed the Norplant Foundation to provide Norplant to low-income women whom Medicaid will not cover. It also trains most providers in insertion and removal procedures. The law requires Wyeth to reimburse qualified public health clinics 15% of costs. The reason Wyeth does not yet give the public sector a discounted price is that it wants Norplant to become firmly entrenched in the private sector first. Other panelists commented on how Norplant's success may encourage other companies to return to contraception research. Liability and political controversy are still concerns, however. Another panelist expressed concern that consumers have become too dependent on pharmaceutical companies and their commercial interests.

  17. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system.

    PubMed

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-03-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability.

  19. Helping Public Sector Health Systems Innovate: The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach’s dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

  20. Implementing Sustainable Data Collection for a Cardiac Outcomes Registry in an Australian Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nicholas; Brennan, Angela; Dinh, Diem; Brien, Rita; Cowie, Kath; Stub, Dion; Reid, Christopher M; Lefkovits, Jeffrey

    2017-03-12

    Clinical outcome registries are an increasingly vital component of ensuring quality and safety of patient care. However, Australian hospitals rarely have additional resources or the capacity to fund the additional staff time to complete the task of data collection and entry. At the same time, registry funding models do not support staff for the collection of data at the site but are directed towards the central registry tasks of data reporting, managing and quality monitoring. The sustainability of a registry is contingent on building efficiencies into data management and collection. We describe the methods used in a large Victorian public hospital to develop a sustainable data collection system for the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (VCOR), using existing staff and resources common to many public hospitals. We describe the features of the registry and the hospital specific strategies that allowed us to do this as part of our routine business of providing good quality cardiac care. All clinical staff involved in patient care were given some data collection task with the entry of these data embedded into the staff's daily workflow. A senior cardiology registrar was empowered to allocate data entry tasks to colleagues when data were found to be incomplete. The task of 30-day follow-up proved the most onerous part of data collection. Cath-lab nursing staff were allocated this role. With hospital accreditation and funding models moving towards performance based quality indicators, collection of accurate and reliable information is crucial. Our experience demonstrates the successful implementation of clinical outcome registry data collection in a financially constrained public hospital environment utilising existing resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The relevance of personal characteristics in health care rationing: what the Australian public thinks and why.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Malcolm; Richardson, Jeff; McKie, John; Iezzi, Angelo; Khan, Munir

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the preferences of the general public in Australia regarding health care resource allocation. While previous studies have revealed that the public is willing to give priority to particular groups of patients based on their personal characteristics, the present article goes beyond previous efforts in attempting to explain these results. In the present study, there was strong support among respondents for giving “equal priority” to people regardless of their personal characteristics. However, respondents did reveal a preference for married patients over single, for children over adults, for carers of children and the elderly, sole breadwinners, and good community contributors. Further, they would give a lower priority to those perceived as “self-harmers”—smokers, individuals with unhealthy diets, and those who rarely exercise. Variation in the answers according to broad economic and social beliefs across seven different categories (“factors”) influenced the pattern of the public's attitudes towards rationing. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated that most of the items in our survey are associated with seven factors that explain or capture much of the variation. These relate to a patient's avoidance of self-harm behaviors (Safe Living), their Life Style (diet, exercise, etc.), their contribution to the community through caring for others (Caring), their talents (Gifted), their sexual behavior (Sexuality), their age and marital status (Family), and whether they are an Australian citizen or employed (Citizen). The strength of social preferences—e.g., how strongly respondents would “discriminate” against a recreational drug user or preference a person with a healthy diet—is related to the particular class of preferences.

  2. Clustering Consumers Based on Trust, Confidence and Giving Behaviour: Data-Driven Model Building for Charitable Involvement in the Australian Not-For-Profit Sector

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  3. Clustering consumers based on trust, confidence and giving behaviour: data-driven model building for charitable involvement in the Australian not-for-profit sector.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  4. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  5. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.

  6. Evaluating bioaerosol exposure among bus drivers in the public transport sector.

    PubMed

    Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Pawlak, Halina; Wlazło, Łukasz; Maksym, Piotr; Kapica, Jacek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Trawińska, Beata

    2017-06-26

    Occupational hazards and consequent health problems suffered by drivers in the public transport sector require preventive measures. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of drivers to microbiological air contamination (airborne bacteria and fungi) in buses. The air in public transport vehicles was examined in autumn, winter and spring. To evaluate the exposure of drivers to bioaerosols, air samples were collected and examined for the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria specified by the number of colony forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air. The results of the research show that public transport as a workplace can be considered to be a significant risk to health.

  7. Reflecting the Context of MPA Education in the Time of Economic Crisis in Public Sectors in Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den

    2013-01-01

    The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…

  8. Reflecting the Context of MPA Education in the Time of Economic Crisis in Public Sectors in Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den

    2013-01-01

    The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…

  9. Using History: Historical Research and Publication by Australian Librarians and Archivists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadle, Don

    2006-01-01

    Library history has constituted a significant portion of the research articles published in the "Australian Library Journal" and in "Australian Academic & Research Libraries". By contrast, archives history has attracted much less interest from researchers publishing in "Archives and Manuscripts". The author uses…

  10. Using History: Historical Research and Publication by Australian Librarians and Archivists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadle, Don

    2006-01-01

    Library history has constituted a significant portion of the research articles published in the "Australian Library Journal" and in "Australian Academic & Research Libraries". By contrast, archives history has attracted much less interest from researchers publishing in "Archives and Manuscripts". The author uses…

  11. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  12. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  13. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy.

  14. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, David R; Banteyerga, Hailom; Tharaney, Manisha

    2015-10-29

    Although human resources for health have received increased attention by health systems decision-makers and researchers in recent years, insufficient attention has been paid to understanding the factors that influence the performance of health workers. This empirical study investigates the factors that are associated with health worker motivation over time among public sector primary health care workers in Ethiopia. The study is based on data from public sector health worker surveys collected through a convenience sample of 43 primary health care facilities in four regions (Addis Ababa, Oromia, Amhara, and Somali) at three points in time: 2003/04, 2006, and 2009. Using a Likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to statements regarding job satisfaction, pride in work, satisfaction with financial rewards, self-efficacy, satisfaction with facility resources, and self-perceived conscientiousness. Inter-reliability of each construct was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and indices of motivational determinants and outcomes were calculated for each survey round. To explore the associations between motivational determinants and outcomes, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out based on a pooled dataset. Among the sample public sector health workers, several dimensions of health worker motivation significantly increased over the study period, including two indicators of motivational outcomes-overall job satisfaction and self-perceived conscientiousness-and two indicators of motivational determinants-pride and self-efficacy. However, two other dimensions of motivation-satisfaction with financial rewards and satisfaction with facility resources-significantly decreased. The multivariate analyses found that the constructs of pride, self-efficacy, satisfaction with financial rewards, and satisfaction with facility resources were significantly associated with the motivational outcomes, after controlling for other factors. Overall, the findings

  15. Job Satisfaction of Primary Health-Care Providers (Public Sector) in Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01). Age and education level of health care providers don’t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi. PMID:24479088

  16. [Pharmaceutical procurement by the public sector: the quality/cost relationship].

    PubMed

    Luiza, V L; Castro, C G; Nunes, J M

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss procurement and provision of pharmaceutical products from the perspective of supply management in the public health sector, focusing on two main aspects: quality and cost. The article analyzes issues to be considered by buyers when evaluating drug quality, especially formulation stability, bioequivalence, and the role of generics. Also discussed are factors involving costs and cost management in relation to technological innovations and consumer demands. New alternatives and suggestions are examined and presented for procurement of high-quality, cost-effective drug products.

  17. [Managment system in safety and health at work organization. An Italian example in public sector: Inps].

    PubMed

    Di Loreto, G; Felicioli, G

    2010-01-01

    The Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (Inps) is one of the biggest Public Sector organizations in Italy; about 30.000 people work in his structures. Fifteen years ago, Inps launched a long term project with the objective to create a complex and efficient safety and health at work organization. Italian law contemplates a specific kind of physician working on safety and health at work, called "Medico competente", and 85 Inps's physicians work also as "Medico competente". This work describes how IT improved coordination and efficiency in this occupational health's management system.

  18. [Making census data accessible to local users in the public and private sectors].

    PubMed

    Conning, A; Silva, A

    1993-06-01

    The authors outline ways in which government statistical offices can make census data available to local public- and private-sector users. Several computer programs, including REDATAM-Plus and Geographical Information Systems, are discussed. "The successful implementation of the use of the census data at the local level will require that...national agencies facilitate the institutionalization of technology transfer by providing, among other things, technical support, training at a distance, data and cartography standards, and solutions to data protection issues." The geographical focus is on Latin America and the Caribbean. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. Service quality and performance in the public health-care sector.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Hardeep; Kumari, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate service quality and service performance relationship in the health-care sector using respective developed multidimensional scales. Data were collected from 400 inpatient respondents, using stratified sampling method from five departments, namely general medicine, surgery, pediatrics, orthopedics, gynecology, and ENT of a tertiary hospital (North India). The results confirm significant relationship among subdimensions of physical environment quality and interaction quality (service quality) and four service performance measures, namely waiting time, patient satisfaction, patient loyalty, and image in public hospitals.

  20. Strengthening of partnerships between the public sector and faith-based groups.

    PubMed

    Duff, Jean F; Buckingham, Warren W

    2015-10-31

    The sharpening focus on global health and the growing recognition of the capacities and scope of faith-based groups for improving community health outcomes suggest an intentional and systematic approach to forging strong, sustained partnerships between public sector agencies and faith-based organisations. Drawing from both development and faith perspectives, this Series paper examines trends that could ground powerful, more sustainable partnerships and identifies new opportunities for collaboration based on respective strengths and existing models. This paper concludes with five areas of recommendations for more effective collaboration to achieve health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating and Presenting Power Sector Fuel Use in EIA Publications and Analyses

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    The goal of EIA’s comprehensive review was to improve the quality and consistency of its electric power data throughout all data and analysis products. Because power facilities operate in all sectors of the economy (e.g., in commercial buildings, such as hospitals and college campuses, and industrial facilities, such as paper mills and refineries) and use many fuels, any change to electric power data affects data series in nearly all fuel areas and causes changes in a wide variety of EIA publications. This report was published as Appendix H in the Annual Energy Review 2001.

  2. One-year assessment of joint procurement of pharmaceuticals in the public health sector in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbadi, Ibrahim; Qawwas, Abdelraouf; Jaafreh, Mahmoud; Abosamen, Taher; Saket, Maisa

    2009-06-01

    About 10% of the gross domestic product in Jordan is spent on health care, and almost one third of that is spent on pharmaceuticals. The public health sector in Jordan has 4 main governmental parties that purchase medicines independently through annual tenders (ie, the process of bidding, being awarded, ordering, paying for, and receiving drugs) issued in the generic (or scientific) name of the medicines or therapeutic groups. Double purchasing is a problem that leads to higher spending on drugs and poor availability of medicines throughout the year. To remedy this problem, a joint procurement process was established in Jordan in 2004 and went into practice in 2006. The aim of this research was to assess the first year of purchasing pharmaceuticals in the public health sector in Jordan through the joint procurement process for the 4 participating parties in comparison with purchasing pharmaceuticals independently before the institution of joint procurement. The first tender under the joint procurement process was issued in 2007 for antibiotics, anti-HIV medications, and antituberculosis agents, which represent 15% of the annual pharmaceutical public-sector purchases in Jordan. A research committee solicited lists of purchased quantities and final purchase prices of these pharmaceuticals obtained in 2006 by each participating group and in 2007 through the joint procurement process. The quantity-comparison method was used to compare the costs of drugs purchased in 2006 and 2007, and estimated cost savings were calculated for each product for each party for 2006 and 2007 under the assumption that the same quantities purchased by each participating party in 2006 would be purchased through joint procurement (prices of 2007). Purchasing through the joint procurement process achieved an estimated savings of 2.4%. This savings increased to 8.9% after excluding 1 item (a cephalosporin), the raw material price of which increased markedly in 2007 compared with 2006 because of

  3. Public knowledge and beliefs about dementia risk reduction: a national survey of Australians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the dramatically increasing contribution of Alzheimer’s Disease and other forms of dementia to the global burden of disease, countries are being urged to address this as a public health priority. This study investigated whether Australian adults recognise this as an important health issue, and hold beliefs and knowledge that are consistent with recommendations concerning dementia risk reduction. This research was undertaken to guide national brain health awareness and education strategies. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was undertaken of 1,003 Australians aged 20–75 years. This measured the importance placed on dementia, beliefs and confidence related to risk reduction, knowledge of risk reduction methods, and the perceived age-relevance of these. In analysis the data were stratified by sex, age, educational attainment, household income, language preference and previous exposure to dementia. Multivariable logistic regression was undertaken to identify variables independently associated with beliefs and knowledge. Results People aged 60 years and over identified dementia as very important (17.2%) more often than those aged 40–59 years (5.1%) or 20–39 years (2.1%). While 41.5% of respondents believed the risk of dementia could be reduced, 26.9% were very confident that they could achieve this. Mental activity (57.1%) was identified as beneficial much more often than physical activity (31.3%), healthy eating (23.3%) and other cardiovascular health behaviours. Women, people of English-speaking origin, and those having contact with a person with dementia, showed better knowledge of several health behaviours. Conclusions Growing attention is being given to population risk reduction to combat the dramatic increase in the burden of disease due to dementia. In Australia many people do not yet hold beliefs and knowledge that support this, which highlights the need for concerted awareness raising that dementia is not an inevitable aspect

  4. The effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy in routine public mental health settings: An Australian controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pasieczny, Nathan; Connor, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Randomised controlled studies in research environments have demonstrated dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) to be more efficacious than treatment as usual in reducing suicidal behaviour in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Limited evidence exists for the effectiveness of DBT in the treatment of BPD within routine clinical settings. This study examines the clinical and cost effectiveness of providing DBT over treatment as usual in a routine Australian public mental health service. Forty-three adult patients with BPD were provided with outpatient DBT for six months with patient outcomes compared to those obtained from patients in a wait list group receiving treatment as usual (TAU) from the same service. After six months of treatment the DBT group showed significantly greater reductions in suicidal/non-suicidal self-injury, emergency department visits, psychiatric admissions and bed days. Self-report measures were administered to a reduced sample of patients. With this group, DBT patients demonstrated significantly improved depression, anxiety and general symptom severity scores compared to TAU at six months. Average treatment costs were significantly lower for those patients in DBT than those receiving TAU. Therapists who received intensive DBT training were shown to produce significantly greater improvements in patients' suicidal and non-suicidal self-injury than therapists who received only 4 day basic training. Further clinical improvements were achieved in patients offered an additional six months of DBT. This study demonstrates that providing DBT to patients within routine public mental health settings can be both clinically effective and cost effective. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Keatley, David A; Carragher, Natacha; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-11-18

    Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations.

  6. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. Objective This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. Methods The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. Results The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. Conclusions The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations. PMID:26582408

  7. Working in direct contact with the public as a predictor of burnout in the banking sector.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Asensio, Elisa; Menéndez, Ignacio; Redondo, Sergio; Ledesma, José A

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the presence of the burnout syndrome amongst employees of the banking sector. This topic is of particular interest owing to recent changes in working conditions and the controversial commercial strategies employed in this sector in recent years. A total of 1,341 professionals, 883 men and 458 women took part in the study. A Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used, via electronic mail. The results revealed that at least 55.78% of the sample showed a high risk of burnout in at least two of the dimensions. The workers in commercial branch offices dealing with the general public showed a greater risk of burnout than those working in central services. The risk of burnout was higher than in other professions considered to be at risk and appears to be more closely associated with work-related stress and the controversial commercial strategies employed in the sector in recent years than with the possibility of cuts in salary. Psychological intervention programs aimed at stress management would be a recommendable way of helping employees address problems of this kind.

  8. [Chilean hospitals: availability and productivity of the public and private sectors].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M

    1992-03-01

    Hospital bed availability, trends in number of beds, productivity and administrative aspects in the public and private hospital sectors are analyzed. At present, there are 3.3 beds per 1000 population in Chile. This represents a decrease from previous figures, in spite of increasing demands derived from population aging and greater birth assistance needs. Overall productivity of the hospital system is reflected in 31 annual admissions per bed, an average hospital stay of 8 days and a 75% occupancy rate. The National Health Service System is responsible for 76% of admissions. However, it takes care of more than 90% of bed needs for tuberculosis patients and more than 80% for hospital birth assistance, complications of pregnancy, perinatal disease, communicable diseases, respiratory illnesses, miscarriages and skin diseases. The private sector takes care of more than 40% of rheumatic and musculo skeletal diseases and more than one third of mental health problems. The National Health Service, compared to the private sector, exhibits a greater occupancy rate with an average stay only one day longer. Complexities of hospital administration, new world trends and the relation to external economic resources are discussed.

  9. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.

  10. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  11. Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly C; Rundi, Christina; Jelip, Jenarun; Rashman, Yusof; Smith Gueye, Cara; Gosling, Roly D

    2014-01-21

    Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals. This observational qualitative case study employed semi-structured key informant interviews to describe partnerships between the Malaysian Malaria Control Programme (MCP), and private palm oil, rubber and acacia plantations in the state of Sabah. Semi-structured interview guides were used to examine resource commitments, incentives, challenges, and successes of the collaborations. Interviews with workers from private plantations and the state of Sabah MCP indicated that partnerships with the commercial sector had contributed to decreases in incidence at plantation sites since 1991. Several plantations contribute financial and human resources toward malaria control efforts and all plantations frequently communicate with the MCP to help monitor the malaria situation on-site. Management of partnerships between private corporations and government entities can be challenging, as prioritization of malaria control may change with annual profits or arrival of new management. Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah. The successes of these partnerships rely on a common understanding that elimination will be a mutually beneficial outcome for employers and the general public. Best practices included

  12. Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

  13. To serve or to leave: a question faced by public sector healthcare providers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Saleem; Rashida, Gul; Mankani, Neha

    2015-11-25

    The availability of properly trained and motivated providers is a prerequisite for provision of easily accessible healthcare. Pakistan has been listed by the World Health Organization in its World Health Report 2006 as one of 57 countries with a critical health workforce deficiency. This study examines the factors associated with the willingness of public sector healthcare providers to leave government service and recommends measures that can be adopted to attract and retain staff in the country's public healthcare system. A stratified, random sampling methodology was adopted to recruit a nationally representative sample of 1,296 public sector healthcare providers, including paramedics, medical doctors, and specialists. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview these providers. Logistic regressions measured the association with determinants of their willingness to leave the public health sector for better prospects elsewhere. A third of all healthcare providers who were interviewed were of the view that, provided the opportunity, they would leave government service. The odds of willingness to leave service were highest among providers from the region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.49-7.54) followed by the province of Balochistan (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI, 2.41-7.33), and the region of Gilgit Baltistan (AOR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.67-6.67). Providers who expressed dissatisfaction in the manner their performance was evaluated and those who were dissatisfied with the current salary, each had higher odds of considering leaving government service (AOR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.40 and AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.47-2.81, respectively). Providers who reported experiencing interference in their work by influential politicians of the area were more inclined to leave (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.98). This study clearly highlights the need to implement more focused strategies in the public healthcare system in Pakistan in

  14. Social Media for e-Government in the Public Health Sector: Protocol for a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Massimo; Tursunbayeva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    Background Public sector organizations worldwide are engaging with social media as part of a growing e-government agenda. These include government departments of health, public health agencies, and state-funded health care and research organizations. Although examples of social media in health have been described in the literature, little is known about their overall scope or how they are achieving the objectives of e-government. A systematic literature review is underway to capture and synthesize existing evidence on the adoption, use, and impacts of social media in the public health sector. A series of parallel scoping exercises has taken place to examine (1) relevant existing systematic reviews, to assess their focus, breadth, and fit with our review topic, (2) existing concepts related to e-government, public health, and the public health sector, to assess how semantic complexity might influence the review process, and (3) the results of pilot searches, to examine the fit of social media within the e-government and health literatures. The methods and observations of the scoping exercises are reported in this protocol, alongside the methods and interim results for the systematic review itself. Objective The systematic review has three main objectives: To capture the corpus of published studies on the uses of social media by public health organizations; to classify the objectives for which social media have been deployed in these contexts and the methods used; and to analyze and synthesize evidence of the uptake, use, and impacts of social media on various outcomes. Methods A set of scoping exercises were undertaken, to inform the search strategy and analytic framework. Searches have been carried out in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and the Scopus international electronic databases, and appropriate gray literature sources. Articles published between January 1, 2004, and July 12, 2015, were included. There was no restriction by language. One

  15. Clients' reports on postabortion family planning services provided in Mexico City's public sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. PMID:23499047

  16. Social Media for e-Government in the Public Health Sector: Protocol for a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Franco, Massimo; Tursunbayeva, Aizhan; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-03-11

    Public sector organizations worldwide are engaging with social media as part of a growing e-government agenda. These include government departments of health, public health agencies, and state-funded health care and research organizations. Although examples of social media in health have been described in the literature, little is known about their overall scope or how they are achieving the objectives of e-government. A systematic literature review is underway to capture and synthesize existing evidence on the adoption, use, and impacts of social media in the public health sector. A series of parallel scoping exercises has taken place to examine (1) relevant existing systematic reviews, to assess their focus, breadth, and fit with our review topic, (2) existing concepts related to e-government, public health, and the public health sector, to assess how semantic complexity might influence the review process, and (3) the results of pilot searches, to examine the fit of social media within the e-government and health literatures. The methods and observations of the scoping exercises are reported in this protocol, alongside the methods and interim results for the systematic review itself. The systematic review has three main objectives: To capture the corpus of published studies on the uses of social media by public health organizations; to classify the objectives for which social media have been deployed in these contexts and the methods used; and to analyze and synthesize evidence of the uptake, use, and impacts of social media on various outcomes. A set of scoping exercises were undertaken, to inform the search strategy and analytic framework. Searches have been carried out in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and the Scopus international electronic databases, and appropriate gray literature sources. Articles published between January 1, 2004, and July 12, 2015, were included. There was no restriction by language. One reviewer (AT) has independently

  17. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services.

  18. Public-Private Partnerships in the health sector: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the current use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the Danish health sector based on an initial discussion of theoretical approaches that analyze PPP. The empirical analysis concludes that PPP has been used very sparsely in the Danish health sector. There are few examples of large-scale partnership projects with joint investment and risk taking, but a number of smaller partnerships such as jointly owned companies at the regional level. When defining PPP more broadly, we can identify a long tradition for various types of collaboration between public and private actors in health care in Denmark. An analysis of the regulatory environment is offered as an explanation for the limited use of PPPs in Denmark. Major political and institutional actors at the central level differ in their enthusiasm for the PPP concept, and the regulatory framework is somewhat uncertain. A number of general issues and concerns related to PPPs are also discussed. It is suggested that a risk-based framework can be useful for mapping the potential and challenges for both private and public partners. Such a framework can be used to feed into game theoretical models of pros and cons for PPP projects. In general terms, it is concluded that more empirical research is needed for the assessment of the various risk factors involved in using PPPs in health care. Most PPPs are still very young, and the evidence on performance and broader governance issues is only just emerging. Ideally, such assessments should include comparisons with a purely public alternative.

  19. Managed behavioral health care: an instrument to characterize critical elements of public sector programs.

    PubMed

    Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

    2002-08-01

    To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and "unmanaged" care and among managed care arrangements. The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary.

  20. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  1. Advancing the business creed? The framing of decisions about public sector managed care.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Yager, Joel; Santos, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research has clarified how executives of for-profit healthcare organisations frame their own motivations and behaviour, or how government officials frame their interactions with executives. Because managed care has provided an organisational structure for health services in many countries, we focused our study on executives and government officials who were administering public sector managed care services. Emphasising theoretically the economic versus non-economic motivations that guide economic behaviour, we extended a long-term research project on public sector Medicaid managed care (MMC) in the United States. Our method involved in-depth, structured interviews with chief executive officers of managed care organisations, as well as high-ranking officials of state government. Data analysis involved iterative interpretation of interview data. We found that the rate of profit, which proved relatively low in the MMC programme, occupied a limited place in executives' self-described motivations and in state officials' descriptions of corporation-government interactions. Non-economic motivations included a strong orientation toward corporate social responsibility and a creed in which market processes advanced human wellbeing. Such patterns contradict some of the given wisdom about how corporate executives and government officials construct their reality.

  2. Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

    2002-01-01

    Objective To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. PMID:12236386

  3. Debunking the manual handling myth: an investigation of manual handling knowledge and practices in the Australian private health sector.

    PubMed

    Kay, Kate; Glass, Nel

    2011-06-01

    Nursing care involves complex patient handling tasks. Strategies to address associated manual handling issues commonly include training programmes, despite conflicting evidence regarding training efficacy for manual handling injury reduction. Resultant knowledge acquisition and skills transfer from training programmes are prerequisites for subsequent practice changes in the clinical setting. This paper draws upon the findings from a questionnaire completed by 100 nurses in an Australian private hospital in 2008. A substantial knowledge deficit was identified, despite previous training undertaken by participants. A striking finding was that although 82% (n = 82) of nurses surveyed believed they used safe manual handling practices, only 18% (n = 15) of these nurses correctly answered items assessing manual handling knowledge. The study suggests prudence in the assumption of skills and knowledge acquisition during manual handling training. It informs the development of future implementation strategies, and provides a contributory explanation for the limited application of recommended practices after training completion. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  5. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  6. Availability of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa: roles of the public, private and church mission sectors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R J; Stephens, B

    1989-01-01

    Although the availability of pharmaceuticals is critical for both curative and preventive health care, drugs are, at best, sporadically available in governmental facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The religious missions and private sectors are more successful than the public sector in obtaining and distributing drugs. The public sector operates under a myriad of constraints inherent in a bureaucracy; the religious missions have the advantages of better management and access to foreign currency; the private sector is innately efficient. Donor assistance to increase the availability of drugs in the public sector has included support for revolving drug funds, national drug services, the improvement of management techniques, and the local production of pharmaceuticals. None of these interventions has been notably successful. In 1987, UNICEF presented The Bamako Initiative--a proposal to launch an internationally-financed fund for essential drugs for sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proposal is unrealistic in anticipating that the requisite resources and/or hard currency can be raised to support the proposal. As the private sector is a more efficient distributor, it is recommended that the private sector be given responsibility for the distribution of drugs. Nonetheless, some governmental controls will be necessary to ensure that essential drugs are available at the least cost to the consumer.

  7. Are clerical workers proletarian? A case study of the Australian Public Service.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Craig

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores whether clerical workers have been proletarianized by using the Australian Public Service (APS) as a case study. It shows that before the late 1980s the market, work and status situations of APS clerks were predominantly proletarian since they were typified by limited career prospects, low skill requirements, restricted autonomy; low organizational status and estrangement from senior management. This proletarian class situation was reflected in an order taker's culture of informality, cynicism, hedonism and alienation. Since the late 1980s however technological change and workplace restructuring have markedly reduced the number of unskilled and lower paid jobs in the APS, thereby belying widespread predictions of deskilling. I conclude that proletarianization is more likely to have arisen from a decline in the status of clerical work during the course of the twentieth century rather than from a process of deskilling. Notwithstanding the fact that their class situations were predominantly proletarian, most clerks have identified as middle class. We can attribute this not only to the fact that their class situations differ from those of manual workers, as noted by Lockwood, but also to a widespread tendency to identify as middle class, the tendency of many female clerks to base their class identity on their husband's occupation and the fact that popular stereotypes tend to equate class with occupation. It is difficult to decide if clerks are proletarian since 1. Their class situations display a mixture of proletarian and middle-class characteristics 2. They exhibit diverse class identities, social origins, marriage partners and cultural attributes and 3. They occupy different positions on different aspects of inequality. We are therefore unable to allocate them en bloc to a single uniform class. I conclude that while a minority of clerks are proletarian most are better described as middle class.

  8. The impact of later trading hours for Australian public houses (hotels) on levels of violence.

    PubMed

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim

    2002-09-01

    To examine the impact of later trading hours for licensed hotels (Australian public houses are usually known as "hotels") in Perth, Western Australia, on levels of violent assault on or near these premises. Data on assault offenses reported to police between July 1, 1991, and June 30, 1997, were examined to identify those offenses that occurred on or close to hotels. During this period, 45 (24%) of the 188 hotels meeting study criteria were granted an extended trading permit for 1AM closing ("ETP hotels"), whereas the rest continued to close at midnight ("non-ETP hotels"). A time-series analysis employing linear regression was used to test whether there was a relationship between the introduction of extended trading and monthly rates of assaults associated with ETP hotels, while controlling for the general trend in assault rates among normally trading hotels. Possible confounders and other variables of interest (e.g., levels of alcohol purchases) were also examined. After controlling for the general trend in assaults occurring throughout Perth hotels, there was a significant increase in monthly assault rates for hotels with late trading following the introduction of extended trading permits. This relationship was largely accounted for by higher volumes of high alcohol content beer, wine and distilled spirits purchased by late trading hotels. Late trading was associated with both increased violence in and around Perth hotels and increased levels of alcohol consumption during the study period. It is suggested that greater numbers of patrons and increased levels of intoxication contributed to the observed increase in violence and that systematic planning and evaluation of late trading licenses is required.

  9. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  10. Extending transaction cost economics: towards a synthesised approach for analysing contracting in health care markets with experience from the Australian private sector.

    PubMed

    Donato, Ronald

    2010-12-01

    Transaction cost economics (TCE) has been the dominant economic paradigm for analysing contracting, and the framework has been applied in a number of health care contexts. However, TCE has particular limitations when applied to complex industry settings and there have been calls to extend the framework to incorporate dynamic theories of industrial organisation, specifically the resource-based view (RBV). This paper analyses how such calls for theoretical pluralism are particularly germane to health care markets and examines whether a combined TCE-RBV provides a more comprehensive approach for understanding the nature of contractual arrangements that have developed within the Australian private health care sector and its implications for informing policy. This Australian case study involved a series of interviews with 14 senior contracting executives from the seven major health funds (i.e. 97% of the insured population) and seven major private hospital groups (i.e. 73% of the private hospital beds). Study findings reveal that both the TCE perspective with its focus on exchange hazards, and the RBV approach with its emphasis on the dynamic nature of capabilities, each provide a partial explanation of the developments associated with contracting between health funds and hospital groups. For a select few organisations, close inter-firm relational ties involving trust and mutual commitment attenuate complex exchange hazards through greater information sharing and reduced propensity to behave opportunistically. Further, such close relational ties also provide denser communication channels for creating and transmitting more complex information enabling organisations to tap into each other's complementary resources and capabilities. For policymakers, having regard to both TCE and RBV considerations provides the opportunity to apply competition policy beyond the current static notions of efficiency and welfare gains, and cautions policymakers against specifying ex ante the

  11. Psychology in the Public Sector: Addressing the Psychological Effects of Combat in the U.S. Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Morgan T.

    2005-01-01

    The response of military psychology in times of war or other great public crises may presage the success of the profession in less perilous times. The ability of public-sector psychologists to provide assistance and improve the common welfare during conflict or turmoil is generally followed by an increased demand for psychological services. This…

  12. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  13. Institutional Breakdown? An Exploratory Taxonomy of Australian University Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, David; Dollery, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Australian higher education has undergone radical change aimed transforming universities into commercial enterprises less dependent on public funding. Despite some significant successes, including dramatic increases in the numbers of domestic and international students, decreased Commonwealth subsidies, and more private sector finance, there are…

  14. The Institutionalization of Private Sector Strategic Planning Methods in a Public Sector Research & Development Organization: The Naval Surface Warfare Center Case 1982-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    strategic planning methods in a public sector federal government Department of Defense research and development organization. Corporate-style strategic planning means using a formal integrative strategic planning process whose cornerstone is the segmentation of the organization’s activities into strategic business units (SBUs). The role and mission of industrial organizations are key drivers or forcing functions in the process of execution motivation to plan and manage strategically. The U.S. federal system does not, by its

  15. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector.

  16. Challenge 21. Building Tomorrow's Public Service. Report of the Multilevel Public Sector Leadership Symposium (Lake Lanier Islands, Georgia, March 22-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    This document summarizes the discussions held at a conference of public sector executives and human resource managers designed to address the problems of attracting and keeping good workers in public service. Presentations made by the governor of Georgia, federal officials, educators, and regional representatives in three plenary sessions…

  17. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  18. Cost analysis of periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Dom, Tuti; Ayob, Rasidah; Mohd-Nur, Amrizal; Abdul-Manaf, Mohd R; Ishak, Noorlin; Abdul-Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed M; Ahmad-Yaziz, Yuhaniz; Abdul-Aziz, Hanizah; Kasan, Noordin; Mohd-Asari, Ahmad S

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings provide basis for identifying potential

  19. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape

  20. Investigating genetic discrimination in the Australian life insurance sector: the use of genetic test results in underwriting, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Otlowski, Margaret; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Taylor, Sandra; Stranger, Mark; Treloar, Susan

    2007-02-01

    A major component of the Genetic Discrimination Project (GDP), an Australia-wide study to examine the advantages and disadvantages for individuals of having genetic information and cases of alleged genetic discrimination, is the analysis of insurers' use of genetic test results. The peak life insurance body, IFSA, had collected data through the Australian Institute of Actuaries (AIA) for the period June 1999-May 2003 from life insurance companies in Australia regarding their use of genetic test results in insurance underwriting. The GDP negotiated with IFSA and the AIA for access to this data for independent analysis. Applications from 288 individuals who had disclosed a genetic test result included products for cover for death, trauma/crisis, income protection/disability and total and permanent disablement. A total of 81% (234/288) contained usable data for analysis. These cases involved the genetic conditions haemochromatosis (71%), Huntington disease (12%) and breast/ovarian cancer (6%). In 49% of cases, the genetic test result was described as the only influencing factor and of these, 32% involved a "positive" genetic test result. Whilst underwriting in most cases appeared to be reasonable, the article highlights several cases involving disclosure of a positive predictive test result for breast/ovarian cancer that required further investigation.

  1. Vertical and horizontal trust at work as predictors of retirement intentions: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000-12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement.

  2. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools.

  3. Creating an integrated public sector? Labour's plans for the modernisation of the English health care system

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The current Labour Government has embarked on radical public sector reform in England. A so-called ‘Modernisation Agenda’ has been developed that is encapsulated in the NHS Plan—a document that details a long-term vision for health care. This plan involves a five-fold strategy: investment through greater public funding; quality assurance; improving access; service integration and inter-professional working; and providing a public health focus. The principles of Labour's vision have been broadly supported. However, achieving its aims appears reliant on two key factors. First, appropriate resources are required to create capacity, particularly management capacity, to enable new functions to develop. Second, promoting access and service integration requires the development of significant co-ordination, collaboration and networking between agencies and individuals. This is particularly important for health and social care professionals. Their historically separate professions suggest that a significant period of change management is required to allow new roles and partnerships to evolve. In an attempt to secure delivery of its goals, however, the Government has placed the emphasis on further organisational restructuring. In doing so, the Government may have missed the key challenges faced in delivering its NHS Plan. As this paper argues, cultural and behavioural change is probably a far more appropriate and important requirement for success than a centrally directed approach that emphasises the rearrangement of structural furniture. PMID:16896369

  4. Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, M; Schermel, A; Minaker, L; Kelly, B; Lee, A; Vandevijvere, S; Twohig, P; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Leadership in surgery for public sector hospitals in Jamaica: strategies for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys.

  6. Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  7. Nurses, industrial action and ethics: considerations from the 2010 South African public-sector strike.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, André J; van Rensburg, Dingie J

    2013-11-01

    Several important ethical dilemmas emerge when nurses join a public-sector strike. Such industrial action is commonplace in South Africa and was most notably illustrated by a national wage negotiation in 2010. Media coverage of the proceedings suggested unethical behaviour on the part of nurses, and further exploration is merited. Laws, policies and provisional codes are meant to guide nurses' behaviour during industrial action, while ethical theories can be used to further illuminate the role of nurses in industrial action. There are, however, important aspects to consider before judging whether nurses act unethically when striking. Following Loewy's suggestion that the nature of the work, the proceeding commitment of the nurse to the patient, the prevailing situation when the strike is planned and the person(s) who stand(s) to benefit from the strike be considered, coupled with a consideration of the South African historical socio-political context, important aspects of the ethics of nurses' behaviour in industrial action transpire.

  8. Managed care in the public sector: lessons learned from the Los Angeles PARTNERS program.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, G; Young, A S; Fortney, S; Tillipman, D; Murata, D; Koegel, P

    2001-05-01

    PARTNERS is the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health's capitated managed care treatment program. To explore the context in which public sector managed care reforms are occurring and to understand the obstacles to implementing such programs, qualitative data were collected from administrators, case managers, and clients. Administrators were found to need assistance in negotiating managed care contracts and in tracking costs. Case managers, although concerned about increased clinical demands, enjoyed the flexibility and creativity their new roles allowed. Clients were satisfied with their increased independence, even though many had to change their site of care. Beyond considering these concerns, the range of community stakeholders who may be affected by such interventions must be addressed.

  9. Conceptualizations of postpartum depression by public-sector health care providers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2015-04-01

    In this article we describe the knowledge frameworks that 61 physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists from five public-sector health care facilities in Mexico used to conceptualize postpartum depression. We also demonstrate how providers applied social and behavioral antecedents in their conceptualizations of postpartum depression. Using grounded theory, we identify two frameworks that providers used to conceptualize postpartum depression: biochemical and adjustment. We highlight an emerging model of the function of social and behavioral antecedents within the frameworks, as well as the representation of postpartum depression by symptoms of distress and the perception among providers that these symptoms affected responsibilities associated with motherhood. The results provide a foundation for future study of how providers' conceptualizations of postpartum depression might affect detection and treatment practices and might be useful in the development of training materials to enhance the quality of care for women who experience any form of distress in the postpartum period.

  10. Pharmacy benefit management contracting: an assessment from a recent public sector procurement experience.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jay P; Justice, Paul G

    2002-01-01

    In order to contain the cost of pharmaceuticals while preserving access to medically necessary drugs, Georgia state government competitively selected a single vendor in May of 2000 to manage combined pharmacy benefits under all of the state's health programs. By initiating this procedure, it intended to maximize the state's purchasing power and improve efficiency while streamlining the administrative structure. Synthesizing information from the request for proposal (RFP) and technical proposals submitted by 11 pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) in response, we describe a model of public sector PBM contracting approach and present an assessment of the industry's service capability and performance statistics. Payers who have been using PBM services may find it interesting to compare their experience with the recent Georgia experience. Those who are considering contracting with a PBM will find the assessment of the PBM industry timely and informative.

  11. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  12. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-07-01

    Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225.

  13. Provision of prehospital emergency medical services in Punjab, Pakistan: Case study of a public sector provider.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Veena M; Naseer, Rizwan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-15

    The availability and quality of emergency medical services in low- and middle-income countries, including Pakistan, are extremely limited. New models for prehospital emergency medical services provision have recently emerged across multiple sectors, and research on these models is urgently needed to inform current and future emergency medical services systems in low-resource settings. The objective of this case study was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public sector provider in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, Rescue 1122, with a focus on operations in Lahore. We used case study methodology to systematically describe the organizational model of Rescue 1122. Qualitative data were collected during an in-person site visit to Lahore in June 2013. Three sources were utilized-semi-structured in-depth interviews, document review, and nonparticipant observation. Data were analyzed according to the health system "building blocks" proposed by the World Health Organization. Rescue 1122 is based on a legal framework that provides public financing for EMS, resulting in financial stability for the service. The organization has also reportedly taken positive steps in engaging with communities, and in coordinating across EMS, fire and rescue. We noted benefits and challenges in scaling up the service to all districts in Punjab. Finally, some areas of improvement include supply chain management and expanded data utilization. Our case study highlights key components of the model, areas for strengthening, and opportunities for further research. Rescue 1122 provides an example of a government-financed and operated emergency medical system in a low-resource setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The role of regulation in influencing income-generating activities among public sector doctors in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jumpa, Manuel; Jan, Stephen; Mills, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine in Peru the nature of dual practice (doctors holding two jobs at once – usually public sector doctors with private practices), the factors that influence individuals' decisions to undertake dual practice, the conditions faced when doing so and the potential role of regulatory intervention in this area. Methods The study entailed qualitative interviews with a sample of twenty medical practitioners based in metropolitan Lima, representing a cross-section of those primarily employed in either the private or public sectors and engaged in clinical practice or policy making. The interviews focused on: 1. individuals' experience with dual practice; 2. the general underlying pressures that influence the nature and extent of such activities; and 3. attitudes toward, and the influence of, regulation on such activities. Results Dual practice is an activity that is widespread and well-accepted, and the prime personal motivation is financial. However, there are also a number of important broad macroeconomic influences on dual practice particularly the oversupply of medical services, the deregulated nature of this market, and the economic crisis throughout the country, which combine to create major hardships for those attempting to make a living through medical practice. There is some support among doctors for tighter regulation. Conclusion Research findings suggest appropriate policy responses to dual practice involve tighter controls on the supply of medical practitioners; alleviation of financial pressures brought by macro-economic conditions; and closer regulation of such activities to ensure some degree of collective action over quality and the maintenance of professional reputations. Further research into this issue in rural areas is needed to ascertain the geographical generalizability of these policy responses. PMID:17324290

  15. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  16. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

  17. Cost benefit for assessment of intermediate coronary stenosis with fractional flow reserve in public and private sectors in australia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J C; Hansen, P S; Bhindi, R; Figtree, G A; Nelson, G I C; Ward, M R

    2014-09-01

    Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is a proven technology for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but is not reimbursed despite the fact that it is frequently used to defer PCI. Costs incurred with use of FFR were compared in both the public and private sectors with the costs that would have been incurred if the technology was not available using consecutive cases over a two year period in a public teaching hospital and its co-located private hospital. FFR was performed on 143 lesions in 120 patients. FFR was < 0.80 in 37 lesions in 34 patients and 25 underwent PCI while 11 had CABG. It was estimated that without FFR 78 lesions in 70 patients would have had PCI with 17 patients having CABG with 35 additional functional tests. Despite a cost of $A1200 per wire, FFR actually saved money. Mean savings in the public sector were $1200 per patient while in the private sector the savings were $5000 per patient. FFR use saves money for the Federal Government in the public sector and for the Private Health Funds in the private sector. These financial benefits are seen in addition to the improved outcomes seen with this technology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-07-01

    The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for 't' and ANOVA. Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.

  19. The Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and the influence of the presenting context: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Julie; Wilson, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study seeks to quantify the Australian public's preferences for emergency care alternatives and determine if preferences differ depending on presenting circumstances. Setting Increasing presentations to emergency departments have led to overcrowding, long waiting times and suboptimal health system performance. Accordingly, new service models involving the provision of care in alternative settings and delivered by other practitioners continue to be developed. Participants A stratified sample of Australian adults (n=1838), 1382 from Queensland and 456 from South Australia, completed the survey. This included 951 females and 887 males from the 2045 people who met the screening criteria out of the 4354 people who accepted the survey invitation. Interventions A discrete choice experiment was used to elicit preferences in the context of one of four hypothetical scenarios: a possible concussion, a rash/asthma-related problem involving oneself or one's child and an anxiety-related presentation. Mixed logit regression was used to analyse the dependent variable choice and identify the relative importance of care attributes and the propensity to access care in each context. Results Results indicated a preference for treatment by an emergency physician in hospital for possible concussion and treatment by a doctor in ambulatory settings for rash/asthma-related and anxiety-related problems. Participants were consistently willing to wait longer before making trade-offs in the context of the rash/asthma-related scenario compared with when the same problem affected their child. Results suggest a clear preference for lower costs, shorter wait times and strong emphasis on quality care; however, significant preference heterogeneity was observed. Conclusions This study has increased awareness that the public's emergency care choices will differ depending on the presenting context. It has further demonstrated the importance of service quality as a determinant of

  20. The Australian general public's perceptions of having a personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Lynda; Gajanayake, Randike; Sahama, Tony

    2014-12-01

    The move internationally by Governments and other health providers to encourage patients to have their own electronic personal health record (e-PHRs) is growing exponentially. In Australia the initiative for a personally controlled electronic health record (known as PCEHR) is directed towards the public at large. The first objective of this study then, is to examine how individuals in the general population perceive the promoted idea of having a PCEHR. The second objective is to extend research on applying a theoretically derived consumer technology acceptance model to guide the research. An online survey was conducted to capture the perceptions and beliefs about having a PCEHR identified from technology acceptance models and extant literature. The survey was completed by 750 Queensland respondents, 97% of whom did not have a PCEHR at that time. The model was examined using exploratory factor analysis, regressions and mediation tests. Findings support eight of the 11 hypothesised relationships in the model. Perceived value and perceived risk were the two most important variables explaining attitude, with perceived usefulness and compatibility being weak but significant. The perception of risk was reduced through partial mediation from trust and privacy concerns. Additionally, web-self efficacy and ease of use partially mediate the relationship between attitude and intentions. The findings represent a snapshot of the early stages of implementing this Australian initiative and capture the perceptions of Queenslanders who at present do not have a PCEHR. Findings show that while individuals appreciate the value of having this record, they do not appear to regard it as particularly useful at present, nor is it particularly compatible with their current engagement with e-services. Moreover, they will need to have any concerns about the risks alleviated, particularly through an increased sense of trust and reduction of privacy concerns. It is noted that although the

  1. Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L; Barlow, Fiona; Coghlan, Beverly; Lee, Philippa; Lewith, George T

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had misconceptions about acupuncture in the

  2. Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had

  3. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries.

    PubMed

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-08-11

    Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013-2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. © White et al.

  4. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries

    PubMed Central

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013–2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  5. Conceptualizing the impacts of dual practice on the retention of public sector specialists - evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, John; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-01-19

    'Dual practice', or multiple job holding, generally involves public sector-based health workers taking additional work in the private sector. This form of the practice is purported to help retain public health care workers in low and middle-income countries' public sectors through additional wage incentives. There has been little conceptual or empirical development of the relationship between dual practice and retention. This article helps begin to fill this gap, drawing on empirical evidence from a qualitative study focusing on South African specialists. Fifty-one repeat, in-depth interviews were carried out with 28 doctors (predominantly specialists) with more than one job, in one public and one private urban hospital. Findings suggest dual practice can impact both positively and negatively on specialists' intention to stay in the public sector. This is through multiple conceptual channels including those previously identified in the literature such as dual practice acting as a 'stepping stone' to private practice by reducing migration costs. Dual practice can also lead specialists to re-evaluate how they compare public and private jobs, and to overworking which can expedite decisions on whether to stay in the public sector or leave. Numerous respondents undertook dual practice without official permission. The idea that dual practice helps retain public specialists in South Africa may be overstated. Yet banning the practice may be ineffective, given many undertake it without permission in any case. Regulation should be better enforced to ensure dual practice is not abused. The conceptual framework developed in this article could form a basis for further qualitative and quantitative inquiry.

  6. Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

  7. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  8. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    . Expansion in public health care in Kenya has resulted in significant increases in geographic access although several areas of the country need further improvements. This information is key to future planning and with this paper we have released the digital spatial database in the public domain to assist the Kenyan Government and its partners in the health sector. PMID:19267903

  9. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  10. Computer simulation model of ecological succession in Australian subtropical rainforest. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1407

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; Mortlock, A.T.; Hopkins, M.S.; Burgess, I.P.

    1980-04-01

    KIAMBRAM, a detailed simulation model for ecological succession in an Australian subtropical humid rainforest is documented in respect to model structure. Model parameters for 125 rainforest tree species are provided. A listing of the KIAMBRAM model and a sample of output from the model is included.

  11. Some Proposals for Change to the Role of the Catholic Sector in the Australian School Funding Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper is set against a history of school funding policies in Australia that begins with the first public policy recognition of the disadvantages experienced by government and non-government schools in the 1973 Schools in Australia (Karmel) Report. The paper traces a history of school funding policy linking it with the current backlash against…

  12. New forms of public-private partnership for sustainable development of the fuel and energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomova, E. O.; Goosen, E. V.; Nikitenko, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Public-private partnership (PPP) as a form of interaction between the public and private sectors contributes to the improvement of social and economic situation in the country. PPP is viewed in a broad context and is presented as a system of financial and non-financial relations between government and business. A number of legislative initiatives contributed to the emergence of a new form of PPP that is a special investment contract (SPIC). In the Russian regions there are legislative initiatives that provide differences in terms of contracting. In a number of regions a federal-specific volume of mandatory investment has been reduced to attract investors, while there are regions where this volume is higher than at the federal level. Monitoring of regional legislation showed that the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are striving to obtain guarantee obligations to create jobs and receive salaries above the average in the region. Measures to encourage investors have been determined, and the benefits to the government and business from the implementation of a SPIC have been shown.

  13. Job functions of Swedish public and private sector vocational rehabilitation workers.

    PubMed

    Millet, Patrick B; Vaittinen, Pauli

    2009-01-01

    This study has had two main aims, the first to investigate and gather knowledge of the major job functions of Swedish rehabilitation workers, the second to study the frequency of use of these functions in the VR process. Structured questionnaires were sent to Swedish rehabilitation workers from public and private sectors. To identify the major dimensions of Swedish rehabilitation workers' job in the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process, a principal component factor analysis was performed. Results revealed that there are four main factors (dimensions) that comprised the VR process in Sweden. The four factors (dimensions) are job development and career counselling; assessment and counselling interventions; workplace adjustment and employer consultation and client support, personnel development and public relations. The VR process in Sweden is limited in both its scope and depth. This when one compares with the results of studies carried out in the USA, who found seven and six dimensions, respectively. It is argued that it cannot be excluded that the negative trend of extensive sick leave and early pensions are attributable to the limitations in the VR process that have been found. Suggested is the urgent need to put resources in place that would support the further advancement of the knowledge and competencies of the VR services in Sweden.

  14. [Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector: global processes and national dynamics].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Celia

    2017-10-02

    This essay addresses several dimensions that promote and consolidate the growing participation by private stakeholders in the decision-making process in health, emphasizing international and domestic factors that have facilitated and sustained the persistence of the neoliberal political and ideological perspective over the course of nearly thirty years (since the 1990s). The article emphasizes the role of intergovernmental organizations in this process, highlighting public-private interactions at the global and domestic levels, with a specific focus on so-called public-private partnerships (PPPs). The working premise is that such linkages alter the power relations in policy formulation and implementation, with a predominance of private stakeholders. The article presents an overview of the development of PPPs in Europe, Latin America, and Brazil, identifying their specific origins and the simultaneity of triggering events. The text reiterates the importance of not overlooking the power of these actors in dislodging them from this political position, whether in multilateral organizations or national health systems. The aim is to emphasize the importance of more in-depth reflection on the subject, backing debates within the sector. This entire dynamic requires rethinking strategies of resistance to preserve the rights won through centuries of struggle.

  15. Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

    1999-07-01

    If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

  16. How cooks navigate nutrition, hunger and care in public-sector foodservice settings.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma K; Morillo, Arelis

    2016-04-01

    To examine the perspectives and practices of cooks responsible for carrying out healthy meal programmes in publicly funded foodservice, in order to better understand what they consider to be 'good' food and where nutrition and nutritional standards fit into this conceptualization. A qualitative, exploratory study involving in-depth interviews that were conducted with cooks and their supervisors about their work practices and perspectives on providing healthy food for clients. Participants were recruited from child-care, after-school, senior-centre and shelter settings that had participated in healthy menu training in New York City, USA. Eighteen cooks and nine supervisors working in the aforementioned settings. The views and practices of both cooks and supervisors about what constitutes 'good' food extend beyond a purely nutritional view of goodness to include the importance of addressing hunger and clients' food preferences, among other factors. Cooks address these by interacting with clients and altering recipes and menus in a range of ways to maximize the likelihood of food consumption and enjoyment. These approaches are often, but not always, compatible with setting-specific nutritional guidelines that may be set at the national, state, local or organizational level. Cooks play a key role in translating nutritional guidelines into what is served. In doing so, they engage in skilled labour and forms of care that increase the ability of public-sector foodservice to address food security and other goals, but these aspects of their work are not widely recognized.

  17. Public sector mental health systems in South Africa: inter-provincial comparisons and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; Kleintjes, Sharon; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Flisher, Alan J

    2010-03-01

    There is growing recognition that mental health is an important public health issue in South Africa. Yet mental health services remain chronically under-resourced. The aim of this study was to document levels of current public sector mental health service provision in South Africa and compare services across provinces, in relation to current national policy and legislation. A survey was conducted of public sector mental health service resources and utilisation in South Africa during the 2005 calendar year, using the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) Version 2.2. South African policy and legislation both advocate for community-based mental health service provision within a human rights framework. Structures are in place at national level and in all nine provinces to implement these provisions. However, there is wide variation between provinces in the level of mental health service resources and provision. Per 100,000 population, there are 2.8 beds (provincial range 0-7.0) in psychiatric inpatient units in general hospitals, 3.6 beds (0-6.4) in community residential facilities, 18 beds (7.1-39.1) in mental hospitals, and 3.5 beds (0-5.5) in forensic facilities. The total personnel working in mental health facilities are 11.95 per 100,000 population. Of these, 0.28 per 100,000 are psychiatrists, 0.45 other medical doctors (not specialised in psychiatry), 10.08 nurses, 0.32 psychologists, 0.40 social workers, 0.13 occupational therapists, and 0.28 other health or mental health workers. Although there have been important developments in South African mental health policy and legislation, there remains widespread inequality between provinces in the resources available for mental health care; a striking absence of reliable, routinely collected data that can be used to plan services and redress current inequalities; the continued dominance of mental hospitals as a mode of service provision; and evidence of substantial

  18. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and

  19. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  20. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  1. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.

  2. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

  3. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  4. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  5. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  6. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  7. Does the public sector outperform the nonprofit and for-profit sectors? Evidence from a national panel study on nursing home quality and access.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanyan, Anna A; Kim, Hyun Joon; Lambright, Kristina T

    2008-01-01

    Are public and private organizations fundamentally different? This question has been among the most enduring inquiries in public administration. Our study explores the impact of organizational ownership on two complementary aspects of performance: service quality and access to services for impoverished clients. Derived from public management research on performance determinants and nursing home care literature, our hypotheses stipulate that public, nonprofit, and for-profit nursing homes use different approaches to balance the strategic tradeoff between two aspects of performance. Panel data on 14,423 facilities were analyzed to compare measures of quality and access across three sectors using different estimation methods. Findings indicate that ownership status is associated with critical differences in both quality and access. Public and nonprofit organizations are similar in terms of quality, and both perform significantly better than their for-profit counterparts. When compared to nonprofit and, in some cases, for-profit facilities, public nursing homes have a significantly higher share of Medicaid recipients. The paper proposes strategies to address the identified long-term care divide.

  8. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014

  9. Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

    2010-01-01

    High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  11. Behavioral Criteria of Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Formal Mentoring Relationships within a Major UK Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study of mentor and mentee behaviors deemed critical for developing healthy mentoring relationships and effective mentoring during the "start up" and "on going" stages of a formal mentoring scheme within a major UK public sector organization. Several identified behavioral categories (criteria)…

  12. Geropsychology Post-Doctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery: The USF/Tampa VA Fellowship Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor; Chiriboga, David A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Haley, William E.; Schinka, John A.; Hyer, Kathy; Dupree, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care…

  13. Organisational Responses to Public Sector Reforms in Higher Education in Uganda: A Case Study of Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisaso, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses changes in university management structures and practices as a response to public sector reforms in Ugandan higher education using Makerere University as a case study. The study uses the organisational learning theory and a review of the higher education literature. Two adaptive responses in the management structures and…

  14. Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. Working Paper 66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

  15. Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. NBER Working Paper No. 17803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

  16. Rereporting of Child Maltreatment: Does Participation in Other Public Sector Services Moderate the Likelihood of a Second Maltreatment Report?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Sapokaite, Lina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study uses administrative data to track the first rereports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n = 4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court, and…

  17. Aerospace technology transfer to the public sector; Proceedings of the Conference, Crystal City, Va., November 9-11, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor); Newman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of aerospace technology transfer is discussed with reference to the agencies which facilitate the transfer to both the public and private sectors. Attention is given to NASA's Technology Utilization Program, and to specific applications of aerospace technology spinoff in the daily life of Americans.

  18. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  19. Geropsychology Post-Doctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery: The USF/Tampa VA Fellowship Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor; Chiriboga, David A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Haley, William E.; Schinka, John A.; Hyer, Kathy; Dupree, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care…

  20. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  2. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  3. Autochthonous Minority Languages in Public-Sector Primary Education: Bilingual Policies and Politics in Brittany and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vaughan; McLeod, Wilson

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between policy and politics in relation to the development of public-sector primary education through Breton and Gaelic, considering closely the patterns of power through which such provision is delivered. Brittany and Scotland present many similarities as culturally distinctive territories, contained within…

  4. Applying the Methodology of the Community College Classification Scheme to the Public Master's Colleges and Universities Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead, J. Clint.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    This work brings forward the geographically-based classification scheme for the public Master's Colleges and Universities sector. Using the same methodology developed by Katsinas and Hardy (2005) to classify community colleges, this work classifies Master's Colleges and Universities. This work has four major findings and conclusions. First, a…

  5. Aerospace technology transfer to the public sector; Proceedings of the Conference, Crystal City, Va., November 9-11, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor); Newman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of aerospace technology transfer is discussed with reference to the agencies which facilitate the transfer to both the public and private sectors. Attention is given to NASA's Technology Utilization Program, and to specific applications of aerospace technology spinoff in the daily life of Americans.

  6. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  7. Rereporting of Child Maltreatment: Does Participation in Other Public Sector Services Moderate the Likelihood of a Second Maltreatment Report?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Sapokaite, Lina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study uses administrative data to track the first rereports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n = 4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court, and…

  8. Public awareness and misunderstanding about DrinkWise Australia: a cross-sectional survey of Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Wakefield, Melanie A; Durkin, Sarah J; Jernigan, David H; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone

    2017-08-01

    DrinkWise Australia is an alcohol industry Social Aspects/Public Relations Organisation (SAPRO). We assessed the Australian public's awareness of DrinkWise, beliefs about its funding source, and associations between funding beliefs and perceptions of DrinkWise. A total of 467 adult weekly drinkers completed an online cross-sectional survey in February 2016. Half the sample had heard of DrinkWise (48.6%); of these, the proportion aware that DrinkWise is industry funded (37.0%) was much smaller than the proportion believing it receives government funding (84.1%). Respondents who incorrectly believed DrinkWise receives government funding were more likely to hold a favourable perception of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness and respectability than those who did not believe it receives government funding (75.9% vs. 58.3%; p=0.032). The drinking population is vulnerable to believing that alcohol industry public relations organisations such as DrinkWise are government funded, which in turn is associated with more favourable perceptions of the organisation's credibility, trustworthiness, and respectability. Implications for public health: Favourable perceptions of DrinkWise may enhance the industry's ability to delay or dilute potentially effective alcohol control policies. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about DrinkWise's alcohol industry funding alters the public's perception of how credible, trustworthy and respectable the organisation is. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Contrasting Reasons for Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Workplace and Public-Sector HIV Programs in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, Karina; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan S.; Hamilton, Robin; La Grange, Lettie; Fielding, Katherine L.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated reasons for clinical follow-up and treatment discontinuation among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a public-sector clinic and in a workplace clinic in South Africa. Participants in a larger cohort study who had discontinued clinical care by the seventh month of treatment were traced using previously provided locator information. Those located were administered a semistructured questionnaire regarding reasons for discontinuing clinical follow-up. Participants who had discontinued antiretroviral therapy were invited to participate in further in-depth qualitative interviews. Fifty-one of 144 (35.4%) in the workplace cohort had discontinued clinical follow-up by the seventh month of treatment. The median age of those who discontinued follow-up was 46 years and median educational level was five years. By contrast, only 16.5% (44/267) of the public-sector cohort had discontinued follow-up. Among them the median age was 37.5 years and median education was 11 years. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 workplace participants and 10 public-sector participants. The main reasons for attrition in the workplace were uncertainty about own HIV status and above the value of ART, poor patient–provider relationships and workplace discrimination. In the public sector, these were moving away and having no money for clinic transport. In the workplace, efforts to minimize the time between testing and treatment initiation should be balanced with the need to provide adequate baseline counseling taking into account existing concepts about HIV and ART. In the public sector, earlier diagnosis and ART initiation may help to reduce early mortality, while links to government grants may reduce attrition. PMID:21214378

  10. Factors influencing the retention of midwives in the public sector in Afghanistan: a qualitative assessment of midwives in eight provinces.

    PubMed

    Wood, Molly E; Mansoor, G Farooq; Hashemy, Pashton; Namey, Emily; Gohar, Fatima; Ayoubi, Saadia Fayeq; Todd, Catherine S

    2013-10-01

    to examine factors that affect retention of public sector midwives throughout their career in Afghanistan. qualitative assessment using semi-structured in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs). health clinics in eight provinces in Afghanistan, midwifery education schools in three provinces, and stakeholder organisations in Kabul. purposively sampled midwifery profession stakeholders in Kabul (n=14 IDIs); purposively selected community midwifery students in Kabul (n=3 FGDs), Parwan (n=1 FGD) and Wardak (n=1 FGD) provinces (six participants per FGD); public sector midwives, health facility managers, and community health workers from randomly selected clinics in eight provinces (n=48 IDIs); midwives who had left the public sector midwifery service (n=5 IDIs). several factors affect a midwife throughout her career in the public sector, including her selection as a trainee, the training itself, deployment to her pre-assigned post, and working in clinics. Overall, appropriate selection is the key to ensuring deployment and retention later on in a midwife's career. Other factors that affect retention of midwives include civil security concerns in rural areas, support of family and community, salary levels, professional development opportunities and workplace support, and inefficient human resources planning in the public sector. Factors affecting midwife retention are linked to problems within the community midwifery education (CME) programme and those reflecting the wider Afghan context. Civil insecurity and traditional attitudes towards women were major factors identified that negatively affect midwifery retention. Factors such as civil insecurity and traditional attitudes towards women require a multisectoral response and innovative strategies to reduce their impact. However, factors inherent to midwife career development also impact retention and may be more readily modified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100 000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

  12. Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

    A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

  13. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in <25 years (Central Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  14. From Reproductive Rights to Responsibilization: Fashioning Liberal Subjects in Mexico City's New Public Sector Abortion Program.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse Ona

    2016-07-06

    Building on medical anthropology literature that analyzes doctor-patient interactions as a charged site for the production of political subjectivities, I demonstrate how a central feature of Mexico City's new public sector abortion program involves "responsibilization." In accordance with entrenched Ministry of Health objectives, providers transmit a suite of values about personal responsibility and self-regulation through the use of birth control, hinging abortion rights to responsible reproductive subjectivity. Based on 18 months of ethnographic research across program clinics, including 75 interviews with patients and providers, I show how interrupción legal del embarazo protocols fashion "responsibilized" liberal subjects. I argue that the recent granting of abortion rights in Mexico City-ostensibly a new moment for the construction of women's citizenship-instead reflects and extends long-standing state agendas of "reproductive governance." My analysis of reproductive rights as the newest framing of ongoing population policies in Mexico adds to a critical anthropology of human rights and of liberal projects of governance. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  15. Focus groups among public, military, and private sector mothers: insights to improve the immunization process.

    PubMed

    Houseman, C; Butterfoss, F D; Morrow, A L; Rosenthal, J

    1997-08-01

    The underimmunization of children younger than 2 years old is a major health problem in U.S. cities. Innovative methods to increase immunization rates are being researched and implemented. In 1993, six focus groups were conducted with 41 mothers (25 African Americans and 16 Caucasians) to discuss their views regarding immunizations and the services they received from health care providers in the public health (n = 27), military (n = 4), and private (n = 10) sectors. Participants viewed immunizations positively, but perceived many barriers to immunization. They suggested the following ways to improve the immunization process: enhancing knowledge acquisition, improving reminder and appointment systems, providing transportation and child care, decreasing waiting times, improving the clinic environment, and making the immunizations less traumatic. According to mothers in this study, obtaining an immunization on time is a complex task that requires planning and resources. The fewer resources that are available to mothers, the more difficult it is to succeeded. Health care providers must help mothers identify and remove barriers if immunization rates are to be increased.

  16. Absorptive capacity as a guiding concept for effective public sector management and conservation of freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Murray, K; Roux, D J; Nel, J L; Driver, A; Freimund, W

    2011-05-01

    The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general 'bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of 'knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed.

  17. Health factors in the everyday life and work of public sector employees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Carlsson, Gunilla; Horstmann, Vibeke; Gard, Gunvor; Holmström, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore aspects of everyday life in addition to established risk factors and their relationship to subjective health and well-being among public sector employees in Sweden. Gainful employment impact on employees' health and well-being, but work is only one part of everyday life and a broader perspective is essential in order to identify health-related factors. Data were obtained from employees at six Social Insurance Offices in Sweden, 250 women and 50 men. A questionnaire based on established instruments and questions specifically designed for this study was used. Relationships between five factors of everyday life, subjective health and well-being were investigated by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. The final model revealed a limited importance of certain work-related factors. A general satisfaction with everyday activities, a stress-free environment and general control in addition to not having monotonous movements at work were found to be factors explaining 46.3% of subjective good health and well-being. A person's entire activity pattern, including work, is important, and strategies for promoting health should take into account the person's situation as a whole. The interplay between risk and health factors is not clear and further research is warranted.

  18. Medicines management in the Philippine public sector during the response to Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Yolanda; Loquias, Monet; Capule, Francis; Guerrero, Anna Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health service delivery in the Philippines is constantly challenged by disasters and emergencies. This descriptive study documented existing policies for medicines management in the Philippines and then assessed these in the public sector response post-Haiyan. Method We used desk a review of existing laws, regulations and related issuances and a series of interviews of key informants from various national and local health agencies. Results We found that while numerous national policies covered critical aspects of medicines management, implementation post-Haiyan was problematic at all levels of the decentralized health-care system. We identified issues of quantification, warehousing, distribution, utilization monitoring and disposal. Donated medicines also added additional burden for storage and disposal, especially for expired and unwanted medicines. Discussion While the process of managing medicines during disasters did not differ greatly from non-emergency situations, the Haiyan experience highlighted the system’s weaknesses. With the current gaps in implementation, as well as the logistical obstacles brought about by disasters, there is a need to have integrated mechanisms for medicines management in the Philippines. This assessment provided an important opportunity to review the medicines management policies at national and local levels. PMID:26767142

  19. Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

    2003-07-01

    The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed.

  20. Inter-organizational collaboration projects in the public sector: a balance between integration and demarcation.

    PubMed

    Löfström, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the development of the Swedish public sector has been accompanied by a discussion about inter-organizational collaboration, which has been examined in several national experiments. The experience, however, indicates significant difficulties in implementing collaboration in local authorities' regular activities. This article argues that organizing inter-organizational collaboration in projects tends to be counterproductive, since the purpose of this collaboration is to increase the integration of local authorities. This article is based on case studies of three different collaboration projects. Each project is analyzed in relation to the way collaboration is organized within the project and how the relationship to the local authorities' activities is designed. The outcome of these studies shows that while collaboration projects increase integration between the responsible authorities, the integration stays within the projects. This is due to the fact that the projects were designed as units separate from the responsible authorities. As a result, the collaboration that occurs in the projects is not implemented in the local authorities' activities, and the viability of the increased integration of different responsible authorities does not extend beyond the projects. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Frequency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis in a public sector hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. Methods: This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Results: Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Conclusion: Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse. PMID:27022369

  2. Frequency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis in a public sector hospital.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse.

  3. Low workplace social capital as a predictor of depression: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Stafford, Mai; Wilkinson, Richard; Schneider, Justine; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Cox, Sara J; Pentti, Jaana; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-05-15

    In a prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000-2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of antidepressants until December 31, 2005, and self-reports of new-onset depression diagnosed by a physician in the follow-up survey in 2004-2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether self-reported and aggregate-level workplace social capital predicted indicators of depression at follow-up. The odds for antidepressant treatment and physician-diagnosed depression were 20-50% higher for employees with low self-reported social capital than for those reporting high social capital. These associations were not accounted for by sex, age, marital status, socioeconomic position, place of work, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body mass index. The association between social capital and self-reported depression attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for baseline psychological distress (a proxy for undiagnosed mental health problems). Aggregate-level social capital was not associated with subsequent depression.

  4. Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert; Donnelly, John J

    2013-01-01

    In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

  5. Absorptive Capacity as a Guiding Concept for Effective Public Sector Management and Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K.; Roux, D. J.; Nel, J. L.; Driver, A.; Freimund, W.

    2011-05-01

    The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general `bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of `knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed.

  6. Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre

  7. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1997-01-01

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayer dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs.

  8. Fulfilling the Compact: Building a Breakthrough, Results-Driven Public Charter School Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ableidinger, Joe; Steiner, Lucy; Spong, Angie; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the Task Force on Charter School Quality and Accountability issued "Renewing the Compact," a position statement for the charter school sector that presented recommendations for achieving the goals of growth and quality. This report evaluates the sector's progress on those goals and recommends bold actions to capitalize on its…

  9. The quality of outpatient primary care in public and private sectors in Sri Lanka--how well do patient perceptions match reality and what are the implications?

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isuru K; Jayanthan, Janaki; Dalpatadu, Shanti; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Anuranga, Chamara

    2015-03-01

    To compare the quality of clinical care and patient satisfaction in public and private outpatient primary care services in Sri Lanka. A prospective, cross-sectional comparison was done by direct observation of patient encounters and exit interviews of outpatients in 10 public hospital general outpatient clinics and 66 private practitioner clinics in three districts of Sri Lanka. A total of 1027 public sector patients and 944 private sector patients were surveyed. Data were collected for 39 quality indicators covering diarrhoea, cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and five other conditions, along with prescribing indicators. The exit interviews collected data for 10 patient satisfaction indicators. The public sector performed better for some conditions (diarrhoea, cough and asthma) and the private sector performed better for others (hypertension, diabetes, URTI and tonsillitis). Overall quality was similar between the sectors in the domains of history taking, examination and investigations and management, but the private sector performed much better on patient education (57 vs 12%). Overall patient satisfaction was high in both sectors (98%), although the private sector performed much better in interpersonal satisfaction (94 vs 84%) and system-related indicators (95 vs 84%). Comparisons with studies from other countries suggest that both sectors perform considerably better than India, and similarly in many indicators to high-income countries. Quality of outpatient primary care in Sri Lanka is generally high for a lower-middle income developing country. The public and private sectors perform similarly, except that private sector patients have longer consultations, are more likely to receive education and advice, and obtain better interpersonal satisfaction. The public system, with its limited funding, is able to deliver care in diagnosis and management that is similar to the private sector, while private sector patients

  10. Physician distribution and attrition in the public health sector of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard; Enbiale, Wendimagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physician workforce in Ethiopia and assess the role of retention mechanisms in the reduction of physician migration from the public health sector of Ethiopia. Methods This organizational survey examined physician workforce data from 119 hospitals from 5 regions (Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region [SNNPR], Tigray, and Harari) and 2 city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa City). Training opportunity, distribution, and turnover between September 2009 and July 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Poisson regression model was used to find the association of different covariates with physician turnover. Results There were 2,300 medical doctors in 5 regions and 2 city administrations in ~6 years of observations. Of these, 553 (24.04%) medical doctors moved out of their duty stations and the remaining 1,747 (75.96%) were working actively. Of the actively working, the majority of the medical doctors, 1,407 (80.5%), were males, in which 889 (50.9%) were born after the year 1985, 997 (57%) had work experience of <3 years, and most, 1,471 (84.2%), were general practitioners. Within the observation period, physician turnover among specialists ranged from 21.4% in Dire Dawa to 43.3% in Amhara region. The capital, Addis Ababa, was the place of destination for 32 (82%) of the physicians who moved out to other regions from elsewhere in the country. The Poisson regression model revealed a decreased incidence of turnover among physicians born between the years 1975 and 1985 (incident rate ratio [IRR]: 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.79) and among those who were born

  11. Bed/population ratios in South African public sector mental health services.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J; Porteus, Kim; Lee, Tennyson

    2002-07-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa, mental health service planners face critical decisions regarding appropriate and affordable inpatient care. Before a fashion of deinstitutionalisation is followed blindly in South Africa, effective community services should be in place and sufficient psychiatric beds should remain in hospitals for those who cannot be catered for in the community. In order to maintain the delicate balance between hospital and community-based services, it is essential that useful indicators of inpatient care are established. This study documents current bed/population ratios per 100 000 population in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting psychiatric bed numbers in acute and medium-long stay facilities across all service levels. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the nine provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. For acute facilities, the mean bed/population ratio was 13 (provincial range: 6-18) per 100 000 population. For medium-long stay facilities, it was 16 (provincial range: 0-29) excluding contracted facilities, and 35 (provincial range: 0-83) including contracted facilities per 100 000 population. There were low levels of inpatient service provision in South Africa, and there was considerable variability between provinces. This study gives further support to the need to develop acute inpatient psychiatric services, reduce levels of chronic care where appropriate, and redirect resources towards the development of community-level residential and day-care services. It is crucial to develop accurate indicators to monitor this process.

  12. Effect of continued professional development on clinical performance in a public sector health care setting.

    PubMed

    Azam, Naila; Hassan, Uzma; Farooq, Ayesha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intervention by education of doctors in improving the referral rate and quality in a public-sector healthcare setting. The quasi-experimental study was conducted from March to September 2012 at PNS Rahat Hospital in naval sailors' residential estate, Karsaz, Karachi. Two awareness sessions were held three months apart by a gynaecologist and a paediatrician. The sessions were aimed at communicating the consultant practice to female general practitioners employed at the two family welfare centres. Pre- and post-intervention data was collected manually from the record registers at the two centers as well as gynaecology and paediatrics outpatient clinics. The study comprised 10 female GPs. In paediatric clinic, there was 47% (118 post intervention/ 187 pre intervention) reduction in referrals for acute gastroenteritis and fever of unknown origin (32 post intervention/75 pre intervention). In gynaecology, 30% (50 post intervention/61 pre intervention) reduction was seen in referrals for severe anaemia in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, and an increase in referrals (35 post intervention/19 pre intervention) for high-risk cases indicating better counselling and case identification. Improved standard of counselling was also reflected by 31% reduced referrals (40 post intervention/ 58 pre intervention) for hyper-emesis gravidarum during the first trimester. The difference in referrals was not statistically significant (p>0.05) for paediatrics, but it was highly significant (p<0.001) for gynaecology. Healthcare system can function optimally with focus on referral standards and by improving the communication between the primary care physicians and consultants.

  13. A Review and Critique of Teledermatology in the South African Public Health Sector.

    PubMed

    Walters, Laticha E M; Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80% of the world's population live in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Many of these countries must face a triple or quadruple burden of disease with severely limited resources and health systems. South Africa (SA) is one such country, and recognises the potential for e-health to moderate these limitations. Dermatological issues remain a concern in SA and globally. Indeed, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that a number of diseases are most likely to manifest themselves through a dermatological problem before becoming full-blown. However, there is an acute shortage of dermatologists in SA. Teledermatology has promise as a service delivery intervention. This study reports on the current status of teledermatology services in the public health sector of SA. The study adopted a qualitative, inductive research approach based on a structured literature review of teledermatology in SA. A modified Momentum-Treat tool was used to critique identified teledermatology services. 159 resources were identified, of which 68 were excluded. The remaining 91 resources revealed a history of ad hoc teledermatology services, of which few remained active. Requests for teledermatology service confirmations provided some feedback, together with follow-up meetings and interviews. No evidence of scaling of teledermatology services and integration into routine healthcare was found. Of eight services, 4 remain active. Review and modified Momentum-Treat critique showed opportunities for improved readiness assessment, programme governance, and alignment to government policy direction, in order to improve scaling and sustainability. Full-scale teledermatology integration is possible, but stronger programme development is needed. Findings will inform development of a teledermatology scale-up framework to assist with future integration of teledermatology into routine healthcare.

  14. [Use of data display screens and ocular hypertension in local public sector workers].

    PubMed

    Abellán Torró, Rosana; Merelles Tormo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the association between work with data display screens (DDS) and ocular hypertension (OHT). A cross-sectional study among local public sector workers (Diputación Provincial de Valencia). Data from 620 people were collected over 25 months, from periodic medical examinations performed at an occupational health unit. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was obtained with a portable puff tonometer validated for screening, establishing the cut-off point for OHT at 22 mmHg. Both biological characteristics and other work-related variables were taken into account as covariates. Descriptive statistics of the data were obtained, together with nonparametric tests with a level of significance of 95% and logistic regression with p 〈0.1 as the level of significance of the likelihood test. The average age of the study population is 52.8 years. The prevalence of OHT was 3.5% (5.1% among men and 1.2% among women; p=0.012). No significant associations were found between hours of DDS-related work and OHT were found (p=0.395). Logistic regression corroborated the association between gender and OHT, with women less affected (OR = 0.234; 95%CI: 0.068 - 0.799; p=0.020). In our study, no associations were found between time of exposure to data display screens and ocular hypertension. Logistic regression points to a certain association between ocular hypertension and gender, with men being more predisposed. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  15. Outcome of primary percutaneous coronary intervention at public sector tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Khan, Naveed Ullah; Rizvi, Syed Nadeem Hasan; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-06-01

    To determine the outcome of Primary Precutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in our setup and compare the results with the west. This study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching Hospital (National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases Karachi, Pakistan) during January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2008. A total of 113 patients were enrolled who came with STEMI and agreed to go for Primary PCI. We excluded the patients who had history of Thrombolytic therapy within 24 hours, presented with Non ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and coronary angiogram revealed significant left Main or equivalent disease. All Patients received Aspirin, Clopidogrel and Platelet Glycoprotein IIB IIIA Inhibitor. After Primary PCI patients were planned to follow at one month, 3 months and 6 months. Primary end point was to document death, MI, CABG and rehospitalization. Out of 113 cases, 102 (90.3%) were male and 11 (9.7%) were female, Mean age was 51.2 +/- 11.7 years, 54 (47.8%) patients had Hypertension, 28 (24.8%) were Diabetics and 44 (38.9%) were Smokers. Immediate success was achieved in 111 (98.2%) cases. In hospital mortality was 5.3% (3.5% in cardiogenic shock, 1.7% in non-shock patients). Mean Door to Balloon time remained 98.4 minutes. Twelve patients were lost to follow up. Therefore at 6 months, out of 101 patients, 8 (7.9%) died, 5 (4.9%) underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery and 5 (4.9 %) had been re-hospitalized either for recurrent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Optimal results of primary percutaneous coronary intervention can be achieved for acute STEMI in a developing country at a tertiary care public sector hospital. The results are comparable and nearly similar to the west.

  16. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative.

    PubMed

    Willis, C D; Greene, J K; Abramowicz, A; Riley, B L

    2016-06-01

    The Public Health Agency of Canada's Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP's partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP's multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external organizations interested in capturing and sharing new

  17. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Willis, C. D.; Greene, J. K.; Abramowicz, A.; Riley, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP’s partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. Methods: The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP’s multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data-collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. Conclusion: While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external

  18. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision

  19. Australian Public Relations: Status at the Turn of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raveena; Smyth, Rosaleen

    2000-01-01

    Notes how over the last two decades the Public Relations Institute of Australia together with its strategic alliances have made many changes, structurally, strategically, and academically towards the professional growth of public relations. Discusses the views of the Public Relations Institute of Australia and offers a snapshot of two surveys on…

  20. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. Methods The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. Results 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. Conclusion It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success. PMID:26682047

  1. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, N; Harries, J; Constant, D; Morroni, C; Pleaner, M; Fetters, T; Grossman, D; Blanchard, K; Sinanovic, E

    2017-08-03

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  2. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Dandona, Lalit; Sisodia, Pratap; Prasad, TLN; Marseille, Elliot; Chalapathi Rao, M; Kumar, A Anod; Kumar, SG Prem; Ramesh, YK; Over, Mead; Someshwar, M; Kahn, James G

    2005-01-01

    , which could increase the total STI cases treated at the 14 clinics combined by 38% at an additional cost of only 3.5% for service provision. Conclusion There is un-utilised capacity in the public sector STI clinics in this Indian state. Efforts to facilitate utilisation of this capacity would be useful, as this would enable more poor patients with STIs to be served at minimal additional cost, and would also reduce the cost per STI treated leading to more efficient use of public resources. PMID:16271151

  3. Obesity and Occupational Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study of 69,515 Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; De Vogli, Roberto; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and overweight are suggested to increase the risk of occupational injury but longitudinal evidence to confirm this is rare. We sought to evaluate obesity and overweight as risk factors for occupational injuries. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 69,515 public sector employees (80% women) responded to a survey in 2000–2002, 2004 or 2008. Body mass index (kg/m2) was derived from self-reported height and weight and was linked to records of subsequent occupational injuries obtained from national registers. Different injury types, locations and events or exposures (the manner in which the injury was produced or inflicted) were analyzed by body mass index category adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, work characteristics, health-risk behaviors, physical and mental health, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration. During the mean follow-up of 7.8 years (SD = 3.2), 18% of the employees (N = 12,204) recorded at least one occupational injury. Obesity was associated with a higher overall risk of occupational injury; multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.21 (95% CI 1.14–1.27). A relationship was observed for bone fractures (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10–1.70), dislocations, sprains and strains (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25–1.49), concussions and internal injuries (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11–1.44), injuries to lower extremities (HR = 1.62; 95%: 1.46–1.79) and injuries to whole body or multiple sites (HR = 1.37; 95%: 1.10–1.70). Furthermore, obesity was associated with a higher risk of injuries caused by slipping, tripping, stumbling and falling (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40–1.73), sudden body movement with or without physical stress (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10–1.41) and shock, fright, violence, aggression, threat or unexpected presence (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03–1.72). The magnitude of the associations between overweight and injuries was smaller, but the associations were generally in the same

  4. Comparative performance of public and private sector delivery of BCG vaccination: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Zachary; Szilagyi, Peter G; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-07-31

    The private sector is an important source of health care in the developing world. However, there is limited evidence on how private providers compare to public providers, particularly for preventive services such as immunizations. We used data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess public-private differences in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivery. We used demographic and health surveys from 102,629 children aged 0-59 months from 29 countries across SSA to measure differences in BCG status for children born at private versus public health facilities (BCG is recommended at birth). We used a probit model to estimate public-private differences in BCG delivery, while controlling for key confounders. Next, we estimated how differences in BCG status evolved over time for children born at private versus public facilities. Finally, we estimated heterogeneity in public-private differences based on wealth and rural-urban residency. We found that children born at a private facility were 7.1 percentage points less likely to receive BCG vaccine in the same month as birth than children born at a public facility (95% CI 6.3-8.0; p<0.001). Most of this difference was driven by for-profit private providers (as opposed to NGOs) where the BCG provision rate was 10.0 percentage points less than public providers (95% CI 9.0-11.2; p<0.001) compared to only 2.4 percentage points for NGOs (95% CI 1.0-3. 8; p<0.01). Moreover, children born at private for-profit facilities remained less likely to be vaccinated up to 59 months after birth. Finally, public-private differences were more pronounced for poorer children and children in rural areas. The for-profit private sector performed substantially worse than the public sector in providing BCG vaccine to newborns, resulting in a longer duration of vulnerability to tuberculosis. This disparity was greater for poorer children and children in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-room usage patterns and allocation decision-making in an Australian public hospital: a sequential exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Lee, Susan F; Lewis, David P; Biro, Mary Anne; Moss, Cheryle

    2016-08-01

    The aims are to (1) measure occupancy rates of single and shared rooms; (2) compare single room usage patterns and (3) explore the practice, rationale and decision-making processes associated with single rooms; across one Australian public health service. There is a tendency in Australia and internationally to increase the proportion of single patient rooms in hospitals. To date there have been no Australian studies that investigate the use of single rooms in clinical practice. This study used a sequential exploratory design with data collected in 2014. A descriptive survey was used to measure the use of single rooms across a two-week time frame. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with occupancy decision-makers to explore the practices, rationale decision-making process associated with single-room allocation. Total bed occupancy did not fall below 99·4% during the period of data collection. Infection control was the primary reason for patients to be allocated to a single room, however, the patterns varied according to ward type and single-room availability. For occupancy decision-makers, decisions about patient allocation was a complex and challenging process, influenced and complicated by numerous factors including occupancy rates, the infection status of the patient/s, funding and patient/family preference. Bed moves were common resulting from frequent re-evaluation of need. Apart from infection control mandates, there was little tangible evidence to guide decision-making about single-room allocation. Further work is necessary to assist nurses in their decision-making. There is a trend towards increasing the proportion of single rooms in new hospital builds. Coupled with the competing clinical demands for single room care, this study highlights the complexity of nursing decision-making about patient allocation to single rooms, an issue urgently requiring further attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.

  7. Referral of tuberculosis symptomatic clients from private pharmacies to public sector clinics for diagnosis and treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carolyn A; Ilomäki, Jenni; Pichenda, Koeut; Duncan, Gregory J; Saini, Bandana

    2015-04-01

    Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). People often first seek treatment for cough and other TB symptoms through private pharmacies. The National Tuberculosis Programme trained willing private sector pharmacies to refer TB symptomatic clients to their closest public sector clinic for diagnosis and treatment. The study objective was to investigate factors associated with referral of TB symptomatic clients from pharmacies to public sector clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with staff from a stratified random sample of 180 private pharmacies in Phnom Penh in 2012. Trained interviewers were Khmer speakers. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with self-reported referral during the previous 3 months. Fifty (29.6%) pharmacies reported that they had referred 125 clients (range 1-10) to public sector clinics during the previous 3 months. In total, 164 (96.5%) pharmacies reported that they always referred all TB symptomatic clients to DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) clinics. More than 6-year participation in the programme (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.93-14.18) and willingness to always continue referring (OR 12.24, 95% CI 11.61-93.10) were associated with referral of one or more clients in the previous 3 months. Referral to the client's closest clinic was negatively associated with referral (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.99). Pharmacies' ongoing commitment to the Referral Programme was strongly associated with referral. Increased advocacy among the high number of non-referring pharmacies may improve programme performance. Factors negatively associated with referral may need investigation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An Investigation on Allocative Efficiency and Implications of New Funding Plans for the Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan; Rahman, Mohammand Mafizur

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Australian Federal Government introduced the Gonski reforms and fee deregulation measures to reform the prevailing financing provisions for education sectors in Australia. The central proposition of the proposed new measures was to reduce the funding of public universities by the Federal Government. One likely consequence of…

  9. The Use of Supporting Documentation for Information Architecture by Australian Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip; Burford, Sally; Ferguson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of an online survey that examined the development of information architecture of Australian library Web sites with reference to documented methods and guidelines. A broad sample of library Web managers responded from across the academic, public, and special sectors. A majority of libraries used either in-house or…

  10. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  11. An Investigation on Allocative Efficiency and Implications of New Funding Plans for the Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan; Rahman, Mohammand Mafizur

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Australian Federal Government introduced the Gonski reforms and fee deregulation measures to reform the prevailing financing provisions for education sectors in Australia. The central proposition of the proposed new measures was to reduce the funding of public universities by the Federal Government. One likely consequence of…

  12. The Use of Supporting Documentation for Information Architecture by Australian Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip; Burford, Sally; Ferguson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of an online survey that examined the development of information architecture of Australian library Web sites with reference to documented methods and guidelines. A broad sample of library Web managers responded from across the academic, public, and special sectors. A majority of libraries used either in-house or…

  13. Use of Clinical Anatomy Resources by Musculoskeletal Outpatient Physiotherapists in Australian Public Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tilman M.; Cornwall, Jon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate how musculoskeletal outpatient physiotherapists in public hospitals interact with and perceive clinical anatomy resources in the workplace. Method: This cross-sectional study used a postal survey sent to musculoskeletal outpatient physiotherapists in 64 Australian public hospitals. Survey questions examined demographics, qualifications, experience, types of resources used, whether resources meet requirements, and what improvements could be made to current resources. Results: A total of 193 physiotherapists responded (75% response rate; 60% female), of whom 49% were age 35 years or younger; 67% had only an undergraduate qualification, and 37% had practised for 5 years or less. More experienced physiotherapists used resources significantly less frequently ([odds ratio]=1.35; 95% CI, 1.17–1.57), and we found no significant associations between preference for online versus printed resources and age, sex, qualifications, or experience. Trends included less experienced physiotherapists identifying the absence of online access as a barrier to resource use and provision of improved online facilities as necessary to improve access to clinical anatomy resources. Conclusion: Results indicate distinct trends in physiotherapists' use of clinical anatomy resources, including a desire for improved online resource access on the part of less experienced physiotherapists. The findings are relevant to hospital outpatient clinics, particularly those that employ less experienced physiotherapists. PMID:26839457

  14. The role of job satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and demographic factors on physicians' intentions to switch work sector from public to private.

    PubMed

    Kankaanranta, Terhi; Nummi, Tapio; Vainiomäki, Jari; Halila, Hannu; Hyppölä, Harri; Isokoski, Mauri; Kujala, Santero; Kumpusalo, Esko; Mattila, Kari; Virjo, Irma; Vänskä, Jukka; Rissanen, Pekka

    2007-09-01

    This study is based on a unique data set for the years 1988-2003 and uses structural equation models to examine the impact of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on physicians' intention to switch from public- to private-sector work. In Finland, physicians who work primarily in a public-hospital or health-centre setting can also run a private practice. Therefore, we also analysed the impact of having a private practice on a physician's intention to change sector. We found that private practice had a positive, statistically significant effect on the intention to switch sector in 1998 and 2003. Results also suggest that job satisfaction decreases a physician's intention to switch sector, although for 1998 it had no effect. Surprisingly, job dissatisfaction significantly increased the physicians' intentions to leave the public sector only in the 1988 data.

  15. Slow to share: social capital and its role in public HIV disclosure among public sector ART patients in the Free State province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, E; Meulemans, H; van Rensburg, H C J

    2009-04-01

    HIV serostatus disclosure to community members has been shown to have potential public and personal health benefits. This study examined the impact of bonding and bridging social capital (i.e. close and distant ties) on public disclosure and described the complex relationship between bonding and bridging social capital in the context of serostatus disclosure among AIDS patients enrolled in South Africa's public sector antiretroviral treatment (ART) program. Data were collected from a cohort of patients enrolled in the public sector ART program in the Free State province of South Africa. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a random sample of 268 patients at three points in time (<6 months of ART, 6-12 months of ART, and 18-24 of months ART). The relationship between bonding and bridging social capital and the impact of different forms of social capital on public disclosure were determined using a fully cross-lagged regression model. The impact of bonding social capital (treatment and emotional buddy) on public disclosure was positive and invariant across time. The results from the cross-lagged regression indicated that bridging social capital (community health worker and support group) only encouraged public disclosure in the second year of treatment. At the start of treatment, bivariate analysis showed a strong negative association between bonding and bridging social capital, which diminished at follow-up and eventually disappeared in the second year of treatment. This study identified bonding social capital as a leverage to maximize potential benefits and minimize potential risks in order to shift the balance toward consistent public disclosure. Furthermore, the importance of bridging social capital initiatives is demonstrated, especially for the most vulnerable patients, those who cannot capitalize their bonding social capital by disclosing their HIV serostatus to family and friends at the start of treatment.

  16. Economic impact of the 2009-2010 Guam mumps outbreak on the public health sector and affected families.

    PubMed

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Fiebelkorn, A Parker; Nelson, George; Aguon, Annette; McKenna, John; Villarruel, Gissela; Gallagher, Kathleen; Ortega-Sánchez, Ismael R

    2012-10-05

    The United States Territory of Guam reported a large mumps outbreak of 505 cases during 2009-2010. We assessed the economic impact of the outbreak from the perspectives of the local public health sector and affected families. Using standard cost analysis methods, we retrospectively identified all public health personnel involved in the outbreak response and surveyed them about their outbreak-related activities. We then estimated the costs of outbreak-related personnel hours and materials. We also assessed out-of-pocket costs and costs incurred for work-time missed for persons with mumps and their families. We defined the analysis period as February 25-October 22, 2010. Seventy-six public health personnel were involved in outbreak response activities. Overall, the response required approximately 8264 person-hours, 2380 miles driven, and 3000 doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine ordered. The cost to the public health sector was 256,785 U.S. dollars (USD). Families of 102 persons with mumps were interviewed. An estimated 761 USD per person with mumps was spent by families; 88% of this cost was due to missed days of work. The estimated total cost to families of the 470 persons with mumps during the analysis period was 357,670 USD. Total outbreak-related costs were 614,455 USD. The costs reported underscore the impact of mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations and the need for effective mumps prevention and control strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  18. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  19. Partners in Public Service: Government and the Nonprofit Sector in the American Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Lester M.; And Others

    This project undertook the following: (1) examination of the scope and structure of the private, nonprofit sector in the United States; (2) analysis of the patterns of spending by Federal, State, and local governments in fields where nonprofit organizations are active; and (3) evaluation of the impact of changes in government policy on the…

  20. The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren

    2013-01-01

    School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…