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Sample records for austria 25th june-7th

  1. Austria.

    PubMed

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  2. 25th anniversary. Population education.

    PubMed

    Tagle Ra

    1998-01-01

    The Population Education Program's (POPED) main areas of concern are family life and responsible parenthood; gender and development; population and reproductive health; and population, resources and environment, and sustainable development. POPED celebrated its 25th year of existence during October 6-8, 1997, at a National Convention in Davao City organized by the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS) and its governmental partner agencies, including the Philippine Population Commission (POPCOM), the Department of Health (DOH), and others. The event was held to update POPED stakeholders on current trends and developments in the program and to strengthen existing partnerships between government organizations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The convention also allowed the sharing of 25 years of experience, a chance to generate recommendations for improving the program, and the opportunity to seek greater commitment to POPED's cause from all concerned parties. Rapid population growth and its consequences, integrating family planning into all fields of study, core messages, and the future lifestyle of Filipino youths are discussed.

  3. The Hospital Microbiome Project: Meeting Report for the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project Workshop on sampling design and building science measurements, Chicago, USA, June 7th-8th 2012.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel; Alverdy, John; An, Gary; Coleman, Maureen; Garcia-Houchins, Sylvia; Green, Jessica; Keegan, Kevin; Kelley, Scott T; Kirkup, Benjamin C; Kociolek, Larry; Levin, Hal; Landon, Emily; Olsiewski, Paula; Knight, Rob; Siegel, Jeffrey; Weber, Stephen; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-04-15

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project workshop held on June 7th-8th, 2012 at the University of Chicago, USA. The workshop was arranged to determine the most appropriate sampling strategy and approach to building science measurement to characterize the development of a microbial community within a new hospital pavilion being built at the University of Chicago Medical Center. The workshop made several recommendations and led to the development of a full proposal to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation as well as to the creation of the Hospital Microbiome Consortium.

  4. Apollo 11 25th Anniversary logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Official NASA commemorative logo marks the 25th anniversary of the first lunar landing. The design incorporates an eagle, from the original Apoll 11 crew insignia, descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space. Alternative Headquarters number is 93-HC-312 or 93-H-336.

  5. Apollo 11 25th Anniversary logo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-08-03

    This official NASA commemorative logo marks the 25th anniversary of the first lunar landing. The design incorporates an eagle, from the original Apoll 11 crew insignia, descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space. Alternative Headquarters number is 93-HC-312 or 93-H-336.

  6. 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Frank M.; van Eldik, Christopher; Hofmann, Werner

    The 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (TEXAS 2010) was held in Heidelberg, Germany, during December, 6-10, 2010. More than 350 astrophysicists attended a very interesting meeting, designed to exchange ideas and results, and to discuss future directions in Relativistic Astrophysics. A wide range of scientific results were discussed in about 100 oral and about 200 poster contributions during nine parallel afternoon sessions and one highlight evening session. Further information, including the full program, can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/texas2010/. The papers published here in these proceedings represent the contributions accepted for the parallel sessions and the main poster session at TEXAS 2010.

  7. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    2009 is Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication. In this quarter-century, the journal has established itself as the premier publication venue for inverse problems research. It has matured from its beginnings as a niche journal serving the emerging field of inverse and ill-posed problems to a monthly publication in 2009 covering all aspects of a well-established, vibrant and still-expanding subject. Along with its core readership of pure and applied mathematicians and physicists, Inverse Problems has become widely known across a broad range of researchers in areas such as geophysics, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing and medical imaging, amongst others. The journal's appeal to the inverse problems community and those researchers from the varied fields that encounter such problems can be attributed to our commitment to publishing only the very best papers, and to offering unique services to the community. Besides our regular research papers, which average a remarkably short five months from submission to electronic publication, we regularly publish heavily cited topical review papers and topic-specific special sections, which first appeared in 2004. These highly-downloaded invited articles focus on the latest developments and hot topics in all areas of inverse problems. No other journal in the field offers these features. I am very pleased to take Inverse Problems into its 25th year as Editor-in-Chief. The journal has an impressive tradition of scholarship, established at its inception by the founder and first Editor-in-Chief, Professor Pierre Sabatier. Professor Sabatier envisioned the journal in 1985 as providing a medium for publication of exemplary research in our intrinsically interdisciplinary field. I am glad to say that the support of our authors, readers, referees, Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Boards and Advisory Panels over the years, has resulted in Inverse Problems becoming the top publication in this field, publishing

  8. Hubble 25th Anniversary: NASA Social at Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope celebrated its 25th anniversary on April 24, 2015. To mark the occasion, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland -- home of Hubble operations -- host...

  9. Hallstatt, Austria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-01

    This perspective view from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft shows the magnificent natural landscape of Salzkammergut, Austria.

  10. 25th anniversary of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreglyad, I.; Shonin, G.

    1985-01-01

    Interviews with retired Major General of Aviation L. Goreglyad and pilot-cosmonaut with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Major-General Goreglyad, one of the Center's founders, tells of its development. Major General Shonin, one of the first cosmonauts to train there, tells of the tests and procedures leading to his acceptance as a trainee.

  11. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  12. Army Medical Department Lessons Learned Program marks 25th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Cannon, David W; McCollum, Jeffery

    2011-11-01

    The year 2010 marked the 25th anniversary of the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) as well as the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Center and School's Lessons Learned Division. In the aftermath of Operation Urgent Fury in 1983, the Army recognized the need to create an organization whose sole purpose was to collect, review, and analyze lessons learned and created the CALL in 1985 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The AMEDD followed suit and established the Medical Information System/AMEDD Lessons Learned office under the Directorate of Evaluation and Standardization to research and compile lessons learned as the AMEDD's point of contact for the CALL program. Over these past 25 years the AMEDD Center and School Lessons Learned program evolved and underwent organizational realignments, but the overall mission continues to promote changes either directly or indirectly in the AMEDD's Doctrine, Organizations, Training, Leader Development, Materiel, Personnel and Facilities domains and capabilities to provide combat health service support on the battlefield.

  13. The discovery of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton: 25th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Harold P

    2017-02-01

    The year 2017 marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of homologues of tubulin and actin in prokaryotes. Before 1992, it was largely accepted that tubulin and actin were unique to eukaryotes. Then three laboratories independently discovered that FtsZ, a protein already known as a key player in bacterial cytokinesis, had the "tubulin signature sequence" present in all α-, β-, and γ-tubulins. That same year, three candidates for bacterial actins were discovered in silico. X-ray crystal structures have since confirmed multiple bacterial proteins to be homologues of eukaryotic tubulin and actin. Tubulin and actin were apparently derived from bacterial precursors that had already evolved a wide range of cytoskeletal functions. © 2017 Erickson. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. 25th PolyMAC Conference, June 13-15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.F.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains abstracts of reports presented at the 25th Annual Polymeric, Materials, Adhesives and Composites Symposium. Reports covered aging, testing and performance, and encapsulating materials.

  15. Kilauea's Ongoing Eruption: 25th Year Brings Major Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    2007 marks the 25th year of nearly continuous eruption on Kilauea's east rift zone. Episodic high lava fountains, which built the Pu`u `O`o cone during the first three years of the eruption, ended in 1986. Activity then migrated downrift and the Kupaianaha shield was formed by passive effusion of lava. The change in eruptive style resulted in a switch at Pu`u `O`o from cone construction to cone collapse that has been ongoing for the last two decades. Activity at Kupaianaha ceased in 1992, and the eruption resumed at Pu`u `O`o. The eruptive style established at Kupaianaha continued, however, with continuous effusion from vents on the southwest flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone. The last 15 years have been characterized by the formation of relatively stable tube systems---broken only by a brief fissure eruption uprift of Pu`u `O`o in 1997---that have carried lava from the flank vents to the ocean about 9 km away. The Prince Kuhio Kalanianaole (PKK) tube, the most recent of these tube systems to develop, was active from March 2004 to June 2007. The PKK flow was emplaced almost entirely on older flows of this eruption and entered the ocean in several locations over a span of 6 km. The "Father's Day" intrusion of June 17--19, 2007, robbed the supply of magma to Pu`u `O`o and, thus, the active flow field. The floor of the Pu`u `O`o crater dropped 80--100 m, the PKK tube system drained, and the active flows and ocean entry quickly stagnated. On June 19, a short-lived fissure eruption broke out low on the east flank of Kane Nui o Hamo, about 6 km uprift of Pu`u `O`o, burying only 0.22 hectares. The eruption at Kilauea paused from June 20 through July 1 or 2, when lava returned to Pu`u `O`o and began refilling the collapsed crater. Near midnight on July 20--21, after at least 19 days of lava lake growth, the lava pond within the Pu`u `O`o crater drained suddenly when a series of fissures opened on the east flank of the cone and propagated ~2 km downrift. The new activity, dubbed

  16. Proceedings of the 25th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leech, Mary L.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) Workshop has provided scientists studying the India-Asia collision system a wonderful opportunity for workshop-style discussion with colleagues working in this region. In 2010, HKT returns to North America for the first time since 1996. The 25th international workshop is held from June 7 to10 at San Francisco State University, California. The international community was invited to contribute scientific papers to the workshop, on all aspects of geoscience research in the geographic area of the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding ranges and basins, from basic mapping to geochemical and isotopic analyses to large-scale geophysical imaging experiments. In recognition of the involvement of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in a wide range of these activities, the USGS agreed to publish the extended abstracts of the numerous components of HKT-25 as an online Open-File Report, thereby ensuring the wide availability and distribution of these abstracts, particularly in the HKT countries from which many active workers are precluded by cost from attending international meetings. In addition to the workshop characterized by contributed presentations, participants were invited to attend a pre-meeting field trip from the Coast Ranges to the Sierra Nevada, to allow the international group to consider how the tectonic elements of the Pacific margin compare to those of the Himalayan belt. Following the workshop, the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored a workshop on the 'Future directions for NSF-sponsored geoscience research in the Himalaya/Tibet' intended to provide NSF Program Directors with a clear statement and vision of community goals for the future, including the scientific progress we can expect if NSF continues its support of projects in this geographic region, and to identify which key geoscience problems and processes are best addressed in the Himalaya and Tibet, what key datasets are needed, and

  17. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States... price of the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at...

  18. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Stirling Physics Meeting 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Michael

    1999-09-01

    The 25th Annual Stirling Physics meeting took place on Thursday 20 May on a warm sunny day when the country setting of Stirling Campus could be seen at its best. A total of 225 participants from all sectors of physics education attended. There was an opportunity to view and discuss with exhibitors a wide range of state-of-the-art equipment and teaching materials both before and after the meeting. The theme of the meeting was `Maintaining Standards'. Gemmel Millar, Scottish Branch Secretary acting as Chairperson for the morning session and in anticipation of the first speaker, wondered if a new unit qualification, the `Planck' might be introduced. Half units would then be `Short Plancks' and how many Short Plancks must there be in a unit? Great stuff. Scottish Qualifications Authority Hugh McGill began with a brief history and description of the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Born on 1 April 1997 (a light frisson of amusement swept through the audience) it was a unification between SEB and SCOTVEC and has a range of responsibilities covering schools, further and higher education. It oversees Standard and Higher grades, HNC and HND and SVQs, and it has 500 full-time employees as well as some 13500 appointees who act as examiners, assessors and verifiers etc, without whom its remit could not be carried out. The committee structure of the Board was outlined, one each for national and higher national qualifications and a third for Scottish vocational qualifications. These will be served by a proposed 19 Advisory Groups. The Science Advisory Group will be the key body for advising SQA on strategic developments to ensure that qualifications meet the needs of both client groups and end users. A consultation paper `Added Value To Learning' was referred to, in which all qualifications available in Scotland are given parity of esteem on a rising 11-point scale. Mr McGill stated that standards would be best maintained by ensuring continuity in procedures developed over

  19. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

  20. Gifted Education in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyringer, Sieglinde

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, gifted education and the education of highly gifted and talented children have been receiving an increasing public awareness and social acceptance over the past decade. The article highlights the existing ideas of giftedness in Austria, and it presents several initiatives having triggered and influenced this positive development. The…

  1. Symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Symposium honoring the 25th Anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on March 28, 1980. The following three papers were presented: Chemical Properties of Mendelevium; Nuclear Properties of Mendelevium; and Radioactive Decay of Md Isotopes. Besides these papers there were introductory remarks, reminiscences, and concluding remarks.

  2. 25th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species [proceedings

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McManus; Kurt W., comps. Gottschalk

    2014-01-01

    This meeting was the 25th in a series of annual USDA Interagency Research Forums that are sponsored by the Forest Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Agriculture Research Service. The Group's original goal of fostering communication and providing a forum for the overview of ongoing research among the...

  3. Editorial: Special issue highlighting research presented at the 25th IWGO Conference, Chicago 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A joint international conference was held among corn insect entomologists from 15 countries at the Allerton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois on April 13-17, 2014. It combined the 25th IWGO (International Working Group on Ostrinia and other maize pests) Conference with the 4th Diabrotica Genetics Conference,...

  4. Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th anniversary of the launc

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-26

    Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. All areas of Goddard’s research – Earth science, heliophysics, planetary science, astrophysics, and engineering and technology – will be presented, as each discipline plays a critical part in NASA's ongoing journey to reach new heights.

  5. Buildings 7 & 29. Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th annive

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-26

    Buildings 7 & 29. Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. All areas of Goddard’s research – Earth science, heliophysics, planetary science, astrophysics, and engineering and technology – will be presented, as each discipline plays a critical part in NASA's ongoing journey to reach new heights.

  6. Buildings 7 & 29. Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th annive

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-25

    Buildings 7 & 29. Explore@NASAGoddard celebrates the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. All areas of Goddard’s research – Earth science, heliophysics, planetary science, astrophysics, and engineering and technology – will be presented, as each discipline plays a critical part in NASA's ongoing journey to reach new heights.

  7. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - A 25th Symposium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...

  8. Research activities on Antarctic middle atmosphere by JARE 25th team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ

    1985-01-01

    The Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)-Japan research project was set about by the JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) 23rd team in 1982, and since then the JARE-24th and JARE-25th teams have been continuing reseach on the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere. Results gained by JARE-25th team members who are now working at Syowa Station (69.99 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica are presented. In their activities satellite measurements (Exos-C) and rocket soundings are used. Three rockets of the S310 type were launched at Syowa Station (Geomagnetic Latitude = 69.9 deg S) for the purpose of directly observing the electron density, ionospheric temperature, auroral patterns and luminosity in situ. Vertical profiles of electron density and auroral emission 4278A measured by three rockets are compared.

  9. Research activities on Antarctic middle atmosphere by JARE 25th team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ; Eiwasaka, Y. AFTANAKA, M. agfujii, r.0 typ

    1985-01-01

    The Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)-Japan research project was set about by the JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) 23rd team in 1982, and since then the JARE-24th and JARE-25th teams have been continuing reseach on the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere. Results gained by JARE-25th team members who are now working at Syowa Station (69.99 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica are presented. In their activities satellite measurements (Exos-C) and rocket soundings are used. Three rockets of the S310 type were launched at Syowa Station (Geomagnetic Latitude = 69.9 deg S) for the purpose of directly observing the electron density, ionospheric temperature, auroral patterns and luminosity in situ. Vertical profiles of electron density and auroral emission 4278A measured by three rockets are compared.

  10. Echinococcosis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Auer, H; Aspöck, H

    1990-04-01

    In 1982, a research project on the prevalence of human echinococcosis in Austria was started. Within the period from 1982 to 1988, data on 188 patients with cystic (CE) and of 16 patients with alveolar (AE) echinococcosis were obtained. 15 out of 16 AE patients and 79 (= 42%) out of 188 CE patients were Austrian nationals, 1 AE patient was of Swiss nationality, and 94% of the 109 non-Austrian patients came from Mediterranean countries. Cases of (presumably autochthonous) cystic echinococcosis were found in Lower Austria, Vienna, Burgenland, Styria, Upper Austria, Carinthia, Salzburg and Vorarlberg, the eastern part of Austria being the main distribution area. Cases of (certainly autochthonous) alveolar echinococcosis were recorded in the Tyrol, in Carinthia and in Lower Austria. At the time of diagnosis, the average ages of Austrian patients with E. multilocularis (49 years) and with E. granulosus (55 years), respectively were significantly higher than those of foreign CE patients (34 years). The finding concerning the localisation of the infection (78% of E. granulosus cysts and 100% of E. multilocularis lesions were located in the liver) are consistent with previously published reports.

  11. Alumni of High School Internship Program Return for 25th Anniversary to Inspire Current Students | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Building 549 auditorium is often packed with high school interns eager to hear a scientific lecture. On April 22, however, the room swelled with interns spanning a wider age range. At the 25th Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) Anniversary Symposium, incoming, current, and former interns gathered to celebrate the program, which has provided biomedical research experience for local high school seniors.

  12. Alumni of High School Internship Program Return for 25th Anniversary to Inspire Current Students | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Building 549 auditorium is often packed with high school interns eager to hear a scientific lecture. On April 22, however, the room swelled with interns spanning a wider age range. At the 25th Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) Anniversary Symposium, incoming, current, and former interns gathered to celebrate the program, which has provided biomedical research experience for local high school seniors.

  13. In the 25th year of bioethics publishing: new challenges of the post-truth era.

    PubMed

    Jesani, Amar

    2017-01-01

    As IJME enters its 25th year of publication, all of us closely associated with the journal look back on this journey with a degree of satisfaction. Not only has the only bioethics journal published from India survived for 24 years, it has also produced some extraordinary successes. As you read this issue, we will be celebrating the 12th year of the biennial National Bioethics Conferences - the sixth NBC will take place in Pune from January 13 to 15, 2017.

  14. Hubble’s 25th Anniversary: A Quarter-Century of Discovery and Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2015-01-01

    April 24, 2015 marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology. NASA and ESA, including STScI and partners, will use the 25th anniversary of Hubble's launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to the widest possible audience the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope and to highlight that Hubble will continue to produce groundbreaking science results. We will enhance public understanding of Hubble's many contributions to the scientific world, and will capitalize on Hubble's cultural popularity by emphasizing its' successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. This poster highlights many of the upcoming opportunities to join in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

  15. Biogerontology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Azizi-Semrad, Ursula; Grillari, Johannes; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Pietschmann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    In Austria significant progress in the field of biogerontology has been achieved in the past years. Biogerontological research is performed in academic and extramural institutions. The Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Science at Innsbruck is the largest institution dealing with biogerontology in Austria. Moreover, gerontologic research is performed at the Universities of Salzburg and Graz, the Medical Universities of Vienna, Innsbruck and Graz, the University of Veterinary Medicine (Vienna) and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (Vienna). This article describes the work of selected research groups involved in biogerontology in a geographic arrangement.

  16. Geophysical measurements and monitoring on the Pechgraben Landslide in Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Gruber, Stefanie; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In January 2013, after an intense rainfall of about 400 mm, the historic slope movement northwest of the village of Pechgraben (municipality Großraming, Upper Austria) started to move. Already in early March the landslide with an area of about 7 hectares came to a halt. After the long-lasting rainfall (200mm) from June 1st to 3rd 2013 the Pechgraben landslide was reactivated with an extent of about 80 ha on June 6th. This landslide is therefore the largest in Austria since the last 5 years. Several million cubic meters of loose material was moving towards the settlement area. Already one day later, on June 7th, 2013, emergency measures began immediately. The Geological Survey of Austria (GBA), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering (IAN), and the consultant engineering office Moser/Jaritz as well as the local fire brigade and the federal armed forces supported the Torrent and Avalanche Control with their remediation measures. In addition to the emergency measures, which consisted mainly of water diversion and material removal, a comprehensive monitoring system (GPS, inclinometer, geoelectric monitoring, airborne laserscan and aerial photogrammetry, etc.) has been created in order to document the development of the slope movement and to be able to take further measures if necessary. The geophysical part undertaken by the Geological Survey of Austria consisted of an airborne geophysical survey (EM, magnetics, gamma radiation) as well as several geoelectric profiles to understand the geology and mechanism of the landslide. To monitor the movement, we set up 5 different geoelectrical monitoring profiles, permanent inclinometers, photo monitoring, piezometers, as well as soil humidity and precipitation sensors. Hübl, J., Schraml, K., Lindner, G., Tartarotti, T., Gruber, H., Gasperl, W., Supper, R., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Gruber, S., Marschallinger, R., Moser, G. (2015): Synthesebericht der H

  17. Secondary Education in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, Helmut

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Austria. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  18. Hydrological Atlas of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Harry

    2004-11-01

    At a time when we routinely search for dynamically updated maps on the Internet, the publication of a large-format, coffee-table-style atlas may seem anachronistic. Yet Austria's Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management has attempted to reconcile past and present publishing practices in its Hydrological Atlas of Austria, with an eye toward meeting the needs of both hard-copy traditionalists and soft-copy devotees. In the process, they have provided a reference document that contains a lot more than just maps. The Hydrological Atlas of Austria depicts the hydrology of Austria in a series of national-scale thematic maps and related text organized around the components of the hydrological cycle, with sections on mass balance and themes such as water management and water and the environment. The atlas is published as a two-in-one product: a conventional printed, loose-leaf-style atlas that facilitates easy update and expansion, and a digital, GIS-based version on CD-ROM. Both forms are derived from GIS datasets.

  19. Tornado climatology of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, A. M.

    After several decades of little work, a revised tornado climatology for Austria is presented. Tornadoes seldom form in the alpine areas, however, near the eastern flanks of the Alps, favourable conditions for tornado genesis are found. Whereas in the alpine regions less than 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year touch down (averaged for provinces or major parts of a province), we can count 0.9 in the greater Graz area, 1.0 in the greater Linz area and 1.2 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year in the greater Vienna area, suggesting the existence of so-called tornado alleys. As these regions are the most populated areas of Austria, there is a possible population bias in the dataset. The overall average for Austria is 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year. The database consists of 89 tornadoes, one landspout and six waterspouts, with a total of 96 events. The seasonal peak is in July with a maximum probability of tornadoes in the late afternoon and early evening hours. Every fifth tornado occurs in the hour after 5 p.m. The maximum intensity determined for a tornado in Austria was T7 on the TORRO-Scale (F3 on the Fujita-Scale), the most common intensity is T2 on the TORRO-Scale (F1 on the Fujita-Scale).

  20. Predictions of the onset of mini ice age in the 25th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Predictions of the ir-regularty in the 11 year heartbeat of the sun due to asyncronous of the two layered dynamo effect would result in mini ice age as in the Maunder minimum.The onset of this event is expected in the begining of 25th solar cycle and would go to its maximum in the 26th solar cycle.The minimum temperature is expected in 2028 due to the fall of solar activity by 60 % termed as solar hibernation.The predictions are based on the observations obtained by the Royal Greenwich observatory since 1874. Keywords: Dynamo effect,munder minimum,Solar hybernation

  1. Mosquito Vector Biology and Control in Latin America-A 25TH Symposium.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, as for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 24 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, operations, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance. Insect vectors included Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes in addition to phlebotomine sand flies and triatomine bugs.

  2. Marshall Space Flight Center 1960-1985: 25th anniversary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Marshall Space FLight Center marks its 25th aniversary with a record of notable achievements. These accomplishments are the essence of the Marshall Center's history. Behind the scenes of the space launches and missions, however, lies the story of challenges faced and problems solved. The highlights of that story are presented. The story is organized not as a straight chronology but as three parallel reviews of the major assignments: propulsion systems and launch vehicles, space science research and technology, and manned space systems. The general goals were to reach space, to know and understand the space environment, and to inhabit and utilize space for the benefit of mankind. Also included is a chronology of major events, presented as a fold-out chart for ready reference.

  3. The Daylight Bolide of 1996 April 25th , over Mt. Bruce, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G.; McBeath, A.

    On Thursday, 1996 April 25th (ANZAC Day in New Zealand) a bright daylight bolide with possible -22m end point, was seen from Newtown, Wellington, New Zealand at 02h20m12s. Its end-point altitude was calculated to be app. 15-20km over Mt. Bruce, some 80km NE of Wellington. A smoky train, initially 42deg long, was visible to the naked eye for 28 minutes afterwards. Sonics were heard by the New Zealand author, around 265s after the end point, suggesting a direct-line distance of 88km from the author's location. The impact point was probably several kilometers off Foxton Beach in the Tasman Sea. The bolide passed about 5deg above the first quarter Moon, and two photographs were secured, showing how the train began to drift, ultimately app. 17deg, to the south, before dissipating.

  4. 25th Annual Vascular Surgery Seminar and Meeting of the Society for Military Vascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rich, N M

    1998-12-01

    The 25th Annual (Silver Anniversary) Vascular Surgery Seminar and Meeting of the Society for Military Vascular Surgery was held in the Jay P. Sanford Auditorium at the F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), 4-6 December 1997. This highly successful exchange included active duty military surgeons, military surgeons in the reserves, retired military officers continuing second careers in civilian vascular surgery, distinguished visiting professors from the United States and abroad, International Guest Scholars, USUHS Faculty as well as colleagues and friends. The emphasis continued to be directed to ensuring that military vascular surgery remains current, recognizing the rich heritage of contributions to vascular surgery in general that have come from surgeons serving on battlefields around the world, particularly in this 20th century.

  5. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution.

  6. PREFACE 25th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Luka Č.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2010-11-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Invited lectures, Topical invited lectures and Progress reports presented at the 25th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2010. The conference was held in Donji Milanovac, Serbia, from 29 August to 3 September 2010. Since SPIG has a long tradition and this is a jubilee anniversary, the 25th one, we had the opportunity to recall the history of the Conference (see the first paper in this proceedings). The structure of papers in this Proceedings covers the following sections: Atomic Collision Processes, Particle and Laser Beam Interactions with Solids, Low Temperature Plasmas and General Plasmas. As the four above mentioned topics often overlap and merge in numerous fundamental studies and more importantly applications, SPIG in general serves as a venue for exchanging ideas in the related fields. We hope that this Proceedings will be an important source of information about progress in plasma physics and will be useful, first of all, for students, and also for plasma physics scientists. The Editors would like to thank the invited speakers for their participation at SPIG 2010 and for their efforts writing contributions for this Proceedings. We also express our gratitude to the members of Scientific and Organizing committees for their efforts in organizing this SPIG. Especially we would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia for financial support as well as the European Physical Society (EPS) for supporting the participation of three younger scientists. Luka Č Popović Milorad Kuraica October 2010

  7. Systems analysis of Austria`s carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, M.; Schidler, S.; Orthofer, R.

    1996-12-31

    The focus of this research project is on the major sources, sinks and fluxes of carbon dioxide and other carbon-relevant greenhouse gases within Austria. The objective of the project is twofold. It focuses on: (1) quantifying Austria`s past, present, and future natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks and, thus Austria`s net flux to or from the atmosphere versus time; and (2) assessing the major fluxes and, most important, their uncertainties within an holistic context by means of a computer simulation model. The outcome of the project will provide a scientific and holistic knowledge and information base that allows to assess, coordinate and harmonize prospective national political actions to mitigate climate change ranging from measures in regard to land use to measures that influence the use of carbon relevant products.

  8. School accidents in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  9. 25th anniversary article: Chemically modified/doped carbon nanotubes & graphene for optimized nanostructures & nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Uday Narayan; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, Ju Min; Oh, Youngtak; Kim, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Shim, Jongwon; Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2014-01-08

    Outstanding pristine properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene have limited the scope for real-life applications without precise controllability of the material structures and properties. This invited article to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Advanced Materials reviews the current research status in the chemical modification/doping of carbon nanotubes and graphene and their relevant applications with optimized structures and properties. A broad aspect of specific correlations between chemical modification/doping schemes of the graphitic carbons with their novel tunable material properties is summarized. An overview of the practical benefits from chemical modification/doping, including the controllability of electronic energy level, charge carrier density, surface energy and surface reactivity for diverse advanced applications is presented, namely flexible electronics/optoelectronics, energy conversion/storage, nanocomposites, and environmental remediation, with a particular emphasis on their optimized interfacial structures and properties. Future research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottlenecks and realize idealized graphitic carbon applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Approximation of periodicity in sunspot formation of and prediction of the 25th cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, E. M.; Sarychev, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The empirical parameters of functions approximating solar activity cycles 8-23 are used. These parameters show the position of the cycle on the time axis (the start time) and its shape, which is characterized by the extension along the time axes and activity index. A statistical connections was found between two shape parameters of the cycle (the so-called Waldmeier effect) and between the extension of the cycle growth branch and the start time of the following cycle. A connection between the parameters of the given and future cycles has been obtained for a function approximating the "secular" variations in the cycle amplitude. The aforementioned empirical relationships can be stated in the form of three equations that contain the parameters of the current and future cycles. Solving this system, we obtain estimates for three parameters of the function approximating the next cycle. For the 25th cycle, it was found that the maximum of the smoothed Wolf number 116 is expected in March/April 2026; the duration of the activity growth branch is 4.16 years.

  11. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. PREFACE: Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reyer

    2009-03-01

    This Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series forms Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. Part II contains the papers of short oral and poster presentations. In addition, it provides general information about the LT25 conference, such as a Report from the Organizers, an Activity Report to the IUPAP of the C5 Chairs, an overview of Committees, Sponsors and Exhibitors, and some Conference Statistics. Part I of the Proceedings of LT25 is a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. It contains the majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London Prize Lectures, the IUPAP Young Scientist Award Lectures, the Plenary and Half Plenary and Public Lectures, and the Historical Lectures presented at the conference excursion to Leiden. The JPCM LT25 special issue is available for free for a period of one year from publication (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter). To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series, every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The Editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and with the reviewing of the 900 papers appearing in Parts I and II of these Proceedings. In particular, we like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, and Fons de Waele. Guest Editors Peter Kes and Reijer Jochemsen Leiden University, The Netherlands Conference logo

  13. PREFACE: 25th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering (COMADEM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Rao, Raj B. K. N.

    2012-05-01

    The proactive multidisciplinary conceptual philosophy of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM) was conceived and has been nurtured, developed and sustained since 1988. Since then, it is gratifying to note that the condition monitoring, diagnostic and prognostic community worldwide (representing industrialists, academics, research and development organizations, professional/private establishments and many hardware/software vending organizations) has warmly welcomed and supported this venture. As is evidenced, many have reaped (and are reaping) the benefits of COMADEM interdiscipline through continuous knowledge discovery, generation and dissemination. We are now proud to celebrate the 25th Annual Event (Silver Jubilee) in Huddersfield, the most beautiful part of the United Kingdom. The theme of this Congress is 'Sustained Prosperity through Proactive Monitoring, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management'. This proceedings is enriched by contributions from many keynote experts representing many industry and academic establishments worldwide. Authors from more than 30 different countries have pooled their rich multidisciplinary up-to-date knowledge, in order to share their invaluable experience with the COMADEM community. In this proceedings, the readers will find more than 120 refereed papers encompassing a number of topical areas of interest relating to the theme of the congress. The proceedings of COMADEM 2012 will appear in the Open Access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All papers published in the IOP Conference Series are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download. We would like to express our deep gratitude to all the keynote speakers, authors, referees, exhibitors, Technical Co-Sponsoring Organizations, Gold Sponsors, IOP Publishers, COMADEM 2012 organizing committee members, delegates and many others on whom the success of this prestigious event depends

  14. The Prospects for Educational Planning. A Workshop Organised by IIEP on the Occasion of Its 25th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillods, Francoise, Ed.

    In late 1988, on the occasion of its 25th anniversary celebration, the International Institute for Educational Planning organized an international workshop to review the major problems faced by education today and to consider the future of educational planning worldwide. The workshop brought together researchers, planners, and specialists from all…

  15. Reflections on the 25th Anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's Decision in Board of Education v. Rowley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hazelkorn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    June 22, 2007, was the 25th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley (hereafter Rowley; 1982). In Rowley, the Supreme Court interpreted congressional intent in requiring that public schools provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to students with…

  16. 77 FR 76411 - Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2012-1077] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto... docket USCG-2012-1077. To view documents mentioned in this preamble as being available in the docket, go...; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T09-1077 to read as follows:...

  17. Earthquake Forecasts for Gorkha Immediately Following the 25th April, M=7.8 Mainshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segkou, M.; Parsons, T.

    2015-12-01

    The M-7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake on the 25th April, 2015 has shaken the central Himalayan front and immediately raised concerns for the severity of future triggered earthquakes. Here, we implement standard and innovative forecast models to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of triggered events. Key challenges addressed are: 1) the limited information on early aftershocks, 2) the low-productivity aftershock sequence in the near-source area, 3) the off-fault (>250 km) triggered events exemplified by the M=5.4 Xegar event, 3 hrs after the mainshock. We apply short-term empirical/statistical ETAS and physical forecast models, the latter based on the combination of rate/state friction law and Coulomb stresses. Within the physics-based model implementation we seek to evaluate the uncertainty related with the rupture style of triggered events by considering: 1) the geometry of active structures, 2) optimally oriented for failure faults and 3) all-potential faults described by the total stress field. The latter is represented by the full stress tensor before and after the mainshock and our analysis suggests that the preseismic stress magnitudes are still sufficient to cause earthquakes even after modification by the mainshock. The above remark reveals that there are no "stress shadows" affecting the spatial distribution of near-field aftershocks. It is also noted that the method allows for an a-priori determination of the rupture plan of the M=7.3 event, within the limit of uncertainty (20˚). The results show that: (1) ETAS models underestimate the number of observed events, since they heavily base their good performance in small magnitude earthquakes, not available in the first few weeks after the mainshock, (2) far field triggered events are captured only by physics-based forecasts, and (3) the total stress method improves the predictability of larger magnitude events. We conclude that frontier regions benefit from the implementation of physics-based models

  18. [Endemic goiter in Austria's youth?].

    PubMed

    Riccabona, G; Glatzl, J; Platzer, S; Fill, H; Ehlich, P; Obendorf, L

    1981-01-01

    After 17 years the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis of endemic goiter (1 : 100000) in Austria was checked by control field studies in 3 Tyrolean towns n Austria. The data obtained there were compared with those of 123 school age children from the iodine deficient endemic goiter area of the province of Bolzano (Italy). The results show a reduction in goiter incidence from 50 to 35% in the total population in Austria, where goiter incidence in schoolchildren dropped from 45.9% to 12%. Urinary iodine/g creatinine was 65 micrograms in Austria, the 24 hr radioiodine uptake with 41.8% was normal. In comparison the ethnologically and geographically similar endemic goiter zone in the province of Bolzano showed a goiter incidence in schoolchildren of up to 46%, while urinary iodine/g creatinine was 35.9 micrograms and radioiodine uptake after 24 hr about 50%. Extensive studies of peripheral hormone parameters (T4, TBG, T3, TSH, rT3, FT3, FT4) revealed a significantly higher rT3 concentration of 24.7 ng/dl in Austria compared with a value of only 19.8 ng/dl in the province of Bolzano. These facts suggest an increased conversion of T4 to real T3 in iodine deficiency, which might contribute to the adaptation of the organism to this condition. No statement, however, can be presented regarding the regulation of this phenomenon. Even as endemic goiter is decreasing in Austria, an increase of salt iodization to 1 : 50000 according to the swiss procedure might eliminate definitely endemic goiter in Austria.

  19. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers had increased to 1390 participants and 900 papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial International Low Temperature Conferences are organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) through Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of Low Temperature Physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min.) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min.) are mainly focused on very recent developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum Gases, Fluids and Solids B. Superconductivity C. Quantum Phase Transitions and Magnetism D. Electronic Quantum Transport in Condensed Matter E. Cryogenic Techniques and Applications This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the

  20. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism in the 25th gestational week of pregnancy presenting with systolic arterial hypertension only.

    PubMed

    Zaveljcina, Janez; Legan, Mateja; Gaberšček, Simona

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy. Our search for secondary causes of arterial hypertension revealed hyperthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which was treated with propilthiouracil. Three weeks after delivery, she was normotensive without medication. In the next four months, she developed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was started. In conclusion, in the second half of pregnancy, a hyperthyroid HT can occur - in spite of the well-known amelioration of autoimmune thyroid disorders in that period, and can be the only cause of arterial hypertension.

  1. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/S, EX/W and ICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a summary overview, based on papers presented at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), in the area of magnetic confinement experiments related to stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) and innovative confinement concepts (ICCs). A selection of results that represent progress made since the last FEC in a few important thematic areas that are relevant for the successful and safe operation of future fusion devices like ITER, is highlighted.

  2. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  3. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression.

  4. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  5. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland top, Italy left and Austria right and bottom.

  6. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  7. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  8. Case study: An isolated severe storm with giant hail hit Slovenian capital city Ljubljana on May 25th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A quite unusual weather pattern for month of May with first and early season heat wave of year 2009 resulted in several days of active severe storms across central Europe and Alpine region. Synoptic situation On May 25th 2009, an omega block pattern with strong upper-level subtropical ridge extending over Mediterranean and Balkan Peninsula brought stable and warm conditions into Southern Europe. Elsewhere, two large-scale troughs were located over Western and Eastern Europe with very unstable environment. On the nose of the Mediterranean ridge a jet streak with moderate shear was placed while over the Southern Alpine region only weak shear was placed over Slovenia. Rich boundary layer moisture and steep lapse rates within an elevated mixed layer favored extreme amounts of CAPE. After strong diurnal heating and surface wind convergence along the local topography a few convective cells were triggered in the mountainous terrain while deep moist convection over the rest of Slovenia was trapped by the strong capping inversion. In late afternoon several cells from the mountainous terrain interfered with each other and explosive convective cell was initiated along their outflow boundaries. Increasing near surface southeasterly wind flow supported enhanced low-level shear and storm relative helicity which caused this cell to very rapidly grown into an organized supercell storm on the flat terrain in northern Slovenia. This supercell then started racing southeastwards towards Ljubljana, a capital city of Slovenia. It caused extensive hail damage with very large to giant hailstones up to 7cm in diameter falling over parts of Ljubljana and areas north and southeast of the city. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of this very damaging hailstorm, throughout a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. At first, forecasting models did not suggest organized convection

  9. Review of the 25th annual scientific meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Balwit, James M; Kalinski, Pawel; Sondak, Vernon K; Coulie, Pierre G; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Gajewski, Thomas F; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-12

    Led by key opinion leaders in the field, the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc, recently renamed the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC) provided a scientific platform for ~500 attendees to exchange cutting-edge information on basic, clinical, and translational research in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The meeting included keynote addresses on checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy and recent advances in therapeutic vaccination against cancer induced by Human Papilloma Virus 16. Participants from 29 countries interacted through oral presentations, panel discussions, and posters on topics that included dendritic cells and cancer, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapy, innate/adaptive immune interplay in cancer, clinical trial endpoints, vaccine combinations, countering negative regulation, immune cell trafficking to tumor microenvironment, and adoptive T cell transfer. In addition to the 50 oral presentations and >180 posters on these topics, a new SITC/iSBTc initiative to create evidence-based Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines was announced. The SITC/iSBTc Biomarkers Taskforce announced the release of recommendations on immunotherapy biomarkers and a highly successful symposium on Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers that took place on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) immediately prior to the Annual Meeting. At the Annual Meeting, the NIH took the opportunity to publicly announce the award of the U01 grant that will fund the Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network (CITN). In summary, the Annual Meeting gathered clinicians and scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies from around the globe to interact and exchange important scientific advances related to tumor immunobiology and cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Review of the 25th annual scientific meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Led by key opinion leaders in the field, the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc, recently renamed the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC) provided a scientific platform for ~500 attendees to exchange cutting-edge information on basic, clinical, and translational research in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The meeting included keynote addresses on checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy and recent advances in therapeutic vaccination against cancer induced by Human Papilloma Virus 16. Participants from 29 countries interacted through oral presentations, panel discussions, and posters on topics that included dendritic cells and cancer, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapy, innate/adaptive immune interplay in cancer, clinical trial endpoints, vaccine combinations, countering negative regulation, immune cell trafficking to tumor microenvironment, and adoptive T cell transfer. In addition to the 50 oral presentations and >180 posters on these topics, a new SITC/iSBTc initiative to create evidence-based Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines was announced. The SITC/iSBTc Biomarkers Taskforce announced the release of recommendations on immunotherapy biomarkers and a highly successful symposium on Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers that took place on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) immediately prior to the Annual Meeting. At the Annual Meeting, the NIH took the opportunity to publicly announce the award of the U01 grant that will fund the Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network (CITN). In summary, the Annual Meeting gathered clinicians and scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies from around the globe to interact and exchange important scientific advances related to tumor immunobiology and cancer immunotherapy. PMID:21569425

  11. Visual Literacy in the Digital Age: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (25th, Rochester, New York, October 13-17, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Darrel G.; And Others

    This document contains selected papers from the 25th annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA). Topics addressed in the papers include the following: visual literacy; graphic information in research and education; evaluation criteria for instructional media; understanding symbols in business presentations;…

  12. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (25th, Tarrytown, New York, March 25-26, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Conference proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference theme for 2011 was: The Future of the Undergraduate Psychology Major: New Directions in an Evolving Educational Climate. The Conference…

  13. Canadian Library Association 25th Annual Conference, Hamilton, Ontario, 20-25 June 1970. Proceedings. Theme: Into the Seventies -Challenge of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Library Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The fifteen speeches presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Canadian Library Association are: (1) Presidential Address, (2) Theme Day, (3) The Revolutionary 70's, Are We Ready, (4) The Prime Mover: The Role of the National Library, (5) What You Expect Out of Machines, (6) Twenty-Seven Million People: Four Million Square Miles: Where Shall…

  14. Deeply Rooted, Branching Out, 1972-1997. Annual AEE International Conference Proceedings (25th, Asheville, North Carolina, November 23-26, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Rick, Ed.; Comstedt, Timothea, Ed.; Roberts, Nina, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 36 papers presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Experiential Education. Papers are: "The Woods and the Trees: Interpreting Experiential Education for Schools and a Greater Audience" (Joanna Allen, John Hutchinson); "Adventure Programming & Prevention of Adolescent Problem…

  15. Canadian Library Association 25th Annual Conference, Hamilton, Ontario, 20-25 June 1970. Proceedings. Theme: Into the Seventies -Challenge of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Library Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The fifteen speeches presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Canadian Library Association are: (1) Presidential Address, (2) Theme Day, (3) The Revolutionary 70's, Are We Ready, (4) The Prime Mover: The Role of the National Library, (5) What You Expect Out of Machines, (6) Twenty-Seven Million People: Four Million Square Miles: Where Shall…

  16. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to advance…

  17. Proceedings of the Anniversary Meeting (25th, Toronto, December 28-29, 1972). Industrial Relations Research Association Series. Index of IRRA Publications 1966-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Papers presented at the 25th meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association (IRAA) covered issues that are central to industrial relations in North America. Papers and discussions dealt with these major issues: (1) Prices and Income Policy: Comparative Aspects, (2) Dispute Settlement in the Public Sector, (3) Manpower Policies in Canada…

  18. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to advance…

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (25th, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 12-17, 2001). Volumes 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME). It features plenary lectures, research forums, discussion groups, working sessions, short oral communications, and poster presentations. Papers in Volume 1 include: (1) "The P in PME: Progress and…

  20. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    PubMed

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The October 25th 2015 super-cell storm over central Israel: numerical simulations with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Barry; Yair, Yoav

    2017-04-01

    We present high-resolution WRF simulations with lightning assimilation (Fierro et al., 2012; Lynn et al., 2015) coupled with the Dynamic Lightning Scheme (Lynn et al., 2012) of the October 25th 2015 super-cell event in the eastern Mediterranean. That storm developed within the northern tip of a Red-Sea trough off the Egyptian coastline near Alexandria, with deep convective cells rapidly growing over the sea, exhibiting cloud top temperatures colder than -70°C ( 18 km) and radar reflectivity cores > 65 dBz at 10 km. As the cells crossed the Israeli coast-line north of Tel-Aviv, they exhibited intensive lightning activity, severe hail, downbursts, and intense rain. The lightning detection system of the Israeli Electrical Corporation registered a total of over 17,000 CGs, and for 20 minutes at the peak of the event recorded CG flash-rates greater than 430 strokes per minute (if including IC strokes, it was likely higher). The results of the simulations properly reconstruct the rapid growth of vertically extensive high-reflectivity cores, with significant amounts of graupel, ice and supercooled water within the charging zone below -20C. This guaranteed the effectiveness of non-inductive charge separation processes leading to the exceptional flash rates that were observed. Fierro, A. O, E. R. Mansell, C. L. Ziegler, and D. R. MacGorman, 2012: Application of a Lightning Data Assimilation Technique in the WRF-ARW Model at Cloud-Resolving Scales for the Tornado Outbreak of 24 May 2011. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 2609-2627. Lynn, B. H., G. Kelman, and G. Ellrod, 2015: An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Using Observed Lightning to Improve Convective Lightning Forecasts. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 405-423. Lynn, B. H., Y. Yair, C. Price, G. Kelman, and A. J. Clark, 2012: Predicting cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning in weather forecast models.Wea. Forecasting, 27, 1470-1488, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-11-00144.1.

  2. Epidermolysis bullosa care in Austria and the Epidermolysis Bullosa House Austria.

    PubMed

    Pohla-Gubo, Gabriela; Hintner, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    The Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) House Austria is a special unit for the multidisciplinary management of children and adults with EB. Major advances in EB care have been made possible by a multidisciplinary approach including most of the medical specialties offered at the General Hospital in Salzburg. The EB House Austria is independently funded by the support group DEBRA Austria. As the EB House Austria fulfills all criteria for a European Union reference center, as stated by the Rare Disease Task Force in 2005, the authors hope that in the near future the EB House Austria will be accepted as such on a European Union level and that they can soon get financial support from this side. This support would be of even more importance in the moment when a causative cure, which is of course supposed to be a cost-intensive gene therapy, is available.

  3. Economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Osteoporotic fractures impose a huge economic burden on society. Though several cost of illness studies from other countries exist, no equivalent study has been conducted in Austria. Our study aims at assessing costs resulting from osteoporotic fractures in Austria in the year 2008 from a societal perspective. Methods We took both direct and indirect costs into consideration. Direct costs encompass medical costs such as expenses for pharmaceuticals, inpatient and outpatient medical care costs, as well as other medical services (e.g., occupational therapies). Non-medical direct costs include transportation costs and medical devices (e.g., wheel chairs or crutches). Indirect costs refer to costs of productivity losses due to absence of work. Moreover, we included costs for early retirement and opportunity costs of informal care provided by family members. For our analysis, we combined data of official statistics, expert estimates as well as unique patient surveys that are currently conducted in the course of an international osteoporotic fracture study in Austria. Results For the year 2008, the total annual financial burden incurred by osteoporotic fractures in Austria amounted to approx. €685.2 million, the largest fraction of which was due to the opportunity cost of family care (30.2%), followed by costs for hospitalization (26.6%). Conclusions The financial burden of osteoporotic fractures in Austria is substantial. Our findings may have implications for future economic analyses, and also support health care authorities in their decision making. PMID:22827971

  4. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    PubMed

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  6. AlpArray Austria - Illuminating the subsurface of Austria and understanding of Alpine geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; Bianchi, Irene; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; AlpArray Working Group

    2015-04-01

    AlpArray Austria is a research project to study the geodynamics of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria with a large-scale mobile broadband seismological network. AlpArray Austria is part of the AlpArray project - a unique European transnational research initiative in which 64 research institutes from 17 countries join their expertise to advance our knowledge about the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the entire Alpine area. AlpArray Austria is coordinated by the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGW) at the University of Vienna and funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). During spring 2015 the deployment of 42 mobile broadband seismometers (and two permanent stations) will commence and by autumn 2015 Austria will be completely covered by a dense seismological network with an average station spacing of about 40 kilometers. The mobile network consisting of 27 Reftek 151 60s sensors (provided by IMGW) and 15 Trillium 120s instruments (provided by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, DIAS, Ireland) will complement the permanent Austrian seismic network operated by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) that will also install the two permanent stations. AlpArray Austria will be continuously recording high-quality ground motion data for three years. Seismic data will be distributed through the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and shared with the collaborating AlpArray institutes. AlpArray Austria will shed light on the detailed geological structure and geodynamical evolution of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria. Utilizing seismic analysis methods such as shear wave splitting, receiver functions and body wave dispersion the AlpArray Austria working group at IMGW will, together with the international partners, focus on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, the location of interfaces and tomography, to answer outstanding questions on slab geometry and subduction polarity under

  7. English Language Teaching Profile: Austria. Literature Annex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This is a report in outline form of the status of teaching English literature in Austria. The schools syllabus prescribes that English literature should be taught after students have studied English for four years, that is, in the 5th form. The short story is the usual prose form selected. In the 5th and 6th forms, one literary work is studied in…

  8. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  9. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  10. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  11. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  12. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  13. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    PubMed

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  14. Preparedness for radiological emergency situations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the Austrian system of emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency situations. It demonstrates, in particular, the legal basis, the roles and competencies of the competent authorities, international and bilateral conventions on early notification of nuclear accidents, the Austrian emergency plans, the Austrian radiation monitoring system, the operated prognosis and decision support systems and the results of an estimation of possible impacts of nuclear power plant disasters on Austria.

  15. MRSA in Austria--an overview.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Sagel, U; Witte, W; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of predominant and sporadic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in large regions of Austria, and to compare the results with those from other European countries. In total, 1439 MRSA isolates, collected routinely between January 1996 and June 2006 from five Austrian federal provinces, were investigated. The isolates were confirmed as MRSA using mecA/femA multiplex PCR assays. Genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which are characteristic of community-acquired MRSA, were also detected by PCR. Subtyping was performed using SmaI macrorestriction digestion of genomic DNA, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis. Isolates that could not be assigned to clusters were further analysed by spa typing and/or multilocus sequence typing. The predominant clones detected in Austria were ST228 (southern German epidemic clone), ST5 (Rhine-Hessen MRSA), the ST8 Austrian clone and CC8/ST8. Whereas the frequencies of lineages corresponding to ST247, ST45 and ST22 remained comparably low, an increase in the frequency of lineages corresponding to ST5 and to ST228 was recorded. Overall, 20 different MRSA types and 321 subtypes were recognised according to PFGE analysis. The prevalence of different strains varied considerably in the different Austrian regions. When compared to other European countries, the situation in Austria was most similar to that found in Germany.

  16. Biometeorology in austria: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirmhirn, Inge

    1991-09-01

    Biometeorology in Austria has been shaped by concepts, personalities, and technology. In early times, the branches of biometeorology that are usual today were already evident: agricultural and forest meteorology, phenology, medical biometeorology and balneology, aerial biometeorology, urban housing and stabling meteorology all started to emerge several centuries ago. From the 1920 up to 1936, Wilhelm Schmidt at the Agricultural University of Austria laid the foundations of modern biometeorology. He was followed by Franz Sauberer, who headed a Department of Biometeorology at the National Weather Service and devoted his active life totally to biometeorology. Several years after his untimely death, the Department was dissolved. Not until 1981 was biometeorology taken up again at the Agricultural University, where the tradition of Schmidt and Sauberer now lives on in several courses within the area of applied biometeorology: Micro-and Topoclimatology, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology and Atmospheric Radiation. Biometeorology, being an experimental science, has also been influenced by new technological developments. The early period was exclusively observational. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries mechanical and simple electric instruments were used with strip-chart recorders. These time consuming methods have now been replaced by electronic devices, including data loggers and portable computers along with many new electronic sensors, which provide additional insight into biometeorological problems. Since computers also make it possible to solve some of the complicated equations of biometeorology, the future of this science seems to be bright, not only in Austria but throughout the world.

  17. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  18. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  19. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  20. Clinical study of the necessity of replanning before the 25th fraction during the course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Haihua; Hu, Wei; Shan, Guoping; Ding, Weijun; Yu, Changhui; Wang, Biyun; Wang, Xufeng; Xu, Qianyi

    2010-06-01

    To quantify the target and normal structures on dose distributing variations during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and to assess the value of replanning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-eight NPC patients treated with IMRT were recruited. The IMRT was delivered in 33 fractions, to 70 to 76Gy, to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Before the 25th fraction of IMRT, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. According to the dose constraint criterion in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0225 protocol, the replanning was generated on the new simulation CT. With the Quality Assessment Center of a CORVUS 6.3 treatment planning system, a phantom plan was generated for each patient by applying the beam configurations of the initial plan to the anatomy of the new simulation CT. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the replanning. The percentage of prescription dose delivered to the clinical target volume (CTV1) was significantly increased by 4.91% +/- 10.89%, whereas the maximum dose to the spinal cord, mean dose to the left parotid, and V30 to the right parotid were significantly decreased by 5.00 +/- 9.23Gy, 4.23 +/- 10.03Gy, and 11.47% +/- 18.89% respectively in the replanning, compared with the phantom plan (p < 0.05). Based on the dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, 50% of phantom plans (14/28) were out of limit for the dose to the normal critical structures, whereas no plan was out of limit in replanning (p < 0.001). Replanning for patients with NPC before the 25th fraction during IMRT helps to ensure adequate dose to the target volumes and safe doses to critical normal structures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  2. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Bayr, Klaus J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle.

  3. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  4. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria.

  5. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. USGS, Reston, VA Keene State College, NH )

    1992-03-01

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  6. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... and China. Accordingly, effective June 5, 2012, the Commission instituted antidumping duty...

  7. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-05

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  8. Ceremony 25th birthday Cern

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Célébration du 25ème anniversaire du Cern (jour par jour) avec discours de L.Van Hove et J.B.Adams, des interludes musicals offerts par Mme Mey et ses collègues (au debut 1.mouvement du quatuor avec piano no 3 de L.van Beethoven) Les directeurs généraux procéderont à la remise du souvenir aux membres de personnel ayant 25 années de service dans l'organisation. Un témoignage de reconnaissance est auss fait à l'interprète Mme Zwerner

  9. 25th Birthday Cern- Amphi

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec 2 orateurs: le Prof.Weisskopf parle de la signification et le rôle du Cern et le Prof.Casimir(?) fait un exposé sur les rélations entre la science pure et la science appliquée et la "big science" (science légère)

  10. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  11. PVL-positive MRSA in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mittermayer, H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present, for the first time, an overview of the existing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in Austria and to compare the situation with that found in other countries. Between 2001 and 2006 we analysed 1150 MRSA isolates - from infections as well as from colonisation - for the presence of PVL genes. The most common multilocus sequence types of the 94 PVL-positive MRSA strains were ST8, ST152, ST30, ST80, and ST5; the ST22, and ST777 sequences were also detected. During 2005 and 2006, 3.7-7.7% of the isolates were PVL-positive. The age distribution of the patients revealed that nosocomial MRSA mainly occurs in elderly people, whereas PVL-positive MRSA mainly appears in younger people. We observed a relatively high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. Several MRSA clones containing the PVL genes are spreading throughout Austria, including two strains not yet widespread in Western Europe.

  12. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  13. [Psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria].

    PubMed

    Evans, Janet; Dummer, Verena; Kinzl, Johann

    2016-12-01

    This paper on psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria first looks at the overall situation of Austrian day clinics then, in a second step, compares psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed and sent to all psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria. The first part consisted of closed questions and was used to gather and evaluate the categories: general conditions for treatment in day hospitals, tasks of day hospitals, therapeutic paradigms, indication and contraindication, diagnostics, day hospital organisation, interdisciplinary cooperation and the offering in day hospitals. The second section consisted of open questions which were used to gather and evaluate active factors, difficulties, specifics and requests for future treatment in day hospitals. The results show that there is a trend towards more day hospitals. Psychosomatic day hospitals are a rather new phenomenon. Furthermore, the distinction between psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals is important in order to offer patients distinguishable treatment options in future. The results show that psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals both have a strong focus on psychotherapy and both fulfill the active factors for psychotherapy by Grawe.

  14. Prison suicides in Austria, 1975-1997.

    PubMed

    Fruehwald, S; Frottier, P; Eher, R; Gutierrez, K; Ritter, K

    2000-01-01

    Suicide prevention in custody is hampered by the lack of funds and professional staff. In order to evaluate the prison suicide phenomenon, a study was conducted evaluating all suicides that occurred in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (n = 220). In addition to evaluating the number of male versus female suicides, the preferred suicide methods were studied, as well as suicide risk of different circumstances of custody. Suicide rates of distinguishable, important subgroups of prisoners were calculated. The suicide rate for prisoners on remand was 236.0 per 100,000, and for offenders classified as mentally ill it was 205.4 per 100,000. That is about 8 times higher than the suicide rate in Austria's general population (1975-1997: 24.6 per 100,000). The suicide rate for sentenced offenders was 81.3 per 100,000, about twice the suicide rate in Austria's general male population. We recommend that psychologists or psychiatrists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk offenders after screening the newly admitted offenders for their propensity to suicide.

  15. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  16. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination.

  17. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  18. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-13

    STS059-S-072 (13 April 1994) --- This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps, centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, and 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-Band using multi-polarization information (Red=CHV, Green=CVV, Blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch Dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). SIR-C/X-SAR radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing

  19. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  20. HPV prevalence in vulvar cancer in Austria.

    PubMed

    Pils, Sophie; Gensthaler, Lisa; Alemany, Laia; Horvat, Reinhard; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Joura, Elmar A

    2017-09-07

    Even if vulvar cancer is not common, over one hundred women are affected in Austria per year. There is strong evidence that basaloid and warty variants are associated with types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study is to analyze the types of HPV in vulvar cancer in Austria. This cross-sectional period-prevalence international collaborative study on archival specimens was performed in cooperation with the Institut Catalan di Oncologia in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 177 consecutive samples of Austrian women were analyzed to detect the presence of various HPV types using the SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 system. Furthermore, the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). A tumor was considered HPV-driven if an overexpression of p16(INK4a) was detected. In all, 41 cases of vulvar cancer tested positive for HPV DNA (23%) and 32 (18%) were p16 positive. Patients with warty and basaloid squamous cell cancer were significantly younger than those with keratinizing squamous cell cancer (63.3 years vs. 71.0 years, p = 0.021). In addition, 77.4% of all cases suffering from warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer tested positive for HPV, compared to 9.5% of the keratinizing squamous cell cancer cases (p < 0.001). The most commonly detected HPV strain was type 16, followed by 31 and 33. Infection with HPV type 16 appears to be strongly correlated to the development of warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer. Vaccination against HPV can be expected to prevent this type of vulvar cancer.

  1. Epidemiology of borrelia infections in Austria.

    PubMed

    Stanek, G; Flamm, H; Groh, V; Hirschl, A; Kristoferitsch, W; Neumann, R; Schmutzhard, E; Wewalka, G

    1987-02-01

    From April 1984 to July 1985 873 cases of Borrelia infections were registered at the Hygiene Institute of the University of Vienna. 2609 serum samples of these patients were investigated for antibodies against B. burgdorferi by means of IFA- and ELISA-tests. Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM) was recognized in 60.9% of patients, neurological abnormalities were recorded in 23.4% of which the majority manifested themselves as polyradiculitis and meningopolyneuritis (MPN). Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) was recognized in 11.5%. A small number of patients suffered from Lymphadenosis cutis benigna (LCB), arthritis and cardiac abnormalities. Sixty percent of patients were females and 40% males. Infections were found in all age groups ranging from 2-83 years in females and 1-85 years in males. Tick- or insect-bites prior to the onset of illness were reported by 47.2% and 15.6% of patients, respectively. The main vector is the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Flying insects from the family tabanidae, i.e. Chrysops caecutiens and Haematopota species, must also be considered as transmitters. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were found in 22.3%, 93.6% and 100% of sera from patients with ECM, MPN and ACA, respectively. Six of 11 patients with LCB and all with arthritis and cardiac abnormalities showed serologic reactivity. Geographically, Borrelia infections are distributed in all states of Austria. The seasonal distribution of cases show a peak in July and August, but the onset of clinical manifestation could be observed throughout the year. These results present Austria as an area where tick- or insect-borne Borrelia infections are very frequent and endemic in all Austrian states.

  2. National survey of women in physics in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkmann, C.; Rodriguez, A.; Brodacz, I.; Dilaver, N.; Suárez, A.; Ayala, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports very generally on changes in the situation of women in physics in Austria since 2008 and more specifically on a national web-based survey that was distributed among physicists in Austria. It was aimed at understanding why few women are motivated to study physics and to follow an academic path. Family responsibilities— among others—seem to have a deep impact on women's careers. In Austria, initiatives to support women in scientific careers are quite well known throughout the physics community, and a high percentage of women responding to the survey said they had participated in at least one of them.

  3. The annual amount of lightning in just 20 minutes: the October 25th, 2015 super-cell thunderstorm over central Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Ziv, B.; Lynn, B. H.; Evgeni, K.

    2016-12-01

    An exceptionally rare Eastern Mediterranean super-cell thunderstorm occurred during the morning hours of October 25th 2015. The storm developed within the northern tip of a Red-Sea trough (extending from Sudan to the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea) off the Egyptian coastline near Alexandria and moved north-west, crossing the Israeli coast just north of Tel-Aviv at 0900 local time. Deep convective cells developed rapidly over the sea, with thunderclouds exhibiting cloud top temperatures colder than -70°C (18 km) and radar reflectivity cores > 65 dBz at 10 km. The storms were accompanied by intensive lightning activity, severe hail, downbursts, and intense rain. The super-cell subsided upon reaching the Jordan rift in eastern Israel. The super-cell caused 1 fatality, extensive flooding and agricultural damages. It also impacted the national electrical network with power outages lasting for 3 days in central Israel. More than 17,000 cloud-to-ground lightning strokes were registered by the lightning detection system of the Israeli Electrical Corporation, exceeding the annual average for the entire country. The average cloud-to-ground flash rates between 0940-0950 and 0950-1000 (local time) were greater than 436 and 430 strokes per minute respectively, exceeding the global record flash rates found in the Argentina-Paraguay border (Zipser et al., 2006). This was the most powerful thunderstorm ever observed in Israel since lightning detection became operational in 1997. Medium-range forecast models such as ECMWF and the GFS missed the timing and severity of this unusual storm. We will present a mesoscale and microphysical analysis of this event to better understand the origins and severity of this rare super-cell. WRF high-resolution simulations with lightning assimilation (Fierro et al., 2012; Lynn et al., 2015) coupled with the Dynamic Lightning Scheme (Lynn et al., 2012) will be used in order to evaluate the performance of the WRF for accurately nowcasting such events.

  4. Mechanism of the ML4.0 25th April 2016 Lacq (SW France) earthquake related to the gas extraction field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo; Delatre, Mickael; Burnol, André

    2017-04-01

    There were 11 earthquakes of magnitude larger than 3.8 in metropolitan France in 2016 according to the available catalogue EMSC. Among them, the ML4.0 25th April 2016 earthquake is suspected to be induced in gas exploitation field of Lacq, south-western France, close to the Pyreneans. The area is briefly covered by French national broad-band and acceleration networks and the data are available from ORFEUS/EIDA (European Integrated Data Achieves, http://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/eida/index.html ). In order to understand the mechanism of this earthquake and the state-of-art of the reservoir, it is essential to study the reliability of the focal depth and mechanism. We carry out a moment-tensor inversion using Genetic Algorithm. We select three broad-band stations at distance of about 50 km and applied a bandpass filter between 16 and 32 seconds. Green functions are calculated for the 1D layered structure. We fix the epicenter position determined by RéNaSS (Réseau National de Surveillance Sismique, http://www.renass.unistra.fr) and change the possible focal depths. The inversions show a good convergence to a solution of Mw3.8 indicating EW running normal faulting. This mechanism is consistent with the reservoir geometry of the gas field and may be interpreted as subsidence of the reservoir. However the obtained solution does not fit the nearest station, located a few hundred meters from the epicenter, probably due to lack of the precise epicenter position and/or local structure.

  5. Informing Policy and Practice in Australia's Vocational Education and Training Sector: Reflections and Futures. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Forum of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, March 21, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.; Loveder, Phil, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    To mark the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) brought together policy, industry and academic leaders to reflect on the role that research and statistics have played in the development of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector. This publication includes the original…

  6. Mathematics Education in the South Pacific. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (25th, Auckland, New Zealand, July 7-10, 2002). Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bill, Ed.; Irwin, Kathryn C., Ed.; Pfannkuch, Maxine, Ed.; Thomas, Michael O. J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia (MERGA) held at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of this meeting is mathematics education in the South Pacific. Presentations are centered around the topic of numeracy in primary or elementary school.…

  7. The Human Face of Technological Change. Theme Papers from the Silver Jubilee Conference of the Australian College of Education (25th, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, May 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley, Ed.

    Papers presented at the 25th annual conference of the Australia College of Education addressed four major themes: The Brave New World of 1984; The Communications Revolution; Being Human in a Technological Age; and Implications of the Technological Society of Education. Papers in this volume include: (1) "The Challenge of Education in the…

  8. Graduate Education--Past--Present--Future. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (25th, Anaheim, California, December 11-14, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Edna M., Ed.

    This proceedings document contains papers presented at the 25th anniversary meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (CGS); information on the CGS business meeting, notices of awards presentations, copies of the CGS constitution and bylaws, and a CGS membership list. Topics and presenters are as follows: "Current Issues…

  9. Mathematics Education in the South Pacific. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (25th, Auckland, New Zealand, July 7-10, 2002). Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bill, Ed.; Irwin, Kathryn C., Ed.; Pfannkuch, Maxine, Ed.; Thomas, Michael O. J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia (MERGA) held at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of this meeting is mathematics education in the South Pacific. Presentations are centered around the topic of numeracy in primary or elementary school.…

  10. White Paper on opioid usage improves legislation in Austria.

    PubMed

    Beubler, Eckhard

    2007-01-01

    The White Paper on Opioids and Pain: A Pan-European Challenge, which was presented to the European Parliament, has led to legislation in Austria to improve opioid usage. Process and outcomes of this work are summarized.

  11. Austria: Policy-Making in a Small Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signitzer, Benno

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Austria's position as a small member of the European community, in terms of satellite broadcasting policy. Austrian policy is viewed as lacking coherence--a policy of compromise and conciliation. (JMF)

  12. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  13. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R.; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kessler, Harald H.; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed. PMID

  14. OH zoning in alpine quartz from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertweck, B.; Niedermayr, G.; Beran, A.

    2003-04-01

    Rock crystals from various alpine clefts in Austria were investigated in terms of morphology, domain structure, and OH defects. Since the formation of alpine clefts is a long lasting and multiphase process, the crystal growth of alpine quartz is dominated by different morphologies and various OH defects. 140 samples were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and optical methods to reveal complementary information on morphology, twining, hydrogen incorporation, and zoning of the OH defects. IR spectroscopic measurements of colourless and smoky quartz samples revealed six characteristic absorption bands in the range of the OH stretching frequencies at 3315, 3380, 3430, 3480, 3510 and 3595 cm-1. The quantitative analysis of the water content revealed an amount of 0.5-20 ppm H_2O. With a maximum of frequency in the 1-2 ppm range the amount of water incorporation is comparably lower than known from non-alpine deposits. The spectra can be divided in four types characterised by the number and/or the relative band intensities. Among the Austrian samples one type, showing clearly all the six bands, is abundant and has not been found in the spectra from non-alpine sites. A significant relation between spectra type, crystal morphology, mineral deposit (within Austria), and OH content cannot be deduced. Microspectroscopic measurements of profiles through crystals cut perpendicular to the c-axis revealed that the spectra types rarely change within one sample. However, a variation of the water content is commonly related to a change of the relative intensity of the 3480 cm-1 absorption band. Regarding the hydrogen incorporation all samples show a distinct zoning. In addition, the OH zoning as well as the crystal growth appear regularly, leading to different hydrogen amounts in core and mantle zone of the crystals. The average zoning is given by factor 1.2, whereas strong variations were measured up to factor 2.5. The formation of Brazil twin domains often coincides with a distinct

  15. A short history of neurosciences in Austria.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, K A

    2006-03-01

    Based on internal medicine and psychiatry and in close connection with pathology, the neurosciences in Austria began to develop in the 18(th) century, e.g. with the description of inflammation of the central nervous system by J. P. Franck (1745-1823) and the "phrenology" by F. J. Gall (1745-1823). Under the influence of the great pathologist C. Rokitansky (1804-1878), the tripode of the Vienna neurology - L. Türck (1810-1868), as initiator, Th. v. Meynert (1833-1892) the activator, and H. Obersteiner (1847-1922) as the founder of the Vienna Neurological Institute, presented basic contributions to the morphology and pathology of the nervous system. At the end of the 19(th) and in the early 20(th) century, they were followed by important publications by S. Fred (aphasia), C. Redlich (tabes dorsalis), F. Sträussler (CNS syphilis), A. Spitzer (fiber anatomy of the brain), P. Schilder (diffuse sclerosis), R. Barany (Nobel price for physiology and medicine 1914), J. Wagner v. Jauregg (Nobel price for medicine, 1927), O. Loewi (Nobel Price for Physiology and Medicine together with Sir H. Dale, 1936), A. Schüller (histiocytosis X), C. v. Economo (encephalitis lethargica and cytoarchitectonics of the human cerebral cortex), E. Pollak (Wilson disease), E. Gamper (mesencephalic subject), J. Gerstmann (Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and Gerstmann parietal syndrome), H. Hoff with L. Schönbauer (brain tumors and surgery), and others. Major research institutions were the departments of psychiatry I and II at the University of Vienna School of Medicine (foundation 1870), unification 1911, separation into departments of neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry of children and adolescents in 1971), the Obersteiner Institute in Vienna (foundation 1882, separation 1993), the university departments at Graz and Innsbruck, both founded in 1891, and other laboratories, where renouned clinicans and neuroscientists, like O. Marburg, H. Hoff, O. Pötzl, O. Kauders, F

  16. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet) above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center) includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test

  17. Assessment of mobile dental services in the State of Lower Austria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Corrêa da Fonseca, Ana Cláudia; Montenegro, Fernando Luiz Brunetti

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the existence and the quality of mobile dental services available to the austrian elderly population of Lower Austria, Austria, using two approaches: the home-bound elders' perception and the dentistry services provided in nursery homes. The study had two parts. The first was a qualitative assessment of mobile dental services as perceived by the elderly home bounds, based on 52 questionnaires. These questionnaries were distributed to the home bound persons in a period of one month. The second part was the assessment in the nursing homes. For this study a short questionnaire was sent, by e-mail, to 61 nursing homes of Lower Austria. by the elderly home bound--29 questionnaires returned completed (response quote of 55.8%) and 4 uncompleted. The age range of the subjects was from 64 to 89 years old and the ratio of women to men was about 2:1 (62% to 38%). 79.3% think that dental home care is a good practice, 58.6% would use mobile dentistry themselves. in the nursing homes--From the 61 sent e-mails 33 were returned with completed questionnaires (response quote of 54.09%). 48.5% of the nursing homes replied that they do not have mobile dental service. However, 17 homes (51.51%) have a mobile dentist. A mobile dental service for patients of austrian geriatric nursing homes does exist. However, no mobile dental service was identified for austrian home bound patients. This scenario shows the need for a mobile dental care programme and politcs.

  18. Twenty years of acanthamoeba diagnostics in Austria.

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  19. Twenty Years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5. PMID:25047131

  20. [Psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy in Austria].

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Walter; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    In present-day Austria, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy enjoy significantly more sociopolitical and cultural recognition perhaps as a heritage from the days of the Austrian monarchy -- than is reflected in their real presence. This development can be traced back to prewar times and the repudiation of the destructive national socialistic ideology. There is an immanent conflict between specialization in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy as an independent field of medicine and the integration of a psychosomatic basic approach into the general fields of medicine. The organization of psychotherapy is doubly anchored in the laws governing medical practice (PSY diploma) and the statutes governing the practice of psychotherapy; this, however, has not resolved the sensitive and only partially creative tension between the two. Austrian medical health politics are currently characterized by renewed efforts to organize the field of psychosomatic medicine. Should medical psychology and psychotherapy, internal medicine, psychiatry or general medicine provide the foundations for this new organization? This conflict is crucial since it will influence the further development of the entire medical field.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): Combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracci, S.; Caruso, O.; Galeotti, M.; Iannaccone, R.; Magrini, D.; Picchi, D.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  2. Multidisciplinary approach for the study of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): combining imaging and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bracci, S; Caruso, O; Galeotti, M; Iannaccone, R; Magrini, D; Picchi, D; Pinna, D; Porcinai, S

    2015-06-15

    This paper demonstrates that an educated methodology based on both non-invasive and micro invasive techniques in a two-step approach is a powerful tool to characterize the materials and stratigraphies of an Egyptian coffin, which was restored several times. This coffin, belonging to a certain Mesiset, is now located at the Museo Civico Archeologico of Bologna (inventory number MCABo EG 1963). Scholars attributed it to the late 22nd/early 25th dynasty by stylistic comparison. The first step of the diagnostic approach applied imaging techniques on the whole surface in order to select measurements spots and to unveil both original and restored areas. Images and close microscopic examination of the polychrome surface allowed selecting representative areas to be investigated in situ by portable spectroscopic techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After the analysis of the results coming from the first step, very few selected samples were taken to clarify the stratigraphy of the polychrome layers. The first step, based on the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques in a totally non-invasive modality, is quite unique in the literature on Egyptian coffins and enabled us to reveal many differences in the ground layer's composition and to identify a remarkable number of pigments in the original and restored areas. This work offered also a chance to check the limitations of the non-invasive approach applied on a complex case, namely the right localization of different materials in the stratigraphy and the identification of binding media. Indeed, to dissolve any remaining doubts on superimposed layers belonging to different interventions, it was necessary to sample few micro-fragments in some selected areas and analyze them prepared as cross-sections. The original ground layer is made of calcite, while the restored areas show the presence of either a mixture of calcite

  3. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    PubMed

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  4. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change image of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The image is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This image is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the image center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high radar signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the radar. Low radar backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or radar grazing areas to radar shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test

  5. Characterization of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Seibert, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The long-range transport of aerosols over Austria is characterized using measurements from EARLINET lidar stations and AERONET stations closest to Austria, and aerosol transport models. The analysis is based on selected events of long-range transport of aerosols recorded over Central and South-Eastern Europe: dust, biomass burning, continental aerosols and a special case of volcanic ash, using measurements from EARLINET and AERONET stations around Austria: Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Munich, Leipzig (all stations located in Germany), and Bucharest (Romania). Aerosol layers have been determined using a wavelet analysis applied to the lidar measurements. The optical properties of these aerosols have been also determined from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. The analysis of the trajectories has been performed with the FLEXTRA model, while the estimation of the potential areas of aerosols' sources has been performed using FLEXPART transport model. Based on the spatial and temporal distributions of the trajectories, the main groups of trajectories have been identified using a cluster analysis. The results shows that the long-range transported aerosols over Austria in the spring and summer seasons originate mainly from Sahara (dust) and Canada (biomass burning), coming over Germany. A comparison of the results with the CALIPSO satellite measurements over Austria is also performed. Supported by Austrian Science Fund FWF, Project M 2031, Meitner-Programm.

  6. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  7. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008) Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reijer

    2009-04-01

    This issue forms part I of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 67-13 August 2008). The majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London prize lectures, the international union of pure and applied physics (IUPAP) young scientist award lectures, the plenary, half-plenary and public lectures, and the historical lectures presented at the LT25 conference, are included. The papers relating to the oral and poster presentations will appear in part II of the proceedings in a dedicated open access issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 150). In addition to the organizer's report and a summary of the new developments in low temperature physics, which can also be found in this issue, part II provides useful information about LT25, such as an overview of committees, sponsors, exhibitors, and some conference statistics. To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and review of 900 papers appearing in both parts I and II of these proceedings. In particular, we would like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, Fons de Waele, and Jan Zaanen.

  8. [Opioid therapy in Austria: results and analysis of a survey].

    PubMed

    Bernatzky, G; Pipam, W; Pinter, G; Mitterschiffthaler, G; Likar, R

    1999-08-19

    Many causes are given as the main reason for inadequate pain therapy. The objective of our study was to demonstrate the current position of doctors in general practice all over Austria who prescribe prescriptions. A total of 5,359 questionnaires were sent out to general practitioners in all federal states of Austria. These questionnaires contained 21 main questions on subjects relevant to pain therapy. On average, 16% of all general practitioners returned the questionnaires; 89.3% of these are acquainted with the WHO graduated scale, 87% have prescribed strong opioids. Old prejudices such as concerns about the side effects are hardly to be found now. Modern therapy strategies are used. Based on the data at hand, pain therapy for patients should be excellent. The reality, however, is somewhat different. The large number of doctors who did not reply makes it enormously difficult to make a statement about the position of pain therapy in Austria.

  9. S.H. and others v. Austria and circumvention tourism.

    PubMed

    Glenn Cohen, I

    2012-12-01

    This commentary discusses the decision in S.H. and Others v. Austria from a political theoretical and bioethical perspective. I focus on the opinion's discussion of what I call 'circumvention tourism', travelling abroad for the purpose of circumventing domestic prohibitions, especially as to medical services. The majority opinion in the case touts Austria's allowance of circumvention tourism for reproductive technology services that are illegal on Austrian soil as a reason to find as lawful Austria's prohibition on using those services on Austrian soil. To the contrary, I show that, in many ways, permitting circumvention tourism for these services while prohibiting them domestically is deeply problematic. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Incidence and regional distribution of colorectal cancers in Austria].

    PubMed

    Hanusch, J; Friedl, H P; Schemper, M; Schiessel, R

    1985-05-10

    Based on data obtained from the official Austrian cancer registry, we evaluated the incidence of, and death rate from cancer of the colon and rectum. The increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Austria is comparable to that of other western industrial countries. There is an estimated rise in the annual figures of newly registered patients from 3174 in 1971 to 3981 cases in 1981. Regional distribution within Austria is not homogeneous: the highest risk of disease was observed in Vienna (60 new cases per year per 100000 inhabitants), the lowest in Tyrol with 40 new cases per 100000. The marked east-west slope in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Austria is a good basis for the investigation of pathogenetic factors.

  11. Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 - a new fish parasite in Austria?

    PubMed

    Michael Mühlegger, J; Jirsa, Franz; Konecny, Robert; Sattmann, Helmut; Frank, Christa

    2009-10-01

    During parasitological studies of the invasive round goby fish species Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas, 1814) from the Danube River in 2007 the digenean Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 was detected for the first time in Austria. Encysted metacercariae of the parasite were found on the fins, skin and gills of the fish. The occurrence of the parasite is strictly dependant on the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), which acts as the obligatory first intermediate host in its life cycle. The mussel has also invaded Austrian waters, but has appeared in 1870 already. It will not be possible to establish whether the parasite was introduced to Austria with the gobies, or has arrived earlier, but it should be the subject of future investigations to ascertain whether the parasite will be able to establish a firm population in Austria, and whether this introduction puts additional pressure on the native fish populations.

  12. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; p<0.001), infected with subtype B (p<0.001) or subtype F (p = 0.02). Among clustered males who reported only heterosexual (HSX) sex as an HIV risk, 47% clustered closely with MSM (either as pairs or within larger MSM clusters). One hundred and seven of the 259 sequences (41.3%) from South-East Austria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  13. Spillway sizing of large dams in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Ch.; Gutknecht, D.; Blöschl, G.

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the basic philosophy of defining and calculating design floods for large dams in Austria, both for the construction of new dams and for a re-assessment of the safety of existing dams. Currently the consensus is to choose flood peak values corresponding to a probability of exceedance of 2*10-4 for a given year. A two step procedure is proposed to estimate the design flood discharges - a rapid assessment and a detailed assessment. In the rapid assessment the design discharge is chosen as a constant multiple of flood values read from a map of regionalised floods. The safety factor or multiplier takes care of the uncertainties of the local estimation and the regionalisation procedure. If the current design level of a spillway exceeds the value so estimated, no further calculations are needed. Otherwise (and for new dams) a detailed assessment is required. The idea of the detailed assessment is to draw upon all existing sources of information to constrain the uncertainties. The three main sources are local flood frequency analysis, where flood data are available; regional flood estimation from hydrologically similar catchments; and rainfall-runoff modelling using design storms as inputs. The three values obtained by these methods are then assessed and weighted in terms of their reliability to facilitate selection of the design flood. The uncertainty assessment of the various methods is based on confidence intervals, estimates of regional heterogeneity, data availability and sensitivity analyses of the rainfall-runoff model. As the definition of the design floods discussed above is based on probability concepts it is also important to examine the excess risk, i.e. the possibility of the occurrence of a flood exceeding the design levels. The excess risk is evaluated based on a so called Safety Check Flood (SCF), similar to the existing practice in other countries in Europe. The SCF is a vehicle to analyse the damage potential of an event of this

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  15. [Commentary on the planned restructuring of mammography screening in Austria].

    PubMed

    Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    With regards to the planned reorganisation of screening mammography in Austria - from an opportunistic to an organised system - the problems related with such a change are depicted from an epidemiological point of view. We were able to demonstrate earlier that opportunistic screening mammography matches the results of controlled screening mammography in Finland and Sweden. Switching to a controlled system in Austria would - besides the need for a change in legislation - lead to enormous expenditures in terms of resources needed and moreover, it could be not evaluated for years.

  16. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading 3913.90... imports from China of xanthan gum. Background The Commission instituted these investigations effective...

  17. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  18. [Academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria].

    PubMed

    Kolland, F

    2007-12-01

    This article describes the situation of academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria. University formation in these areas is at the very beginning. Due to the lack of institutionalization of gerontology and geriatrics at the university level, the study programs were developed by non-university institutions. The studies are mostly at the post-gradual level and are practice-oriented.

  19. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  20. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  1. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  2. [The demographic situation of Austria in the year 1987].

    PubMed

    Findl, P

    1989-01-01

    Information is presented on demographic trends in Austria during 1987. Some comparative data for earlier years are also provided. Topics covered include births, fertility rates, population reproduction, deaths, life expectancy, marriages, divorces, international migration, refugees, naturalizations, changes in population size, age structure, and the dependency burden.

  3. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  4. School Development through Education for Sustainable Development in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Franz; Steiner, Regina

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines the leading concepts which are being discussed in the current debate on education for sustainable development (ESD) in Austria, detailing their historic development and characteristic features, as well as the empirical experience gained in school development to date. These concepts are environmental education, development…

  5. The Schools of Austria-Hungary. Bulletin, 1919, No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Peter H.

    1919-01-01

    The political changes now taking place in Austria-Hungary will be followed undoubtedly by far-reaching alterations in the school system, whereby old modes will be swept away and new ones inaugurated. In the present sketch the attempt is made to treat only such problems and movements as are likely to continue in some form and thereby maintain a…

  6. Austria to join ESO on 1 July 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at a ceremony in Vienna, the Austrian Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, signed the formal Accession Agreement between Austria and ESO, paving the way for Austria to join ESO as its 14th member state by 1 July this year. Signing Austria Agreement ESO PR Photo 20a/08 The Signing Ceremony "This will not only give the high-quality Austrian astronomical community full access to ESO's facilities, it will give Austrian scientists a say, together with their colleagues from the other member-states, in shaping the future of our science," said Tim de Zeeuw. The signing of the Agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during its meeting in Prague on 3 June and the decision by the Austrian Government on 25 June. At the ceremony, Minister Hahn emphasised that the accession of Austria to ESO is a strong commitment to fundamental research and particularly to astronomy. "This sustainable investment enables Austrian science to gain access to a leading, international research infrastructure, and provides an important impulse for the attractiveness of Austria as a place for research," he said. "With the signature of the agreement today we bring a long discussion to a happy end and Austrian astronomy to new horizons." Since the Agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Austrian Parliament for ratification. "It is not possible to plan for radical changes, but ideal conditions will be created by this accession, which will strengthen Austrian and European astronomy. It is now for the scientists to use this opportunity," concluded the Austrian Minister.

  7. Chronic paracoccidioidomycosis in a female patient in Austria.

    PubMed

    Mayr, A; Kirchmair, M; Rainer, J; Rossi, R; Kreczy, A; Tintelnot, K; Dierich, M P; Lass-Flörl, C

    2004-12-01

    Presented here is a case of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis that occurred in a Cuban female living in Austria and was first misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. The clinical picture was one of progressive pulmonary insufficiency with fever, weight loss and productive cough. Since antituberculous therapy was started but did not achieve a long-term clinical response, an intensive diagnostic work-up was performed. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was then diagnosed by histopathology, serology, microbiology and molecular identification. Antifungal therapy was commenced immediately with amphotericin B (1 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, followed by voriconazole (200 mg/day po) for at least 3 months, and the lesions disappeared almost completely. This report presents the first published case of imported paracoccidioidomycosis in a female patient in Austria.

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of loess deposits at Paudorf, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, M.; Leitner-Wild, E.; Hille, P.

    The fine grain thermoluminescence (TL) dating method was applied to an upper palaeosol from a loess deposit in Paudorf, Lower Austria. This site is of special interest as there is some controversy about the time of formation of this soil horizon. The results of the present study strongly indicate that the soil formed during the Würm I/II interstadial (deep sea δ 18O Isotope Stage 3). Although age underestimation due to a long-term instability of luminescence centres in general cannot be ruled out, arguments are given for the presented TL age, which is also corroborated by the radiocarbon age of charcoal from the top part of the correlated palaeosol in Aigen, Lower Austria.

  9. Variability in sensitivity of catchment model parameters in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleziak, Patrik; Parajka, Juraj; Hlavčová, Kamila; Szolgay, Ján

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal changes in sensitivity of model parameters in Austria. The sensitivity is assessed for a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (TUW model) by using Latin hypercube sampling method. The spatial variability in sensitivity of model parameters is evaluated over 213 Austrian basins. The temporal variability is compared for three 10-year periods from 1981-2010. The results show two distinct regions with different sensitivity of model parameters. In the alpine and flatlands regions, the most sensitive are parameters related to snow (degree-day melt factor) and soil (maximum soil field capacity) processes, respectively. The evaluation of temporal variability indicates that despite some changes in climate characteristics over the analyzed decades (i.e. a clear increase in air temperature and precipitation), the sensitivity changes are not large. Our contribution will discuss the factors that control the temporal stability of sensitivity changes in Austria.

  10. Risk factors of colic in horses in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kaya, G; Sommerfeld-Stur, I; Iben, C

    2009-06-01

    A hospital-based case study was conducted at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna for a 1-year period. The purpose of this study was to determine possible alterable and non-alterable risk factors of equine colic in Austria. The investigated parameters were obtained from hospital medical records (individual factors, duty of the horse, deworming, change in diet and water intake), from questionnaires (feed intake, watering types, housing and pasture practices) and from http://www.orf.at (weather-related factors). Moreover, 221 collected feed samples were investigated through hygienic quality sensory evaluation and mould, yeast and bacteria presumptive samples were confirmed by microbiological investigation. Variables that were observed from the hospital medical records and found to be significantly associated with colic in a univariate analysis were included in multivariate analysis and the only remaining risk factor was decreased water consumption (p < 0.001, OR = 5.025). Consequently, a total of 2743 horses and 366 cases of colic were observed during the study period. The risk factors for colic in Austria were identified for the first time in this study and these increased risk factors were decreased water consumption, high amount of concentrate intake (p = 0.037), low hygienic quality of hay (p = 0.027) and high temperature on the arrival date (p = 0.003). Results suggest that the occurrence of colic may not stop, but may decrease with better feed management practices in Austria.

  11. Pestivirus infection in sheep and goats in West Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2010-12-01

    Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.

  12. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    PubMed

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  13. Representations of eyeglasses on Gothic winged altars in Austria.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1997-01-01

    The oldest representation of eyeglasses in the German-speaking area is found on the altar of Tyrol Castle in the Museum Ferdinandeum in Innsbruck, Tyrol, on an altarpiece depicting the death of the Virgin Mary (1370-1372). Other representations of eyeglasses are found in Klosterneuburg, Lower Austria, Albrechtsaltar, collegiate collection, death of the Virgin (1439); St. Lorenzen ob Murau, daughter church St. Lorenzen, Styria, Katharinenaltar, Disputation (1455-1460); Pettau (Ptuj), Pokrajinjski Muzej, Slovenia (then belonging to the archbishopric of Salzburg), Conrad Laib, St. Bernardine of Siena with a spectacle case (1460-1465); on two altars by Michael Pacher: Pharisee, Gries near Bolzano (1471-1475), apostle mourning over the death of the Virgin Mary, and St. Luke, St. Wolfgang in Salzkammergut (1481); St. Florian, Upper Austria, collegiate collection, altar of the provost Leonhard Riesenschmid of St. Florian, death of the Virgin (1487); museum of Wilten monastery, Innsbruck, Ludwig Konraiter, St. Ottilie with reading stones and death of the Virgin Mary with reading apostle (1485-1490); Austrian Gallery Belvedere, Vienna, Master of Grossgmain, St. Augustine (1498); Austrian Gallery Belvedere, Vienna, Master of Mondsee, St. Augustine (1490-1500); Diocesan museum Graz, Styria, altar of Hirschegg, death of the Virgin (1503); Krenstetten, Lower Austria, Stefan-Altar, Disputation (1500-1520); Museum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, Matheis Stöberl, Jesus and the scribes with a spectacle case (early 16th century).

  14. Changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry before the 25th fraction during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Ding Weijun; Shan Guoping; Wang Wei; Yu Changhui; Wang Biyun; Shao Minghai; Wang Jianhua; Yang Weifang

    2012-07-01

    To quantify changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry, and to illustrate the inferiority of non-replanning during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Fifty-three NPC patients who received IMRT in 33 fractions were enrolled in this prospective trial. Before the 25th fraction, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the initial plan. Significant reduction of the transverse diameter of the nasopharyngeal, the neck, and 2 parotid glands volume was observed on second CT compared with the first CT (mean reduction 7.48 {+-} 4.45 mm, 6.80 {+-} 15.14 mm, 5.70 {+-} 6.26 mL, and 5.04 {+-} 5.85 mL, respectively; p < 0.01). The maximum dose and V-40 of the spinal cord, mean dose, and V30 of the left and right parotid, and V-50 of the brain stem were increased significantly in the phantom plan compared with the initial plan (mean increase 4.75 {+-} 5.55 Gy, 7.18 {+-} 10.07%, 4.51 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 6.59 {+-} 17.82%, 5.33 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 11.68 {+-} 17.11% and 1.48 {+-} 3.67%, respectively; p < 0.01). On the basis of dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, the dose of the normal critical structures for 52.83% (28/53) of the phantom plans were out of limit compared with 1.89% (1/53) of the initial plans (p < 0.0001). Because of the significant change in anatomy and dose before the 25th fraction during IMRT, replanning should be necessary during IMRT with NPC.

  15. Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-07-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.

  16. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  17. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  18. [Wolfgang Huber and the history of psychoanalysis in Austria].

    PubMed

    List, Eveline

    2007-01-01

    Huber, author of the first book on the history of psychoanalysis in Austria, is presented through his biography and in relation to the ambience of Salzburg, where he lived and worked. As a theologian and priest, he increasingly resented the limitations of the church and he studied psychology, finally finding his way to psychoanalysis. The history of psychoanalysis became his special field of research. On friendly terms with colleagues in Europe and America, he became a central figure and patron of the younger generation of historians of psychoanalysis.

  19. Energy-efficient Renovation of a Real Estate in AUSTRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenic, Azra; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    An action have cities worldwide, due to urbanization. More than 70 percent of people in Europe live in cities, where 70 percent of the energy consumed. Without adequate measures, a rapidly growing city is at risk in by overloading the infrastructure, threats to water, energy, pollution, logistical bottlenecks and lack of housing. This paper describes an energy-efficient renovation or expansion planning a real estate in Vorarlberg, Austria. The settlement was analysed in more detail here, it involves the city Dornbirn- part Shor. The study investigated how to extend this settlement energy efficient and what feed for factors in the assessment.

  20. Uncertainty contributions to low-flow projections in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Blöschl, Günter; Haslinger, Klaus; Hepp, Gerold; Laaha, Gregor; Schöner, Wolfgang; Trautvetter, Helene; Viglione, Alberto; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper is to understand the contributions to the uncertainty in low-flow projections resulting from hydrological model uncertainty and climate projection uncertainty. Model uncertainty is quantified by different parameterisations of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrologic model (TUWmodel) using 11 objective functions in three different decades (1976-1986, 1987-1997, 1998-2008), which allows for disentangling the effect of the objective function-related uncertainty and temporal stability of model parameters. Climate projection uncertainty is quantified by four future climate scenarios (ECHAM5-A1B, A2, B1 and HADCM3-A1B) using a delta change approach. The approach is tested for 262 basins in Austria. The results indicate that the seasonality of the low-flow regime is an important factor affecting the performance of model calibration in the reference period and the uncertainty of Q95 low-flow projections in the future period. In Austria, the range of simulated Q95 in the reference period is larger in basins with a summer low-flow regime than in basins with a winter low-flow regime. The accuracy of simulated Q95 may result in a range of up to 60 % depending on the decade used for calibration. The low-flow projections of Q95 show an increase of low flows in the Alps, typically in the range of 10-30 % and a decrease in the south-eastern part of Austria mostly in the range -5 to -20 % for the climate change projected for the future period 2021-2050, relative the reference period 1978-2007. The change in seasonality varies between scenarios, but there is a tendency for earlier low flows in the northern Alps and later low flows in eastern Austria. The total uncertainty of Q95 projections is the largest in basins with a winter low-flow regime and, in some basins the range of Q95 projections exceeds 60 %. In basins with summer low flows, the total uncertainty is mostly less than 20 %. The ANOVA assessment of the relative contribution of the three

  1. Shigellosis in refugees, Austria, July to November 2015.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Ingeborg; Taus, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Fenkart, Sabrina; Spina, Alexander; Springer, Burkhard; Schmid, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We report on a cluster of shigellosis including 21 cases in refugees and two in local residents who worked in refugee transit centres, detected in Austria in 2015, between calendar weeks 29 and 47. The species isolated from the cluster cases, including one mixed infection, were S. sonnei (n = 13), S. flexneri (n = 10) and S. boydii (n = 1). Eleven of 18 tested isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive, including five of six ciprofloxacin-resistant and three azithromycin-resistant isolates.

  2. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... xanthan gum from Austria and the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice of initiation stated that the... antidumping duty investigations are currently due no later than November 12, 2012. \\1\\ See Xanthan Gum...

  3. Media Education in the Advent of the New Technologies in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geretschlaeger, Ingrid; Geretschlaeger, Erich

    This overview of mass media and media education in Austria begins by briefly describing the geography, population, government, and economy of the country. The current status of press, radio, and television in Austria is then presented, followed by a discussion of the potential benefits and problems of new communication technologies. The objectives…

  4. [Aphorisms on patient-physician relationship by Maria Theresa of Austria.].

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Baldini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Aphorismatic literature and private correspondence represent interesting sources to reconstruct the relationship between physician and patient, throwing light on particular aspects of it. The letters, which were written by Maria Teresa of Austria to her sons, appear very interesting from this point of view and contribute to understand the organization of health care system in Austria and in Tuscany during the years of Enlightenement.

  5. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  6. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  7. 25th Test and Evaluation National Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-05

    7.62MM Javelin (2) 3 3 PL/VC O2 19A Crew Chief E5 19K20 DR E4 19K10 CL I UAV Ch CL 1 UAS LCU C Provides BLOS support to Infantry Platoons Original analysis ...Vice President, SAIC THE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES (AOA): A MISSION-ORIENTED, EVALUATION-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR DEFENSE TEST & EVALUATION Mr. Vincent P...Decision Analysis Guiding System Reliability Growth Dr. Patricia Jacobs, Naval Postgraduate School 3:30 pm System of Systems – Survivability

  8. Peer assistance reaches its 25th year.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Diana

    2009-08-01

    This column traces the history of the efforts of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists to provide assistance to members struggling with addiction. The work of the Ad Hoc Committee on Chemical Dependency, the Peer Assistance Advisors, Anesthetists in Recovery, the Council on Public Interest in Anesthesia, and the Wellness Program are examined.

  9. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission.

  10. Investigation of food contamination since the Chernobyl fallout in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, M; Mueck, K; Benesch, T; Feichtinger, J; Hrnecek, E; Lovranich, E

    2004-01-01

    In a large-scale investigation the decrease of the activity concentration of 137Cs in foodstuffs after the widespread Chernobyl fallout was determined. At different times after the deposition in 1986 more than 1000 samples of various foodstuffs in Austria were taken and investigated with regard to their activity concentration. The investigation showed that in the first year after deposition, the activity concentration decreased to about 6-10% (milk, fruit), and 3-6%, respectively (grain, potatoes, vegetables) of the values in the fallout maximum. The calculated effective half-lives are significantly shorter than observed after nuclear weapon test series and result in a smaller long-term exposure than estimated before. The effective ingestion dose in the 50 years following of a one-time nuclear fallout amounts to about 1.3 times of the first year ingestion dose. In 2002, the ingestion dose in Austria amounts to 2.24 microSv (adult), or 0.88 microSv (5-year infant) respectively, which is less than 0.5% of the ingestion dose of the first year and amounts to 0.7% of the ingestion dose from natural radionuclides.

  11. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Liesegang, A; Grif, K; Prager, R; Danzl, J; Höck, F; Ottl, J; Dierich, M P; Berghold, C; Neckstaller, I; Tschäpe, H; Fisher, I

    2002-04-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes infections in humans. In 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all serovar Dublin infections (human and non-human) can be traced epidemiologically to two districts in the Tyrol. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in this area, the alpine pasture. There is an increased risk of cross infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for humans, and transmission usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cows milk. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, three out of five isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolean Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening for faecal carriage before the transfer of cattle from risk-herds to the alpine pastures and before the return from risk-pastures to the farms would be a possible starting point to prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds and contamination of pasture through latently infected cattle. Appropriate research is necessary.

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Liesegang, Almut; Grif, Katharina; Khaschabi, Daryusch; Prager, Rita; Danzl, Johann; Höck, Franz; Ottl, Josef; Dierich, Manfred P; Berghold, Christian; Neckstaller, Ingeborg; Tschäpe, Helmut; Fisher, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes human infections. In the year 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all Austrian serovar Dublin infections can be traced to two Tyrolian districts. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in Tyrol, the alpine pasture. There is increased risk of cross-infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for people, and contagion usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cow's milk. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, 3 out of 5 available isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolian S. Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening of herds with a known history of S. Dublin infection would be a start to prevent future contamination of alpine pastures through latently infected cattle excreting potentially infectious feces. Bacteriological screening for fecal carriage before the return of cattle from pastures known to be connected with infections could prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds.

  13. Costs and benefits of measles and mumps immunization in Austria.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, G; Ambrosch, F

    1979-01-01

    The usefulness of an immunization programme can be evaluated by comparing either risks and benefits or costs and benefits. By means of special formulae, the benefit-cost ratio and the benefit-cost difference can be calculated for monovalent and bivalent vaccines. An analysis of combined measles-mumps immunization in Austria showed that this measure is highly profitable economically. Since employed mothers are allowed one week's vacation each year to nurse a sick child, this affects the calculations. Including the cost of the "nursing vacation" among the benefits that would be realized following an immunization programme, the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 4.48; if the cost of the "nursing vacation" is omitted the ratio is 2.65. The estimated annual benefit-cost differences are AS 1681.90 and AS 672.85, respectively, per child. Twelve years after the beginning of a programme to immunize 100 000 1-year-old children per year (corresponding roughly to the birth rate in Austria) an amount of AS 528 million would be saved if the "nursing vacation" is included in the calculations and an amount of AS 63 million if it is not.

  14. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Langau, Austria, 2010.

    PubMed

    Radl, Christoph; Müller, Maria; Revilla-Fernandez, Sandra; Karner-Zuser, Stefanie; de Martin, Alfred; Schauer, Ulrike; Karner, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Balcke, Peter; Hallas, Andreas; Frank, Herbert; Fürnschlief, Albert; Erhart, Friedrich; Allerberger, Franz

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first documented outbreak of leptospirosis in Austria. In July 2010, four cases of serologically confirmed leptospirosis occurred in athletes after a triathlon held in Langau. Heavy rains preceded the triathlon (rainfall: 22 mm). The index case (Patient A) was a 41-year-old previously healthy male, who was admitted to hospital A on July 8 with a four-day history of fever up to 40°C that began 14 days after attending the triathlon event. On July 7, patient B, a 42-year-old male, was admitted to the same hospital, with signs and symptoms of kidney failure. Hemodialysis was performed every other day for 3 weeks. While the serum drawn on the day of admission was negative for antibodies against Leptospira, a specimen from July 28 tested positive with Leptospira interrogans. On July 11, patient C, a 40-year-old male, was admitted to hospital B for nephritis. On July 14, patient D, a 44-year-old male, was admitted to hospital C with a ten days history of intermittent fever, mild dry cough and headache. Our report underlines that in Austria recreational users of bodies of freshwater must be aware of an existing risk of contracting leptospirosis, particularly after heavy rains. The suppressive influence of a triathlon on the immune system is well documented and therefore an outbreak in this population group can be seen as a sensitive indicator concerning possible risk for the general population.

  15. Explaining Usutu virus dynamics in Austria: model development and calibration.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Franz; Brugger, Katharina; Hantel, Michael; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Bakonyi, Tamás; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2008-07-15

    Usutu virus (USUV), a flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex, was for the first time detected outside Africa in the region around Vienna (Austria) in 2001 by Weissenböck et al. [Weissenböck, H., Kolodziejek, J., Url, A., Lussy, H., Rebel-Bauder, B., Nowotny, N., 2002. Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8, 652-656]. USUV is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) circulating between arthropod vectors (mainly mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex) and avian amplification hosts. Infections of mammalian hosts or humans, as observed for the related West Nile virus (WNV), are rare. However, USUV infection leads to a high mortality in birds, especially blackbirds (Turdus merula), and has similar dynamics with the WNV in North America, which, amongst others, caused mortality in American robins (Turdus migratorius). We hypothesized that the transmission of USUV is determined by an interaction of developing proportion of the avian hosts immune and climatic factors affecting the mosquito population. This mechanism is implemented into the present model that simulates the seasonal cycles of mosquito and bird populations as well as USUV cross-infections. Observed monthly climate data are specified for the temperature-dependent development rates of the mosquitoes as well as the temperature-dependent extrinsic-incubation period. Our model reproduced the observed number of dead birds in Austria between 2001 and 2005, including the peaks in the relevant years. The high number of USUV cases in 2003 seems to be a response to the early beginning of the extraordinary hot summer in that year. The predictions indicate that >70% of the bird population acquired immunity, but also that the percentage would drop rapidly within only a couple of years. We estimated annually averaged basic reproduction numbers between R (0)=0.54 (2004) and 1.35 (2003). Finally, extrapolation

  16. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used

  17. Investigation of Coulomb stress changes in south Tibet (central Himalayas) due to the 25th April 2015 M W 7.8 Nepal earthquake using a Coulomb stress transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu; Meng, Guojie

    2016-10-01

    After M W 7.8 Nepal earthquake occurred, the rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. We present the calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 25th April event using models of regional faults designed according to south Tibet-Nepal structure, and show that some indicative significant stress increases. We calculate static stress changes caused by the displacement of a fault on which dislocations happen and an earthquake occurs. A M W 7.3 earthquake broke on 12 May at a distance of 130 km SEE of the M W 7.8 earthquake, whose focus roughly located on high Coulomb stress change (CSC) site. Aftershocks (first 15 days after the mainshock) are associated with stress increase zone caused by the main rupture. We set receiver faults with specified strikes, dips, and rakes, on which the stresses imparted by the source fault are resolved. Four group normal faults to the north of the Nepal earthquake seismogenic fault were set as receiver faults and variant results followed. We provide a discussion on Coulomb stress transfer for the seismogenic fault, which is useful to identify potential future rupture zones.

  18. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    PubMed

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  19. Seismic detection and characterization of rockfalls in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Rapid gravitational mass movements, such as landslides, rockfalls, or avalanches are repeatedly recognized during routine seismic monitoring at national earthquake observatories. Yet, utilizing the tools of seismology for fast detection and characterization of mass movements is uncommon. Here we present a set of past rockfall events in Austria and neighboring countries, which were well-recorded by several permanent seismic stations. We aim at identifying and locating the rockfall and to establish seismically observable parameters for those events which have additional geological and geographical data (e.g. from field observations) available. Based on this set of well-recorded slide events we propose a processing routine for event detection and location as well as discrimination from earthquakes, which can lay ground for a routine detection of rapid mass movements through remote seismic monitoring.

  20. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent–son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  1. Astronomical and Topographical Orientation of Kreisgrabenanlagen in Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotti, Georg; Neubauer, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Kreisgrabenanlagen, monumental Neolithic circular enclosures, have been recorded in many places in central Europe. Some of them have been described as having entrances pointing to solar- or lunar-related declinations (e.g., solstices, lunistices). Over 40 KGAs have been found in Lower Austria, and the current ASTROSIM project investigates their potential astronomical use. Horizon data surveyed in the field are combined with previous results from geomagnetic prospection on a digital elevation model, and the reconstructed three-dimensional sceneries and virtual models can then be investigated for their astronomical potential. In contrast to a promising overview study, results for the Lower Austrian KGA are rather sobering in general, but there are a few solar-oriented entrances which can be demonstrated with newly-developed software.

  2. AlpArray Austria & Slovakia: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray we deployed 30 seismic broadband stations in Eastern Austria and Western Slovakia. Stations were installed between Spring and Winter 2015, with an expected deployment duration of two to three years. Our installations comprising 60s Reftek sensors and Reftek digitizers as well as 3G telemetry are typically located inside shelters like abandoned or rarely used huts and small houses. In this poster, we describe the station setting and surroundings for each of the 30 stations in detail and discuss noise levels and site effects. The description documents technical information for any future studies involving data from temporary AlpArray stations.

  3. [Polypharmacy--activities of the social insurance in Austria].

    PubMed

    Keuerleber, Simon; Sauermann, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In Austria, about a quarter of the population older than 60 years receives more than five medicines per quarter at the expense of the statutory health insurance. Especially for older and multimorbid people the risk of adverse drug reactions increases by taking multiple drugs. The social insurance has initiated activities to direct the focus on the issue of polypharmacy and the associated problems. An information campaign with the title "Vorsicht Wechselwirkung" has been developed which addresses physicians and patients. Tailored to the target groups, useful information and assistance should contribute to strengthening the awareness and compliance, and to improving the quality of drug therapies. To specifically sensitize general practitioners to the issue of polypharmacy, the "Poly-rate" is calculated. It is used as a parameter to assess the extent of polypharmacy in a physician's practice, and is being sent to general practitioners by the social insurance for information purposes.

  4. Psychopathology in African unaccompanied refugee minors in Austria.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-06-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index and Facts About You. As expected, 56% of youth had at least one diagnosis by structured clinical interview. The most common diagnoses were adjustment disorder, PTSD and dysthymia. War affliction marginally predicted (p = 0.065) PTSD controlling for age and gender. URMs had high levels of psychopathology compared to norms. Their PTSD rates were somewhat lower than found in previous studies. We discuss methodological and substantive reasons for this finding. Future studies need to examine URMs across the entire diagnostic spectrum and employ multi-method designs to yield valid results. The psychopathology in URMs has clinical and forensic implications.

  5. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  6. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  7. Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-09-15

    Protecting water bodies from eutrophication, ensuring long-term food security and shifting to a circular economy represent compelling objectives to phosphorus management strategies. This study determines how and to which extent the management of phosphorus in Austria can be optimized. A detailed national model, obtained for the year 2013 through Material Flow Analysis, represents the reference situation. Applicability and limitations are discussed for a range of actions aimed at reducing consumption, increasing recycling, and lowering emissions. The potential contribution of each field of action is quantified and compared using three indicators: Import dependency, Consumption of fossil-P fertilizers and Emissions to water bodies. Further, the uncertainty of this assessment is characterized and priorities for the upgrade of data collection are identified. Moreover, all the potential gains discussed in the article are applied to the reference situation to generate an ideal target model. The results show that in Austria a large scope for phosphorus stewardship exists. Strategies based exclusively either on recycling or on the decline of P consumption hold a similar potential to reduce import dependency by 50% each. An enhanced P recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace the current use of fossil-P fertilizers by 70%. The target model, i.e. the maximum that could be achieved taking into account trade-offs between different actions, is characterized by an extremely low import dependency of 0.23kgPcap(-1)y(-1) (2.2kgPcap(-1)y(-1) in 2013), by a 28% decline of emissions to water bodies and by null consumption of fossil-P fertilizers. This case study shows the added value of using Material Flow Analysis as a basis to design sound management strategies. The systemic approach inherent to it allows performing a proper comparative assessment of different actions, identifying priorities, and visualizing a target model. Copyright © 2016 The

  8. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Austria - 12147

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    The use of sealed radiation sources is regulated by the Austrian Radiation Protection Act and the General Radiation Protection Ordinance. The Austrian radiation protection legislation requires minimisation of radioactive waste. The preferred radioactive waste management option concerning sealed sources, both spent and disused, is the return to the manufacturer. If this is not possible a reuse by a third party is encouraged. According to this requirement, disused sealed sources shall, as far as possible, be stored on the site of the licence holder until a new owner is found. If this is not possible, disused sealed sources shall be transported to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, which is a recognised storage facility for radioactive waste in Austria, for temporary storage pending reuse. Sources, which cannot be reused, are declared as radioactive waste. Since Austria is a Member State of the European Union, the Council Directive 122/2003/Euratom on High Activity Sealed Sources and Orphan Sources is applied. This directive defines high activity sealed sources on the basis of their total activity. The possession of such sources is subject to certain obligations. Therefore it is in the interest of the owner to return disused sources as soon as possible to the manufacturer or to deliver them to Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf. In case of the loss and finding of an 'orphan' source the competent authority secures, recovers and stores the source at the cost of the owner of the source with recourse. In line with the directive the licensee of a High Activity Sealed Source has to notify the main data concerning this source to the Central Source Register which is maintained by the Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management for all radioactive sources. This register was put into operation in 2006. (authors)

  9. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  10. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  11. Melanoma epidemiology of Austria reveals gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    Duschek, Nikolaus; Skvara, Hans; Kittler, Harald; Delir, Golnaz; Fink, Astrid; Pinkowicz, Anja; Waldhör, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma shows gender-specific trends worldwide, with highest rates in older men. In Austria, women show greater knowledge about the early detection of skin cancer by screening. Our aim was to analyse national melanoma incidence and mortality rates with regard to gender to improve our prevention efforts. Population-based incidence (1983-2008) and mortality (1970-2010) data were retrieved from the Austrian cancer registry. ICD 9/10 Codes (172/C43) were used for melanoma. Stages were defined by the TNM classification. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the direct method (2000 WHO standard population) and linear regression models were used to estimate trends. Age-standardized incidence rates of melanoma increased for both genders from 4.9 in 1983 to 10.5 in 2008 (P<0.001), for men more than women (P<0.005). In 2006-2008 the lifetime risk of developing a melanoma was 1:123 (women: 1:128, men 1:117). In-situ and local stages were more common in women, men presented with regional and distant disease. In 2008-2010 male mortality was 1.7 times higher than female (P<0.005) and the lifetime risk of death from melanoma amounted to 1:570 (women 1:705, men 1:434; P<0.05). Comparatively, men over 75 faced the highest risk of presenting with or dying from melanoma. In Austria, melanoma epidemiology showed gender-specific differences. Efforts in early detection need to be increased in elderly men. As shown in the female population, a change in the melanoma-related epidemiology is feasible, most likely by means of secondary prevention.

  12. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  13. Report on the 5‘th scientific meeting of the “Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie” (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 25th – Oct. 27th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    From october 25th - 27th 2013, the 5th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. This year more than 60 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. All participants appreciated the stimulating environment in Motzen, Brandenburg, and people took the opportunity for scientific exchange, discussion about ongoing projects and already started further collaborations. Like in the previous years, the symposium was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 3rd NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Ruth Stassart working in the group of Klaus Armin Nave and Wolfgang Brück (MPI Göttingen and Department of Neuropathology, Göttingen Germany). The successful work was published in Nature Neuroscience entitled “A role for Swann cell-derived neuregulin-1 in remyelination”. This outstanding paper deals with the function of Schwann cell neuregulin as an endogenous factor for myelin repair. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year’s keynote lecture was given by Albert Ludolph, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Ulm. Dr. Ludolph highlighted the particular role of individual scientists for the development of research concepts in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). PMID:24330587

  14. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model "e3.at"

    PubMed

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project "Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020". The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model "e3.at". The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy.

  15. Evaluation of the operational Air-Quality forecast model for Austria ALARO-CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The Air-Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG by order of the regional governments of Vienna, Lower Austria, and Burgenland since 2005. The emphasis of this modeling system is on predicting ozone peaks in the North-east Austrian flatlands. The modeling system is currently a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the alpine region. Various extensions with external data sources have been conducted in the past to improve the daily forecasts of the model, e.g. data assimilation of O3- and PM10-observations from the Austrian measurement network (with optimum interpolation method technique), MACC-II boundary conditions; combination of high resolved emission inventories for Austria with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 48 hours. ZAMG provides daily forecasts of O3, PM10 and NO2 to the regional governments of Austria. The evaluation of these forecasts is done for January to September 2015, with the main focus on the summer peaks of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the punctual forecasts at the sites of the stations and the area forecasts for every province of Austria. Several heat waves occurred between June and September 2015 (new temperature records for St. Pölten and Linz). During these periods the information threshold for ozone has been exceeded 19 times, mostly in the Eastern regions of Austria. Values above the alert threshold have been measured at some stations in Lower Austria and Vienna at the beginning of July. For the evaluation, the results for the periods with exceedances in Eastern Austria will be discussed in detail.

  16. The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.

    PubMed

    Monshi, Babak; Vujic, Marin; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Sesti, Alma; Oberaigner, Willi; Vujic, Igor; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Posch, Christian; Feichtinger, Hans; Hackl, Monika; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria. We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs. A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p < 0.0001). In Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  18. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  19. Assessing reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate in NE Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Eitzinger, Josef; Cepuder, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computing reference evapotranspiration and multiplying it with a specific crop coefficient as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the most widely accepted approach to estimate plant water requirements. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on local environmental conditions. Consequently, it seems advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. Evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in Austria (48°12'N, 16°34'E; 157 m asl) using a large weighing lysimeter operated at (limited) reference conditions and compared with calculations according to ASCE-EWRI. The lysimeter had an inner diameter of 1.9 m and a hemispherical bottom with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Seepage water was measured at a free draining outlet using a tipping bucket. Lysimeter mass changes were sensed by a weighing facility with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. Both rainfall and evapotranspiration were determined directly from lysimeter data using a simple water balance equation. Meteorological data for the ASCE-EWRI model were obtained from a weather station of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria (ZAMG). The study period was from 2005 to 2010, analyses were based upon daily time steps. Daily calculated reference evapotranspiration was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when evapotranspiration was large, which is supported also by other studies. In the given case, advection of sensible heat proved

  20. Effects of The 1999-guidelines For Hazard Zoning In Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, P.

    Hazard Zoning in Austria has a long tradition. While the first maps already were developed at the end of the 1960s the legal regulations followed in 1976. These regulations defined that hazard maps have to be elaborated for each community on a basis of avalanche occurences over a period of 150 years (return period); the Red Zone includes areas which are endangered by avalanches to such an extent that their permanent use for settlements infrastructures and traffic facilities is not possible. TheYellow Zone covers areas with a reduced danger of avalanches; buildings and infrastructures are allowed to be built in the Yellow Zone but they must be protected by special architectural designing. As a result of the avalanches in 1999 (Galtür, Valzur) new guidelines were proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture. These guidelines provide new design criteria for hazard maps in Austria. While the old decree determined 25 kPa for the Red Zone and 2 kPa for the Yellow Zone, the modified guidelines have extended it to 10 kPa, respectively 1 kPa. However, the new design criteria will result in an increase of existing hazard zones (especially the Red Zones). To get an idea about the effects of the new guidelines a simple calculation was used. Taking into account the velocity at the Red Zone (vR) and theYellow Zone (vY) we can write the following equation v2R/aR = v 2 Y /(aR ­ a), where a is the distance between the Red and Yellow Zone and aR is the distance from the calculated point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone. Thus aR is 1.087a. The distance from the point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone according to the new guidelines (aRnew) was calculated in the same way. With aRnew = 0.435a it was possible to calculate the value x (which is the distance from the actual Red Zone to the New Red Zone). Analysing some different hazard maps it can be found, that the distance between the existing Red and Yellow Zones (a) is between 30 m (small avalanches) and 200

  1. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  2. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010) and mortality (1970–2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  3. [Current treatment concepts for olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria].

    PubMed

    Baumbach, S F; Michel, M; Wyen, H; Buschmann, C T; Kdolsky, R; Kanz, K-G

    2013-04-01

    The limited evidence available on the diagnosis and treatment of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis indicates nationally varying treatment approaches. Therefore the aim of this study was to survey the current treatment concepts of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria. An online questionnaire comprising of demographic data, questions regarding diagnostics and differentiation between septic bursitis (SB) and non-septic bursitis (NSB) as well as two case reports for therapy appraisal were sent to members of the Austrian Society of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery (ÖGO) and the Austrian Society of Traumatology (ÖGU). The overall response rates were 46 % (ÖGU)/12 % (ÖGO). Differentiation between SB and NSB was predominantly based on medical history/clinical presentation (ÖGU: 100 %/ÖGO: 84 %) and blood sampling (ÖGU: 82 %/ÖGO: 77 %). 64/36 % of surveyed members of ÖGO/OGU performed a bursal aspiration. 95/55 % of Austrian ÖGU opinion leaders favoured a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB/NSB. Conversely, ÖGO members rather favoured a conservative treatment approach (28/27 %). Significant differences were found between ÖGO and ÖGU, with the latter favouring a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB and NSB. However, the international literature argues for a conservative treatment approach. Further high quality research is needed to establish an evidence-based treatment approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The Genome Austria Tissue Bank (GATiB).

    PubMed

    Asslaber, M; Abuja, P M; Stark, K; Eder, J; Gottweis, H; Trauner, M; Samonigg, H; Mischinger, H J; Schippinger, W; Berghold, A; Denk, H; Zatloukal, K

    2007-01-01

    In the context of the Austrian Genome Program, a tissue bank is being established (Genome Austria Tissue Bank, GATiB) which is based on a collection of diseased and corresponding normal tissues representing a great variety of diseases at their natural frequency of occurrence from a non-selected Central European population of more than 700,000 patients. Major emphasis is put on annotation of archival tissue with comprehensive clinical data, including follow-up data. A specific IT infrastructure supports sample annotation, tracking of sample usage as well as sample and data storage. Innovative data protection tools were developed which prevent sample donor re-identification, particularly if detailed medical and genetic data are combined. For quality control of old archival tissues, new techniques were established to check RNA quality and antigen stability. Since 2003, GATiB has changed from a population-based tissue bank to a disease-focused biobank comprising major cancers such as colon, breast, liver, as well as metabolic liver diseases and organs affected by the metabolic syndrome. Prospectively collected tissues are associated with blood samples and detailed data on the sample donor's disease, lifestyle and environmental exposure, following standard operating procedures. Major emphasis is also placed on ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) related to biobanks. A specific research project and an international advisory board ensure the proper embedding of GATiB in society and facilitate international networking.

  5. Instrumenting the Seitengraben Hydrology Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, Günter

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to advance the understanding of water related flow and transport processes in catchments which is important in the context of environmental technology, planning and management for estimating floods, assessing nutrients and analysing hygienic risks. A Hydrology Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) will be established which consists of a well instrumented research catchment in Lower Austria. There are four main innovative steps in this project that are aimed at addressing some of the limitations of previous studies. (a) Longitudinal profiles of stream temperatures will be measured using the novel technique of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) from which the patterns of lateral recharge along a stream can be inferred. (b) New genetic markers for faecal hazard analysis will be developed and applied to trace microbial transport in surface and ground waters at the catchment scale. (c) Surface flow patterns within the catchment will be inferred by video camera systems. (d) The above innovative measurement techniques will be complemented by an array of observational methods to allow a holistic assessment of water related processes at the catchment scale including water quantity, water quality and solids. The instruments are connected by a high speed Local Area Network. The data will be combined by modelling the catchment dynamics of the relevant processes. The project will take advantage of a Doctoral Programme (DK) on "Water Resource Systems" that has recently been funded by the Austrian Science Foundation. Experience - including pitfalls - with instrumenting the catchment will be reported in this presentation.

  6. Characteristic ground motions of the 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.9) and its implications for the structural design codes for the border areas of India to Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Babita; Chingtham, Prasanta; Sharma, Varun; Kumar, Vikas; Mandal, H. S.; Mishra, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    The 25th April 2015 Nepal Earthquake was found associated with a series of aftershocks, and the mainshock rupture propagated predominantly towards SE direction where a major aftershock (Mw 7.3) rocked on 12th May 2015 to the east of the mainshock that enhanced the rate of occurrence of aftershocks in the affected region. We conducted a rigorous analysis of strong motion data to understand the characteristics of ground motion and their bearing on the structural design codes, responsible for the damage to the structures in the border area of India to Nepal. The effect of ground geology on the acceleration response spectra are also evaluated using main shock and its associated strong earthquakes. All the sites used in the present analysis are located on alluvium deposits showing a predominant period of 0.242 sec for horizontal components and at 0.193 sec for vertical components. Our results demonstrated that observed Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) has prominent distribution in the border cities of UP and Bihar. PGA ranges from 3 to 80 cm/sec2 in the study region for the epicentral distance varying from 120 km to 495 km with respect to the source zone (mainshock). The Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) varies from 1 to 16 cm/sec while the Peak Ground Displacement (PGD) lies in between 1 cm and 20 cm for the same area. Our study shows that variation of PGD, PGV, and PGA are controlled and dictated by the geo-morphological constraints, besides the nature and extent of structural heterogeneities of the sub-surface geological formation materials. The obtained normalised spectral amplifications are compared with the Bureau of Indian Standard code for construction of buildings which shows that the current Indian building design code is within the structural limits proposed for the seismic forces at all periods for alluvium sites, suggesting that the structural heterogeneity has the strong role contributing towards the intrinsic attenuation in the seismic wave propagating medium. Our

  7. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  8. [The contribution of social medicine to vaccination in Austria].

    PubMed

    Kunze, M

    1998-01-01

    We mostly deal here with socio-medical aspects of vaccinations. Various initiatives are summed up that are intended to optimize the system of immunization by vaccines and to establish certain innovative, and also internationally remarkable approaches. In spite of the undoubted successes of vaccinations in Austria, there still are some major deficits that should be eliminated. The Austrian system of immunization by vaccines has been mainly concentrating on continuously adapting its vaccination schedules. Such modifications are based on current scientific knowledge and thus dynamic in nature whereas the public health system necessarily relies on commonly established and easily adoptable requirements. This discrepancy has brought about a certain degree of uncertainty in some instances.--(See K. Spork, I. Mutz: "Recommendations for Vaccination in Childhood and for Adults".) By further developing immunization programs into a general concept of immunization by vaccines we should be able to put the potential benefits of preventive medical care better into effect than before because such a concept based on clearly defined public health objectives provides strategic and tactical measures and, what is even more important, also includes evaluation.--(See Vutuc, Kunze: "Epidemiology as Background for Vaccinations".) In this connection it has also been necessary to develop various activities in the field of social marketing, examples of which will be mentioned in this issue. There is mainly one recurring source of dispute that must be discussed here, the question of what is immunization of the public at large and what is immunization to be recommended for certain groups (so called risk groups). It has to be principally noted that the idea of risk group immunization has not been too effective in many areas. A typical example for such a project that has to be reconsidered is the active immunization against Central European Encephalitis (CEE) or Tick Bone Encephalitis (TBE

  9. Clinical implementation of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duftner, Christina; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; Schirmer, Michael; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Dejaco, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the clinical implementation of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in rheumatology in Austria. A survey was conducted among Austrian rheumatologists and physicians of other specialties with a focus on rheumatology. The questionnaire was designed by the members of the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal UltraSound including the following items: demographics, access to MSUS and MSUS training, application of MSUS to support diagnosis, monitoring and treatment decisions, and obstacles for the routine performance of MSUS. Eighty-eight (21.9 %) out of the 402 surveyed physicians responded. No access to MSUS and/or inadequate training in the technique was more commonly reported by senior (>50 years; 64.3 and 67.7 %, respectively) than by younger physicians (16.7 %, p = 0.01 and 18.5 %, p < 0.001, respectively). The lowest availability of sonography was found among senior rheumatologists (25.0 %, p = 0.001 compared to the total group). MSUS is routinely used for diagnosis and/or monitoring purposes by 12.5 % of physicians and 20.5 % perform sonography in clinically unclear cases. A limited number of physicians apply the method to support treatment decisions and/or to evaluate treatment success. The most important obstacles for routine application of MSUS in rheumatology are limited access to ultrasound machines, lack of training/education in the technique, and time constraints in daily routine. Low access to high-end ultrasound devices, lack of training, and time constraints may explain the low appreciation of MSUS among Austrian physicians evaluating patients with rheumatic diseases.

  10. Seismic precursory signals from a rockfall at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaderer, U.; Walter, M.; Joswig1, M.

    2012-04-01

    On May 10, 2011 at 10:48 UTC a rockfall happened at Rappenlochschlucht, Vorarlberg, Austria. The rockfall with 15.000 m3 volume destroyed a massive bridge but luckily did not cause any fatalities in this famous, heavily frequented touristic spot. Our institute operated a seismic network in 5 km distance at the Heumös slope dedicated to record very small slide quakes caused by the creeping slope. The network was tuned to extreme sensitivity, and thus monitored the rockfall as well. We found two types of seismic signals shortly before and during the rockfall that we could not observe at that region in the remaining two and half years of network operation. Type one was a minute-lasting sequence of broadband pulses caused by the stochastic hits of single rockfall blocks against subsurface during the entire period of sliding. This signal resembles the audible, acoustic noise of avalanches in our lower-frequent passband of measured mechanical vibrations. Thus we called this type 'avalanche'. Two small avalanche events were identified in the last five hours before the final rockfall. The second type exhibits an impulsive onset and a subsequent decay to lower frequencies. This signature is caused by a single fracture process where the instantaneously released energy reaches the observation site in a well-defined sequence of different wave types and travel paths with decreasing propagation speed. These fracture processes or nano-earthquakes could be located close to the rockfall, and the energy release could be described by a local magnitude -0.5 to 0.4 indicating an activated fault length of some ten meter in rock. We thus called this type 'fracture', and could identify twelve fracture signals before final failure. Further hints for the precursory character of these signals will be discussed, as well as a search for potential trigger indications.

  11. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  12. Geomorphometric analysis of shallow landslides in the Walgau valley (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützenburg, Gregor; Schmaltz, Elmar; Glade, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologically triggered shallow landslides are a frequent natural hazard in the Eastern Alps and can cause severe damages to agriculturally used land, houses and infrastructure. Geomorphometric indices allow to estimate the spatial dynamics of shallow landslides based on recurrent landslide inventories. Previous studies found that the morphology of a landslip is closely related to its dominant genetic process. In this study, we focus on the calculation of established geomorphometric indices of the prevailing shallow landslides to assess the spatial landslide distribution in the Walgau valley in Vorarlberg (Austria). Therefore, we compiled a multi-temporal landslide inventory based on eight orthophoto series from 1950 to 2015 and two digital terrain models derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data of 2004 and 2011. The 123 mapped landslides and adjacent areas were further distinguished in distinct geomorphic features, such as parent slope, landslide scarp, concave (surface of rupture) and convex (mass material) segments. Lithological settings and anthropogenic impacts such as land use change were also considered in the analysis. A geomorphometric assessment of the mapped landslides, in combination with land cover information yields insights on the spatial dimension of the shallow landslides and the potential fluidity of the materials involved. The geomorphometric analyses revealed that 96 landslides were classified as fluid-flows, 17 landslides were classified as viscous-flows, 8 landslides were classified as slide-flows and 2 landslides were classified as planar slides. Our findings indicate that most of the shallow landslides display a flow-like movement with a rather low material plasticity. This leads to the assumption that the observed landslides in the investigated area might be of low kinetic energy despite their relatively long travel distances. Spatial disparities within the study area were not observable. We conclude that geomorphometric indices are

  13. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  14. Vaccine hesitancy in Austria : A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sandhofer, Michael J; Robak, Oliver; Frank, Herbert; Kulnig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging phenomenon particularly in industrialized nations. It has led to repeated epidemic outbreaks of otherwise vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases. Compared to other countries very low rates of influenza and measles vaccination rates have been reported in Austria. We performed a single-center cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey. A total of 350 adult patients attending our emergency room participated in this survey. We assessed knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination and the associated infectious diseases. Out of 350 participants 40 (11.4 %) declared that they deliberately refused vaccinations. Most common reasons for non-vaccination were fear of adverse effects (35.9 %), doubt of effectiveness of vaccines (35.9 %) and distrust towards the pharmaceutical industry (23.1 %). Of all 350 participants only 148 (42.3 %) thought themselves to be sufficiently informed about national vaccination recommendations as stated in the Austrian National Vaccination Program (ANVP). General practitioners (GP) were the primary source of healthcare-related information for 256 (73.1 %) participants. Furthermore, GPs as well as hospital-based physicians achieved the highest level of trust in this study population. The results of our study underline the necessity of comprehensive informational campaigns on the merits of vaccination. A lack of knowledge about the benefits of vaccination, uncertainty and unfounded fears seem to prevent the achievement of recommended vaccination rates. Family GPs enjoyed the highest levels of trust in our study population. We believe that additional information communicated by GPs could help boost the low vaccination rates. This study underlines the important role of primary care practitioners in informing patients about vaccines and healthcare topics.

  15. High resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-09-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps.

  16. HIS purchase projects in public hospitals of Styria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Gell, G; Madjaric, M; Leodolter, W; Köle, W; Leitner, H

    2000-09-01

    The Steiermärkische Krankenanstaltenges. m.b.H (KAGes) is a company, owned by the province of Styria in Austria, which operates 21 hospitals with about 8000 beds and 14000 employees, serving a population of ca. 1.2 million people. KAGes has purchased a new hospital information system (HIS) for its hospitals. Within the strategic IT plan and the 'system structure new' (SSN) project, a methodology was developed for making an effective HIS purchase. Several steps of this project are described in the paper, request for product information, evaluation of vendor proposals, product presentations, test site evaluation, reference site visits and selection of vendor finalists. The authors present the internal project management methodology, including the structure of the project team, project information management through intranet, criteria for different steps of the evaluation and evaluation site organization. Four major HIS vendors with leading HIS products qualified for this stage of the project (evaluation site). About 60 teams with 400 members (end users and IT-experts) have assessed all the products installed, during one or more, repeated test sessions. The decision on which new HIS to purchase were based on the recommendations derived from this evaluation. After completing SSN-project with the suggestion to KAGes-top-management for negotiations with two vendor finalists, the new project named MEDOCS was started mid-1999. Two pilot installations (one general hospital and one teaching hospital department) are nowadays in the pilot implementation and subsequent roll-out (including substitution of the legacy system) is scheduled until the year 2003.

  17. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  18. Incidence, prevalence and geographic distribution of human alveolar echinococcosis in Austria from 1854 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Auer, H; Aspöck, H

    1991-01-01

    Since the second half of the last century it has been known that Austria--like southern Germany, eastern France and Switzerland--is a part of the Central European area of distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis (Em), the causative organism of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Up until October 1990, 128 human AE cases were documented in Austria; personal, anamnestic and clinical data on the majority of these patients are available. Based on these data, epidemiological parameters (incidence, prevalence, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, occupation) were evaluated so as to obtain information on the past and recent history of alveolar echinococcosis in Austria. The (retrospective) study led to the following results and conclusions: (a) the (documented) incidence (presently two cases/year) of AE in Austria is rather low; (b) the main endemic Em areas are situated in the western (Tyrol, Vorarlberg) and southern (Carinthia) provinces; (c) a new focus could be detected in Lower Austria (outside the Alps); (d) the sex ratio (M:F) of AE patients was 1.3:1; (e) the average age of men and women at the time of diagnosis was 44 and 47 years, respectively; (f) 98% of Austrian AE patients exhibited Em lesions in the liver; and (g) greater than 50% of AE patients were (or had been) farmers.

  19. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal.

  20. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  1. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems. I. Radio Broadcasting in Austria. Communication and Society, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signitzer, Benno; Luger, Kurt

    The first in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Austria. It deals with the cultural implications of broadcasting structures and their ownership…

  2. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  3. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  4. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Tako-Tsubo syndrome) in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Szücs, Daniela; Fellner, Barbara; Eber, Bernd; Weihs, Wolfgang; Lambert, Thomas; Metzler, Bernhard; Titscher, Georg; Hochmayer, Beate; Dechant, Cornelia; Eder, Veronika; Siostrzonek, Peter; Leisch, Franz; Pichler, Max; Pachinger, Otmar; Gaul, Georg; Weber, Heinz; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea; Nesser, Hans-Joachim; Huber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tako-Tsubo syndrome (TS) is a still rarely diagnosed clinical syndrome, which is characterized by acute onset of chest pain, transient cardiac dysfunction with (frequently) reversible wall motion abnormalities (WMAs), but with no relevant obstructive coronary artery disease. Methods and results: Among 179 consecutive patients with proven diagnosis of TS that were retrospectively analysed in this multicentre registry, women represented the majority of patients (94%) while only 11 men (6%) developed TS. Mean age was 69.1±11.5 years (range 35–88 years). Cardinal symptoms of TS, which led to admission, were acute chest pain (82%) and dyspnoea (32%), respectively. All patients demonstrated typical WMAs, whereby four different types of WMAs could be defined: (1) a more common apical type of TS (n=89; 50%); (2) a combined apical and midventricular form of TS (n=23; 13%); (3) the midventricular TS (n=6; 3%); and (4) an unusual type of basal WMAs of the left ventricle (n=3). Only in 101 patients (57%), a clear causative trigger for onset of symptoms could be identified. In-hospital cardiovascular complications occurred in 25 patients (14%) and consisted of cardiac arrhythmias in 10 patients (40%), cardiogenic shock in six patients (24%), cardiac decompensation in eight patients (32%) and cardiovascular death in one patient, respectively. Echocardiographic control of left ventricular function after the initial measurement was available in almost 70% of the patients: complete recovery of WMAs was found in 73 patients (58.87%); 49 patients (39.52%) showed persistent WMAs. Recurrences of TS were only seen in four patients. During the follow-up period, 13 patients died: three of cardiovascular causes and 10 of non-cardiac causes. In-hospital mortality was 0.6%, 30-day mortality was 1.3% and 2-year mortality was 6.7%. Conclusions: This study represents to date the largest series of patients suffering from TS in Austria and worldwide. Similar to others, in our

  5. Miocene deformation of the central Vienna Basin (Austria-Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, András.; Lee, Eun Young; Beidinger, Andreas; Hoprich, Maria; Strauss, Philipp; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Aderklaa Conglomerate (Top Karpatian). (5) NW - SE trending grabens in the basement and Karpatian strata occur in the center and SE corner of the Gajary depression. (6) The entire Karpatian sedimentary stack including the Top Karpatian is tilted towards the West forming the central part of the Levare depression to the North of the Gajary depression. Hölzel, M., Decker, K., Zámolyi, A., Strauss, P., Wagreich, M. (in press): Lower Miocene structural evolution of the central Vienna Basin (Austria). Marine and Petroleum Geology

  6. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls at Spitz quarry (NÖ, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald; Roncat, Andreas; Schweigl, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past, significant rockfalls, which pose a danger to persons, railways and roads, occurred in the quarry of Spitz (NÖ-Austria). An existing seismic warning system did not fulfill the expected efficiency and reliability standards since the ratio of well-detected events to undetected events or false alarms was not satisfactory. Our aim was to analyze how a seismic warning system must be designed in order to overcome these deficiencies. A small-scale seismic network was deployed in the Spitz quarry to evaluate the possibility of improving the early-warning rockfall monitoring network by means of seismic observations. A new methodology based on seismic methods, which enables the detection and location of rockfalls above a critical size, was developed. In order to perform this task, a small-scale (200x200 m2) passive seismic network comprised of 7 monitoring seismic stations acquiring data in continuous mode was established in the quarry of Spitz so that it covered the rockfall hazard area. On the 2nd of October 2015, an induced rockfall experiment was performed. It began at 09:00 a.m (local time, 07:00 UTC) and lasted about 1.5 hours. The entire data set was analyzed using the pSysmon software. In order to locate the impact point of the rock falls, we used a procedure based on the back-projection of the maximum resultant amplitude recorded at each station of the network within a time window to every grid-point covering the whole area of interest. In order to verify the performance of the employed algorithm for detection and localization, we performed man-induced rock falls. We also used a terrestrial laser scanner and a camera, not only to draw the rockfall block trajectories, but also to determine the volume of rock lost or gained in the different areas of the quarry. This allowed us to relate the lost mass with the strength of the collision (Pseudo-magnitude) of the rockfall, and draw and rebuild their associated trajectory. The location test performed

  7. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  8. Epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of seasonal affective disorder in Austria.

    PubMed

    Pjrek, E; Baldinger-Melich, P; Spies, M; Papageorgiou, K; Kasper, S; Winkler, D

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder that is characterized by regular onset and remission of affective episodes at the same time of the year. The aim of the present study was to provide epidemiological data and data on the socioeconomic impact of SAD in the general population of Austria. We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview in 910 randomly selected subjects (577 females and 333 males) using the Seasonal Health Questionnaire (SHQ), the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Telephone numbers were randomly drawn from all Austrian telephone books and transformed using the random last digits method. The last birthday method was employed to choose the target person for the interviews. Out of our subjects, 2.5% fulfilled criteria for the seasonal pattern specifier according to DSM-5 and 2.4% (95% CI=1.4-3.5%) were diagnosed with SAD. When applying the ICD-10 criteria 1.9% (95% CI=0.9-2.8%) fulfilled SAD diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of fall-winter depression according to the Kasper-Rosenthal criteria was determined to be 3.5%. The criteria was fulfilled by 15.1% for subsyndromal SAD (s-SAD). We did not find any statistically significant gender differences in prevalence rates. When using the DSM-5 as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SAD, diagnosis derived from the SPAQ yielded a sensitivity of 31.8% and a specificity of 97.2%. Subjects with SAD had significantly higher scores on the SDS and higher rates of sick leave and days with reduced productivity than healthy subjects. Prevalence estimates for SAD with the SHQ are lower than with the SPAQ. Our data are indicative of the substantial burden of disease and the socioeconomic impact of SAD. This epidemiological data shows a lack of gender differences in SAD prevalence. The higher rates of females in clinical SAD samples might, at least in part, be explained by lower help seeking behaviour in

  9. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  10. Nosocomial Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zarfel, Gernot; Wuerstl, Benjamin; Leitner, Eva; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Posch, Josefa; Krause, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To date, no outbreak of carbapenemase-producing bacteria has been reported for Austria. While outbreaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported, no outbreak caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella oxytoca has been described yet, to the best of our knowledge. We report an outbreak of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. In 5 months, 31 KPC-producing Klebsiella oxytoca strains were isolated from five patients. All patients were admitted to the same medical intensive care unit in Austria. PMID:22290949

  11. Nosocomial outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Austria.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zarfel, Gernot; Wuerstl, Benjamin; Leitner, Eva; Salzer, Helmut J F; Posch, Josefa; Krause, Robert; Grisold, Andrea J

    2012-04-01

    To date, no outbreak of carbapenemase-producing bacteria has been reported for Austria. While outbreaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported, no outbreak caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella oxytoca has been described yet, to the best of our knowledge. We report an outbreak of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. In 5 months, 31 KPC-producing Klebsiella oxytoca strains were isolated from five patients. All patients were admitted to the same medical intensive care unit in Austria.

  12. Intended long-term permafrost monitoring in Austria: Observations from eight years (2006-2014) of ground temperature monitoring in the Tauern Range, Central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Lintschnig, Michèle

    2015-04-01

    At present permafrost monitoring in Austria is carried out by several institutions at some 20 sites in the Austrian Alps. However, so far this monitoring is not coordinated and institutionalised in terms of monitoring strategy, organization, data management and funding. Within the currently running permAT project such an institutionalization is in progress. Permafrost in the Austrian mountains is rather warm and hence sensitive to present climate change. Consequently permafrost conditions and changes are of increasing importance also for the public. Therefore, it is evident that a coordinated and institutionalised long-term monitoring of ground temperature in Austria is essential for permafrost understanding and people's safety. In this contribution we present up to eight years of field data from nine different study sites in Austria. All sites are located in the highest mountain range in Austria, the Tauern Range (maximum elevation 3798 m asl) covering some 9000 km² of the national territory. The nine different study sites are located between latitude 46°55' to 47°22' and longitude 12°44' to 14°41'. Altogether 57 ground temperature monitoring sites have been installed in 2006 and 2007 at the nine study sites using one- (at 23 sites) and three-channel (at 34 sites) miniature temperature dataloggers produced by GeoPrecision, Germany. Therefore, more than 120 ground temperature data series are available from between the ground surface to maximum depths of 2.75 m. The 57 monitoring sites range from 1922 to 3002 m asl in elevation and consider flat terrain as well as step rock walls. All slope aspects are adequately considered. Relevant research questions we intend to address in this contribution include (a) general ground thermal conditions in 2006-2014, (b) the influence of different substrates and aspects on ground temperatures, (c) potential permafrost occurrence, (d) changes or stable conditions during the observation period, (e) regional pattern, and (f

  13. Forming Social Partnership Policy in Vocational Training of Service Sector Specialists in Germany and Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kredenets, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming social partnership policy in vocational training of service sector specialists in Germany and Austria. The foreign and domestic pedagogical experience in establishing an effective system of social partnership in vocational education has been analyzed. The author has considered main factors of social…

  14. Health care-associated rotavirus illness in pediatric inpatients in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Karmaus, Wilfried; Ehlken, Birgit; Fruhwirth, Martin; Heininger, Ulrich; Plenge-Bonig, Anita; Forster, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    A longitudinal study of health care-associated transmission of rotaviruses (RVs) in pediatric inpatients 0-48 months old in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland showed that almost one third of all cases occurred in patients 2 months old or younger. The effectiveness of vaccination against RV from 2 months of age onward remains to be evaluated.

  15. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Austria. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortnagl, Michael

    Consideration of three specific aspects of the Austrian situation is helpful in understanding funding of the vocational education system: Austria's long tradition as a welfare state; high degree of centralization, and the important influence of the economic and social partnership. Initial vocational training follows one of two paths: the dual…

  16. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  17. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching…

  18. Analysis of E-Inclusion Projects in Russia, Austria and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaves, Bjorn; Plattfaut, Ralf; Gorbacheva, Elena; Vages, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of digital divide is widely discussed in research as well as in practice. Today, especially senior citizens are excluded from the merits of using information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper aims to study municipal projects for an inclusive information society in Russia, Austria, and Switzerland.…

  19. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  20. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria

    PubMed Central

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal type ST398 is usually associated with animals. We examined 1,098 confirmed MRSA samples from human patients and found that 21 were MRSA ST398. Most (16) patients were farmers. Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria. PMID:19402964

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from human patients, upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, Karina; Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal type ST398 is usually associated with animals. We examined 1,098 confirmed MRSA samples from human patients and found that 21 were MRSA ST398. Most (16) patients were farmers. Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria.

  3. Analysis of E-Inclusion Projects in Russia, Austria and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaves, Bjorn; Plattfaut, Ralf; Gorbacheva, Elena; Vages, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of digital divide is widely discussed in research as well as in practice. Today, especially senior citizens are excluded from the merits of using information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper aims to study municipal projects for an inclusive information society in Russia, Austria, and Switzerland.…

  4. Research on Language Teaching and Learning in Austria (2004-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Faistauer, Renate; Vetter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This overview of six years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria covers a period of dynamic development in the field. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns and theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. The first of these…

  5. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  6. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  7. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  8. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  9. Modularisation of Vocational Training in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: Parallels and Disparities in a Modernisation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the modularisation of initial vocational training (including apprenticeships) as a modernisation strategy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Training systems are similarly structured in these three countries with the apprenticeship system at their heart, and the three national philosophies of education and training are…

  10. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching…

  11. Phoretic mites and nematode associates of Scolytus multistraitus and Scolytus pygmaeus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Austria

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Heino Konrad; Thomas Kirisits; Lynn K. Carta

    2005-01-01

    The species assemblages and abundance of phoretic mites and nematodes associated with the elm bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus and Scolytus pygmaeus, were studied in Austria.A total of 3922 individual mites were recorded from 144 adults of S. multistriatus and 178...

  12. Forming Social Partnership Policy in Vocational Training of Service Sector Specialists in Germany and Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kredenets, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming social partnership policy in vocational training of service sector specialists in Germany and Austria. The foreign and domestic pedagogical experience in establishing an effective system of social partnership in vocational education has been analyzed. The author has considered main factors of social…

  13. Monitoring of Qualifications and Employment in Austria: An Empirical Approach Based on the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz; Vogtenhuber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The empirical approach referred to in this article describes the relationship between education and training (ET) supply and employment in Austria; the use of the new ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) fields of study variable makes this approach applicable abroad. The purpose is to explore a system that produces timely…

  14. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Weiler, Martin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, Wolfdieter; Medlock, Jolyon M; Versteirt, Veerle; Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    In a set of pooled field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, Rickettsia raoultii, the causative agent of Tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy, was found for the first time in Austria. The coordinates of the positive locations for tick and pathogen abundance are given and shown in a map.

  15. The QIBB Quality Initiative of the Vocational Training System in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The QIBB quality initiative was specifically developed for the vocational training system in Austria. The quality system is distinctive in that it includes both objectives and survey instruments designed to address the specific concerns of vocational training. There are general quality concepts and instruments that are common to all schools and…

  16. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  17. European Meeting of Associated School Representatives. Mauerbach/Vienna (Austria): 10-13 May 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A meeting held in Mauerbach, Austria, from May 10-13, 1982, to consider the role of the Associated Schools in implementing the recommendations concerning education for international understanding and peace adopted by the general conference held in Chad earlier that year is described. (RM)

  18. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  19. Rates and Routes of Hysterectomy for Benign Indications in Austria 2002 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Edler, Katharina Maria; Tamussino, Karl; Fülöp, Gerhard; Reinstadler, Evi; Neunteufel, Walter; Reif, Philipp; Laky, Rene; Aigmüller, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Rates and routes of hysterectomy have implications for quality, costs and training. This study analyzed rates of benign hysterectomy and surgical approaches for benign hysterectomy in Austria from 2002 to 2014. This was a population-based retrospective observational study of coding data from all acute care hospitals (public and private) in Austria. Main outcome measures were numbers of women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications in Austria per year and the route of hysterectomy for benign indications. The number of benign hysterectomies performed per year declined from 10 675 in 2002 to 7747 in 2014, a decline of 27%. The use of vaginal hysterectomy was stable (53% and 47%, respectively). Use of laparoscopic techniques increased (5% in 2002, 32% in 2014) whereas use of abdominal hysterectomy decreased (41% and 20%, respectively). Numbers of benign hysterectomies performed per year in Austria declined substantially between 2002 and 2014. Use of vaginal hysterectomy was stable at about 50%, whereas increased use of laparoscopic techniques was associated with lower rates of open hysterectomy.

  20. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  1. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  2. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria).

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2015-12-17

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps.

  3. When people shed religious identity in Ireland and Austria: Evidence from censuses

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, David; Hackett, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disaffiliation from religion is an important factor behind the rapid rise in persons claiming no religious affiliation in many advanced industrial countries. Scholars typically think of disaffiliation as a life course process that is confined to young adults, with little change occurring among older adults, yet few studies have examined this assumption outside the United States and Great Britain. OBJECTIVE We evaluate whether the young-adult model of disaffiliation from religion applies in Ireland and Austria, two historically Catholic-majority countries with different levels of non-affiliation growth. METHODS We use census data on religious affiliation in Ireland (1971–2011) and Austria (1971–2001) to track aggregate changes in the percentage reporting no religious affiliation over the life course for successive birth cohorts. RESULTS We find support for the young-adult model in Ireland. However, recent cohorts in Austria exhibit a distinct pattern of disaffiliation that continues into middle adulthood. Our analysis suggests that mid-life disaffiliation in Austria is connected to a religious tax, which we argue spurs nominally affiliated adults to disaffiliate themselves, as their income rises and the costs of religious affiliation increase. CONCLUSION Our findings offer insight into some of the social factors behind recent religious change across Europe and highlight the need for more cross-national research on the age and cohort dimensions of this change. PMID:25541579

  4. Two new dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) from the Miocene of Carinthia (Austria).

    PubMed

    Schädel, Mario; Lechner, Thomas S

    2017-03-13

    Two new species of fossil dragonflies from the Middle Miocene fossil site Schaßbach (Carinthia, Austria) are described. The presence of Gomphaeschna carinthiae sp. nov. and Ictinogomphus hassleri sp. nov. in the fossil record of Central Europe confirms the scenario of a more widespread distribution of the represented genera in the Miocene in contrast to their Recent distribution.

  5. The Establishment of School Social Work in Austria--From a Project to a Regular Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimgartner, Arno; Sting, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The contribution introduces the present situation and the basic challenges of school social work in Austria. Starting with the perception of a developing "knowledge society" (Höhne, 2004), school is seen as a life place at which social subjects and problems occur and are made manifest. The analyses are based in particular on empirical…

  6. Monitoring of Qualifications and Employment in Austria: An Empirical Approach Based on the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, Lorenz; Vogtenhuber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The empirical approach referred to in this article describes the relationship between education and training (ET) supply and employment in Austria; the use of the new ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) fields of study variable makes this approach applicable abroad. The purpose is to explore a system that produces timely…

  7. On Comparing Multilingual Societies: The Linguistic Situation of the Slavic Minorities in the Republic of Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Ludwig M.; Jodlbauer, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    Examples of the Croats in the Burgenland and the Slovenes in Carinthia (Slavic minorities in Austria) are presented to illustrate the importance of comparing different multilingual communities to make a typologically relevant description of them to understand typological similarities and certain idiosyncratic characteristics. (Author/CB)

  8. Asian longhorned beetle in Austria: critical comments on phytosanitary measures and regulations

    Treesearch

    Hannes Krehan

    2003-01-01

    The ALB is indigenous to East Asia (China, Korea, Taiwan, but not actually present in Japan). It has been introduced twice into North America: New York City, N.Y (1996) and Chicago, Illinois (1998). The first record for Europe was in August 2001 in Braunau, Austria where it was likely introduced through wood packing material (i.g. pallets, crates, dunnage etc.) from...

  9. Primary Education in Austria. Project No. 8: Innovation in Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report provides an overview of primary education in Austria. Section 1 describes: (1) the structure of the school system; (2) school organization; (3) admission to primary school; (4) premature admission to primary school; (5) deferral from school attendance; (6) official aims of primary education; (7) responsibility for the organization of…

  10. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  11. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

  13. GIN AUSTRIA. Assuring quality and relevance on Internet-health-informations for patients.

    PubMed

    Göbel, G; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-01-01

    GIN AUSTRIA (Gesundheitsinformationsnetz AUSTRIA) offers patients and consumers reliable medical knowledge about diseases, wellness and disease management in an understandable way and enables them to quick and incessant access to informations about the Austrian health system and Austrian health organizations. To improve the quality of the database and to achieve full customer (patients, citizens) satisfaction a systematic approach for implementing total quality management is also applied. Focusing the attention on understanding and responding to customer needs, systematic and continuous improving of the IS and total involvement of all participants are the three core TQM principles at this project. The second focus of the project is the development and the implementation (prototype) of a medical dictionary or rather medical thesaurus as interface for patients, who are not used to scientific terms and expressions. This interface is based on the controlled vocabulary of the MeSH-Thesaurus (german version).

  14. Development activities, challenges and prospects for the hydropower sector in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Beatrice; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    This contribution intends to give an overview of hydropower development activities in Austria and deepen the knowledge on actual strategies and planning documents. Thereby, the focus is on a climate and energy policy based perspective, also analyzing economic trends at the hydropower sector due to energy market changes in the last years. This includes a comparison with other political strategies and programs dealing with hydropower exploitation based on selected countries. With respect to technology developments, a concise review on technological innovations, such as hydrokinetic energy conversion systems, and new constructive designs of conventional hydropower plants in Austria will be given. Moreover, potential impacts on environment and aquatic ecosystems are described. Finally, key challenges and prospects will be identified and discussed.

  15. The lunar cycle and the number of deliveries in Austria between 1970 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Waldhoer, T; Haidinger, G; Vutuc, C

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the moon on the number of newborns has been investigated extensively with contradictory results but with few significant findings. In this paper, a possible lunar effect is analyzed by a nonlinear Poisson regression model similar to a Fourier analysis based on all children (n = 2,760,362) born in Austria between 1970 and 1999, i.e. 371 lunar cycles. We found no significant effect even when considering the influence of parity and gestation. Our study is in contrast to a French study using a similarly large data base which showed a weak but significant effect. Nevertheless, significant p values based on very large samples must be interpreted cautiously. Our study is in concordance with other studies which often use small and selected samples or rather inefficient statistical methods. We conclude that there is no significant effect of the lunar cycle on the number of deliveries in Austria.

  16. Small area variation in childhood diabetes mellitus in Austria: links to population density, 1989 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Schober, Edith; Rami, Birgit; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    We analyzed the associations of environmental factors with the regional distribution of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Austria. All newly diagnosed cases (n=1449) from 1989 to 1999 were allocated to districts using the postal code. Nitrate content of the water was measured by the Austrian Federal Environmental Agency. Data on infant mortality, population density, and percentage of employment by industry were derived from Statistics Austria. An inverse effect was seen between the proportion of children younger than 15 years of age and the risk ratio (P<.01). Infant mortality, population density, and percentage of persons with employment in industry were not of significant influence. The mean nitrate level was positively associated (P=.07). In regions with a higher percentage of children younger than 15 years of age, fewer children developed diabetes, which is in agreement with the observation that early social mixing is a protective factor. Nitrate levels may have a confounding effect.

  17. Molecular analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia divergens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Cézanne, Rita; Mrowietz, Naike; Eigner, Barbara; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-02-01

    Wild ungulates may act as reservoirs of various vector borne pathogens that can infect humans and domestic animals. In the present study, blood samples from 196 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Western Austria (Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg) were collected on filter paper and tested for Anaplasmataceae, Piroplasmida, Rickettsia and filarioid helminths using molecular tools. Babesia divergens was detected in ten (5.1%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in three (1.5%) of the 196 samples. Filarioid helminths, Rickettsia spp. and Theileria spp. were not detected. These findings indicate that red deer may serve as reservoirs of Babesia divergens and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Western Austria. Further investigations are needed to assess the presence of these pathogens in ticks in this geographical region, and the significance of these pathogens in both animals and humans.

  18. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard; Al Zalak, Zakarya; Goujon, Anne; Striessnig, Erich; Potančoková, Michaela; Gisser, Richard; Testa, Maria Rita; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception in 2010, the Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large number of individuals applying for asylum across Europe in 2015, it is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions. DiPAS (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey) aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding 514 completed interviews. Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of 972 persons living in Austria, and of further 419 partners and children abroad. Results indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels. Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat. DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society. In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context. PMID:27662373

  19. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  20. The high alpine bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Zillertal Alps, Austria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bees from the Zemmgrund area in the Zillertal Alps (Austria, Tyrol) were collected and determined to investigate the species composition of the area. A total of 61 specimens were collected over a two year period; they represent 24 species from 8 genera. Building on these records, the first commented checklist for the area is presented, with notes on habitats and visited flowers. PMID:25057253

  1. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015.

    PubMed

    Buber-Ennser, Isabella; Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard; Al Zalak, Zakarya; Goujon, Anne; Striessnig, Erich; Potančoková, Michaela; Gisser, Richard; Testa, Maria Rita; Lutz, Wolfgang

    Since its inception in 2010, the Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large number of individuals applying for asylum across Europe in 2015, it is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions. DiPAS (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey) aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding 514 completed interviews. Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of 972 persons living in Austria, and of further 419 partners and children abroad. Results indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels. Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat. DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society. In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context.

  2. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  3. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used.

  4. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in fecal and water samples in Austria.

    PubMed

    Hassl, A; Benyr, G; Sommer, R

    2001-10-22

    Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected and differentiated by a modular arranged gene amplification procedure in various samples, mostly human stool, feces of herpetotaxa, and water, in different locations of South and Eastern Austria. Cryptosporidium parvum was found in stool samples of immunocompromised persons, in reptile feces, and in water samples. The presence of Cryptosporidium in an area is probably associated with high human population densities since water from protected sources in sparsely inhabited areas is rarely contaminated.

  6. A 35-Year Trend Analysis for Back Pain in Austria: The Role of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang; Rásky, Éva; Burkert, Nathalie; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of back pain is constantly increasing and a public health problem of high priority. In Austria there is a lack of empirical evidence for the development of back pain and its related factors. The present study aims to investigate trends in the prevalence of back pain across different subpopulations (sex, age, obesity). Methods A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional health surveys (1973–2007) was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in private homes in Austria. Subjects aged 20 years and older were included in the study sample (n = 178,818). Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2 and adjusted for self-report bias. Back pain was measured as the self-reported presence of the disorder. Results The age-standardized prevalence of back pain was 32.9% in 2007; it was higher among women than men (p<0.001), higher in older than younger subjects (p<0.001) and higher in obese than non-obese individuals (p<0.001). During the investigation period the absolute change in the prevalence of back pain was +19.4%. Among all subpopulations the prevalence steadily increased. Obese men showed the highest increase of and the greatest risk for back pain. Conclusion These results help to understand the development of back pain in Austria and can be used to plan controlled promotion programs. Further monitoring is recommended in order to control risk groups and plan target group-specific prevention strategies. In Austria particular emphasis should be on obese individuals. We recommend conducting prospective studies to confirm our results and investigate causal relationships. PMID:25207972

  7. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" Project: connecting Seismic Data Centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Fabris, Paolo; Bertoni, Michele

    2013-04-01

    Since 2002 the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenija) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. The general schema of the project, including first data bandwith estimates and a possible architecture will be illustrated.

  8. Isotope supported recession analysis to assess hydraulic properties of karst aquifers across Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Brielmann, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Austria obtains almost half of its drinking water from karst aquifers. To manage karst aquifers in a sustainable way, reliable estimations of available karst water resources, their renewal rates and their hydrodynamics are of utmost importance. Hydrological models, which are a common tool for water resources assessment and planning, are difficult to apply at karst aquifers as their strong heterogeneity of hydraulic properties requires detailed measurements that are mostly not available. Here, we present the preliminary results of the first attempt to assess karst aquifer hydraulic properties at a national scale. Our approach uses karst specific recession analysis that is supported by water isotope measurements. We show for a subset of test sites that isotopic information results in a more realistic description of recession properties. Through this combined approach, we can approximate the degree of karstification by comparing the recession of the slow and diffuse parts of the aquifer and the recession of the fast and concentrated parts of the karst aquifers. In the future, we will use a much larger set of water isotope measurements (>7,000 water samples) at a large number of karst springs across Austria and apply landscape descriptors, such as river network density, to upscale the approximated degree of karstification from the karst springs to all karst areas in Austria.

  9. Incidental (Prophylactic) Salpingectomy at Benign Gynecologic Surgery and Cesarean Section: a Survey of Practice in Austria.

    PubMed

    Potz, F L; Tomasch, G; Polterauer, S; Laky, R; Marth, C; Tamussino, K

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Most serous ovarian cancers are now thought to originate in the fallopian tubes. This has raised the issue of performing incidental salpingectomy (also called elective, opportunistic, prophylactic or risk-reducing salpingectomy) at the time of benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. We conducted an online survey to ascertain the policies regarding incidental salpingectomy in Austria in late 2014. Material and Methods: All 75 departments of obstetrics and gynecology in public hospitals in Austria were surveyed for their policies regarding incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. Results: Sixty-six of 75 surveyed departments completed the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 88 %. Overall, 46 of 66 (70 %) units reported offering or recommending incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery, 12 units (18 %) did not, and eight units (12 %) did not have a consistent policy. Salpingectomy was the preferred method for surgical sterilization, including sterilization at the time of cesarean section (71 % and 64 % of units, respectively). Conclusions: Incidental (elective, opportunistic, prophylactic, risk-reducing) salpingectomy is now widely offered at benign gynecologic surgery and cesarean section in Austria. Evidence for the role of the fallopian tubes in the origin of serous pelvic cancer has led to changes in clinical practice.

  10. Incidental (Prophylactic) Salpingectomy at Benign Gynecologic Surgery and Cesarean Section: a Survey of Practice in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Potz, F. L.; Tomasch, G.; Polterauer, S.; Laky, R.; Marth, C.; Tamussino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most serous ovarian cancers are now thought to originate in the fallopian tubes. This has raised the issue of performing incidental salpingectomy (also called elective, opportunistic, prophylactic or risk-reducing salpingectomy) at the time of benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. We conducted an online survey to ascertain the policies regarding incidental salpingectomy in Austria in late 2014. Material and Methods: All 75 departments of obstetrics and gynecology in public hospitals in Austria were surveyed for their policies regarding incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. Results: Sixty-six of 75 surveyed departments completed the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 88 %. Overall, 46 of 66 (70 %) units reported offering or recommending incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery, 12 units (18 %) did not, and eight units (12 %) did not have a consistent policy. Salpingectomy was the preferred method for surgical sterilization, including sterilization at the time of cesarean section (71 % and 64 % of units, respectively). Conclusions: Incidental (elective, opportunistic, prophylactic, risk-reducing) salpingectomy is now widely offered at benign gynecologic surgery and cesarean section in Austria. Evidence for the role of the fallopian tubes in the origin of serous pelvic cancer has led to changes in clinical practice. PMID:28017973

  11. Incidence of maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy in Upper Austria, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Ulrich; Krämer, Alexander; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2011-12-14

    Despite three decades of prenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis in Austria, population-based estimates for the incidence of maternal infections with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy are lacking. We studied the incidence of primary maternal infections during pregnancy in the Federal State of Upper Austria. Screening tests for 63,416 women and over 90,000 pregnancies (more than 84.5% of pregnancies in the studied region) in the time period between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2007 were analysed. The incidence of toxoplasmosis was estimated indirectly by binomial and directly by interval censored regression. During the studied period, 66 acute infections (risk of 0.07% per pregnancy) were detected, but only 29.8% of seronegative women were tested at least three times during their pregnancies. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among all tested women was 31%. Indirectly estimated incidence (from differences in prevalence by age) was 0.5% per pregnancy, while directly estimated incidence (interval censored regression) was 0.17% per pregnancy (95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.21%). Calculating incidence from observed infections results in severe underreporting due to many missed tests and potential diagnostic problems. Using statistical modelling, we estimated primary toxoplasmosis to occur in 0.17% (0.13-0.21%) of all pregnancies in Upper Austria.

  12. Two new Ophiostoma species with Sporothrix anamorphs from Austria and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Wingfield, Michael J; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Kirisits, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The genus Ophiostoma includes numerous species of primarily insect-vectored, wood-staining fungi. Several anamorph genera that differ in their micronematous or macronematous conidiogenous cells have been associated with Ophiostoma species. Among the former group, Sporothrix is associated with many species and is characterized by conidiogenous cells that arise laterally or terminally from any place on the hyphae and produce nonseptate conidia on sympodially developing denticles. The purpose of this study was to characterize ophiostomatoid isolates with Sporothrix anamorphs recently collected in Austria and Azerbaijan. The isolates were characterized based on comparisons of rDNA and β-tubulin sequence data. Morphology, growth in culture, and sexual reproductive mode were also considered. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined sequence data showed that the isolates formed two distinct groups, one including isolates from Austria and the other isolates from Austria and Azerbaijan. Growth at 25 C and morphology revealed some differences between the two groups, and supported the view that they represent two new species, which we describe here as Ophiostoma fusiforme sp. nov. and Ophiostoma lunatum sp. nov. Both these groups phylogenetically were related to, but distinct from, Ophiostoma stenoceras.

  13. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

  14. [Levers in Primary Health Care - Identifying Strategic Success Factors for Improved Primary Care in Upper Austria].

    PubMed

    Kriegel, J; Rebhandl, E; Reckwitz, N; Hockl, W

    2016-12-01

    Current and projected general practitioner (GP) and primary care in Austria shows structural and process inadequacies in the quality as well as assurance of healthcare supply. The aim is therefore to develop solution- and patient-oriented measures that take patient-related requirements and medical perspectives into account. Using an effect matrix, subjective expert and user priorities were ascertained, cause and effect relationships were examined, and an expanded circle of success for the optimization of GP and primary care in Upper Austria was developed. Through this, the relevant levers for target-oriented development and optimization of the complex system of GP and primary care in Upper Austria were identified; these are training to become general practitioners, entrepreneurs as well as management and coordination. It is necessary to further adapt the identified levers conceptually and operationally in a targeted approach. This is to be achieved by means of the primary health care (PHC) concept as well as management tools and information and communication technologies (ICT) associated with it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Overcoming fragmentation in health care: chronic care in Austria, Germany and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile; Hofmarcher, Maria; Conklin, Annalijn; Erler, Antje; Elissen, Arianne; Flamm, Maria; Fullerton, Brigit; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2012-01-01

    The growing recognition of care fragmentation is causing many countries to explore new approaches to healthcare delivery that can bridge the boundaries between professions, providers and institutions and so better support the rising number of people with chronic health problems. This paper examines the role of the regulatory, funding and organisational context for the development and implementation of approaches to chronic care, using examples from Austria, Germany and the Netherlands. We find that the three countries have implemented a range of policies and approaches to achieve better coordination within and across the primary and secondary care interface and so better meet the needs of patients with chronic conditions. This has involved changes to the regulatory framework to support more coordinated approaches to care (Austria, Germany), coupled with financial incentives (Austria, Germany) or changes in payment systems (the Netherlands). What is common to the three countries is the comparative 'novelty' of policies and approaches aimed at fostering coordinated care; however, the evidence of their impact remains unclear.

  16. Geomorphons and structure metrics for the characterization of geomorphological landscape regions in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Fabian E.; Zieher, Thomas; Rutzinger, Martin; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Morphometry is a suitable method to describe geomorphological landform elements in different scales. Here, we present a workflow investigating the suitability of an area-wide elementary landform map computed for the entire country of Austria to delineate major natural geomorphological regions by analyzing spatial variability and distribution of elementary landforms. The workflow makes use of r.geomorphon, an extension module for the free and open source geographic information system GRASS GIS. It is a raster based tool that intends to delineate landform elements by applying a pattern recognition algorithm which is based on the visible neighborhood computed from a focal pixel. The input parameter lookup distance (L) represents the maximum distance for line-of-sight calculations for each pixel. Applying a local ternary pattern concept and a lookup table used for classification, a map containing the landform elements flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, slope, spur, hollow, footslope, valley and pit is generated. Jasciewicz and Stepinski (2013), who authored the extension, applied it to create a general geomophometric map of Poland. We present a geomorphon-based landform map of Austria calculated with r.geomorphon with L=1500 m, which corresponds to 60 pixels based on the 25 m digital elevation model (DEM) provided by the European Environmental Agency. The visual inspection of the resulting map allows the viewer to distinguish major natural geomorphologic regions of Austria. For instance, the variability and distribution of landform elements i.e. classified geomorphons within the crystalline rocks of the Bohemian massive in the northern part of Austria seem to be similar to those of the area encompassed by the Austrian Alps, however at a much finer scale. In contrast, the Vienna Basin can be clearly identified by a sudden shift in the distribution of the landform elements towards the element "flat". For an objective, transferable and reproducible approach we developed a

  17. Explaining differences in stakeholder take up of disease management programmes: A comparative analysis of policy implementation in Austria and Germany.

    PubMed

    Schang, Laura; Thomson, Sarah; Czypionka, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Understanding why policies to improve care for people with chronic conditions fail to be implemented is a pressing issue in health system reform. We explore reasons for the relatively high uptake of disease management programmes (DMPs) in Germany, in contrast to low uptake in Austria. We focus on the motivation, information and power of key stakeholder groups (payers, physician associations, individual physicians and patients). We conducted a comparative stakeholder analysis using qualitative data from interviews (n=15 in Austria and n=26 in Germany), legal documents and media reports. Stakeholders in Germany appeared to have systematically stronger motivation, exposure to more positive information about DMPs and better ability to implement DMPs than their counterparts in Austria. Policy in Austria focused on financial incentives to physicians only. In Germany, limited evidence about the quality improvement and cost savings potential of DMPs was mitigated by strong financial incentives to sickness funds but proved a fundamental obstacle in Austria. Efforts to promote DMPs should seek to ensure the cooperation of payers and patients, not just physicians, using a mix of financial and non-financial instruments suited to the context. A singular focus on financially incentivising providers is unlikely to stimulate uptake of DMPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  19. Application of a distributed snow model for the assessment of past snow cover changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Siegmann, Marcel; Strasser, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth and snow cover duration in mountain regions are subject to high spatial and temporal variability. Information on this natural variability and climate change induced modifications in snow conditions is a prerequisite for science and stakeholders to understand past and present snow conditions, but also for the interpretation of future snow projections. While instrumental time series of the relevant meteorological and snow cover variables are essential for climate studies, only few long-term climate and snow observation time series are available, and their spatial representativity is strongly limited. This study applies the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN to improve the spatial density of snow information in Austria by continuously simulating daily snow accumulation and ablation at a spatial resolution of 1 x 1 km for all of Austria and the period 1948-2009. The model is driven with homogenized and quality-checked meteorological station observations of daily temperature (minimum and maximum) and precipitation. Model output comprises daily maps of snow water equivalent, snow depth, and freshly fallen snow. Following a thorough validation of the snow model through comparison of simulations to snow observations (point scale) as well as to remotely sensed snow cover patterns, changes in the Austrian snow cover are elaborated and presented in this study. Beside the illustration of changes in the spatial distribution of snow in Austria for the 1 x 1 km raster, temporal trends are elaborated by statistical analyses of mean snow cover change for different elevation ranges providing more detailed insights in the temporal variability and changes in snow cover conditions.

  20. Extent and application of patient diaries in Austria: process of continuing adaptation.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Patrik; Bachlechner, Adelbert; Nydahl, Peter; Egerod, Ingrid

    2016-09-21

    Diaries written for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are offered in many European countries. In Austria, ICU diaries have been relatively unknown, but since 2012, they have started to emerge. The aim of this study was to explore the extent and application of ICU diaries in Austria in 2015. The study had a prospective multiple methods design of survey and interviews. All ICUs in Austria were surveyed in 2015 to identify which ICUs used diaries. ICUs using diaries were selected for semi-structured key-informant telephone interviews on the application of ICU diaries. Interviews were analysed by content analysis. Of the 178 ICUs contacted, 13 had implemented ICU diaries. In all ICUs, diaries were sporadically introduced by a few dedicated nurses. Experiences of participating nurses can be summarized in two main themes: (a) the process of innovation and (b) the process of practice. Sub-themes were: (i) inspiration, creativity and innovation and (ii) purpose, indications, responsibility, authorship, experience, negative reception, and post-ICU practice. Individual nurses at each ICU found ways to organize and format ICU diaries while dealing with ambivalence and legal implications. The implementation of a new nursing intervention is an ongoing process. Being innovative and responsible can be challenging, especially in hierarchical team structures. We recommend that nurses work towards national standards for the diary concept in order to enable future research into the process and outcome of ICU diaries. The implementation of ICU diaries in routine care requires an ongoing adaptive, reflective process. Nurses may experience innovation, leading to the development of their own, feasible adaptions and structures. © 2016 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  1. Daily temperature grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum temperature covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at daily time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear temperature profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum temperatures, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.

  2. Artificial radioactivity in environmental media (air, rainwater, soil, vegetation) in Austria after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Merz, Stefan; Hainz, Dieter; Sterba, Johannes H

    2013-04-01

    Several environmental media in Austria were monitored for artificial radionuclides released during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Air (up to 1.2 mBq/m(3) particulate (131)I) and rainwater (up to 5.2 Bq/L (131)I) proved to be the media best suited for the environmental monitoring, allowing also a temporal resolution of the activity levels. Significant regional differences in the wet deposition of (131)I with rain could be observed within the city of Vienna during the arrival of the contaminated air masses. Forward-trajectory analysis supported the hypothesis that the contaminated air masses coming from the northwest changed direction to northeast over Northern Austria, leading to a strong activity concentration gradient over Vienna. In the course of the environmental monitoring of the Fukushima releases, this phenomenon-significant differences of (131)I activity concentrations in rainwater on a narrow local scale (8.1 km)-appears to be unique. Vegetation (grass) was contaminated with (131)I and/or (137)Cs at a low level. Soil (up to 22 Bq/kg (137)Cs) was only affected by previous releases (nuclear weapon tests, Chernobyl). Here, also significant local differences can be observed due to different deposition rates during the Chernobyl accident. The effective ecological half-lives of (137)Cs in soil were calculated for four locations in Austria. They range from 7 to 30 years. No Austrian sample investigated herein exceeded the detection limit for (134)Cs; hence, the Fukushima nuclear accident did not contribute significantly to the total radiocesium inventory in Austrian environmental media. The levels of detected radioactivity were of no concern for public health.

  3. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Ramusch, R. Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  4. A giant termite from the Late Miocene of Styria, Austria (Isoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Gross, Martin

    2009-02-01

    A giant termite is described and figured from the Late Miocene of the Styrian Basin in southeastern Austria. Gyatermes styriensis gen. n. et sp. n. is represented by a relatively complete forewing, with basal scale. The fossil approximates in size the largest of all termites today and is the largest fossil termite on record. The presence of this species in the Late Miocene fauna of Europe indicates that climatic conditions were appropriate for the persistence of species and colonies requiring relatively stable, warm conditions. The genus is primitive in overall features but shares some similarity with the dampwood termites.

  5. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and cattle in Austria.

    PubMed

    Freidl, Gudrun; Stalder, Gabrielle; Kostić, Tanja; Sessitsch, Angela; Beiglböck, Christoph; Walzer, Christian

    2011-07-01

    We assessed the prevalence of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and livestock grazing on a mountain pasture in Austria during June-August 2009. We detected VTEC throughout the sampling period in high numbers in cattle as well as in chamois, leading to the assumption that the degree of contamination of the environment is high. This is the first report of pathogenic E. coli identified in chamois, implicating chamois as a new potential reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens. Because the study area also serves recreational purposes, there is a risk of humans acquiring infection via direct or indirect contact.

  6. A Sunken Ship of the Desert at the River Danube in Tulln, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  7. How labour market experiences of migrants differ: Australia and Austria compared.

    PubMed

    Altzinger, W

    1995-01-01

    The author compares migration policies and their economic impact in Australia and Austria. "The second section of the article presents the framework of Austrian and Australian migration policy....A comparison of the Austrian and Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/unemployment/foreign employment-relationships displays different forms of flexibility. The third section of the article examines some distinctive features of migrants in both countries, including labour force participation, distribution by industry, wage policy and unemployment. The final section is a brief summary and some political reflections." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  8. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential.

  9. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" project: connecting seismic data centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Lenhardt, W.; Rauch, M.; Živčić, M.; Steiner, R.; Fabris, P.; Bertoni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002 OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2004, 2010). The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area (Fig. 1). At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on their internet connections: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since the reliability of standard internet connections is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (PCBZ, Italy), OGS, ZAMG subsidiary in Tirol (ZAMG Tirol) and ARSO joined in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2012) aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. ARSO does not belong to the Interreg Italia-Austria region: for this reason ARSO joined the SeismoSAT project as an "associated partner", which, according to Interreg rules can not be funded. ARSO participation in the project is therefore at the beginning limited in benefiting only indirectly from improvement in the robustness of the data exchange between the other data centers, while eventually fully taking part in the project if other sources of funding will be available. The project is in a

  10. Towards a well-founded and reproducible snow load map for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Michael; Schellander, Harald

    2017-04-01

    "EN 1991-1-3 Eurocode 1: Part 1-3: Snow Loads" provides standard for the determination of the snow load to be used for the structural design of buildings etc. Since 2006 national specifications for Austria define a snow load map with four "load zones", allowing the calculation of the characteristic ground snow load sk for locations below 1500 m asl. A quadratic regression between altitude and sk is used, as suggested by EN 1991-1-3. The actual snow load map is based on best meteorological practice, but still it is somewhat subjective and non-reproducible. Underlying snow data series often end in the 1980s; in the best case data until about 2005 is used. Moreover, extreme value statistics only rely on the Gumbel distribution and the way in which snow depths are converted to snow loads is generally unknown. This might be enough reasons to rethink the snow load standard for Austria, all the more since today's situation is different to what it was some 15 years ago: Firstly, Austria is rich of multi-decadal, high quality snow depth measurements. These data are not well represented in the actual standard. Secondly, semi-empirical snow models allow sufficiently precise calculations of snow water equivalents and snow loads from snow depth measurements without the need of other parameters like temperature etc. which often are not available at the snow measurement sites. With the help of these tools, modelling of daily snow load series from daily snow depth measurements is possible. Finally, extreme value statistics nowadays offers convincing methods to calculate snow depths and loads with a return period of 50 years, which is the base of sk, and allows reproducible spatial extrapolation. The project introduced here will investigate these issues in order to update the Austrian snow load standard by providing a well-founded and reproducible snow load map for Austria. Not least, we seek for contact with standards bodies of neighboring countries to find intersections as well

  11. Composition of the essential oil of wild grown caraway in meadows of the Vienna region (Austria).

    PubMed

    Chizzola, Remigius

    2014-04-01

    The essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of wild growing caraway (Carum carvi, Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. The plants came from two meadows in the Vienna region, Austria. The oils from young fruits had a high proportion of limonene (61-83%), and those from inflorescences limonene (39-62%) and germacrene D (23-41%). The carvone contents of fruits, inflorescences and leaves varied greatly. Leaves and stems, low in volatiles, were dominated by germacrene D and germacrene A. Therefore, wild caraway appears as a valuable aromatic herb in meadows.

  12. Seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in the federal state of Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Sagel, U; Mikolajczyk, R T; Krämer, A

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy may help to understand and avoid risk factors for infection. Analysing regular screening records of 51 754 pregnant women, members of the largest statutory health insurance company in the federal state of Upper Austria from 2000 to 2005, we found a twofold increase of diagnoses of acute toxoplasmosis during winter months. Taking the delay between infection and screening into account, the increased number of detections in winter points towards more frequent infections in autumn. We propose a higher consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruit from gardening as one of the potential explanations.

  13. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  14. A probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Austria.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Johanna Sophia; Grossschmidt, Karl; Gusenbauer, Christian; Kanz, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the skeletal remains of a subadult from an archeological site in Austria. Radiocarbon dating and archeological attribution indicate that this individual is of pre-Columbian origin. Most of the skeleton was recovered, and only the teeth and the orbital roofs show changes. Dental defects such as the mulberry molar and a tapered, fang-like canine suggest a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. This is the first probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Central Europe. Our findings contribute to the pre-Columbian theory, offering counter evidence to the assumption that syphilis was carried from Columbus' crew from the New to the Old World.

  15. Addictive Potential of Online-Gambling. A Prevalence Study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Kurosch; Katzian, Christian

    2017-09-01

    There are hints, that online-gambling has a higher addictive potential than offline-gambling. In this study prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of online- vs. offline-gambling in Austria are gathered and possible relations discussed. Problematic gambling-behavior was assessed via Lie-and-Bet questionnaire from Johnson. The results indicate a tendency of younger gamblers and particularly problematic gamblers towards online-gambling. Considering the substantial addictive potential of online-gambling and hints of a future trend away from offline- towards online-gambling, preventive measures like public restrictions for online providers and awareness campaigns for consumers about the dangers of online-gambling offers are reasonable.

  16. AlpArray in Austria and Slovakia: technical realization, site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolínský, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    We report the technical realization and performance of thirty temporary seismic broadband deployments for the AlpArray project in eastern Austria and western Slovakia. Reftek 151 60s sensors and Reftek 130/130S digitizers form the core instrumentation of our seismic stations; these are mostly installed inside abandoned or occasionally used basements or cellars in small buildings or huts. We describe our type of installation and briefly introduce the site conditions for each of the thirty installations. We present a probabilistic power spectral density analysis to assess the noise conditions at all sites and potential relations to the installation design.

  17. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  18. 25th ANNUAL NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The model results may help landscape ecologists produce indicators of surface water condition, such that unique combinations of these indicators can be used to infer the potential cause(s) and origin(s) of non-point pollution, which may lead to eutrophication in aquatic ecosystem...

  19. 25th anniversary article: Ion exchange in colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchi; Kershaw, Stephen V; Rogach, Andrey L

    2013-12-23

    We review the progress in ion exchange in a variety of nanocrystal structures from the earliest accounts dating back over two decades ago to the present day. In recent years the number of groups using this method to form otherwise difficult or inaccessible nanoparticle shapes and morphologies has increased considerably and the field has experienced a resurgence of interest. Whilst most of the early work on cation exchange centered on II-VI materials, the methodology has been expanded to cover a far broader range of semiconductor nanocrystals including low toxicity I-III-VI materials and the much less facile III-V materials. The extent of exchange can be controlled leading to lightly doped nanoparticles, alloys, core-shells, segmented rods and dots-in-rods. Progress has been driven by a better understanding of the underlying principles of the exchange process - from thermodynamic factors (differences in cation solubilities); the interactions between ions and transfer agents (solvents, ligands, anions, co-dopants); ionic in-diffusion mechanisms and kinetics. More recent availability of very detailed electron microscopy coupled with image reconstruction techniques has been a valuable tool to investigate the resulting heterostructures and internal interfaces. We start by surveying the range of synthetic approaches most often used to carry out ion exchange, mainly focusing on cation replacement strategies, and then describe the rich variety of nanostructures these techniques can bring forth. We also describe some of the principles that are used to establish the relative ease of exchange and to systematically improve the process where the basic energetics are less favorable. To help further the understanding of the underlying fundamentals we have gathered together useful data from the literature on solubilities, cation and anion hardness, ligand and solvent Lewis acid or base strengths for a wide range of chemical species generally used. We offer a perspective on the outlook for the field in terms of the emerging applications and the ion exchange derived materials that will enable them. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Proceedings of the 25th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M.

    1985-01-01

    Topics addressed include: silicon sheet growth and characterization, silicon material, process development, high-efficiency cells, environmental isolation, engineering sciences, and reliability physics.

  1. Transactions of the Conference of Army Mathematicians (25th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Army position, un- less so designated by other authorized documents. Sponsored by The Army Mthematics Stowing Committee on behalf of THE CHIEF OF...so designated by other authorized docui:ients. U. S. Army Research Office P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ot. K FOREWORD The...computer codes. The table presents the date of first publication of the users manuals, the authors name, and a short dis- crWipton of the code. The

  2. 2014: WHO's 25th World No Tobacco Day Global Campaign.

    PubMed

    Velasco Munoz, Cesar; Alejandra, Pérez-Pérez; Peruga, Armando; Luminita, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    Since 1988, WHO have celebrated and supported World No Tobacco Day (WNTD), linking each year to a different tobacco-related theme. New technologies and creative design have been used by WHO in order to adapt to the current trends and needs providing the public with visually attractive posters and brochures. A review of World Health Organization (WHO) material on WNTD was made, every year themes and posters were collected and analysed to be presented in a comprehensive way. A systematic timeline and an infographic were designed, enclosing the themes of WNTD across the years. The evolution of WNTD themes was commented on with a historical approach. WNTD has evolved adapting to the current scenarios, and is a good example of a global communication campaign on public health awareness and prevention.

  3. Selected Papers, ASTD 25th Anniversary National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Training and Development, Madison, WI.

    Taken from the annual conference (May 12-16, 1969) of the American Society for Training and Development, these papers concentrate on sociological and related trends affecting manpower development and utilization. Such topics as new training and educational resources for industrial trainers, current social change and upheaval on and off college…

  4. PAX6: 25th anniversary and more to learn.

    PubMed

    Cvekl, Ales; Callaerts, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    The DNA-binding transcription factor PAX6 was cloned 25 years ago by multiple teams pursuing identification of human and mouse eye disease causing genes, cloning vertebrate homologues of pattern-forming regulatory genes identified in Drosophila, or abundant eye-specific transcripts. Since its discovery in 1991, genetic, cellular, molecular and evolutionary studies on Pax6 mushroomed in the mid 1990s leading to the transformative thinking regarding the genetic program orchestrating both early and late stages of eye morphogenesis as well as the origin and evolution of diverse visual systems. Since Pax6 is also expressed outside of the eye, namely in the central nervous system and pancreas, a number of important insights into the development and function of these organs have been amassed. In most recent years, genome-wide technologies utilizing massively parallel DNA sequencing have begun to provide unbiased insights into the regulatory hierarchies of specification, determination and differentiation of ocular cells and neurogenesis in general. This review is focused on major advancements in studies on mammalian eye development driven by studies of Pax6 genes in model organisms and future challenges to harness the technology-driven opportunities to reconstruct, step-by-step, the transition from naïve ectoderm, neuroepithelium and periocular mesenchyme/neural crest cells into the three-dimensional architecture of the eye.

  5. Earthquake Engineering Research Center: 25th anniversry edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    The Earthquake Engineering Research Center exists to conduct research and develop technical information in all areas pertaining to earthquake engineering, including strong ground motion and ground failure, response of natural and manmade structures to earthquakes, design of structures to resist earthquakes, development of new systems for earthquake protection, and development of architectural and public policy aspects of earthquake engineering. The annual report for 1992-93 presents information on: Current Research Programs; Contracts and Grants; Public Service Program; National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering; Core Administration; Committees of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Research Participants - Faculty; and Research Participants - Students.

  6. 25th anniversary article: Engineering hydrogels for biofabrication.

    PubMed

    Malda, Jos; Visser, Jetze; Melchels, Ferry P; Jüngst, Tomasz; Hennink, Wim E; Dhert, Wouter J A; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2013-09-25

    With advances in tissue engineering, the possibility of regenerating injured tissue or failing organs has become a realistic prospect for the first time in medical history. Tissue engineering - the combination of bioactive materials with cells to generate engineered constructs that functionally replace lost and/or damaged tissue - is a major strategy to achieve this goal. One facet of tissue engineering is biofabrication, where three-dimensional tissue-like structures composed of biomaterials and cells in a single manufacturing procedure are generated. Cell-laden hydrogels are commonly used in biofabrication and are termed "bioinks". Hydrogels are particularly attractive for biofabrication as they recapitulate several features of the natural extracellular matrix and allow cell encapsulation in a highly hydrated mechanically supportive three-dimensional environment. Additionally, they allow for efficient and homogeneous cell seeding, can provide biologically-relevant chemical and physical signals, and can be formed in various shapes and biomechanical characteristics. However, despite the progress made in modifying hydrogels for enhanced bioactivation, cell survival and tissue formation, little attention has so far been paid to optimize hydrogels for the physico-chemical demands of the biofabrication process. The resulting lack of hydrogel bioinks have been identified as one major hurdle for a more rapid progress of the field. In this review we summarize and focus on the deposition process, the parameters and demands of hydrogels in biofabrication, with special attention to robotic dispensing as an approach that generates constructs of clinically relevant dimensions. We aim to highlight this current lack of effectual hydrogels within biofabrication and initiate new ideas and developments in the design and tailoring of hydrogels. The successful development of a "printable" hydrogel that supports cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation will significantly advance this exciting and promising approach for tissue engineering. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Naval Training Device Center 25th Anniversary Commemorative Technical Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amico, G. Vincent; Regan, James J.

    Both the technical history of training devices and the issues which currently confront their design and use are discussed by a group of distinguished scientists and engineers. A blend of human factors and engineering paper reflects the twin thrusts that make up the educational tools that are training device systems. (Author)

  8. 25th ANNUAL NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The model results may help landscape ecologists produce indicators of surface water condition, such that unique combinations of these indicators can be used to infer the potential cause(s) and origin(s) of non-point pollution, which may lead to eutrophication in aquatic ecosystem...

  9. AFOSR Chemistry Program Review (25th) FY-80,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    John E. Jensen Dr. Michael Piliavin Dr. Siu-May Wong Gary P . Myer Dr. Hong S. Lim Dr. Leroy J. Miller 7. JUNIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Camille I. VanAst...Induced Thermal Desorption," Lennard Wharton, J. P . Cowin, D. J. Auerbach and C. Becker, Surf. Sci., 78, 545 (1978). "Chemical Dynamics Investigated by...Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1978). "UHF Application of Spring Loaded Teflon Seals," Daniel J. Auerbach , Charles A. Becker, James P . Cowin

  10. 25th Anniversary Article: Supramolecular Materials for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoven, Job

    2014-01-01

    In supramolecular materials, molecular building blocks are designed to interact with one another via non-covalent interactions in order to create function. This offers the opportunity to create structures similar to those found in living systems that combine order and dynamics through the reversibility of intermolecular bonds. For regenerative medicine there is a great need to develop materials that signal cells effectively, deliver or bind bioactive agents in vivo at controlled rates, have highly tunable mechanical properties, but at the same time, can biodegrade safely and rapidly after fulfilling their function. These requirements make supramolecular materials a great platform to develop regenerative therapies. This review illustrates the emerging science of these materials and their use in a number of applications for regenerative medicine. PMID:24496667

  11. 25TH Annual National Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-09

    Speaker Jasmine Hibiscus Ballroom  u  honorable Jack bell, Deputy under Secretary of Defense, logistics & Materiel readiness agenda: aPriL 6 - aPriL 7...electronics and information Systems, bAe Systems 12:00 pm Luncheon with Speaker Jasmine Hibiscus Ballroom u ltGen ronald coleman, uSMc, Deputy...SAP Public Services, inc. 12:00 pm Luncheon with Speaker Jasmine Hibiscus Ballroom Sponsored by Lockheed Martin Corporation  u Gen Duncan

  12. Proceedings, 25th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.; Luo, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: computer and physical modelling; geology in ground control; geophysics in ground control; ground control; impoundments stability; longwall gateroad support design; longwall operations; longwall shields and standing supports; mine design; multiple-seam mining interactions; pillar and pillar extraction; roof bolting; roof bolting - resin; and subsidence. Most of the topics include a retrospective paper which summarises the progress of the subject field during the past 25 years.

  13. The Orphan Nuclear Receptors at Their 25th Year Reunion

    PubMed Central

    Mullican, Shannon E.; DiSpirito, Joanna R.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Receptor superfamily includes many receptors identified based on their similarity to steroid hormone receptors but without a known ligand. The study of how these receptors are diversely regulated to interact with genomic regions to control a plethora of biological processes has provided critical insight into development, physiology and the molecular pathology of disease. Here we provide a compendium of these so-called Orphan Receptors, and focus on what has been learned about their modes of action, physiological functions, and therapeutic promise. PMID:24096517

  14. How has Radical Right Support Transformed Established Political Conflicts? The Case of Austria

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Julian; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In many European party systems, the radical right has challenged established patterns of political competition. This article studies the consequences of this by using the case of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and data from Austria’s first national election study (AUTNES). It is found that the FPÖ has weakened Austria’s previously highly stable system of socio-structural and ideological divisions as expressed by the two mainstream parties, the People’s Party and the Social Democrats. In socio-structural terms, the FPÖ has undermined the Social Democrats’ support base. In ideological terms, FPÖ voters have distinct views on newer issues such as immigration, European integration and dissatisfaction with the political system, but its supporters’ views on Austria’s traditional conflicts surrounding the economy and social and religious values cannot explain the party’s success. These findings further our understanding of the transformation of political conflicts not just in Austria, but in Western Europe in general. PMID:26770003

  15. [Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and TBE-vaccination in Austria: Update 2014].

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    TBE is a public health problem well under control in Austria because of a mass vaccination programme. There have been 50-100 registered cases per year for many years, the vaccination rate of the population is currently 85 %. Special attention has to be given to the "older" generation 40 plus as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases are observed annually. In comparison of the counties, Tyrol and Upper Austria finished first and second after a long time when Styria and Carynthia had observed most of the cases. For TBE applies the same as for Tetanus, namely the principle of disease control or disease elimination: The virus cannot be eliminated and vaccination provides individual protection. The both available TBE vaccines have proven to be very effective with an effectivity of 96-99 %, also when given irregular vaccinations the protection rate is still very high (>90 %). More than 4000 prevented cases between 2000 and 2011 prove this impressively.

  16. One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's glacier ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay

    2016-04-01

    After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when melt affected Austria's glaciers up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of glacier covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the glacier was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of glacier melt in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying glacier mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the glacier area (<10% of the ski resort area and less than one per mille of the total glacier area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. Glacier covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite glacier dynamics, glacier surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.

  17. Affordability of programmes to prevent spontaneous preterm birth in Austria: a budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister-Koss, Ingrid; Piso, Brigitte

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a rising health problem in Europe generally, and in Austria specifically. Decision makers require objective information on the effects and costs of measures to prevent preterm birth. We undertook a budget impact analysis from a public payer perspective and for a 1-year and 5-year time horizon for five prevention approaches to reduce preterm birth. These were cervix screening + progesterone application, progesterone injection, smoking cessation, fish oil supplementation and infection screening. We analysed affordability in terms of programme costs and potential cost savings. Programme costs range from below €50 000 (cervix screening in high-risk pregnancy) to €500 000 (universal infection screening). The lowest health effects have been shown for smoking cessation programmes (-10 preterm births per year), whereas infection screening demonstrated the largest effect (-230 preterm births per year). In the base-case analysis, all programmes are potentially cost saving (-€500 000 to -€13 million per year). In the sensitivity analyses, preterm birth costs, target group size and (partly) unit costs of programme components have an influence on potential cost savings. However, except for two programmes, the results are robust concerning an overall economic net benefit of the programmes analysed compared with no programme. The study is mainly limited by the quality of some cost data and choice of the reference scenario. When considering potential cost savings, the five prevention programmes analysed seem affordable, with cervix screening and infection screening likely being the most promising in Austria.

  18. Comparison of spatial extreme value models for snow depth extremes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellander, Harald; Hell, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    In Alpine regions like Austria a spatial representation of extreme snow depth is of crucial importance for numerous purposes such as the designing of construction projects. Extreme value theory builds the well-established foundation of modeling extremes. Two different approaches for the spatial modeling of snow depth extremes have been extensively investigated lately: Smooth Spatial Modeling (Blanchet and Lehning, 2010) and different classes of max-stable processes (Blanchet and Davison, 2011; Nicolet et al., 2015), both outperforming classical interpolation techniques. While max-stable models are generally considered as improvement over smooth modeling, the methods have not been compared in the context of extreme snow depth. In the present study a great variety of different GEV models is fitted to seasonal snow depth maxima measured at more than 200 Austrian weather stations. Return levels of smooth spatial models and several max-stable representations (Schlather, Brown-Resnick, Geometric Gaussian, Extremal-t) and covariance models (Powered Exponential, Brown, Whittle-Matern), also allowing for anisotropic extremal dependence are compared by a modified Anderson-Darling score and a normalized RMSE. Preliminary results show, that for snow depth extremes in Austria smooth spatial modeling and a version with extremal coefficients as covariates deliver slightly better scores than (an)-isotropic max-stable models.

  19. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ramusch, R; Pertl, A; Scherhaufer, S; Schmied, E; Obersteiner, G

    2015-10-01

    Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  20. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-06-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year. We aimed to replicate this effect for Austria. The analyses were based on the official suicide statistics 2000-13 using Poission regression and Bayesian changepoint analysis. We also investigated changes of suicide rates during other major holidays and weekends. Seasonal effects were controlled for by using restricted control periods. Suicide rates declined before Christmas and were minimal on December 24th, remained low until the end of the year, peaked on New Year's day, but remained at average level in New Year's week. In contrast, suicide rates increased in the week after Easter and on Mondays/Tuesdays after weekends. No significant effects were found in the week after Whitsun and summer holidays. Compared with other holidays, Christmas time is clearly associated with fewer suicides in Austria, too, and may even counteract the 'broken promise' effect. This finding may help clarifying common myths in suicide prevention and may enhance the proper timing of preventive efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. [Current state of research on migration in Austria. A brief review].

    PubMed

    Baldaszti, E

    2006-09-01

    Although Austria has been the aim of immigration for many years, research in the field of migration and integration is not yet established. Of the Austrian population, 9.6% have foreign citizenship and the proportion of the migrant population is highest in Vienna, where it is 18.0%. In 2002 a population register system was implemented in Austria which allows a more detailed description of migration processes and a differentiation of population by citizenship and country of birth. In social science and public health research as well as in official statistics and surveys the item of migration is not given sufficient consideration. On a political level, especially in Vienna, a comprehensive strategy of integration and diversity is being increasingly regarded as essential, and federal health policy has recently also focused on the health of migrants. In the future migration will hopefully be re-evaluated as the need for a humanitarian approach is recognized but also the benefits from migration in cultural, economic and demographic affairs are better appreciated and research is allowed to play an appropriate role in this process.

  2. Multilocus sequence analysis of Giardia spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mellesia F; Auer, Herbert; Lindo, John F; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite causing intestinal infections in a wide range of mammals. Two distinct assemblages, A and B, infect humans predominantly; however, both are believed to be generally zoonotic. Giardia strains associated with infections in Austria have not been investigated at the molecular level. In this study, 65 human stool samples microscopically positive for Giardia spp. were subjected to DNA isolation and nested PCR targeting fragments of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and beta-gardin (bg) genes. A total of 52 samples were successfully analyzed using PCR and DNA sequencing. Assemblage B was detected most frequently and accounted for 65.4% (34/52) of infections, while Assemblage A accounted for 34.6% (18/52). There was a high level of genetic diversity among the isolates with 46.2% designated as sub-assemblage BIV (24/52), 25% sub-assemblage AII (13/52), 19.2% sub-assemblage BIII (10/52), and 9.6% sub-assemblage AI (5/52). No mixed infections were detected. The results suggest that the majority of infections were imported and that endemic anthroponotic transmission plays a minor role in Austria.

  3. [Competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria: evidence from the market for ACE inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Mahlich, J C; Stadler, I

    2012-01-01

    The market for pharmaceuticals in Austria is highly regulated and manufacturers cannot set prices freely after patent expiration of the pioneer drug. We wanted to examine the effect of price regulation on price competition between branded and generic drugs in Austria. We examined the Austrian market for ACE inhibitors and describe competitive dynamics by means of 6 indices. We compared our results with those of Grabowski and Vernon who studied the US market. According to our analysis the competition amongst the producers of generic drugs is not great and consequently, compared to the USA, over time the prices for generic products decrease less and their market share increases less. This is due to a market-oriented system in the USA which waives most regulatory provisions. Our conclusions are in line with the findings by Danzon und Chao (2000) who argue that in a price-regulated market competitive dynamics are less strongly developed. From a politico-economic view, the necessity of price regulations in the pharmaceutical market seems questionable, as price regulations generally also cause other negative effects, such as distorted economic incentives for research and development investments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Determinants of physician's office visits and potential effects of co-payments: evidence from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Philipp; Mahlich, Jörg C

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse determinants of physician office visits and potential effects of co-payments in Austria. Based on survey data, the number of annual physician office visits is regressed on a set of explanatory variable such as income, communication behaviour in waiting room, travel time, gender, age, presence of chronic diseases and connectedness to family members. It was then examined how those determinants are affected by hypothetical co-payments in the range of €5 to €200. Our results suggest a negative impact of income and family connectedness on doctor's visits. On the other hand, age, morbidity and active communication behaviour in the waiting room are positively associated with office visits. The significant impact of both income and active communication behaviour on the number of doctor's visits disappears when significant co-payments greater than €50 are introduced. Higher co-payments would reduce healthcare service utilization in Austria mainly because of a demand reduction of poorer patients. Another key finding of our study is that the desire to chat with peers in the waiting room is another significant driver of physician office visits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  6. Pesticide poisoning in domestic animals and livestock in Austria: a 6 years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingzi; Kruzik, Paul; Helsberg, Albert; Helsberg, Inge; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2007-07-04

    A 6 years retrospective study of pesticide poisonings in domestic animals and livestock from 1999 to 2004 submitted to the Institute for Medical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria was compiled and analysed. Totally 380 pesticide analysis requests were referred by veterinary practitioners, from the Institute for Pathology of the above university, by regional and central governments as well as local police departments and district administrations, animal protectionist groups, public health authorities and private clients. Among the total number of suspected samples for pesticides, 175 (46.1%) cases were found positive to contain pesticides of various kinds. Among the pesticides found, carbamate insecticides were most prominent, representing 50.3% of the total positive cases. These compounds were followed by rodenticides-anticoagulants with 18.9% of the positive results, by organophosphate insecticides 5.1%, and by the rodenticides-nonanticoagulant 3.4%, the other 22.3% included molluscicides, herbicides, etc. In totally 225 animals, 123 animals were found positive for pesticide intoxication, among them 47.2% were dogs, 34.1% were cats 9.8% of other species and 8.9% of unspecified animal samples. The pesticides were characterized by HPLC-techniques using commercially available standards. The aim of this Austrian survey was to determine the incidence and frequency of confirmed pesticide intoxications in animals in Austria and to emphasize its relevance in veterinary practice for livestock and domestic animals.

  7. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics.

  8. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Completeness of earthquake catalogues is a necessary condition for seismic hazard assessment since they are the base for the determination of a and b values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. A new composite catalogue for Austria has been created based on data from four different catalogues of earthquakes in Austria (ZAMG, 2009; ACORN, 2004; Van Gils & Leydecker, 1991; Shebalin et al., 1998) including for the first time also data from surrounding regions such as the Vienna Basin outside Austria and a buffer region 100km outside the boundary of the Austria and Vienna basin. The used earthquake catalogues cover different record length with a first entry in 1048 AD. A reliable estimate of the a and b parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter Relation from this newly compiled dataset can be only given, if the new catalogue is checked for completeness. We determined the completeness intensity (Ic) and the completeness periods for the composite catalogue following the method described by Stepp (1972). This method supposes that the earthquake occurrences are Poisson-distributed and investigates (i) the minimum observation interval required to reach reliable estimates of mean recurrence periods, (ii) the time interval for which the catalogues may be regarded complete. Both intervals are functions of the intensity class. Ic is the smallest intensity above which every earthquake was recorded for a given time interval. The completeness period is the time interval in which the catalogue is complete for a given intensity range. As most of the catalogue's records are pre-instrumental data, this completeness check was performed on intensity data avoiding ambiguities arising from intensity-magnitude conversion. In a second step, we repeated the completeness check, but this time based on magnitudes in order to determine the influences of various magnitude conversions. For pre-instrumental events, we converted intensities into magnitudes using published intensity-magnitude conversion

  9. Implementation of landslide susceptibility maps in Lower Austria as part of risk governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Bauer, Christian; Glade, Thomas; Granica, Klaus; Heiss, Gerhard; Leopold, Philip; Pomaroli, Gilbert; Proske, Herwig; Schweigl, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Landslides frequently cause damage to agricultural land and infrastructure in Lower Austria - a province of Austria. Also settlements and people are threatened by landslides. To reduce landslide risks and to prevent the establishment of new settlements in highly landslide prone areas, the project "MoNOE" (Method development for landslide susceptibility modeling in Lower Austria) was set up by the provincial government. The main aim of the project is the development of methods to model rock fall and slide susceptibility for an area of approx. 15,900 km2 and to implement the resulting susceptibility maps into the spatial planning strategies of the state. Right from the beginning of the project a close cooperation between the involved scientists and the stakeholders from the Geological Survey of Lower Austria and the Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy of Lower Austria was established to ensure that method development and final susceptibility maps meet exactly the needs and demands of the stakeholders. This posed huge challenges, together with its realization in the large study area and a (heterogeneous) complex geological situation,. Limitations were given by restricted data availability (e.g. for geology or landslide inventories) in such a large study area. Rock fall susceptibility was modeled by a combined approach of determining rock fall release areas by empirical slope thresholds (dependent on geology) followed by empirical run-out modeling. Slide susceptibility was modeled based on the statistical approaches of weights of evidence (WofE) and generalized additive models (GAM) by two different research groups. Huge efforts were spent on the validation of all susceptibility models. In a later stage of the project we found that the best scientific maps are not necessarily the best maps to be implemented in spatial planning strategies. Thus, in close cooperation with the stakeholders, decisions had to be taken to find the best resolution of the maps

  10. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  11. 78 FR 13379 - Xanthan Gum from Austria and China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Xanthan Gum from Austria and China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation... gives notice of the scheduling of the final phase of antidumping investigation Nos. 731-TA-1202-03...

  12. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  13. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  14. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Schaffartzik, Anke; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing ‘teleconnections’ between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The ‘embodied human appropriation of NPP’ (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism. PMID:23576842

  15. Austria-Ukraine cooperation in the planetary science and instrumentation development as contribution to E-LOFAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Karlsson, R.; Panchenko, M.; Zarka, Ph.; Falkovich, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Koshovy, V. V.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Almost 20 years cooperation between Austria (SRI AAS) and Ukraine (IRA NASU) in the field of lowfrequency radio astronomy and corresponding instrumentation development gave many new results in the Solar system study. The good perspectives are connected with the creation of new joint instruments as complimentary parts to the LOFAR system.

  16. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  17. Genome Sequence of Historical Bacillus anthracis Strain Tyrol 4675 Isolated from a Bovine Anthrax Case in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Antwerpen, Markus; Wölfel, Roman

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 1988, an outbreak of anthrax occurred among cattle in the Austrian state of Tyrol. Since then, Austria has been declared anthrax-free. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one of these last outbreak strains, Bacillus anthracis Tyrol 4675, isolated from a diseased cow. PMID:28280006

  18. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in European brown hares in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Sedlák, Kamil; Treml, Frantisek; Holko, Ivan; Literák, Ivan

    2010-07-15

    European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) coming from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria were tested for serum antibodies against Neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In a total of 925 samples, 280 (30%) and 132 (14%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 333 hares in the Czech Republic, 129 (39%) and 71 (21%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 209 hares in Slovakia, 8 (4%) and 13 (6%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 383 hares in Austria, 143 (37%) and 48 (13%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Mixed infection (concurrent presence of both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies) was found in 25 (8%) hares in the Czech Republic, in 14 (4%) hares in Austria and in none hare in Slovakia. It is the first report of antibodies against Neospora caninum in hares in the Czech Republic and Austria.

  19. Academic Oligarchy and Higher Education Research. Implications for the Reform of Institutions of Higher Education in Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich

    1999-01-01

    Describes the higher education reform discussion in Austria which led to major system reorganization in 1993. It is noted that a previous academic oligarchy played a central role because a high proportion of university faculty also served in the parliament. Research on higher education played little part in reform because few studies were…

  20. Global effects of national biomass production and consumption: Austria's embodied HANPP related to agricultural biomass in the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Schaffartzik, Anke; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2012-12-01

    Global trade of biomass-related products is growing exponentially, resulting in increasing 'teleconnections' between producing and consuming regions. Sustainable management of the earth's lands requires indicators to monitor these connections across regions and scales. The 'embodied human appropriation of NPP' (eHANPP) allows one to consistently attribute the HANPP resulting from production chains to consumers. HANPP is the sum of land-use induced NPP changes and biomass harvest. We present the first national-level assessment of embodied HANPP related to agriculture based on a calculation using bilateral trade matrices. The dataset allows (1) the tracing of the biomass-based products consumed in Austria in the year 2000 to their countries of origin and quantifying the HANPP caused in production, and (2) the assigning of the national-level HANPP on Austria's territory to the consumers of the products on the national level. The dataset is constructed along a consistent system boundary between society and ecosystems and can be used to assess Austria's physical trade balance in terms of eHANPP. Austria's eHANPP-trade balance is slightly negative (imports are larger than exports); import and export flows are large in relation to national HANPP. Our findings show how the eHANPP approach can be used for quantifying and mapping the teleconnections related to a nation's biomass metabolism.

  1. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  2. Spatial sensitivity of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria and its implications for the future☆

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Christian; Hofer, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production fulfills economic, ecological and structural functions. Despite technological advances, agricultural production remains sensitive to climate variations. In central Europe, climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and increased drought risk among other effects. Grassland agriculture, which is the dominant land use in Alpine regions, may be significantly affected by these climatic changes in the future. Motivated by this issue, the susceptibility of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria is empirical evaluated as a case study. The major objective of this study is to derive spatially distributed indications for climate change exposure by assessing the impacts of weather variations on past yield. It is assumed that reduced water supply during summer constitutes a threat to grassland productivity in regions that are warmer and drier already today. On the contrary, increased spring temperatures may improve grassland productivity in cooler regions like Alpine valleys, since the earlier snow melt leads to an extension of the growth period. Regression analyses are used for evaluating the relation between yearly yields and spring temperatures or water supply in summer, respectively. Water supply is thereby expressed by aggregated precipitation sums and the Climatic Water Balance (CWB). Input data are a meteorological time series as well as yearly yields available for 25 years between 1970 and 2010 and 99 districts in Austria. Yearly yields show a significant (P < 0.05) and positive dependency on water supply in summer for the eastern Austrian lowlands. The combination of temperature in spring and CWB in summer is only significant for six districts in the east of Austria. The positive impact of higher spring temperatures could not be verified. Generally, the regression coefficients are not very high, which indicates that temperature and water supply do not fully describe grassland productivity

  3. [Quality of postoperative pain therapy in Austria: national survey of all departments of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Kinstner, C; Likar, R; Sandner-Kiesling, A; Hutschala, D; Pipam, W; Gustorff, B

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasingly sophisticated concepts of perioperative pain therapy, such as increased use of combined regional anesthesia techniques, the renaissance of ketamine and dipyrone or the use of oral opioids, no significant improvement has been achieved in postoperative pain therapy since 1995. About 300,000 of the approximately 700,000 patients undergoing major surgery each year in Austria experience moderate to severe postoperative pain. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the nationwide status of perioperative acute pain management in postoperative recovery rooms and surgical wards in order to identify potential areas for improvement. In 2006 the directors of all Austrian anesthesiology departments (n=125, 100%) were contacted and asked to give detailed information on the status of acute pain management of each individual hospital in Austria using a standardized questionnaire. Data of each individual department were derived from quality control and self-assessment of each department. No patients were questioned. The return rate was 96% (n=120) due to intensive personal contact in cases of missing data. In this nationwide survey 120 anesthesiology departments participated together accounting for a total of 757,895 operations per year. Of the patients 63.6% were informed preoperatively on the available regimens of acute pain management. In 81% of patients perioperative pain therapy consisted of a multimodal therapeutic approach, 58.6% of the departments used international guidelines and 39.7% worked with international guidelines adapted to local requirements. In 88% of patients a detailed prescription for postoperative pain therapy was available when transferred to the surgical ward. Surgical wards were equipped with routine pain therapy protocols in 28% another 20% of wards had special pain therapy protocols for individual operations. In 22% of cases pain assessment was repeated 3-4 times per day and in 33.9% postoperative pain was assessed only once

  4. A gap analysis for future supply of and demand for psychiatrists in Austria.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Monika; Röehrling, Gerald; Czypionka, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2014-03-01

    In the recent past, a rising caseload demonstrates increasing demand for psychiatrists, and ageing of the current mental health workforce will soon result in growing numbers of retirees. Under these conditions there is some concern whether we soon will face widening gaps in supply. This study calculates projections of future use and supply of psychiatrists' services in Austria until 2030. Resulting gaps are calculated for different scenarios. We mostly use administrative data from several public authorities. To estimate the demand for services, we start from utilization data rather than medical need for services, as we do not have sufficient epidemiological information for Austria. We define several scenarios for the future development of use, all calculated separately for hospital and non-hospital services. Future supply of psychiatric services is projected by applying activity levels to projected numbers of physicians, which are calculated using a stock and flow model. Outflows are modeled using assumptions derived from past activity patterns and current legislation on retirement. To model inflows, we need to gauge the impact of recent developments: Entrance barriers into medical education were introduced, Austria experienced a surge of medical students coming from Germany, and medical schools implemented quotas for different nationalities. Scenarios take several factors into account, like the shifting sex composition of the medical workforce, re-migration of foreign students, and the impact of entrance barriers on enrolment and drop-out rates. Depending on scenario assumptions, demand for psychiatrists will increase by 8% to 52%. But in all supply scenarios, supply will decline from 2016 onwards, thus widening gaps between supply and demand. Even in the most optimistic scenario, supply will have fallen below current levels by 2030. Compared to current rates of service use, a gap between supply and demand will start to widen soon. In the most optimistic

  5. Spatial sensitivity of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria and its implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Neuwirth, Christian; Hofer, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural production fulfills economic, ecological and structural functions. Despite technological advances, agricultural production remains sensitive to climate variations. In central Europe, climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and increased drought risk among other effects. Grassland agriculture, which is the dominant land use in Alpine regions, may be significantly affected by these climatic changes in the future. Motivated by this issue, the susceptibility of grassland yields to weather variations in Austria is empirical evaluated as a case study. The major objective of this study is to derive spatially distributed indications for climate change exposure by assessing the impacts of weather variations on past yield. It is assumed that reduced water supply during summer constitutes a threat to grassland productivity in regions that are warmer and drier already today. On the contrary, increased spring temperatures may improve grassland productivity in cooler regions like Alpine valleys, since the earlier snow melt leads to an extension of the growth period. Regression analyses are used for evaluating the relation between yearly yields and spring temperatures or water supply in summer, respectively. Water supply is thereby expressed by aggregated precipitation sums and the Climatic Water Balance (CWB). Input data are a meteorological time series as well as yearly yields available for 25 years between 1970 and 2010 and 99 districts in Austria. Yearly yields show a significant (P < 0.05) and positive dependency on water supply in summer for the eastern Austrian lowlands. The combination of temperature in spring and CWB in summer is only significant for six districts in the east of Austria. The positive impact of higher spring temperatures could not be verified. Generally, the regression coefficients are not very high, which indicates that temperature and water supply do not fully describe grassland productivity

  6. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  7. Towards Estimating the Nutrient Balance of the Hydrologic Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) Catchment, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner-Kittridge, Michael; Zessner, Matthias; Broer, Martine; Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2010-05-01

    The fate of nutrients introduced by human activities have significant impacts on both nature and our civilization. Excessive nutrients can contaminate our drinking water as well as promote algae blooms that deplete the surrounding waters of oxygen for aquatic life. It is estimated that agriculture in Austria contributes approximately 60% to the total discharge of nitrogen and 40% to the total discharge of phosphorus. Understanding the specific pathways and sources of nitrogen and phosphorus from agriculture land could greatly improve our ability to mitigate for excessive discharges if the problems can be targeted more precisely. The objective of our research is to determine the complete nitrogen and phosphorous balance within a 66.7 hectare catchment in Lower Austria. The Hydrologic Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) catchment is located in Lower Austria approximately 100 km west of Vienna. The HOAL catchment was established in 2009 through funding by the Austrian Science Foundation to be used for multidisciplinary hydrologic research for understanding water flow and transport processes in catchments. The catchment land cover is characterized as 90% agriculture, 5% impermeable surface, and 3% forest. The predominant soil type is a clayey silt loam and a section of the catchment contain a subsurface tile drainage network that extend approximately 5.5 km. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the two primary nutrients assessed in this study. To accomplish the nutrient balance, the research is divided into three different scales: Field Scale, Subcatchment Scale, and Catchment Scale. The Catchment scale encompasses the entirety of the catchment, the subcatchment scale encompasses a 6.4 hectare area within the catchment that is completely underlain by the tile drainage network, and the field scale studies are performed on several square meter plots within the subcatchment. Each scale attempts to determine different parts of the total nutrient budget. The initial phase of the research

  8. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Snow Trends in the Austria Alps and their Relationship to Weather Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoener, W.; Koch, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth observations on a daily scale, from selected sites across the Austrian Alps is used. The Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB) collected the data, enabling to investigate time series covering a period from the late nineteenth century until today. Spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were analyzed by using the method of principal component analysis (PCA). In order to derive regions with similar temporal evolution we regionalized the time series based on their spatial variability patterns for the period 1961-2010. In some cases, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test were used to assess the significance of trends of several snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. We removed lag-1 serial correlations from the snow data by the trend-free pre-whitening approach. For the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level, primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. Correlation between snow observations and gridded winter air temperature and precipitation fields (HISTALP data set) show that increased air temperatures and decreasing precipitation during the 1990s, yield to a pronounced reduction in both snow depth and snow duration. In fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly causing these trends. Decreasing trends of snow-depth in the West and South of Austria, as well as stable snow depth trends in the Northeast are well correlated to changing weather patterns, using an objective weather type classification system. In particular, changes in the

  9. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Klier, Claudia M; Chryssa, Grylli; Amon, Sabine; Fiala, Christian; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Pruitt, Sandi L; Putkonen, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative “anonymous delivery” law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Design Retrospective Study Setting A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. Population All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Main outcome measures Neonaticide rates pre- (1991-2001) and post- (2002-2009) anonymous delivery legislation per 100,000 births. Methods The Mann-Whitney U test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates during the pre-law period to the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. Results On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100.000 births (SD=3.5, median=7.1) in Austria prior to passage of the law and 3.1 per 100.000 births (SD= 2.1; median= 2.6) after passage of the law. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U test p=.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Conclusion Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. PMID:23210536

  10. Surfing for suicide methods and help: content analysis of websites retrieved with search engines in Austria and the United States.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The Internet provides a variety of resources for individuals searching for suicide-related information. Structured content-analytic approaches to assess intercultural differences in web contents retrieved with method-related and help-related searches are scarce. We used the 2 most popular search engines (Google and Yahoo/Bing) to retrieve US-American and Austrian search results for the term suicide, method-related search terms (e.g., suicide methods, how to kill yourself, painless suicide, how to hang yourself), and help-related terms (e.g., suicidal thoughts, suicide help) on February 11, 2013. In total, 396 websites retrieved with US search engines and 335 websites from Austrian searches were analyzed with content analysis on the basis of current media guidelines for suicide reporting. We assessed the quality of websites and compared findings across search terms and between the United States and Austria. In both countries, protective outweighed harmful website characteristics by approximately 2:1. Websites retrieved with method-related search terms (e.g., how to hang yourself) contained more harmful (United States: P < .001, Austria: P < .05) and fewer protective characteristics (United States: P < .001, Austria: P < .001) compared to the term suicide. Help-related search terms (e.g., suicidal thoughts) yielded more websites with protective characteristics (United States: P = .07, Austria: P < .01). Websites retrieved with U.S. search engines generally had more protective characteristics (P < .001) than searches with Austrian search engines. Resources with harmful characteristics were better ranked than those with protective characteristics (United States: P < .01, Austria: P < .05). The quality of suicide-related websites obtained depends on the search terms used. Preventive efforts to improve the ranking of preventive web content, particularly regarding method-related search terms, seem necessary. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Klier, C M; Grylli, C; Amon, S; Fiala, C; Weizmann-Henelius, G; Pruitt, S L; Putkonen, H

    2013-03-01

    To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative 'anonymous delivery' law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Retrospective study. A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Neonaticide rates before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2009) the introduction of anonymous delivery legislation per 100 000 births. The Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates in the period before the new law was introduced with the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100 000 births (SD 3.5, median 7.1) in Austria prior to the new law being passed, and 3.1 per 100 000 births (SD 2.1, median 2.6) after the law was passed. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  12. Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

    2012-05-01

    A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  14. Publication output in the field of Public Health and its appreciation at political level in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eva; Maier, Manfred

    2014-04-01

    In a pilot study, we aimed to identify the output of public health research by Austrian university and non-university research institutions and compare it with its translation into Austrian public health policy. A keyword search in PubMed was conducted for the period 2000 to 2013. The 'Public Health Newsletter' published by the Austrian Ministry of Health and the 'Health Reform Law 2013' were used as surrogate indicators for the translation of research into public health policy.A total of 97 publications in peer-reviewed journals showed a wide variation in topics. Comparing the research topics with the articles of the 'Public Health Newsletter', we found identity in the field of communicable diseases. The Health Reform Law 2013 confirms the importance of evidence-based decision-making; yet, it contains no direct mentioning of or relation to research results. Based on our methodology, moderate appreciation of research results at the political level could be found in Austria.

  15. [Alcohol- and substance abuse among mentally ill patients with migration background in Austria].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Holzer, David; Topitz, Andrea; Wenzel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The refugee movements of the recent years are confronting the health care with new challenges. However, it has turned out that in Austria data on the mental health of migrants are nearly not available. Especially data on the frequency and patterns of comorbid substance abuse of migrants with mental disorders do not exist even from international studies. We analyzed data from 1819 patients (1726 first generation, 93 second generation) treated in the outpatient clinic for transcultural psychiatry and migration related disorders at the Vienna General Hospital: In first-generation migrants the cultural and religious background of the region of origin has the greatest impact on the frequency and the patterns of misused substances. In second-generation migrants the consumer habits approximate to those of the majority of the society. The primary diagnosis plays a minor role. Only patients with personality disorders exhibit higher rates of illicit substance compared with other diagnoses.

  16. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Seidel, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Christof; Dimmel, Katharina; Kolodziejek, Michael; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor’s residence, is reported. Complete genomic sequences of the human- and mosquito-derived viruses were established, genetically compared and phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were not identical, but closely related to each other and to recent Czech and Italian isolates, indicating co-circulation of related WNV strains within a confined geographic area. The detection of WNV in a blood donation originating from an area with low WNV prevalence in humans (only three serologically diagnosed cases between 2008 and 2014) is surprising and emphasizes the importance of WNV nucleic acid testing of blood donations even in such areas, along with active mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:25961567

  17. Herd immunity after two years of the universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Kundi, Michael; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; de Martin, Alfred; Eder, Gerald; Schmidle-Loss, Birgit; Vecsei, Andreas; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2011-03-24

    Austria was the first country in Europe implementing a universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RV-GE) for all infants nationwide. Epidemiological data from a hospital based surveillance system show that incidence rates of children hospitalized with RV-GE decreased in 2009 compared to 2008 and compared to the prevaccination period 2001-2005. Decreasing hospitalization-rates from RV-GE were observed in children of all age groups, even in those not eligible for vaccination according to their age, suggesting herd immunity induced by universal mass vaccination against RV-GE. In 2009 the disease burden was highest in children below three months of age stressing the importance of the early start of the immunization course.

  18. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT)

  19. Performance validation of the ExoMars 2018 WISDOM GPR in ice caves, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Benedix, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar has been selected to be part of the ExoMars 2018 exobiological rover mission. A prototype has been tested during the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum in Alpine ice caves in Dachstein, Austria. This campaign provided the opportunity to validate methods developed to process WISDOM's data in a well-documented environment and to retrieve geometrical and quantitative information about the 3D structure and the electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. We estimate the ice thickness in different locations inside the ice caves, and show that this ice is formed of fine strata with different properties. Data analysis allows reconstructing the bedrock in a 3D environment where a complete survey was performed.

  20. Trends in the occurrence of MRSA strains in Upper Austria from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Metz-Gercek, S; Mittermayer, H

    2011-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, all MRSA isolates recovered from human patients in Upper Austria were subjected to molecular biological analysis. Whereas the isolate number decreased from year to year, the proportion of the most common sequence types (ST5, ST8 and ST22) as well as the frequency of associated PFGE subtypes and spa-types remained similar. The rate of PVL-positive MRSA increased, whereupon the most common sequence types were ST152, ST8 including clone USA300, ST5, ST777 and ST88. The frequency of ST398 was high (25%) in relation to the PVL-positive clones. Thus, we consider a special focus on community-associated MRSA to be necessary.

  1. Occurrence of the ear-mite Raillietia auris in cattle in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Leschnik, M; Hoegler, S; Loewenstein, M; Baumgartner, W

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the first documented case in Austria of the cattle ear mite Raillietia auris in a four-year-old dairy cow. The cow was mildly depressed, and keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed in both eyes with Horner's syndrome in the left eye. The animal showed a mild head tilt to the left and a generalized ataxia with a tendency to move to the right side, which became exacerbated if the animal was blind-folded. Head pressing to the right side, dysphagia and a dropped jaw were also observed. Numerous rather mobile ear mites were observed at necropsy in the basal part of the left ear canal. The clinical significance of the cattle ear mite is uncertain and the clinical signs could have been caused by listerial encephalitis, which was also confirmed histologically in this case.

  2. Epidemiology of rubella infections in Austria: important lessons to be learned.

    PubMed

    Falkensammer, B; Walder, G; Busch, D; Giessauf, A; Dierich, M; Würzner, R

    2004-06-01

    In order to ascertain the epidemiology of rubella infections in Austria, a seroepidemiological study was performed. Data collected from 115 cases diagnosed at the Institute of Hygiene and Social Medicine of the University of Innsbruck during 2001 were evaluated. The results indicate this infection can no longer be categorised as a paediatric disease (mean age, 18.5 years), and several other findings were particularly striking: (i) 47% of the patients had elevated C-reactive protein levels and 50% had increased anti-streptolysin O titres; (ii) only a few patients complained of fever, while symptoms such as rash and lymphadenopathy, which are also associated with several other viral infections, including HIV, were found frequently; and (iii) the 115 rubella cases detected in the 1-year study period represented an incidence of >13 per 100,000 population. This high incidence of infection underlines the need for further improvement of diagnostic tests and more successful vaccine strategies.

  3. Morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Natascha; Schwarzmann, Laurin; Zittra, Carina; Palmieri, Nicola; Eigner, Barbara; Otranto, Domenico; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.

  4. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  5. UV-radiation in the past: Reconstruction and long-term changes in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzimustafic, J.; Simic, S.; Fitzka, M.

    2013-05-01

    Series of daily erythemal UV-dose are reconstructed for the last 30 years of the 20th century in Austria and its changes during that period with respect to observed changes in total ozone and cloud cover discussed. The reconstruction method is based on the relationship between long-term global radiation and sunshine duration records and existing measurements of erythemal UV at several locations. Through comparison with different data sources efforts are made to assure high data quality for all input parameters. The results for reconstructed daily sums show high correlations (0.95-0.99) with observed values compared on a yearly and seasonal basis throughout the overlapping period 1998-2010. Assessed from the reconstructed data, long-term variability of erythemal UV daily dose for two time periods has been quantified (1977-1995, 1996-2010). Special emphasis is put on the investigation of changes in UV due to observed trends in clouds and sunshine duration in the Austrian Alpine regions during the last decades. The earlier period shows significant changes between +4.1 %/dec and +6.9 %/dec at six stations in Austria, mainly due to significant decreases in total ozone column of up to -3.7 %/dec. Positive significant trends of around +2%/dec are found in cloud and aerosol modification factors at most of stations along with observed positive trends in sunshine duration, being statistically significant at eastern and southern stations. In spite of ozone layer recovery since the mid 1990s, the latter period does not reveal any statistically significant changes in erythemal UV irradiation.

  6. Soil organic matter change - analysis on a regional scale of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruendling, Ralf; Franko, Uwe; Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuß, Alexandra; Spiegel, Adelheid; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource in agriculture. It influences soil fertility, erosion processes and prevents soil degradation. However, SOM is strongly affected by climate change, soil conditions and management alterations. The presented study analyzes SOM changes in Austria on a regional scale in the "Marchfeld" and the "Muehlviertel". For quantification these SOM changes the model CCB (Candy Carbon Balance) was used. Based on a 1 square kilometer raster, the impact of specific site conditions on SOM are determined to characterize the study areas. Used as a main indicator for these conditions is the biologic active time (BAT). BAT describes the biologic activity for carbon cycling in top soils depending on soil and climatic conditions. High values of BAT indicate fast SOM reproduction rates. Hence, BAT changes over last years signpost the risk of SOM loss and can be used as an on-farm decision tool. The change of risks of SOM loss due to climate change is assessed by model results. Therefore, three climate scenarios are used to compute reproduction rates of SOM. "High risk-regions" can be identified for policy consulting. Different climate scenarios can help to develop best case and worst case results. First results show that the region "Marchfeld" had a higher change in BAT during last 2 decades comparing to the "Muehlviertel". A higher risk of SOM loosing is evident. Nevertheless, future scenarios predict a higher change of BAT for the "Muehlviertel". Apparently, the sensitivity of "Marchfeld" sites regard to climate change has been higher in the past and most BAT changes took place until now. With this method an evaluation of farm management in regard to SOM reproduction and recommendation of crop rotations for the future are possible. In conclusion, the aim of the project is a tool box for farmers and policy makers to evaluate present and future agricultural management. An examination of additional regions in Austria is planned.

  7. Holistic assessment of a landfill mining pilot project in Austria: Methodology and application.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Basic technical and economic examinations of Austrian mass waste landfills, concerning the recovery of secondary raw materials, have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project for the first time in Austria. A main focus of the research - the subject of this article - was the first devotion of a pilot landfill to an integrated ecological and economic assessment so that its feasibility could be verified before a landfill mining project commenced. A Styrian mass waste landfill had been chosen for this purpose that had been put into operation in 1979 and received mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal waste till 2012. The whole assessment procedure was divided into preliminary and main assessment phases to evaluate the general suitability of a landfill mining project with little financial and human resource expense. A portfolio chart, based on a questionnaire, was created for the preliminary assessment that, as a result, has provided a recommendation for subsequent investigation - the main assessment phase. In this case, specific economic criteria were assessed by net present value calculation, while ecological or socio-economic criteria were rated by utility analysis, transferring the result into a utility-net present value chart. In the case of the examined pilot landfill, assessing the landfill mining project produced a higher utility but a lower net present value than a landfill leaving-in for aftercare. Since no clearly preferable scenario could be identified this way, a cost-revenue analysis was carried out in addition that determined a dimensionless ratio: the 'utility - net present value quotient' of both scenarios. Comparing this quotient showed unmistakably that in the overall assessment, 'leaving the landfill in aftercare' was preferable to a 'landfill mining project' in that specific case.

  8. Environmental changes in a fresh-water influenced Upper Cretaceous succession (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, G.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    The interplay of Late Cretaceous basin subsidence and sea-level oscillations produced a cyclic freshwater-marine succession within the Gosau Group in the basement of the Vienna Basin (Austria). Cycles have been investigated in the Markgraf Neusiedl 1 borehole cores (courtesy of OMV AG) of the Glinzendorf syncline. The Markgraf Neusiedl core sediments can be correlated to similar strata of the Grünbach Formation in the outcrop area of Grünbach-Neue Welt (Lower Austria, Northern Calcareous Alps). There, sections from abandoned coal mines were measured and described in detail. Biostratigraphic data indicate a Late Santonian to Early Campanian age of these cyclic sediments. The environment was characterized as terrestrial freshwater swamps interfingering with shallow brackish to marine sediments of a delta plain under warm and humid subtropical climate conditions. The Upper Cretaceous borehole section starts with conglomerates and pebbly sandstones of alluvial environments. Conglomerates at around 4100 m depth yield probably freshwater algal calcite crusts with carbon isotopes of -3.2 per mil VPDB and oxygen isotopes around -4 per mil VPDB. At 4020 m coal seams and shale intercalations are present, grading into a shaly to silty succession with occasional mollusc layers up to ca. 3400 m. Carbon isotope values of 1 to 1.5 per mil and oxygen isotopes around -5 per mil are recorded. The upper part of the Cretaceous succession up to ca. 3200 m becomes more sandy to silty and carbon isotopes become more negative, around -3 to -5 per mil and oxygen isotope values up to -8 per mil, which may indicate a stronger diagenetic influence as carbon and oxyen isotopes covary in that interval. Marine-freshwater cycles are expressed in geochemistry data and fossil assemblages, i.e. the rare occurrence of marine microfossils such as foraminifers and dinoflagellates.

  9. Seismic monitoring of soft-rock landslides: New case study at Pechgraben mudslide - Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Santoyo, Juan Carlos; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Pfeiler, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Creeping soft-rock landslides trigger various seismic signals which relate to key dynamics of the slope instability. A new seismic monitoring study is carried out at Pechgraben - Upper Austria, where a clay-shale rich mudslide was reactivated in summer 2013 after heavy rainfalls. The well geophysical instrumentation of the Pechgraben mudslide by the Geological Survey of Austria (LAMOND network including permanent ERT, GPS, piezometers, soil temperature/humidity and photomonitoring) is expected as a better basis for joint interpretation of seismic source processes. Seismic data are acquired by small-aperture (< 30 m) sparse seismic arrays. Potential events are recognized by frequency-time signatures in sonograms, where sonograms are spectrograms featuring a frequency-dependant noise adaptation that enhance the display of weak signal energy down to the noise threshold. Further signal evaluation follows an interactive scheme where semi-automated beam forming method enables for approximate source location. Three seismic arrays where deployed at Pechgraben in October 2015 for an eight days feasibility study. About 200 seismic signals potentially triggered by the landslide were manually picked on night-time measurements. Target signals occur in tremor-like sequences and have duration within 1 - 8 seconds. Local magnitudes are calibrated down to ML -1.5 (Wood-Anderson amplitude ≈ 0.1 μm in 100 m distance). Observed waveforms display high degree of similarity with seismic signals catalogued at other soft-rock landslides suggesting that a general typology of seismic source processes could be established for creeping soft-rock instabilities with potential further implications in landslide mitigation and forecasting.

  10. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    PubMed

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2017-07-01

    Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and treatment are

  11. Chronic hepatitis C in Austria, 1992-2006: genotype distribution and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Maieron, A; Metz-Gercek, S; Hackl, F; Luger, C; Ziachehabi, A; Strauss, R; Schöfl, R; Mittermayer, H

    2010-02-25

    Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease and, with a worldwide prevalence of up to 3%, is a pandemic infectious disease. Austria, like most western European countries can be considered as a low prevalence country. This analysis aimed to assess the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection in Upper Austria. Between September 1992 and December 2006, we identified 1,318 consecutive patients who tested positive for HCV RNA. Genotyping was routinely performed in 1,239 of the 1,318 patients, and in a subgroup of 617 patients data on the source of transmission were collected. Additionally we obtained data on liver histology and body mass index in a subsample of 273 of the 617 patients. Hepatitis C genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and co-infections were found in 80.4%, 4.5%, 12.3%, 2.7%, 0.1% and 0.2% of the patients, respectively. There was a highly significant age difference in relation to gender at the time of diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C, with women being older than men (men: 45.0 years; women: 49.3 years; p<0.0001). The number of new cases of chronic hepatitis C decreased substantially over the last decade, but although risk factors for obtaining HCV are well established, we did not find a decrease in the age of first diagnosis. Besides consistent screening in defined risk groups it is important to raise awareness for risk factors for HCV acquisition and liver disease progression.

  12. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  13. Influence of low ozone episodes on erythemal UV-B radiation in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pietsch, Helga; Blumthaler, Mario; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of low ozone episodes on UV-B radiation in Austria during the period 1999 to 2015. To this aim observations of total column ozone (TCO) in the Greater Alpine Region (Arosa, Switzerland; Hohenpeissenberg, Germany; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Sonnblick, Austria), and erythemal UV-B radiation, available from 12 sites of the Austrian UV-B monitoring network, are analyzed. As previous definitions for low ozone episodes are not particularly suited to investigate effects on UV radiation, a novel threshold approach—considering anomalies—is developed to provide a joint framework for the analysis of extremes. TCO and UV extremes are negatively correlated, although modulating effects of sunshine duration impact the robustness of the statistical relationship. Therefore, information on relative sunshine duration (SDrel), available at (or nearby) UV-B monitoring sites, is included as explanatory variable in the analysis. The joint analysis of anomalies of both UV index (UVI) and total ozone (∆UVI, ∆TCO) and SDrel across sites shows that more than 65% of observations with strongly negative ozone anomalies (∆TCO < -1) led to positive UVI anomalies. Considering only days with strongly positive UVI anomaly (∆UVI > 1), we find (across all sites) that about 90% correspond to negative ∆TCO. The remaining 10% of days occurred during fair weather conditions (SDrel ≥ 80%) explaining the appearance of ∆UVI > 1 despite positive TCO anomalies. Further, we introduce an anomaly amplification factor (AAF), which quantifies the expected change of the ∆UVI for a given change in ∆TCO.

  14. An expert-based framework for probabilistic national population projections: the example of Austria.

    PubMed

    Lutz, W; Scherbov, S

    1998-03-01

    This study recommends a probabilistic scenario approach for population projections. The benefits are better information, ease of adoption, and expert opinion on the mean and range of uncertainty. The study answers whether it matters if high and low variants cover 85% or 95% of the range. An assumption of piece-wise linear random paths may underestimate the variance of the resulting population age distribution. A more realistic random path would have short-term fluctuations with some degree of autocorrelation. The expert-based probabilistic approach is applied to Austria. Official projections to 2050, account for 3 alternative migration assumptions and the usual fertility and life expectancy assumptions. Austria may have an absolute deficit of 60,000 persons after 2025. Population aging will increase from 19.7% to over 30%. The mean age of population will reach 50 years. The social implications of the alternative degrees of population aging are likely to have significant effects, such as on the pension system. The results of a test of the sensitivity of results for 85% and 95% confidence intervals and the impact on population size and old-age dependency outcomes reveal larger standard deviations and differences between fractiles with the 85% assumption of all cases lying between high and low values. Differences were larger between 85% and 90%, although not very significantly, than between 90% and 95%. When assuming short-term fluctuations, there was a greater range of uncertainty in the first 20 years than a standard linear interpolation, but long-term projections had lower standard deviations.

  15. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-04-18

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  16. The formation of glacial lakes in Austria since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The global temperature rise in the 20th and 21st centuries led to massive deglaciation and the formation of numerous glacial lakes. Glacier lake development and lifetime are controlled by the complex interplay of climate and geological boundary conditions, geomorphological process activity and glacier dynamics. New lakes in formerly glaciated alpine areas significantly contribute to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at high altitudes. Here we present an inventory of lakes in the Austrian Alps. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at understanding and modelling the development of glacier lakes in Austria. We intersect glacier lake locations with glacier inventory data to understand how deglaciation controls lake evolution. The timing of lake formation is reconstructed by comparing emerged lake area with vanished glacier area at five points in time from Little Ice Age (LIA) to 2014 - the longest time period covered by a glacier lake inventory. We discuss lake formation with respect to temperature records at high-alpine climate stations in the study area. The lake inventory contains 1389 mapped lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m2 covering an area of more than 17 km2. Lakes are classified by the damming mechanisms: (a) glacial debris dammed (49.5%), (b) bedrock dammed (49%), (c) glacier ice dammed (0.4%), and (d) debris dammed (1.1%). In Austria, 243 lakes above 1700 m have formed since LIA. Both the total number of glacial lakes and total lake area increased exponentially from LIA to 2014, while glacier area shrunk correspondingly. The number of new lakes per year grew from 0.6 (±0.1, LIA-1920) to 5.8 (2006-2014) and new lake area per year increased from 6,877 ± 513 m2 (LIA-1920) to 74,129 m2 (2006-2014). This development can be linked to rising air temperatures in the Austrian Alps which show an accelerated increase since the 1980s.

  17. Posterior archaeomagnetic dating for the early Medieval site Thunau am Kamp, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Lanos, Philippe; Obenaus, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The early medieval site Thunau am Kamp consists of a hill fort and a settlement with large burial ground at the bank of river Kamp. All these features are under archaeological investigation since many years. The settlement comprises many pit houses, some with stratigraphic order. Every pit house was equipped with at least one cupola oven and/or a hearth or fireplace. Sometimes the entire cupola was preserved. The site was occupied during the 9th and 10th AD according to potshards which seem to indicate two phases: In the older phase ovens were placed in the corner of the houses while during the younger phase they are found in the middle of the wall. In order to increase the archaeomagnetic data base 14 ovens have been sampled. They fill the temporal gap in the data base for Austria around 900 AD. Laboratory treatment included alternation field and thermal demagnetisations as well as rock magnetic experiments. The baked clay with was formed from a loess sediment has preserved stable directions. Apart from one exception the mean characteristic remanent magnetization directions are concentrated around 900 AD on the early medieval part of the directional archaeomagnetic reference curve of Austria (Schnepp & Lanos, GJI, 2006). Using this curve archaeomagnetic dating with RenDate provides ages between 800 and 1100 AD which are in agreement with archaeological dating. In one case archaeomagnetic dating is even more precise. Together with the archaeological age estimates and stratigraphic information the new data have been included into the database of the Austrian curve. It has been recalculated using a new version of RenCurve. The new data confine the curve and its error band considerably in the time interval 800 to 1100 AD. The curve calibration process also provides a probability density distribution for each structure which allows for posterior dating. This refines temporal errors considerably. Usefulness of such an approach and archaeological implications will be

  18. Prevalence of emm types and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Austria.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Eva; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Zarfel, Gernot; Masoud-Landgraf, Lilian; Gehrer, Michael; Wagner-Eibel, Ute; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard

    2015-12-01

    An increase of severe infections caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes has been reported over the last years. Little is known about infections with SDSE in Austria. Therefore, we investigated a collection of 113 SDSE invasive and non-invasive isolates from different infection sites and type of infections as well as patients' characteristics. The isolates were phenotypically identified and emm typed using the enlarged emm database from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Additionally, 13 antimicrobial agents were tested using EUCAST guidelines and virulence genes were investigated. Severe SDSE infections were most common in elderly men with underlying diseases especially diabetes mellitus. With VitekMS identification of SDSE isolates was successful to the species level only. Emm typing revealed 24 different emm types, one new type and one new subtype. StG485, stG6, stC74a, stG643, and stG480 were the predominant types in this study, stC74a and stG652 in invasive infections and stG643, stC74a and stG485 in non-invasive infections. Resistance was observed to tetracycline (62%), macrolides (13%) with one M phenotype, and clindamycin (12%) presenting 6 constitutive MLS(B) phenotypes and 8 inducible MLS(B) phenotypes. Levofloxacin resistance was detected only in one isolate. All isolates tested for virulence genes were positive for scpA, ska, saga and slo. Superantigenic genes were negative except speG(dys) (positive 17/34; 50%). This paper presents the first report of SDSE infections in Austria. Severe SDSE infections were found mainly in elderly men with underlying diseases. SDSE isolates demonstrated substantial emm type diversity without association with infections site or invasiveness. Analysis of virulence genes showed no significant difference between invasive and non-invasive infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Costing evidence for health care decision-making in Austria: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Susanne; Kiss, Noemi; Łaszewska, Agata; Simon, Judit

    2017-01-01

    With rising healthcare costs comes an increasing demand for evidence-informed resource allocation using economic evaluations worldwide. Furthermore, standardization of costing and reporting methods both at international and national levels are imperative to make economic evaluations a valid tool for decision-making. The aim of this review is to assess the availability and consistency of costing evidence that could be used for decision-making in Austria. It describes systematically the current economic evaluation and costing studies landscape focusing on the applied costing methods and their reporting standards. Findings are discussed in terms of their likely impacts on evidence-based decision-making and potential suggestions for areas of development. A systematic literature review of English and German language peer-reviewed as well as grey literature (2004-2015) was conducted to identify Austrian economic analyses. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SSCI, EconLit, NHS EED and Scopus were searched. Publication and study characteristics, costing methods, reporting standards and valuation sources were systematically synthesised and assessed. A total of 93 studies were included. 87% were journal articles, 13% were reports. 41% of all studies were full economic evaluations, mostly cost-effectiveness analyses. Based on relevant standards the most commonly observed limitations were that 60% of the studies did not clearly state an analytical perspective, 25% of the studies did not provide the year of costing, 27% did not comprehensively list all valuation sources, and 38% did not report all applied unit costs. There are substantial inconsistencies in the costing methods and reporting standards in economic analyses in Austria, which may contribute to a low acceptance and lack of interest in economic evaluation-informed decision making. To improve comparability and quality of future studies, national costing guidelines should be updated with more specific methodological

  20. Costing evidence for health care decision-making in Austria: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Susanne; Kiss, Noemi; Łaszewska, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Background With rising healthcare costs comes an increasing demand for evidence-informed resource allocation using economic evaluations worldwide. Furthermore, standardization of costing and reporting methods both at international and national levels are imperative to make economic evaluations a valid tool for decision-making. The aim of this review is to assess the availability and consistency of costing evidence that could be used for decision-making in Austria. It describes systematically the current economic evaluation and costing studies landscape focusing on the applied costing methods and their reporting standards. Findings are discussed in terms of their likely impacts on evidence-based decision-making and potential suggestions for areas of development. Methods A systematic literature review of English and German language peer-reviewed as well as grey literature (2004–2015) was conducted to identify Austrian economic analyses. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SSCI, EconLit, NHS EED and Scopus were searched. Publication and study characteristics, costing methods, reporting standards and valuation sources were systematically synthesised and assessed. Results A total of 93 studies were included. 87% were journal articles, 13% were reports. 41% of all studies were full economic evaluations, mostly cost-effectiveness analyses. Based on relevant standards the most commonly observed limitations were that 60% of the studies did not clearly state an analytical perspective, 25% of the studies did not provide the year of costing, 27% did not comprehensively list all valuation sources, and 38% did not report all applied unit costs. Conclusion There are substantial inconsistencies in the costing methods and reporting standards in economic analyses in Austria, which may contribute to a low acceptance and lack of interest in economic evaluation-informed decision making. To improve comparability and quality of future studies, national costing guidelines should be updated

  1. The impact of health technology assessment reports on decision making in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, Ingrid; Schumacher, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) was established in Austria in the 1990s and, since then, it has gained considerable importance. In this study, we aim to analyze whether the HTA reports that have been produced at the Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) and at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for HTA (LBI-HTA) have had an impact on decision making within the Austrian health care system. We selected all reports that were intended for supporting (i) reimbursement/investment or (ii) disinvestment decisions. Eleven full HTA reports and fifty-eight rapid assessments fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We used interview data and administrative data on volumes, tariffs and expenditure of products/services to analyze whether and how reports were in reality used in decision making and what the consequences for health care expenditure and resource distribution have been. Five full HTA reports and fifty-six rapid technology assessments were used for reimbursement decisions. Four full HTA reports and two rapid assessments were used for disinvestment decisions and resulted in reduced volumes and expenditure. Two full HTA reports showed no impact on decision making. Impact was most evident for hospital technologies. HTA has played some role in reducing volumes of over-supplied hospital technologies, resulting in reduced expenditure for several hospital providers. Additionally, it has been increasingly included in prospective planning and reimbursement decisions of late, indicating re-distribution of resources toward evidence-based technologies. However, further factors may have influenced the decisions, and the impact could be considerably increased by systematically incorporating HTA into the decision-making process in Austria.

  2. A spatial assessment of Culicoides spp. distribution and bluetongue disease risk areas in Austria.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Hackländer, Klaus; Doscher, Crile; Koefer, Josef; Fuchs, Klemens

    2011-01-01

    Bluetongue disease (BT) was introduced into Central Europe in the summer of 2006 and has since affected most European countries. In this study we analysed the distribution of the biting midge vector Culicoides spp. in Austria and modelled Bluetongue disease risk zones. Culicoides spp. abundance data was collected from weekly catches of 14 months from 54 trapping locations. The corresponding weather data mean temperature (p < 0.001), wind (p < 0.001), relative humidity (p = 0.019) and altitude (p = 0.059) were identified as predictors on Culicoides spp. distribution in a regression model (R 2.8.0). The majority of catches were detected at temperatures above 10 degrees C and at relative humidities between 65-80%. The point data of these parameters originating from 186 meteorological stations were interpolated using the Geostatistical Analyst Kriging tool (ESRI ArcGIS 9.3). To create seasonal risk maps we overlaid regions with optimal temperature and humidity conditions with domestic ruminants density data. Our results show that the summer season holds the greatest risk of a BT epidemic with 25.9% of the analysed area providing optimal conditions for vector abundance and 12.4% showing contact risk with ruminant hosts. This project (1) provides fundamental data on the Culicoides spp. distribution in Austria, (2) determines limiting climatic parameters on vector abundance and (3) identifies risk areas by including areas of possible host-parasite-interactions. These high-risk areas can subsequently be given special attention for precautionary monitoring and surveillance measures.

  3. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P < 0.001) and Tuesday December 11 (RR: 3.37; 95% CI: 2.56-4.43; P < 0.001) as the two most risky days for having being exposed to norovirus. According to the epidemiological investigation, airborne transmission of norovirus originating from the first vomiting case most probably initiated this outbreak; foodborne genesis was excluded. During recent years, norovirus has become increasingly established as the most important causative agent of epidemic gastroenteritis in holiday-makers all over Europe. Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis.

  4. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance. PMID:22913734

  5. Patterns of ice nuclei from natural water sources in the mountains of Tirol, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloh, Philipp; Hanlon, Regina; Pietsch, Renee; Anderson, Christopher; Schmale, David G., III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation—the process by which particles can nucleate ice between 0 and -35°C—is important for generating artificial snow. Though abiotic and biotic ice nuclei are present in many different natural and managed ecosystems, little is known about their nature, sources, and ecological roles. We collected samples of water and snow from the mountains of Tyrol, Austria in June, July, and November, 2016. The collected water was mostly from sources with minimal anthropogenic pollution, since most of the water from the sampled streams came from glacial melt. The samples were filtered through a 0.22μm filter, and microorganisms were cultured on different types of media. Resulting colonies were tested for their ice nucleation ability using a droplet freezing assay and identified to the level of the species. The unfiltered water and the filtered water will be subjected to additional assays using cryo microscopy and vibrational microscopy (IR and Raman- spectroscopy). Preliminary analyses suggested that the percentage of ice-nucleating microbes varied with season; greater percentages of ice nucleating microbes were present during colder months. The glacial melt also varies strongly over the year with the fraction of mineral dust suspended in it which serves as an inorganic ice nucleation agent. Further investigation of these samples may help to show the combined ice nuleation abilities of biological and non biological particles present in the mountains of Tirol, Austria. Future work may shed light on how the nucleation properties of the natural water changes with the time of the year and what may be responsible for these changes.

  6. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    PubMed

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E; Hackl, Monika; Mann, Georg; Urban, Christian; Woehrer, Adelheid; Slavc, Irene; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe. All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013. Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia. Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the ‘reformpool’-activity in Austria: is the challenge met?

    PubMed Central

    Czypionka, Thomas; Röhrling, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Aim The purpose of our study is to analyse the activities initiated by the foundation of the reformpools on the regional level. We wanted to see not only what projects have emerged from these funds, but also how the incentives of this special way of funding influence the activity and what overall impact can be expected on health services delivery in the future. Context In Austria, all expenses in the outpatient sector are borne by the statutory health insurance. But in the inpatient sector, SHI just co-finances about 45% of all costs incurred by patients, with the rest contributed by the federal, regional and municipal level. This, however, leads to a number of problems in today's epidemiological situation with patients in need of many different interventions in the course of their chronic disease. Originally with the aim of finding solutions to these interface problems between inpatient and outpatient care, the healthcare reform 2005 instated the instrument of the reformpool. The reformpool unites funds from social health insurance and regions to finance projects that develop new ways of health services delivery across the sectors. In the course of recent reforms, it became explicitly possible to sponsor projects of integrated care, which had de facto already been the case before. Theory The reform pool has various disincentives or wrong incentives compared to e.g. the German ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ for IC-contracts, which was probably a role-model for the Austrian reformpool, because of the underlying differences in the healthcare system and the distinct differences in the regulation. For example, the ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ in Germany withdraws money from the available funds for contract physicians to finance IC-projects, whereas in Austria, their fees are fixed. So in Austria, there is no incentive to retrieve money by participating in such projects. For the stakeholders supplying the pool, mainly the sickness funds and the regions, many projects inflict

  9. Dementia service centres in Austria: A comprehensive support and early detection model for persons with dementia and their caregivers – theoretical foundations and model description

    PubMed Central

    Span, Edith; Reisberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Despite the highly developed social services in Austria, the County of Upper Austria, one of the nine counties of Austria had only very limited specialized services for persons with dementia and their caregivers in 2001. Support groups existed in which the desire for more specialized services was voiced. In response to this situation, funding was received to develop a new structure for early disease detection and long term support for both the person with dementia and their caregivers. This article describes the development of the model of the Dementia Service Centres (DSCs) and the successes and difficulties encountered in the process of implementing the model in six different rural regions of Upper Austria. The DSC was described in the First Austrian Dementia Report as one of the potential service models for the future. PMID:24339114

  10. Dementia service centres in Austria: A comprehensive support and early detection model for persons with dementia and their caregivers - theoretical foundations and model description.

    PubMed

    Auer, Stefanie R; Span, Edith; Reisberg, Barry

    2015-07-01

    Despite the highly developed social services in Austria, the County of Upper Austria, one of the nine counties of Austria had only very limited specialized services for persons with dementia and their caregivers in 2001. Support groups existed in which the desire for more specialized services was voiced. In response to this situation, funding was received to develop a new structure for early disease detection and long term support for both the person with dementia and their caregivers. This article describes the development of the model of the Dementia Service Centres (DSCs) and the successes and difficulties encountered in the process of implementing the model in six different rural regions of Upper Austria. The DSC was described in the First Austrian Dementia Report as one of the potential service models for the future. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. "Why should I have come here?"--A qualitative investigation of migration reasons and experiences of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa in Austria.

    PubMed

    Jirovsky, Elena; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-02-26

    There are many health professionals from abroad working in the European Union and in Austria. The situation of sub-Saharan health workers in particular has now been studied for the first time. The objective was to explore their reasons for migration to Austria, as well as their personal experiences concerning the living and working situation in Austria. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with African health workers. They were approached via professional networks and a snowball system. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using atlas.ti. For most of our participants, the decision to migrate was not professional but situation dependent. Austria was not their first choice as a destination country. Several study participants left their countries to improve their overall working situation. The main motivation for migrating to Austria was partnership with an Austrian citizen. Other immigrants were refugees. Most of the immigrants found the accreditation process to work as a health professional to be difficult and hindering. This resulted in some participants not being able to work in their profession, while others were successful in their profession or in related fields. There have been experiences of discrimination, but also positive support. Austria is not an explicit target country for health workers from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the study participants experienced bad work and study conditions in their home countries, but they are in Austria mostly because of personal connections. The competencies of those who are here are not fully utilised. The major reason is Austria's current resident and work permit regulations concerning African citizens. In addition, the accreditation process and the German language appear to be barriers.

  12. The Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risks of Austria: first results for fluvial and pluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Tader, Andreas; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Incoherent societal adaptation to natural processes results in significant losses every year. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of hazards and risks, and of particular hot spots in a given region or period, is essential for reducing adverse impacts. Commonly, different hazard and risk estimations are performed within individual approaches based on tailor-made concepts. This works well as long as specific cases are considered. The advantage of such a procedure is that each individual hazard and risk is addressed in the best possible manner. The drawback, however, consists in the fact that the results differ significantly in terms of quality and accuracy and therefore cannot be compared. Hence, there is a need to develop a strategy and concept which uses similar data sources of equivalent quality in order to adequately analyze the different natural hazards and risks at broader scales. The present study is aiming to develop such a platform. The project Risk:ATlas focuses on the design of an atlas visualizing the most relevant natural hazards and, in particular, possible consequences for the entire territory of Austria. Available as a web-based tool and as a printed atlas, it is seen as a key tool to improve the basis for risk reduction, risk adaptation and risk transfer. The atlas is founded on those data sets available for the entire territory of Austria at a consistent resolution and quality. A 1 m resolution DEM and the official cadastre and building register represent the core, further data sets are employed according to the requirements for each natural hazard and risk. In this contribution, the methodology and the preliminary results for fluvial and pluvial floods and their consequences to buildings for three selected test areas in different types of landscapes (rural, urban and mountainous) are presented. Flooding depths expected for annualities of 30, 100 and 300 are derived from existing data sets for fluvial floods and are computed

  13. Macro-scale assessment of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Apperl, Benjamin; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents a GIS-based method for the identification of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes on the basis of existing flood maps and topographic features of flood plains. The approach enables the identification of flood prone river sections for large areas, as no additional hydrodynamic simulations are necessary or available. In our case an area of ~ 84.000 km2, including about 26.000 km of rivers and streams, is analysed. Even though the results of climate models are uncertain regarding the prediction of future changes in frequency and magnitude of floods, the recent accumulation of extreme flood events in parts of Austria makes it inevitable to account for possible changes in runoff characteristics. Therefore, an enhanced impact assessment of these changes and the identification of flood sensitive areas is necessary. The existing HORA data set (Natural Hazard Overview & Risk Assessment Austria) indicates flood plains for recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 200 years for the entire area of Austria under current climate conditions. A variable climate change allowance is applied to the corresponding discharges of the 200 years return period data set (HQ200), with the aim of generating modified runoff values of equal recurrence intervals for all flood values (HQcc). This procedure guarantees a consistent data set, based on the underlying Gumbel flood statistics of the original data set. The HORA-data sets includes points with the information on discharge and water depth for the existing recurrence intervals. Based on the simplifying assumption of (1) a rectangular cross section, (2) the water depth for the HQ200 discharge value and (3) the modified HQcc value, a new water depth (hcc) and the change in water depth (Δh) can be calculated for these locations. Changes in water depth are aggregated for municipalities by calculating a weighted mean depth change, using discharge as the weighting value. Based on the derived water depth changes, the

  14. A man-induced landslide in Lower Austria: natural conditions versus man-made causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Roland; Ottner, Franz; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    In many cases, composition and characteristics of hillslope sediments are of particular importance related to landslide research in low mountain areas. The interaction of geologic, geomorphologic, and hydrologic factors determines the susceptibility for mass movements, which is affected by human impact as well. The present study aims to investigate factors that control mass movements and natural and anthropogenic impacts. On March 8th 2009, a landslide of 30.000 to 50.000 m³ occurred that destroyed a large part of a sports ground in the village of Hintersdorf, municipality of St. Andrä-Wördern (Lower Austria). As a result of extensive water supply ground liquefaction was initiated and the slide mass moved in form of a mud flow about 200 m down slope. As a consequence a small forest area and a fishpond were destroyed and an adjacent road was damaged. Closely to the event, first studies started and showed that the Hintersdorf landslide was triggered by extensive water saturation combined with hydrostatic pressure inside the slide mass. Heavy and long-lasting rainfalls and the start of snowmelt caused strong seepage and soil water saturation. Furthermore, insufficient ground drainage and overflow of a small retention pond intensified the unfavourable impact on soil-mechanical stability. Further studies included archive data analyse, field survey, as well as laboratory analyse and showed that high landslide susceptibility at the Hintersdorf landslide site was caused by a bundle of factors that control the process: The sports ground was built nearby the head of a trough valley that collects interflow and surface run-off from the surrounding slopes. The Flysch bedrock is covered extensively by clayey slope deposits. Furthermore, in the area of the valley head a waste deposit was operated up to the 1980's that resulted in a thick waste filling there. The Hintersdorf sports ground was constructed in 1984 on top of the waste body. Preliminary results show that hillslope

  15. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  16. [The demographic aging of the Austrian population: on the long-term changes in the age structure in Austria].

    PubMed

    Kytir, J

    1995-01-01

    "The Austrian population is presently in the middle of its age structure transition which started with World War I and will continue until the 40s of the next century. Within this time period the number of people aged 60 years or over will increase from about half a million to 2.8 million (1995: 1.6 million) and the share of the elderly will mount from about 9 percent to more than 35 percent (1995: 20 percent). The present article points out the demographic causes for population aging asking whether high fertility and/or high numbers of migrants can stop the aging process. Different measurements of demographic aging in Austria (share of various age groups, mean age and median age, dependency ratios, several aging indices) are calculated for the time period 1869 to 2050. Special attention is paid to regional differences within Austria and to changes of the sex ratio at older ages over time." (EXCERPT)

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving

    PubMed Central

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C.; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. Methodology/Principal findings We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Conclusions/Significance Cost savings under a national program of

  18. What happens after and during deglaciation? Some insight from observations at the largest glacier in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Lieb, Gerhard K.; Kaufmann, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Pasterze Glacier is the largest glacier in Austria and the Eastern Alps. The glacier is located at the foot of Mt. Großglockner (3798 m a.s.l.), the highest peak in Austria, and is accessible rather easily by a high alpine road ending above the main glacier tongue. At present, the glacier covers an area of about 17 km2, has a length of 8.3 km, a maximum ice thickness of about 190 m and is characterized by two unequally sized glacier tongues. The main glacier tongue is c.4 km long and heavily covered by debris. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at around AD 1850 this glacier receded by 2.1 km. During the last c.160 years the main glacier tongue lowered by some 250 m on average. The glacier surface flow velocity decreased substantially, i.e. for example by 32% between the time periods 2003-2006 and 2006-2009. Glacier recession revealed large areas of previously ice-buried bedrock as well as minerogenic and biogenic sediments. In this contribution we present a compendium of research results based on several projects related to pure proglacial but also paraglacial processes and landforms in the vicinity of the present glacier. We will discuss (a) rock slope adjustment processes and its causes influencing for instance the supraglacial debris cover of the main glacier tongue substantially, (b) landform dynamics in the outwash plain and adjacent slopes close to the present glacier terminus, (c) the role of dead-ice for the proglacial landsystem, (d) formation and rapid enlargement of rock outcrops within the ice-fall, and (e) related natural hazard aspects. A further aspect discussed here - which is rather particular for Pasterze Glacier - is the (e) biogenic material (peat lumps and wood fragments) which has been found in recently deglaciated terrain. This material provides valuable insight into past ecological, glaciological and climatological conditions. Further rapid back- and downwasting of this glacier is very likely due to lack of ice replenishment. The

  19. Object-based glacier mapping in the Hohe Tauern Mountains of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey Robson, Benjamin; Hölbling, Daniel; Nuth, Christopher; Olaf Dahl, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Up-to-date and frequent glacier outlines are a necessity for many applications within glaciology. While multispectral band ratios are a comparatively robust method for automatically classifying clean ice on a pixel-based level, semi- or fully automated glacier inventories are complicated by spectral similarities between classes such as debris-covered glacier ice and the surrounding bedrock and moraines, or between clean ice and turbid pro-glacial water. Most glacier inventories therefore require a great deal of manual correction. Here, we present a glacier inventory of the Hohe Tauern Mountains in the Central Eastern Alps in Austria. Numerous glaciers, including the Pasterze Glacier, which is the longest glacier in the Eastern Alps, shape this mountainous region. The mapping of glaciers is based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) using both high resolution (HR) satellite imagery from Landsat 8 and a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. We automatically classify clean ice, debris-covered ice and glacial lakes. Image objects are created by applying the multiresolution segmentation algorithm implemented in the eCognition (Trimble) software. The resulting image objects are classified using a combination of various features, whereby a focus was put on the selection of robust features that are ideally applicable for mapping large areas, for example spectral indices such as the Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Snow and Ice Index (NDSI), Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI), Land and Water Mask (LWK) and a ratio of the SWIR and NIR spectral bands. The ability of OBIA to incorporate optical and elevation data and to individually address data-specific characteristics helps differentiate debris-covered ice from surrounding features not only by using spectral properties but also based on morphological and topographic parameters, while the inclusion of rulesets relying on contextuality, size

  20. The story of landscape evolution in Lower Austria told by sedimentological analysis and luminescence dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Ingo; Thiel, Christine; Terhorst, Birgit; Jaburova, Iva; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    Loess/palaeosol sequences contain detailed information about palaeoenvironmental changes during the Quaternary. Furthermore, because of its long distance aeolian transport, which resets the luminescence signal to zero prior to deposition, loess is highly suitable for luminescence dating. This allows the determination of geodynamic processes with time. The loess deposits in the Kremser Feld (Lower Austria) are up to 30 m thick. The loess/paleosol sequence of Stratzing is situated at the eastern margin of the west-east elongated hill of the ‘Galgenberg'; this location is famous for its archaeological finds, e.g. the sculpture "Fanny", one of the oldest identifiable representations of the human figure (Neugebauer-Maresch, 1993). The loess profile examined here has a total depth of 7.5 m and is subdivided into 19 prominent horizons. For each horizon the grain size distribution, pH-value, total carbonate content, total organic content and sulphur content was derived in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions leading to sedimentation and soil formation. To set up a geochronological framework for the loess deposition and the subsequent soil formation, nine samples were dated by means of elevated temperature post-IR IRSL (Thiel et al., submitted). Besides a general discussion about the sedimentological data we will discuss horizon 18 in more detail; this is a paleosol rich in clay and poor in mineralic carbonate. The sulphur content is relatively high and indicates higher humidity and warmer climate, all making the unexpectedly low organic carbon content of particular interest. The luminescence ages reveal an important hiatus above this well-developed palaeosol (from ~ 100 to ~ at least 200 ka) clearly showing that this loess/palaeosol sequence is not a continuous record. This implies either significant erosion or lack of loess deposition in this area. Neugebauer-Maresch, C., 1993. Kunst und geistige Welt. - In: Neugebauer-Maresch, C., (ed): Altsteinzeit im

  1. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  2. Hydrological disposition of flash flood and debris flows events in an Alpine watershed in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenner, David; Kaitna, Roland; Mostbauer, Karin; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows and flash floods including intensive bedload transport represent severe hazards in the Alpine environment of Austria. For neither of these processes, explicit rainfall thresholds - even for specific regions - are available. This may be due to insufficient data on the temporal and spatial variation of precipitation, but probably also due to variations of the geomorphic and hydrological disposition of a watershed to produce such processes in the course of a rainfall event. In this contribution we investigate the importance of the hydrological system state for triggering debris flows and flash floods in the Ill/Suggadin watershed (500 km2), Austria, by analyzing the effects of dynamics in system state variables such as soil moisture, snow pack, or ground water level. The analysis is based on a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model, spatially discretizing the watershed according to the available precipitation observations, elevation, topographic considerations and land cover. Input data are available from six weather stations on a daily basis ranging back to 1947. A Thiessen polygon decomposition results in six individual precipitation zones with a maximum area of about 130 km2. Elevation specific behavior of the quantities temperature and precipitation is covered through an elevation-resolved computation every 200 m. Spatial heterogeneity is considered by distinct hydrological response units for bare rock, forest, grassland, and riparian zone. To reduce numerical smearing on the hydrological results, the Implicit Euler scheme was used to discretize the balance equations. For model calibration we utilized runoff hydrographs, snow cover data as well as prior parameter and process constraints. The obtained hydrological output variables are linked to documented observed flash flood and debris flow events by means of a multivariate logistic regression. We present a summary about the daily hydrological disposition of experiencing a flash flood or

  3. Structural assessment and multi-parameter monitoring - an application to the Salcher landslide (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Alexander; Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to many communities in Austria. The region of Lower Austria is underlayed, amongst others, by the lithological units of the Flysch Zone and the Gresten Klippenbelt. Both are particularly affected by landslides and the majority of episodic occurrences are bound to these two units. The active Salcher landslide is situated at the western border of the municipality of Gresten and is embedded in the geologic transition zone of the respective lithological units. The landslide is a reactivated and deep seated complex landslide that endangers buildings, parts of a road and lifelines such as power and optical fiber lines, fresh and sewage water supplies. Its varying movement rates are in the order of a few centimeters per year and consequently are classified as slow to extremely slow. Despite biannual geodetic surveys, little is known about the dynamic behavior including the triggering and controlling factors and its internal structure. Surface and subsurface investigations were therefore carried out on that landslide. With the intention to detect morphological surface changes, comparative geomorphologic mapping and terrestrial laser scanning was performed. Additionally, surface kinematical information was acquired by historical documents and GNSS measurements. The detailed present soil-physical conditions and their relation to current dynamics were investigated by six drill cores and three inclinometer installations. Soil specimens were obtained by percussion drilling. Particle size distribution, and water and carbonate content were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. In addition, dynamic probing was performed at 13 sites across the landslide body and resistance values were compared to textural findings. The soil specimens show a heterogeneous texture and large variations in carbonate and water content. Soil wedges, originating from local displacements, were determined in two drill cores. Very high water content and resulting plastic

  4. Soil awareness raising - activities in schools and for the general public in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Sigbert; Birli, Barbara; Schwarz, Sigrid; Tulipan, Monika; Berthold, Helene; Englisch, Michael; Foldal, Cecilie

    2017-04-01

    Too few people know just how important soil really is and how to manage it properly. This is why a number of activities have been launched by the Austrian Soil Science Society and its members to provide basic soil information to "non-soil experts" promoting the various services soil provides for society and raising awareness as to what each individual can do to protect and manage soil. Environment Agency Austria and Umweltdachverband [1] have developed teaching material based on the principles of "Education for Sustainable Development". These booklets provide basic knowledge about soil combined with appealing and creative tasks. These tasks were developed to fit into biology or geography courses as well as into other courses such as mathematics, language training, chemistry, history, informatics, etc. Pupils and students may actively explore soil properties, soil formation, soil functions and soil organisms in the course of workshops (called "Boden macht Schule") in schools and in kindergartens [2],[3]. Key elements are the identification of soil animals, creative tasks and experiments appropriate to the pupils' age showing soiĺs ability to clean and retain water. The workshops for kindergartens revolve around feeling the soil texture, exploring soil biota and drawing. A special challenge for students is the Soil Orientation Run, a combination of physical effort, testing onés own soil knowledge and cooperating as a team. At the Vienna Zzoo many people get in touch with soil and its properties during the Vienna species conservation days. 2017 a new soil trail with 13 boards will open in Vienna, focusing on the genesis, geology, biology and important functions of the Viennese urban soil. A team of 10 scientists worked on the implementation of this soil trail which will raise soil awareness of the citizens and visitors of Vienna. The Soil Awareness Guide as a tool of the Austrian Soil Platform shows activities and materials to raise awareness in Austria. Due to

  5. Exploring hydrological uncertainties and thresholds of a drought vulnerable region in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    In the region of South-Eastern Styria, Austria, a strong increase of summer temperature over the last decades was recognized by Kabas et. al. (Meteorol. Z./ 20 (3), 277-289, 2011). With climate change the temperature will further increase, so that the possibility for more frequent droughts in summer will rise. This leads to the question if, for example, a steppe climate similar to that in the neighboring Hungarian Pussta can evolve in this region. Drastic climatic changes will be accompanied by strong changes in the hydrological balance. Since the region is strongly influenced by agriculture and other non-climatic factors as well, these human impacts on the water cycle must be considered. The Wegener Center, University of Graz is studying the Raab catchment in South-Eastern Styria, Austria, as an example of a small catchment of the climate-sensitive southern Alpine foothills. The available data indicate that the region is vulnerable to droughts in summer, signalled by a strong temperature increase over the recent decades and a tendency of precipitation decrease. The main goals of this study are to explore how the water balance in the region is going to change in the future, what the most significant uncertainties are and where there might be thresholds towards drastic changes. In this poster we report on the first steps, which is to build up a hydrological model for the Styrian Raab valley based on the Water balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) of ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Within the calibration the focus is on low flow conditions in summer. Given that the model shows good results for the well observed recent decades, a sensitivity analysis for changes in specific (control) parameters of the surface water balance is conducted. This will include anomalies of temperature and precipitation, water use for irrigation, and others. This enables to explore how warmer temperatures or changes in irrigation and crops affect the catchment. Model analyses do not only focus on flow

  6. Oral status among seniors in nine nursing homes in Styria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Gluhak, Christine; Arnetzl, Gerwin Vincent; Kirmeier, Robert; Jakse, Norbert; Arnetzl, Gerwin

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the oral state in participants cared for in residences for senior citizens in Styria, Austria. Four hundred and nine participants in Styria from nine homes for senior citizens were examined employing parameters in accordance with those of Folstein's Mini Mental Status (MMS), DMFT, basic periodontal examination, the modified oral hygiene index, pain experienced during the preceding year, the subjective and objective need for treatment, and also requirements involving surgical and prosthetic treatment. Furthermore, the habitual methods of maintaining oral hygiene were examined establishing by whom this was carried out - whether by the patient, the nurse, or by patient and nurse together. Four hundred and nine participants were examined, 48.3% were found to have retained on average 4.9 of their own teeth while 69% were fitted with dentures; however, 81% of the participants required prosthetic treatment. 28.9% of the participants had experienced acute dental pain during the preceding year and surgical treatment was found to be necessary in 47.7% of those with original teeth. Eighty-four per cent of the participants showed acute inflammation of the periodontium while the state of oral hygiene, measured on a scale of 0-4, reached an average of 2.43. Oral hygiene was carried out by the nurses in only 7.46% of the cases which showed an average MMS measurement of 18. The results compared with those reported in other recent surveys and our data show an urgent need in Austria to improve the standards in dental care for the hospitalised elderly. Regular dental checks, carried out in the actual home by a dental surgeon should be introduced, whilst the nursing staff should be made fully aware of the problems caused by insufficient oral care and receive regular support from specialised oral hygiene assistants. The results of this survey also suggest that nursing staff should be equipped with simple instruments in order to judge to the extent to which the patient is

  7. Epidemiology of allergies in Austria. Results of the first Austrian allergy report.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.

  8. Cause-specific mortality in adult epilepsy patients from Tyrol, Austria: hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bauer, Gerhard; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Seppi, Klaus; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a devastating condition with a considerable increase in mortality compared to the general population. Few studies have focused on cause-specific mortality which we analyse in detail in over 4,000 well-characterized epilepsy patients. The cohort comprised of epilepsy patients ≥ 18, treated between 1970 and 2009 at the epilepsy clinic of Innsbruck Medical University, Austria, and living in the province of Tyrol, Austria. Epilepsy diagnosis was based on ILAE guidelines (1989); patients with brain tumor were excluded. Deceased patients and causes of death (ICD-codes) were obtained via record linkage to the national death registry. We computed age-, sex-, and period-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 36 diagnoses subgroups in four major groups. Additional analyses were performed for an incidence cohort. Overall cohort: 4,295 patients, 60,649.1 person-years, 822 deaths, overall SMR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.6-1.9), highest elevated cause-specific SMR: congenital anomalies [7.1 (95 % CI 2.3-16.6)], suicide [4.2 (95 % CI 2.0-8.1)], alcohol dependence syndrome [3.9 (95 % CI 1.8-7.4)], malignant neoplasm of esophagus [3.1 (95 % CI 1.2-6.4)], pneumonia [2.7 (95 % CI 1.6-4.2)]. Incidence cohort: 1,299 patients, 14,215.4 person-years, 267 deaths, overall SMR 1.8 (95 % CI 1.6-2.1), highest elevated cause-specific SMR congenital anomalies [10.8 (95 % CI 1.3-39.3)], suicide [6.8 (95 % CI 1.4-19.8)], alcohol dependence syndrome (6.4 [95 % CI 1.8-16.5)], pneumonia [3.9 (95 % CI 1.8-7.4)], cerebrovascular disease at 3.5 (95 % CI 2.6-4.6). Mortality due to mental health problems, such as suicide or alcohol dependence syndrome, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases was highly increased in our study. In addition to aim for seizure freedom, we suggest improving general health promotion, including cessation of smoking, lowering of alcohol intake, and reduction of weight as well as early identification of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy.

  9. Seismogenic-driven hydroplastic deformation of soft sediments (Hirlatzhöhle, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Martina Lan; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Gier, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Deformed Quaternary cave sediments, which are well protected from both the erosional processes occurring at the Earth's surface and anthropogenic activities, provide a detailed archive of paleoseismic events, as well as an opportunity to assess potential regional seismic hazards. Hirlatz Cave, which lies about 2 km SW of Hallstatt, in the Salzkammergut area of Upper Austria, formed in a Triassic carbonate platform in the Dachstein Nappe, part of the Northern Calcareous Alps. With an overall length of 101 km, this is the third largest cave system in Austria. The present study focuses on an approximately 6.8 m long x 3 m high outcrop of Quaternary deposits that lie 2.8 km southeast of the cave entrance, in the so-called Lehmklamm. The succession comprises alternating packages of (a) pale grey sediments 3-25 mm thick and (b) finely laminated (1-2 mm) alternations of grey and lighter and darker brown sediments in layers 10-34 mm thick. X-ray diffraction analyses of the unconsolidated, finely laminated clay-sized sediments show a varve-like layering of brighter, carbonate and quartz-rich, and darker, clay mineral-rich layers of fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Heavy mineral analyses indicate an amphibolite facies source area that underwent a greenschist facies overprint. This indicates that the crystalline Central Alps lying to the south of the cave was likely the source. The succession contains abundant millimetre to centimetre-sized seismogenically-induced flame and fishtail structures, domino-boudins and syn-slumping structures such as folds and faults (normal and thrust faults) with flanking structures. Geometric analogues that are 2-3 orders of magnitudes larger have been described close to the Dead Sea Fault (e.g. Alsop et. al., 2011). Quantitative techniques, such as the reconstruction of the aspect ratios of boudins, the fault system polarity, the variation coefficient of faults and kinematic balancing have been used to interpret the structures. This suggests that (i

  10. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  11. [Epidemiology and phage typing of Salmonella typhimurium in Austria 1980-1982].

    PubMed

    Thiel, W; Recla, S

    1984-12-01

    From 1980 to 1982 a total of 4541 strains of S. typhimurium of human origin and 745 S. typhimurium of non-human sources were received by the Salmonella Centre. During this period, the percentage of S. typhimurium rose from 33% to 51% (human origin) and from 12% to 33% (non-human origin), respectively. The incidence of infection was 20.0, the regional distribution showed a prominence of the eastern and western parts of Austria with Styria as leading country (46.2). 60% of the isolates of S. typhimurium were associated with illness, which was 10% more than for the other salmonellae; concerning outbreaks as well as single cases, S. typhimurium dominated, whereas the proportion of carriers of S. typhimurium among foodhandlers was small (12% S. typhimurium, 31% other salmonellae). As to the age-specific attack-rate, children younger than 5 years by far predominated with 67.2, with a falling tendency in the other age groups. As far as food is concerned, the increase of S. typhimurium in poultry is particularly striking. According to the phage-typing results, LT 10 was prominent in the years 1980 and 1981, whereas in 1982, LT 66, accounting for 62% out of 2201 tested human isolates dominated among 44 different phage-types as epidemic strain, especially in Styria and eastern Austria. In addition, LT 10 and LT 3 could be found more frequently. Starting from the important role of food in Salmonella associated enteritis, LT 66 leads to chicken as the main source of infection. Apart from LT 66, LT 1, 2, 3 and LT 140 were more frequent in non-human isolates. This infiltration of LT 66 into the Austrian chicken industry could have its origin in imported parent chickens. As mechanism the single replacement of LT 10 by LT 66 is discussed as well as the phage-conversion of LT 10. The other possible chains of infection (other poultry, feeding-staff, man) are regarded as less probable. To prove this thesis investigations on plasmids should be done.

  12. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality model for Austria with satellite based Particulate Matter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, M.; Mantovani, S.; Krüger, B. C.; Triebnig, G.

    2012-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using assimilation techniques. It is expected that the assimilation of satellite measurements will significantly improve the quality of AQA. Currently no observations are considered in the modeling system. At the current stage of the project, different datasets have been collected (ground measurements, satellite measurements, fine resolved regional emission inventories) and are analyzed and prepared for further processing. This contribution gives an overview of the project working plan and the upcoming developments. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  13. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality Model For Austria with Satellite based Particulate Matter Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Triebnig, Gerhard; Flandorfer, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using regression- and assimilation techniques. For the model simulations WRF/Chem is used with a resolution of 3 km over the alpine region. Interfaces have been developed to account for the different measurements as input data. The available local emission inventories provided by the different Austrian regional governments were harmonized and used for the model simulations. An episode in February 2010 is chosen for the model evaluation. During that month exceedances of PM10-thresholds occurred at many measurement stations of the Austrian network. Different model runs (only model/only ground stations assimilated/satellite and ground stations assimilated) are compared to the respective measurements. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  14. Primary health care teams put to the test a cross-sectional study from Austria within the QUALICOPC project.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; George, Aaron; Dorner, Thomas E; Süß, Katharina; Schäfer, Willemijn L A; Maier, Manfred

    2015-11-16

    Multidisciplinary Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT) provide a comprehensive approach to address the social and health needs of communities. It was the aim of this analysis to assess the number of PHCT in Austria, a country with a weak PHC system, and to compare preventive activities, psychosocial care, and work satisfaction between GPs who work and those who do not work in PHCT. Within the QUALICOPC study, data collection was performed between November 2011 and May 2012, utilizing a standardized questionnaire for GPs. A stratified sample of GPs from across Austria was invited. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and tests. Data from 171 GPs questionnaires were used for this analysis. Of these, 61.1 % (n = 113) had a mono-disciplinary office, 26.3 % (n = 45) worked in an office consisting of GP, receptionist and one additional primary care profession, and 7.6 % (n = 13) worked in a larger PHCT. GPs that worked in larger PHCT were younger and more involved in psychosocial and preventive care. No differences were found with regard to work satisfaction or workload. This study gives insight into the structures of PHC in Austria. The results indicate a low number of PHCT; however, the overall return rate in our sample was low with more male GPs, more GPs from urban areas and more GPs working in offices together with other physicians than the national average. Younger GPs demonstrate a greater tendency to implement this primary care practice model in their practices, which seems to be associated with an emphasis in psychosocial and preventive care. If Austria is to increase the number of PHC teams, the country should embrace the work of young GPs and should offer relevant support for PHCT. Future developments could be guided by considering effective models of good practice and governmental support as in other countries.

  15. [Neural tube defects in Austria: Assumption and calculations on the prevention potential through folic acid enrichment and supplementation].

    PubMed

    Schiller-Frühwirth, I; Mittermayr, T; Wild, C

    2010-12-01

    Countries with obligatory fortification of food (USA, Canada) document a significant decrease of neural tube defects in newborns. In this study the Daly or, respectively, the Wald method was employed for calculating the potential of fortification/and supplementation for prevention in Austria. According to the EUROCAT study, in Austria the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (live birth, still births and induced abortions due to neural defect) is assumed to be 7.95 per 10,000 live and still births, and the prevalence of 3.9 per 10,000 live births - that is 62 or, respectively, 30 in absolute numbers per 78,000 births per year. In 2006, 26 live-born children with neural tube defects were actually reported in Austria by Statistik Austria. Different folic acid fortification and supplementation strategies can avoid 1.2-1.4 per 10,000 (9-11 cases) of neural tube defects (live and still births). Folic acid supplements are effective to decrease the amount of neural tube defects, however, only when pregnancies are planned. Thus, evidence-based neural tube defects are more common among lower social groups. An obligatory fortification of food could therefore reach unplanned pregnancies and women facing social problems. A reason to justify this population-based intervention where people need not decide for themselves could be the reduction of social imbalances. There are, of course, advantages and disadvantages of obligatory fortification of food and, therefore, all circumstances have to be taken into consideration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [On the economy of "wealth of people": demographic-political theories in the Austria of enlightened absolutism].

    PubMed

    Wichtl, T

    1985-01-01

    "This essay focuses on mercantilist theories and interpretations of demographic trends [in Austria] in the late 18th century." The writings of several mercantilist authors are summarized, and the influence of their views on population policy is discussed. It is noted that the official population policy, which aimed at fast population growth to strengthen the economy and increase the number of soldiers, was based on the mercantilist theory that greater population size means higher per capita incomes. (summary in ENG)

  17. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite.

  18. Discrimination between Clinically Relevant and Nonrelevant Acanthamoeba Strains Isolated from Contact Lens- Wearing Keratitis Patients in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Walochnik, J.; Haller-Schober, E.-M.; Kölli, H.; Picher, O.; Obwaller, A.; Aspöck, H.

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen cases of Acanthamoeba-associated keratitis among contact lens wearers seen at the Department of Ophthalmology, Karl-Franzens-University, Graz, Austria, between 1996 and 1999 are reviewed. The amoebae were proven to be the causative agents in three patients. The aim of our study was to discriminate between clinically relevant and nonrelevant isolates and to assess the relatedness of the isolates to published strains. Altogether, 20 strains of free-living amoebae, including 15 Acanthamoeba strains, 3 Vahlkampfia strains, and 2 Hartmannella strains, were isolated from clinical specimens. The virulent Acanthamoeba strains were identified as A. polyphaga and two strains of A. hatchetti. To our knowledge this is the first determination of keratitis-causing Acanthamoeba strains in Austria. Clinically relevant isolates differed markedly from nonrelevant isolates with respect to their physiological properties. 18S ribosomal DNA sequence types were determined for the three physiologically most-divergent strains including one of the keratitis-causing strains. This highly virulent strain exhibited sequence type T6, a sequence type not previously associated with keratitis. Sequence data indicate that Acanthamoeba strains causing keratitis as well as nonpathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba in Austria are most closely related to published strains from other parts of the world. Moreover, the results of our study support the assumption that pathogenicity in Acanthamoeba is a distinct capability of certain strains and not dependent on appropriate conditions for the establishment of an infection. PMID:11060047

  19. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia—Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    PubMed Central

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830–2000. The drivers of CO2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920–2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian “eco-efficiency” nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO2 emissions to a sustainable level. PMID:21461052

  20. Deformation bands evolving from dilation to cementation bands in a hydrocarbon reservoir (Vienna Basin, Austria).

    PubMed

    Exner, Ulrike; Kaiser, Jasmin; Gier, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    In this study we analyzed five core samples from a hydrocarbon reservoir, the Matzen Field in the Vienna Basin (Austria). Deformation bands occur as single bands or as strands of several bands. In contrast to most published examples of deformation bands in terrigeneous sandstones, the reduction of porosity is predominantly caused by the precipitation of Fe-rich dolomite cement within the bands, and only subordinately by cataclasis of detrital grains. The chemical composition of this dolomite cement (10-12 wt% FeO) differs from detrital dolomite grains in the host rock (<2 wt% FeO). This observation in combination with stable isotope data suggests that the cement is not derived from the detrital grains, but precipitated from a fluid from an external, non-meteoric source. After an initial increase of porosity by dilation, disaggregation and fragmentation of detrital grains, a Fe-rich carbonate fluid crystallized within the bands, thereby reducing the porosity relative to the host sediment. The retention of pyrite cement by these cementation bands as well as the different degree of oil staining on either side of the bands demonstrate that these cementation bands act as effective barriers to the migration of fluids and should be considered in reservoir models.

  1. Site assessment for wind farms in Austria - ground-based remote-sensing and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Tran, H. V.; Kaufmann, H.; Koch, E.; Lotteraner, C.; Piringer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Site assessment concerning the wind potential, shading and icing for planned wind farms in Austria is conducted based on spatially highly resolved wind field modelling. Surface roughness, terrain and obstacles in the vicinity of the site are taken into account in the modelling approach as well as technical details of the planned wind farm. Representative wind measurements are essential for the correctness of the predicted energy yield. Climatological wind information is retrieved from the long time-series of the Austrian meteorological observational network. To achieve better wind conditions (high wind speed and low turbulence) higher hub heights of the new wind turbine types are planned, e.g. nowadays, the standard hub heights of about 3.0 MW turbine classes are over 135m. Because wind measurements with conventional wind masts at this altitude are difficult to perform and the application of logarithmic wind profiles of wind models close to the boundary layer are associated with uncertainty, nowadays measurements are carried out with remote sensing techniques. Advanced ground-based remote sensing techniques as RASS (radio-acoustic sounding system) and LIDAR render wind, turbulence and temperature (RASS only) profiles including the vertical range that will be reached by the moving blades of the wind turbine. Benefits and limitations of the sounding systems are discussed.

  2. Development of undergraduate gerodontology courses in Austria, Switzerland, and Germany from 2004 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Ina; Kunze, Julia; Reiber, Thomas; Sobotta, Bernhard A J

    2013-05-01

    The growing number of individuals over the age of sixty-five with specific dental needs requires increased teaching efforts to adequately prepare predoctoral dental students. The study assessed whether such increases in undergraduate gerodontology teaching in German-speaking countries between 2004 and 2009 occurred. Questionnaires were mailed in 2004 and 2009 to all deans (n=37) and all department heads (n=140) of Austrian, Swiss, and German dental schools. Results show that gerodontology is still mostly included in traditional core subjects but that specific lecture series and practical teaching have increased. These cover a broad variety of subjects including geriatric medicine, gerontopsychiatry, nursing care, pharmacology, and public health. The number of departments with dedicated staff for gerodontology, research activities, and mean number of publications has increased. Barriers to the further integration of the subject include its continued exclusion from final examinations in Austria and Germany. Guidelines of the European College of Gerodontology (2009), which aim to prepare students to provide dental treatment to seniors by teaching theoretical knowledge, practical skills, patient management techniques, and the ethical foundation of gerodontology, need to be implemented. Continued professional education of faculty in all departments, intensified cooperation between universities, and the presence of faculty specializing in gerodontology are suggested.

  3. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  4. Deformation bands evolving from dilation to cementation bands in a hydrocarbon reservoir (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Ulrike; Kaiser, Jasmin; Gier, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyzed five core samples from a hydrocarbon reservoir, the Matzen Field in the Vienna Basin (Austria). Deformation bands occur as single bands or as strands of several bands. In contrast to most published examples of deformation bands in terrigeneous sandstones, the reduction of porosity is predominantly caused by the precipitation of Fe-rich dolomite cement within the bands, and only subordinately by cataclasis of detrital grains. The chemical composition of this dolomite cement (10–12 wt% FeO) differs from detrital dolomite grains in the host rock (<2 wt% FeO). This observation in combination with stable isotope data suggests that the cement is not derived from the detrital grains, but precipitated from a fluid from an external, non-meteoric source. After an initial increase of porosity by dilation, disaggregation and fragmentation of detrital grains, a Fe-rich carbonate fluid crystallized within the bands, thereby reducing the porosity relative to the host sediment. The retention of pyrite cement by these cementation bands as well as the different degree of oil staining on either side of the bands demonstrate that these cementation bands act as effective barriers to the migration of fluids and should be considered in reservoir models. PMID:26321782

  5. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Markus; Wiedl, Thomas; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-01-01

    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae) Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration. PMID:26201071

  6. [Pharmaco-economic evaluation of Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 for dementias in Austria].

    PubMed

    Hörr, R; Kieser, M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out an economic evaluation of the therapeutic effects achievable with ginkgo special extract Egb 761 in dementia in Austria. The care-cost savings that could be achieved with ginkgo special extract Egb 761 therapy were estimated on the basis of the extent to which it delayed growing dependency and an increasing need for care--this being ascertained from the active treatment/placebo differences on GERRI after 6 months of treatment with Egb 761 and evaluated using the rates of the Austrian Federal Care Allowance Law--and compared with the cost of this therapy. The duration of illness, the start and duration of treatment, and the Egb 761 dose were varied in a series of scenarios in a sensitivity analysis. In all the scenarios the care-cost savings exceed the costs of the ginkgo special extract Egb 761 therapy. The cost/savings ratio is most favourable when the treatment is started early and when it is used in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. For every month by which the transition from the stage requiring a small to moderate amount of care to the stage requiring considerable or very considerable care can be delayed, one can save 812 [symbol: see text]. Prescribing ginkgo special extract Egb 761 for dementia makes sense from the national economic viewpoint because the product can yield care-cost savings that exceed the cost of the treatment itself.

  7. Does altitude moderate the impact of lithium on suicide? A spatial analysis of Austria.

    PubMed

    Helbich, Marco; Blüml, Victor; Leitner, Michael; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2013-05-01

    Suicide, the tenth leading cause of death worldwide, is a complex phenomenon. Models aiming to explain the interaction of ambient variables such as socioeconomic factors, lithium content of drinking water and altitude are poorly developed. While controlling for several risk factors, this research bridges two different, but complementary research lines by investigating statistically the relationship on suicide mortality between lithium levels in drinking water in response to altitude above sea level. Besides regression models with main effects, a multiplicative interaction model between lithium and altitude has been developed providing estimates at the district-level for Austria where spatial autocorrelation was accounted for through spatial filtering. The correlation results showed a negative association between lithium levels and altitude. The regression confirmed a negative association of lithium levels and suicide mortality. Altitude was found to be positively associated with suicide mortality. On the other hand, lithium effects on suicide mortality were found to be moderated by altitude. In lower altitude regions the effect turned out to be negatively related to suicide mortality, while lithium had a positive association in high-altitude regions. These results provide evidence for the fact that the relationship between lithium, altitude and suicide rates is more complex than hitherto assumed. Further research on the effects of ambient variables such as low levels of lithium on suicide is needed and particularly the lithium-altitude interaction is worth further investigation to understand possible underlying neurochemical processes.

  8. DETECTION OF ZOONOTIC PATHOGENS IN WILD BIRDS IN THE CROSS-BORDER REGION AUSTRIA - CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Konicek, Cornelia; Vodrážka, Pavel; Barták, Pavel; Knotek, Zdenek; Hess, Claudia; Račka, Karol; Hess, Michael; Troxler, Salome

    2016-10-01

    To assess the importance of wild birds as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens in Austria and the Czech Republic, we sampled 1,325 wild birds representing 13 orders, 32 families, and 81 species. The majority belonged to orders Columbiformes (43%), Passeriformes (25%), and to birds of prey: Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes (15%). We collected cloacal swabs from 1,191 birds for bacterial culture and 1,214 triple swabs (conjunctiva, choana, cloaca) for DNA and RNA isolation. The cloacal swabs were processed by classical bacteriologic methods for isolation of Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Nucleic acids isolated from triple swabs were investigated by PCR for West Nile virus, avian influenza viruses, and Chlamydia spp. We also tested tissue samples from 110 fresh carcasses for Mycobacterium spp. by PCR and we cultured fresh droppings from 114 birds for Cryptococcus spp. The most-frequently detected zoonotic bacteria were thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (12.5%) and Chlamydia spp. (10.3%). From 79.2% of the sampled birds we isolated E. coli , while 8.7% and 0.2% of E. coli isolates possessed the virulence genes for intimin (eaeA) and Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2), respectively. Salmonella spp. were rarely found in the sampled birds (2.2%), similar to findings of MRSA (0.3%). None of the samples were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium spp., avian influenza viruses, or West Nile virus.

  9. Two Gravettian human deciduous teeth from Grub/Kranawetberg, lower Austria.

    PubMed

    Teschler-Nicola, M E; Antl-Weiser, W; Prossinger, H

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present two heavily eroded tooth fragments found in Grub/Kranawetberg, a Gravettian excavation site near Stillfried, Lower Austria. Both fragments were found during wet screening of sediment taken from an area near a hearth. Overall, the cultural layer yielded a large number of stone tools and flakes as well as bony points and over sixty bone beads and bone bead fragments. They point to an absolute date of 24,400 to 25,400 BP. We present a description of the tooth fragments and identify them as remains of an early modern human. One of the fragments is a deciduous right first lower molar (84) and the other a deciduous left lateral upper incisor (62). Due to their characteristic shape and size, as well as the degree of attrition, both teeth could have belonged to one single individual--a possibility consistent with their position in the stratigraphic column. The incisor could be compared for its metrical dimensions to the few other contemporaneous Upper Palaeolithic findings showing an insignificantly smaller dimension in mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions. Although the remains are limited they increase our very small sample of deciduous teeth for this time period, which is essential for a better understanding of possible evolutionary trends from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Mesolithic.

  10. Modelling of a Tracer experiment (Bromide) at the lysimeter Wagna/Austria with MIKE-SHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Fank, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Data of a tracer experiment with Bromide at one of the three lysimeters in Wagna/Austria are used to test the unsaturated zone solute transport model in MIKE-SHE. On April 4th, 2005 50 mg/l of Bromide were applied on the lysimeter operated with conventional farming. At this time the lysimeter was covered with bare soil until the start of the cultivation of pumpkin one month later. Concentrations at the lysimeter bottom (180 cm depth) were measured and, after break-through, plant uptake was measured to quantify mass recovery. The model using the Richards-Van Genuchten-Mualem approach is setup by comprehensive data of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties available at the lysimeter. Water movement simulation in the unsaturated zone is tested against measured seepage rates at the lysimeter bottom and soil water contents in different soil depths in a period of five years. A sensitivity study shows that, particularly in the quaternary gravel zone two different parameter sets are necessary to represent the different dynamics of water content and seepage. With both two sets the general dynamics of the tracer experiment are simulated well. However, the early rapid rise of the measured concentrations could not be represented by either parameter set, which indicates a complex pore system consisting of different flow paths in the gravel zone, e.g., a system of matrix flow and macro-pore flow.

  11. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project.

  12. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Markus; Wiedl, Thomas; Piller, Werner E

    2015-01-01

    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae) Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration.

  13. Hydrologic system state at debris flow initiation in the Pitztal catchment, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostbauer, Karin; Hrachowitz, Markus; Prenner, David; Kaitna, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows represent a severe hazard in mountain regions. Though significant effort has been made to forecast such events, the trigger conditions as well as the hydrologic disposition of a watershed at the time of debris flow occurrence are not well understood. To improve our knowledge on the connection between debris flow initiation and the hydrologic system, this study applies a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model, linking different system state variables such as soil moisture, snowmelt, or runoff with documented debris flow events in the Pitztal watershed, western Austria. The hydrologic modelling was performed on a daily basis between 1953 and 2012. High-intensity rainfall could be identified as the dominant trigger (31 out of 43 debris flows), while triggering exclusively by low-intensity, long-lasting rainfall was only observed in one single case. The remaining events were related to snowmelt; whether all of these events where triggered by rain-on-snow, or whether some of these events were actually triggered by snowmelt only, remains unclear since the occurrence of un- resp. underrecorded rainfall was detected frequently. The usage of a conceptual hydrological model for investigating debris flow initiation constitutes a novel approach in debris flow research and was assessed as very valuable. For future studies, it is recommended to evaluate also sub-daily information. As antecedent snowmelt was found to be much more important to debris flow initiation than antecedent rainfall, it might prove beneficial to include snowmelt in the commonly used rainfall intensity-duration thresholds.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients from Southeast Austria.

    PubMed

    Masoud-Landgraf, Lilian; Badura, Alexandra; Eber, Ernst; Feierl, Gebhard; Posch, Josefa; Zarfel, Gernot; Zach, Maximilian; Marth, Egon

    2012-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, the predominant source of its acquisition, however, is under discussion. In order to study the molecular epidemiology, we evaluated 86 P. aeruginosa isolates from 43 CF patients from southeast Austria. The DiversiLab system was used to identify genetic relationships among the isolates. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested with a broth microdilution method (Micronaut Merlin). A total of 39 unrelated P. aeruginosa genotypes were found of which 34 were unique to a single patient and one was unique to a sibling pair. We found low rates of resistance for β-lactams with resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime ranging from 4 to 6%. Resistance rates for meropenem and ciprofloxacin were 11% and 15%, respectively. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant isolates was 2%. We conclude that the majority of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients originate from environmental sources and patient-to-patient spread is very uncommon in our centre.

  15. AGO Austria recommendations for genetic testing of patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Marth, Christian; Hubalek, Michael; Petru, Edgar; Polterauer, Stephan; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Scholl-Firon, Tonja; Singer, Christian F; Zschocke, Johannes; Zeimet, Alain G

    2015-08-01

    In Austria, 700 women are diagnosed every year with ovarian carcinoma. Approximately 15% of the patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The increased incidence of breast and/or ovarian cancer in genetically related family members has given rise to the term "hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome" (HBOC). Some 25-55% of these in-family diseases are attributed to germline mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2, and approximately 5-10% to other known tumor predisposition syndromes. The remaining persons may carry mutations in as yet unidentified genes. HBOC caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is an autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance. BRCA1 and BRCA2 encode for so-called tumor suppressor proteins. Inherited functional mutations of these genes cause loss of function of the respective allele. Loss of function of the second allele causes complete loss of the corresponding protein and facilitates the development of a malignancy.The Association of Gynecologic Oncology recommends that testing for a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 should be offered to all patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. When mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or other cancer-susceptibility genes have been identified, patients with ovarian carcinoma can be treated with new, innovative therapies. This recommendation is intended as a standard guideline for genetic testing of patients with an ovarian carcinoma.

  16. Detailed hydrogeological analysis of a deep-seated rockslide at the Gepatsch reservoir (Klasgarten, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauhal, Thomas; Loew, Simon; Holzmann, Michael; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogeology of the deep-seated, slowly creeping Klasgarten rockslide in Austria is investigated in this study based on detailed surface and subsurface field data, laboratory analyses, and analytical and numerical simulations. Field data are derived from several deep exploration and monitoring boreholes, an exploration drift located within the rockslide, and geological and geomorphological mapping. Particular attention is given to the pore pressure measurements and their temporal and spatial variability. These pore pressure variations are controlled by a thin layer of clayey fault gouge (representing the basal shear zone of the rockslide), a high-permeability rockslide mass, and moderately fractured paragneissic bedrock. Variably saturated equivalent-continuum hydraulic conductivities and storage properties are derived from packer tests, laboratory tests and optical televiewer images. These data sets are used for two-dimensional numerical groundwater models to study the flow-field and pore-pressure variations caused by the reservoir water-level fluctuations, the transient groundwater infiltration from snowmelt and precipitation along the slope, and the exploration drift. The strongest pressure transients in the rockslide are caused by reservoir level fluctuations and not the natural groundwater recharge, even at substantial distances from the reservoir. The response times are very short and only a minor distance-dependent attenuation is observed. The results of this study are essential to analyse the hydromechanical control of the deformation behaviour of rockslides adjacent to hydropower reservoirs. Further, it helps to understand how the formation of a rockslide can change the original bedrock aquifer.

  17. Integrative Laser Medicine and High-Tech Acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Litscher, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, modernization of acupuncture has a high priority. On the traditional side, acupuncture has only recently been awarded the status of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. On the innovative side, high-tech acupuncture is a registered trademark in Austria. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. A large number of empirical data are available but the technical quantification of effects was not possible up to now. Using electroacupuncture, needle, or laser stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This paper which serves as introduction for the special issue “High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Laser Medicine” of the present journal, focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new methodological and technical investigations, for example, results obtained from all kinds of acupuncture innovations (e.g., teleacupuncture) and integrative laser medicine. PMID:22570669

  18. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  19. Analysis of the 2002 flood in Austria - facts, conclusions and mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formayer, H.; Habersack, H.; Holzmann, H.; Moser, A.; Seibert, P.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 Austria was affected - like other European countries e.g. Germany, Czech Republic or Romania - by an extreme flood event, which occurred in Central Europe and brought rainfall of extraordinary extent and flood recurrence intervals from several years to more than 1000 years. Losses of human life and livestock and damages of infrastructure, buildings, public and private properties rose the public awareness and the demand for improvement of future flood mitigation measures. The Centre of Natural Hazards and Risk Management of the BOKU-University for Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna startet as a first initiative with a summary and review of all reports and documents upon the regional impact of the event. The summary includes the description of the meteorological boundary conditions, the flood generation and their frequencies. A broad range of disciplinary aspects like river engineering, river ecology, vegetation and biology, soil science and soil mechanics, rural and urban planning were involved. The inventory and interpretation of the damages forms a base for assessment of shortcomings and requirements for a successful flood protection strategy for the future. The holistic approach will result in improved regional water management plans and assists in the development of a sustainable, catchment based flood mitigation strategy. Besides the review of the event the presentation will comment on some lacks and shortcomings in the collected data base and will give hints for future demands in online monitoring requirements, on establishment and improvement of forecasting tools and of the information transfer to the emergency services.

  20. The Relationships Between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (R-PBS) and three statements about naturalistic evolution, creationism and intelligent design (ID). The investigated Austrian students showed an average R-PBS score of 82.08, more than 50% of them agreed with naturalistic evolution, 28% with creationism, and more than a third agreed with ID, the latter two closely correlated with each other. Females generally showed higher belief scores in the paranormal, creationism and ID. The agreement with naturalistic evolution correlated negatively with religious belief, but not with other paranormal beliefs, whereas the two non-scientific alternatives to evolution significantly correlated with both traditional and paranormal beliefs. Religious belief showed a significant positive correlation with other paranormal beliefs. All subscales of paranormal belief decreased during the eight grades of secondary school, as did acceptance of creationism and ID. However, the acceptance of naturalistic evolution did not correlate with age or grade. Possible reasons and implications for science education and the biology curriculum at Austrian secondary schools are discussed.

  1. On the connection of permafrost and debris flow activity in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas; Kaitna, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows represent a severe hazard in alpine regions and typically result from a critical combination of relief energy, water, and sediment. Hence, besides water-related trigger conditions, the availability of abundant sediment is a major control on debris flows activity in alpine regions. Increasing temperatures due to global warming are expected to affect periglacial regions and by that the distribution of alpine permafrost and the depth of the active layer, which in turn might lead to increased debris flow activity and increased interference with human interests. In this contribution we assess the importance of permafrost on documented debris flows in the past by connecting the modeled permafrost distribution with a large database of historic debris flows in Austria. The permafrost distribution is estimated based on a published model approach and mainly depends of altitude, relief, and exposition. The database of debris flows includes more than 4000 debris flow events in around 1900 watersheds. We find that 27 % of watersheds experiencing debris flow activity have a modeled permafrost area smaller than 5 % of total area. Around 7 % of the debris flow prone watersheds have an area larger than 5 %. Interestingly, our first results indicate that watersheds without permafrost experience significantly less, but more intense debris flow events than watersheds with modeled permafrost occurrence. Our study aims to contribute to a better understanding of geomorphic activity and the impact of climate change in alpine environments.

  2. Chernobyl 137Cs deposition in Austria: analysis of the spatial correlation of the deposition levels.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Bossew, P

    2003-01-01

    The semivariogram can provide a description of the spatial correlation of a variable that represents a continuous function of space co-ordinates. Therefore, it is not only useful to improve sampling strategies and validate the collected data, but it can also define the main parameters that are involved in most mapping algorithms. The spatial correlation may, however, change depending on the values of the variable, which is not without consequences on the quality of the maps of radioactive deposition. This work investigates the spatial correlation for different levels of 137Cs deposited in Austria. It is shown that low levels (< 5 kBq/m2) and high levels (> 40 kBq/m2) of radioactivity present less correlation in space than the mid-levels (5-40 kBq/m2). As a result, maps establishing the probabilities to be under or above a specific deposition threshold will have an uncertainty associated to the estimated values that is directly correlated to the different levels of radioactivity.

  3. European Seismic Risk Model Covering Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Nyst, M.; Onur, T.; Seneviratna, P.; Baca, A.; Sorby, A.

    2006-12-01

    A seismic risk model for Europe has been developed to assisted insurers and reinsurers in assessing their financial risk posed by earthquakes. This model was covers Italy and several countries in central Europe including Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium. This presentation summarizes the methodology and data within the model and includes a discussion of the key results from the hazard and risk perspectives. The earthquake, risk-model framework has four components. First, the stochastic event set is determined, as well as its associated event probabilities. A ground-motion model including geotechnical data is added to complete the seismic hazard model. To determine risk, regional building vulnerability curves and a financial model are incorporated. An insurer property exposure database was developed to determine the insured seismic risk in these countries. Using this model, examination of resulting hazard maps (200, 475, 1000 and 2500 years) and of city-level, hazard-curves gives insight to the key drivers of risk across the region. Hazard de-aggregation allow for examination of key drivers of risk in terms of seismic sources, event magnitude and events types. Examination of loss costs for residential and commercial (short and mid-rise) structures gives insight into the risk perspective for these various lines of business. Finally, incorporation of the insurer property exposure allows for an examination of the insured risk across the region and between exposure concentrations including Rome, Zurich, Munich, Vienna and Brussels.

  4. UAS-based assessment and monitoring of protective constructions in alpine areas, Lueg Pass, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delleske, Robert; Keuschnig, Markus; Schober, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Protective structures against natural hazards such as rockfall or avalanches are essential for safe infrastructure operation in alpine regions. In order to preserve its protection function, protective structures have to be constantly monitored and inspected, frequently under extreme environmental conditions. Advanced unmanned aerial systems (UAS) allow the detailed detection and monitoring of protective structures. The quick, targeted UAS-based generation of photos, videos, orthophotos and digital terrain models reduces risks for supervising personnel and enables systematic documentation. This contribution investigates new technical opportunities for a systematic monitoring of protective structures in consideration of the Austrian standard rule "Permanent Technical Protection against Rockfall" (ONR 24810). Our study explicitly integrates the entire lifecycle of a protective structure which encompasses planning, inventory and measures during the operational phase (constant monitoring, supervision and evaluation). The study site of this contribution is located near the Lueg Pass, in a deeply incised section of the Salzach valley, situated in the province of Salzburg, Austria. Railways, motorways, federal main roads and high-voltage power lines pass through the study site. Due to the valley's narrowness, air space is limited and light conditions change rapidly, creating a challenging setting for safe and successful UAS operation. The present amount of critical infrastructure combined with complex environmental conditions make for an ideal setting to test the limits of advanced UAS systems for infrastructure inspection.

  5. Clinical implications of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Muhr, D; Rappaport, C; Tea, M-K; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D; Fink-Retter, A; Pfeiler, G; Berger, A; Sun, P; Narod, S A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the experience of genetic testing in Austrian women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in terms of preventive measures taken and incident cancers diagnosed. We collected clinical information on 246 Austrian women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation tested between 1995 and 2012 and followed 182 of them for an average of 6.5 years. Of the 90 women who were cancer-free at baseline, 21.4% underwent preventive bilateral mastectomy, 46.1% had preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 1 took tamoxifen; 58.8% of the at-risk women underwent at least one screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Of the 85 women with breast cancer, 69.4% had a unilateral mastectomy or lumpectomy and 30.6% had a contralateral mastectomy. In the follow-up period, 14 new invasive breast cancers (6 first primary and 8 contralateral), 1 ductal carcinoma in situ case, 2 incident ovarian cancer cases, and 1 peritoneal cancer were diagnosed. In Austria, the majority of healthy women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation opt for preventive oophorectomy and MRI screening to manage their breast cancer risk; few have preventive mastectomy or take tamoxifen. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  7. Anderson-Fabry disease: a case-finding study among male kidney transplant recipients in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Julia; Kotanko, Peter; Spada, Marco; Pagliardini, Severo; Paschke, Eduard; Paul, Karl; Voigtländer, Till; Wallner, Manfred; Kramar, Reinhard; Stummvoll, Hans-Krister; Schwarz, Christoph; Horn, Sabine; Holzer, Herwig; Födinger, Manuela; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2009-03-01

    The diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry disease is often delayed or even missed. As severe renal manifestations are a hallmark of alfa-galactosidase A (AGAL) deficiency, we tested the hypothesis that Anderson-Fabry disease is under-recognized among male kidney transplant recipients. This nation-wide study in Austria enrolled 1306 patients (ca 65% of all kidney transplanted males) from 30 kidney centers. AGAL activity was determined from filter paper dried blood spots by a fluorescence assay. A positive screening test was defined by an AGAL activity below 1.5 nmol/h/ml. In patients with a positive blood spot-screening test, AGAL activity was re-examined in peripheral blood leukocytes. Genetic testing for mutations in the GLA gene was performed by sequencing to confirm the diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry disease. Two previously not recognized cases with Anderson-Fabry disease were identified. Our study is the first showing that a diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry disease can be missed even in patients who undergo kidney transplantation. Case-finding strategies may be considered a useful tool for diagnosis of this rare disease that may be somewhat more prevalent among kidney transplant recipients compared with dialysis populations.

  8. Comparative calculation of suspended sediment loads with respect to hysteresis effects (in the Petzenkirchen catchment, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, A.; Strauss, P.; Krueger, T.; Quinton, J. N.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryStreams in intensively used agricultural catchments are frequently characterised by high transport of suspended solids during rainfall events. Due to a high variability in runoff, the sediment concentration relationship during and between different events and various hysteresis effects, instantaneous sediment concentrations and event loads are difficult to calculate. We tested the applicability of turbidity measurements for calculating instantaneous sediment concentrations and loads in a small agricultural catchment in Austria. We calibrated quasi-continuous turbidity measurements using additional water sampling and employed these calibrated sediment concentrations as benchmark sediment concentrations. Four different methods to calculate instantaneous sediment concentrations were tested on 19 events. A generalized rating curve approach resulted in a considerable bias for both event specific sediment concentrations and total sediments loads. Fitting of event-specific rating curves still misrepresented instantaneous sediment concentrations for the different events, but gave load estimations that were in a range of 5% of the benchmark values. Two approaches accounting explicitly for hysteresis exhibited the best fit and provided load estimations that were in a range of 0-1% deviation to the benchmark sediment concentrations. Nevertheless, several limitations to the hysteresis model approach were identified. Testing the various hysteresis effects against other event parameters such as total rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity and initial soil water content revealed interactions to these parameters that could predefine parameter values of the hysteresis model approach.

  9. Comparative Calculation of Suspended Sediment Loads with Respect to Hysteresis Effects (in the Petzenkichen Catchment, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter; Krueger, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    Streams in intensively used agricultural catchments are frequently characterised by high transport of suspended solids during rainfall events. Due to a high variability in runoff, the sediment concentration relationship during and between different events and various hysteresis effects, instantaneous sediment concentrations and event loads are difficult to calculate. We tested the applicability of turbidity measurements for calculating instantaneous sediment concentrations and loads in a small agricultural catchment in Austria. We calibrated quasi-continuous turbidity measurements using additional water sampling and employed these calibrated sediment concentrations as benchmark sediment concentrations. Four different methods to calculate instantaneous sediment concentrations were tested on 19 events. A generalized rating curve approach resulted in a considerable bias for both event specific sediment concentrations and total sediments loads. Fitting of event specific rating curves still misrepresented instantaneous sediment concentrations for the different events, but gave load estimations that were in a range of 5% of the benchmark values. Two approaches accounting explicitly for hysteresis exhibited the best fit and provided load estimations that were in a range of 0 - 1% deviation to the benchmark sediment concentrations. Nevertheless, several limitations to the hysteresis model approach were identified. Testing the various hysteresis effects against other event parameters such as total rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity and initial soil water content revealed interactions to these parameters that could predefine parameter values of the hysteresis model approach.

  10. Mating systems of snowbed plant species of the northeastern Calcareous Alps of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffknecht, Susanne; Dullinger, Stefan; Grabherr, Georg; Hülber, Karl

    2007-03-01

    Predicted climate warming will likely reduce the area and increase the fragmentation of alpine snowbed habitats. The ability of snowbed plants to cope with such fragmentation will, among other things, depend on their reproductive strategy. With respect to the mating system, as a key component of reproductive strategies, the environmental conditions in arctic and alpine snowbeds have been hypothesized to select for high selfing ability due to short growing seasons and unpredictable pollinator service. In this study we evaluate whether the mating system strategies of seven typical snowbed forbs of the northeastern Calcareous Alps in Austria are in line with this hypothesis. Field-pollination experiments were conducted in order to study the effects of pollinator exclusion (bagging; all study species), emasculation and manual self- and cross-pollination (subset of study species) on seed set. Additionally, data on floral traits associated with the reproductive system such as anther and ovule numbers and pollen:ovule ratios were collected. Results demonstrate that selfing is not uncommon but by no means obligatory for snowbed plants: the study species display a wide range of mating system types, from predominately outcrossing to predominately selfing. The different reproductive strategies of regional snowbed plants are discussed in relation to their ability to cope with climate warming induced habitat fragmentation.

  11. Investigating groundwater flow components in an Alpine relict rock glacier (Austria) using a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-11-01

    Relict rock glaciers are complex hydrogeological systems that might act as relevant groundwater storages; therefore, the discharge behavior of these alpine landforms needs to be better understood. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations at a relict rock glacier in the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria) reveal a slow and fast flow component that appear to be related to the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer. A numerical groundwater flow model was used to indicate the influence of important internal structures such as layering, preferential flow paths and aquifer-base topography. Discharge dynamics can be reproduced reasonably by both introducing layers of strongly different hydraulic conductivities or by a network of highly conductive channels within a low-conductivity zone. Moreover, the topography of the aquifer base influences the discharge dynamics, which can be observed particularly in simply structured aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity differences of three orders of magnitude are required to account for the observed discharge behavior: a highly conductive layer and/or channel network controlling the fast and flashy spring responses to recharge events, as opposed to less conductive sediment accumulations sustaining the long-term base flow. The results show that the hydraulic behavior of this relict rock glacier and likely that of others can be adequately represented by two aquifer components. However, the attempt to characterize the two components by inverse modeling results in ambiguity of internal structures when solely discharge data are available.

  12. An integrated assessment of options for rural wastewater management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Starkl, M; Ornetzeder, M; Binner, E; Holubar, P; Pollak, M; Dorninger, M; Mascher, F; Fuerhacker, M; Haberl, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a recently finished, interdisciplinary project on rural wastewater management in Austria. The objective of the project was to study alternative wastewater management options based on separation of the wastewater into its constituent parts, and to compare them with conventional ones. Thereby, a feasibility study of both conventional and alternative options for wastewater management in six model regions was carried out. Life cycle costs and social acceptance were analysed by using a case study-based assessment approach. However, hygienic and environmental risks were evaluated on a more general level. In order to complement the findings, a survey on urine separation system users in the Solar City of Linz was conducted. Based on these assessments and empirical findings, the paper concludes that options using a full separation of all wastewater fractions should be considered with care. Options based on a separation of only grey water and black water or in the liquid/solid phase can offer ecological and financial advantages over conventional options. Further, options combining wastewater management and regional biogas plants were identified as an interesting solution. However, legal constraints restrict this option currently.

  13. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    PubMed

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir<200c/μl was associated with increased pertussis seropositivity (OR 12.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 121). Importantly due to the well preserved immune status of nearly all participants vaccination would be feasible in the majority of the seronegative patients. In patients with a CD4 count>200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cercarial dermatitis in Austria: questionnaires as useful tools to estimate risk factors?

    PubMed

    Hörweg, Christoph; Sattmann, Helmut; Auer, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis is a worldwide occurring skin disease characterized by itching and skin papulation. It is caused by cercariae of the fluke family Schistosomatidae. In the tropics and subtropics species of the genus Schistosoma can cause severe diseases of man. However, several genera (e.g. Trichobilharzia, Bilharziella) of medical significance are prevalent in Europe as well; they are also known as "bird schistosomes", because waterfowl is the final host. Pulmonate snails act as intermediate hosts. Humans are accidental hosts; they get infested by penetration of the cercariae into the skin of swimmers/bathers in ponds and lakes. They can not mature in humans, but die shortly after penetration. Cercarial dermatitis is known in Austria since 1969, with regularly occurrences nearly every summer. In early 2003 we created a homepage to provide information about the causative agents for the public/patients, to document the occurrences and to get data about the distribution of this parasitic disease. We therefore created a questionnaire and asked people for the following parameters: personal data, information about the waters, activity in the water and details about the dermatitis itself. A total of 34 questionnaires were returned. The results will be discussed according to their relevance as risk factors. The way how people interact with the water seems to be essential, but not demographic features. In addition, this approach revealed a new segment of the public that is at risk - owners/users of swimming ponds.

  15. Meningoencephalitis in cats in Austria: a study of infectious causes, including Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Kassl, Christine; Leschnik, Michael; Url, Angelika

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Despite comprehensive diagnostics, the aetiology of meningoencephalitis (ME) in cats often remains undetermined. As a result of recently published surveys, Encephalitozoon cuniculi has gained growing importance in cats not only with ocular disorders, but also with central nervous system disease. Therefore, it was hypothesised that E cuniculi may be an underestimated pathogen in the development of feline non-suppurative and/or granulomatous ME. Methods As a first step, histopathological sections of the brain of cats with encephalopathy were retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of granulomatous ME. In a second step, an immunohistochemical screening for detection of E cuniculi was performed in cases with ME of unknown origin. Results In 59/89 (66.3%) cats with ME, an aetiologically relevant pathogen was detected. Forty-three of 89 (48.3%) cats had a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. In 14/89 (15.7%) cats, protozoan cysts were identified and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in all cases. In 2/89 (2.3%) cats with granulomatous ME, fungal organisms were identified. Thirty of 89 (33.7%) cats with ME of unknown origin that underwent IHC for the detection of E cuniculi remained negative. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that E cuniculi is unlikely to be directly associated with (non-suppurative and/or granulomatous) ME in cats in Austria.

  16. Investigating groundwater flow components in an Alpine relict rock glacier (Austria) using a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauritsch, Marcus; Wagner, Thomas; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Relict rock glaciers are complex hydrogeological systems that might act as relevant groundwater storages; therefore, the discharge behavior of these alpine landforms needs to be better understood. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations at a relict rock glacier in the Niedere Tauern Range (Austria) reveal a slow and fast flow component that appear to be related to the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer. A numerical groundwater flow model was used to indicate the influence of important internal structures such as layering, preferential flow paths and aquifer-base topography. Discharge dynamics can be reproduced reasonably by both introducing layers of strongly different hydraulic conductivities or by a network of highly conductive channels within a low-conductivity zone. Moreover, the topography of the aquifer base influences the discharge dynamics, which can be observed particularly in simply structured aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity differences of three orders of magnitude are required to account for the observed discharge behavior: a highly conductive layer and/or channel network controlling the fast and flashy spring responses to recharge events, as opposed to less conductive sediment accumulations sustaining the long-term base flow. The results show that the hydraulic behavior of this relict rock glacier and likely that of others can be adequately represented by two aquifer components. However, the attempt to characterize the two components by inverse modeling results in ambiguity of internal structures when solely discharge data are available.

  17. Direct observation of strain localization along the differentially exhumed SEMP fault system, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, E.; Dolan, J. F.; Hacker, B. R.; Ratschbacher, L.; Sammis, C. G.; Seward, G.; Cole, J.

    2009-12-01

    Structural analysis of key outcrops from ~5 to ~25 km exhumation depth along the Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg (SEMP) fault-zone in Austria reveal highly localized deformation in the seismogenic crust down through the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), widening into a 2-km-wide mylonite at mid-crustal levels. Specifically, grain-size distribution analysis of brittley-deformed dolomite exhumed from the seismogenic crust reveals that strain progressively localized into a 10-m-wide fault core. Microstructural analysis of marbles and greywackes exhumed from the BDT shows off-fault ductile deformation only accommodated a minor portion of the displacement along the SEMP, with most of the strain localized along the contact between these two units. Similar analysis of gneisses and amphibolite-facies metasediments exhumed from just below the BDT shows that at this depth, the majority of displacement is focused into a 100-m-wide ductile shear zone, with further evidence for strain localization along grain boundaries, creating throughgoing shear zones at the grain-scale. At deeper exhumation levels (Rosenberg and Schneider, 2008), the SEMP is a 1-2-km-wide mylonite zone that extends to depths of at least 25 km. Collectively, these data indicate that slip along the SEMP was highly localized from throughout the seismogenic crust downward into at least the mid-crust.

  18. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    PubMed

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  19. Gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens in two injecting drug users in Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Assadian, Afshin; Senekowitsch, Christian; Makristathis, Athanasios; Hagmüller, George

    2004-04-30

    We describe two cases of severe myonecrotic infections caused by Clostridium perfringens in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Vienna, Austria. Clostridial myonecrosis, or gas gangrene, is a clostridial infection primarily of muscle tissue. C. perfringens is isolated in 90% of these infections. Other clostridial species isolated are C. novyi, C. septicum, C. histolyticum, C. fallax, and C. bifermentans. Classically, clostridial myonecrosis has an acute presentation and a fulminant clinical course. It is diagnosed mainly on a clinical basis. The infection may be so rapidly progressive that any delay in recognition or treatment may be fatal. The onset is sudden, often within 4 to 6 hours after an injury. An early clinical finding is sudden severe pain in the area of infection. Swelling and edema in the area of infection is pronounced. At surgery, the infected muscle is dark-red to black, is noncontractile, and does not bleed when cut. Crepitus, although not prominent, is sometimes detected. We were able to demonstrate spores that were morphologically indistinguishable from spores of C. perfringens in a drug sample obtained from case 2. General practitioners and accident and emergency staff should be aware of the possibility of C. perfringens infection in IDUs, especially if injection into soft tissue is suspected.

  20. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.