Science.gov

Sample records for austrian passenger vehicle

  1. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  2. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  3. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  4. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  5. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  6. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  7. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  8. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  9. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  11. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  12. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  13. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  14. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  15. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  16. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  17. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  18. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  19. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  20. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  1. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT...

  2. Reducing risks to children in vehicles with passenger airbags.

    PubMed

    Graham, J D; Goldie, S J; Segui-Gomez, M; Thompson, K M; Nelson, T; Glass, R; Simpson, A; Woerner, L G

    1998-07-01

    This review examines the risk that passenger airbags pose for children and discusses behavioral and technologic measures aimed at protecting children from airbag deployment. Although airbags reduce fatal crash injuries among adult drivers and passengers, this safety technology increases mortality risk among children younger than age 12. The magnitude of the risk is multiplied when children are unrestrained or restrained improperly. As new vehicles are resold to buyers who tend to be less safety-conscious than new car owners, the number of children endangered by passenger airbag deployment may increase. For vehicles already in the fleet, strong measures are required to secure children in the rear seat and increase the proper use of appropriate restraint systems through police enforcement of laws. One promising strategy is to amend child passenger safety laws to require that parents secure children in the rear seats. For future vehicles, a mandatory performance standard should be adopted that suppresses airbag deployment automatically if a child is located in the front passenger seat. Other promising improvements in airbag design also are discussed. Major changes in passenger airbag design must be evaluated in a broad analytical framework that considers the welfare of adults as well as children. PMID:9651455

  3. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  4. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  5. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  6. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  7. Baseline tests of the Zagato Elcar electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Slavick, R. J.; Soltis, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The Elcar vehicle performance test results are presented. The Elcar Model 2000 is a two-passenger vehicle with a reinforced fiberglass body. It is powered by eight 12-volt batteries. The batteries are connected to the motor through an arrangement of contactors operated from a foot pedal in conjunction with a hand-operated switch. These contactors change the voltage applied to the 2-kilowatt motor. Acceleration tests, operating characteristics, and instrumentation are described.

  8. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  9. REFRIGERANT CONCENTRATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE PASSENGER COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Refrigerant leak rates were measured for faulty air-conditioner evaporators removed from vehicles, and results indicated a range of very small to very large leaks. A survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops was conducted, and leakage scenarios were evaluated to determi...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  11. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  12. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  15. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  16. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  17. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  18. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  19. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  20. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  1. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  2. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  3. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  4. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  5. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  6. 49 CFR 374.201 - Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition against smoking on interstate... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Limitation of Smoking on Interstate Passenger Carrier Vehicles § 374.201 Prohibition against smoking on interstate passenger-carrying...

  7. Scarce metals in conventional passenger vehicles and end-of-life vehicle shredder output.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Rolf; Du, Xiaoyue; Haag, Olaf; Restrepo, Eliette; Wäger, Patrick A

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent with the demand for cleaner, lighter, and more efficient vehicles, many scarce metals (SMs) are used in passenger vehicles because of their unique physical and chemical properties. To explore the recycling potential of these metals, it is important to understand their distribution in the vehicles as well as their fate at the vehicles' end-of-life. However, this information remains very scattered and sparse. In this paper, we present a study investigating the distribution of 31 SMs in selected electrical and electronic (EE) components of conventional passenger vehicles and in the end-of-life vehicle shredder fractions from a shredder plant in Switzerland. The results of the chemical analyses show that the mass fractions of Co, Sn, Sr, Ta, Y, and Zr were dominant with >20,000 g/t in the selected EE components and Ag, Ga, Mo, Sb, Sn, Sr, and Zr with >50 g/t in the analyzed shredder fractions. The largest masses of 17 SMs were found in the shredder light fraction, which is incinerated in municipal waste treatment plants mainly in Switzerland; thus, these SMs are currently not recovered. The SM mass fractions in both the EE components and the shredder fractions were projected to their total masses in 100 hypothetical midrange passenger vehicles. The resulting mass balance showed a mismatch of >50% for 23 metals, which indicates other important SM sources such as alloys.

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  11. Evaluating speed differences between passenger vehicles and heavy trucks for transportation-related emissions modeling.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Isebrands, Hillary

    2005-10-01

    Heavy-duty trucks make up only 3% of the on-road vehicle fleet, yet they account for > 7% of vehicle miles traveled in the United States. They also contribute a significant proportion of regulated ambient emissions. Heavy vehicles emit emissions at different rates than passenger vehicles. They may also behave differently on-road, yet may be treated similarly to passenger vehicles in emissions modeling. Input variables to the MOBILE software, such as average vehicle speed, are typically specified the same for heavy trucks as for passenger vehicles. Although not frequently considered in modeling emissions, speed differences between passenger vehicles and heavy trucks may influence emissions, because emission rates are correlated to average speed. Differences were evaluated by collecting average and spot speeds for heavy trucks and passenger vehicles on arterials and spot speeds on freeways in Des Moines, IA, and Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Speeds were compared by study site. Space mean speeds for heavy trucks were lower than passenger vehicle speeds for all of the arterials with differences ranging from 0.8 to 19 mph. Spot speeds for heavy trucks were also lower at all of the arterial and freeway locations with differences ranging from 0.8 to 6.1 mph. The impact that differences in on-road speeds had on emissions was also evaluated using MOBILE version 6.2. Misspecification of average truck speed is the most significant at lower and higher speed ranges.

  12. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  13. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  14. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords... transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However... prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area (EGDA)...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords... transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However... prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area (EGDA)...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords... transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However... prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area (EGDA)...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords... transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However... prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area (EGDA)...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords... transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However... prohibited. Exit Glacier Developed Area (EGDA)...

  20. [An experimental study on driver identification of passenger car in vehicle to vehicle accidents].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, M

    1990-08-01

    A series of full-scale vehicle-to-vehicle oblique collision experiments was carried out for providing general data to clarify the question of seating positions. In all test, two unrestrained anthropometric dummies (Hybrid II) were seated on front seats in passenger cars as occupants. The bullet car collided against the target car running with 25 km/h, at 50 km/h, at impact angles of 120 degrees and 150 degrees. Five impact configurations between occupant regions and interior of vehicle were evaluated: head-face/windshield, head-face/A-pillar, chest-abdomen/instrument panel, upper body/inside door and lower extremities/instruments panel. Comparative occupant injuries and vehicle response data were obtained from electronic instrumentation, high-speed movie films and visual observations. No characteristic driver injuries was observed in oblique collision experiments. The crush characteristics of the vehicle interiors and occupant behavior had significant effect in determining the actual injury once contact occurred. The differences of injuries in occupants occurred depend on impact configurations of vehicles. Therefore, on the driver identification, it is important to clarify kinematics of occupants during the impact by an analytical reconstruction. The data and information can be used to determine who was driving in actual traffic accidents for the forensic medicine expert.

  1. Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

  2. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the sensitivity of: (1) mission analysis results to the boundary values given for number of passenger cars and average annual vehicle miles traveled per car; (2) vehicle characteristics and performance to specifications; and (3) tradeoff study results to the expected parameters.

  3. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  4. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... panel (passenger cars). (15) Right-side assembly (MPVs). (16) Left-side assembly (MPVs). (17) Pickup box...— (A) Cause the label to self-destruct by tearing or rendering the number on the label illegible, and... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of...

  5. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... panel (passenger cars). (15) Right-side assembly (MPVs). (16) Left-side assembly (MPVs). (17) Pickup box...— (A) Cause the label to self-destruct by tearing or rendering the number on the label illegible, and... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on...

  8. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  9. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  10. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... live at the educational institution and who travels to and from classes by any mode of travel....

  12. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  13. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  14. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  15. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  16. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  17. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  18. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.11 Section 583.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  19. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. 583.10 Section 583.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AUTOMOBILE...

  20. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  2. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  3. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be... vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-04 Section 86.1811-04 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  16. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montalenti, P.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to meet project requirements and be competitive in the 1985 market, the proposed six-passenger vehicle incorporates a high power type Ni-Zn battery, which by making electric-only traction possible, permits the achievement of an optimized control strategy based on electric-only traction to a set battery depth of discharge, followed by hybrid operation with thermal primary energy. This results in a highly efficient hybrid propulsion subsystem. Technical solutions are available to contain energy waste by reducing vehicle weight, rolling resistance, and drag coefficient. Reproaching new 1985 full size vehicles of the conventional type with hybrids of the proposed type would result in a U.S. average gasoline saving per vehicle of 1,261 liters/year and an average energy saving per vehicle of 27,133 MJ/year.

  17. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty...

  20. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M.K.; Whisler, D.J.

    1980-02-29

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) vehicle. The analysis used projected battery characteristics extrapolated from laboratory measurements which were obtained in late 1979 and early 1980. In the analysis, the engine and fuel systems of a representative five-passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were: (1) an Al-air battery-only electric vehicle, (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking, and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. Projected Al-air battery power density, energy density, mass, and volume characteristics were based on recent experimental results of the Al-air battery development program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  1. Analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The performance characteristics of three electric-propulsion systems based on the Al-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE). Battery characteristics projected from late 1979 and early 1980 experimental results were used in the analysis. In this comparison, the engine and fuel systems of a current five-passenger vehicle were conceptually replaced by three Al-air systems: (1) an Al-air battery-only system; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel power leveler. The resultant vehicles were constrained to have range and acceleration performance equivalent to the ICE-powered vehicle. Performance characteristics such as the average consumption rate of Al metal for the selected drive cycle, vehicle mass, and power system mass were determined for each Al-air propulsion system. Estimates of initial-vehicle and life-cycle costs of Al-air battery-only vehicles indicate that all three systems can achieve performance and operation costs comparable to an ICE vehicle, and that the initial cost of Al-air battery-only vehicles can approach the cost of ICE vehicles but at reduced power levels.

  2. Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F. |; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

  3. Potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.; Wu, S.

    1995-12-31

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, which have very low density. Magnesium alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts; use is generally limited to die castings, such as housings. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. This study identifies technical and economic barriers to this replacement and suggests R&D areas to enable economical large-volume use. Detailed results of the study will be published at a later date. Magnesium sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. Currently, Mg sheet has found limited use in the aerospace industry, where costs are not a major concern. The major barrier to greatly increased automotive use is high cost; two technical R&D areas are identified that could enable major reductions in costs. These are novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, possibly operating at lower temperatures and involving superplastic behavior.

  4. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  5. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  6. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  7. Passenger car collision fatalities--with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Björnstig, Johanna; Eriksson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 10(9)km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant deaths per 100,000 cars in car-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars. The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle's lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accounted for most of the fatal injuries. Multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles. An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for those who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2g/L. Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions. PMID:18215544

  8. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  9. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  10. 75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... would support a different view as to the reach of the statute. Background On August 12, 2003 (68 FR... Commercial Motor Vehicle, 64 FR 48510, 48514 (Sept. 3, 1999) (IFR). The Agency stated in that IFR that the... Small Passenger-Carrying CMVs, 66 FR 2756, 2761, 2763 (Jan. 11, 2001) (final rule); Safety...

  11. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child rear seat passengers during vehicle maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Katarina; Stockman, Isabelle; Jakobsson, Lotta; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Bostrom, Ola; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2011-01-01

    Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children and previous research highlighted vehicle maneuvers prior to impact as possible contributing factors. The aim was to quantify kinematics of child occupants during swerving maneuvers focusing on the child's lateral movement and seat belt position relative to the child's shoulder. A study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track with 16 children aged 4-12, restrained in the rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. A professional driving instructor drove at 50 km/h making sharp turns in a repeatable fashion, resulting in inboard motion of the children. The children were exposed to two turns in each of two restraint systems. Shorter children were on a booster or highback booster cushion. The taller children were seated on a booster cushion or with only a lap and shoulder seat belt. Four film cameras were fixed in the vehicle monitoring the child. Vehicle data were also collected. The seat belt slipped off the shoulder in 1 of 5 turns, varying by age and restraint type. Among shorter children, the belt slipped off in a majority of turns when seated on a booster cushion while the belt remained on the shoulder when seated on the highback booster cushion. Among taller children, the shoulder belt moved far laterally on the shoulder in half of the turns. This data provides valuable knowledge on possible pre-impact postures of children as a result of vehicle swerving maneuvers for a variety of restraint systems.

  12. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  14. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  15. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.; Nilsson, P. T.; Carlsson, J. E.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Wittbom, C.; Rissler, J.; Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Bohgard, M.; Kulmala, M.; Hallquist, M.; Pagels, J.

    2012-12-01

    Gasoline vehicles have elevated emissions of volatile organic compounds during cold starts and idling and have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from one Euro II, one Euro III and one Euro IV passenger vehicles were investigated using photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out at atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization methods included a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind urban areas. After 4 h aging the formed SOA was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the Primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 (mass fraction at m/z = 4 3) approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C6-C9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher order aromatic compounds such as C10, C11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes.

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.; Nilsson, P. T.; Carlsson, J. E.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Wittbom, C.; Rissler, J.; Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Bohgard, M.; Kulmala, M.; Hallquist, M.; Pagels, J. H.

    2013-06-01

    Gasoline vehicles have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from three passenger vehicles (EURO2-EURO4) were investigated with photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out down to atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization instruments included a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind of urban areas. After a cumulative OH exposure of ~5 × 106 cm-3 h, the formed SOA was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 (mass fraction at m/z = 43), approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C6-C9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher-order aromatic compounds such as C10 and C11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes. We conclude that approaches using only light aromatic precursors give an incomplete picture of the magnitude of SOA formation and the SOA composition from gasoline exhaust.

  18. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  19. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  20. Differences in male and female injury severities in sport-utility vehicle, minivan, pickup and passenger car accidents.

    PubMed

    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Mannering, Fred L

    2004-03-01

    This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity outcomes: no injury (property damage only), possible injury, evident injury, and fatal/disabling injury. The models are conditioned on driver gender and the number and type of vehicles involved in the accident. The conditional structure avoids bias caused by men and women's different reporting rates, choices of vehicle type, and their different rates of participation as drivers, which would affect a joint model of all crashes. We found variables that have opposite effects for the genders, such as striking a barrier or a guardrail, and crashing while starting a vehicle. The results suggest there are important behavioral and physiological differences between male and female drivers that must be explored further and addressed in vehicle and roadway design. PMID:14642869

  1. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 51083) that incorporated brake performance and emissions tests into FTA's bus testing program as required by 49 U.S.C. 5318, as well as several other non-statutory changes that will... Weight Per Person (See, ``Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements: Final Rule, 75...

  2. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  3. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  4. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  5. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. PMID:24556585

  6. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately.

  7. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices C and D, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of tradeoff studies are presented in summary form. Various aspects of the overall vehicle design discussed include selection of the base vehicle, the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics. The drivetrain design and integration, power conditioning unit, battery subsystem, control system, environmental system are described. Specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures, and advanced technology components are included.

  8. Ownership and usage of small passenger vehicles: findings from the 1977 National Personal Transportation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report examines current patterns in the ownership and usage of small vehicles by private households. The analysis was conducted to shed additional light on the market potential for smaller, energy efficient vehicles, in particular, electric cars. The 1977 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) was used to obtain information on the socio-demographic characteristics and the travel and vehicle ownership behavior of US households based on a national probability sample. The issues posed to direct the investigation of small vehicle ownership and use behavior include: the ownership of small vehicles; the proportion of the private vehicle population accounted for by small vehicles; how small and large vehicles compare in terms of physical characteristics and performance and terms of usage; and how small/large vehicle ownership and usage differences are explained by household differences or physical differences in the vehicles themselves. The study's approach to these issues has focused on descriptive data analysis, employing such tools as cross-classification tables, distributions, and graphic displays. (MCW)

  9. Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapou, Ashley E. M.; Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Xiong, Youyou; Meng, Qingyu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2013-11-01

    In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health concern due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n = 3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th

  10. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for organizing, advertising, promoting, soliciting or selling the trip or tour of which such...) Transportation by a motor vehicle licensed as a commercial vehicle, or of commercial type, will be presumed to be... or mileage or both. Nothing in this section is intended to prohibit the operation of pleasure...

  11. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  12. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  13. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability. PMID:25880018

  14. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  15. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... outside points), Denali National Park and Preserve (prohibition does not apply to that portion of the... that portion of U.S. Highway 191 traversing the northwest corner of the park) and Yosemite...

  16. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... outside points), Denali National Park and Preserve (prohibition does not apply to that portion of the... that portion of U.S. Highway 191 traversing the northwest corner of the park) and Yosemite...

  17. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... outside points), Denali National Park and Preserve (prohibition does not apply to that portion of the... that portion of U.S. Highway 191 traversing the northwest corner of the park) and Yosemite...

  18. Measuring Particulate Emissions of Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Using Integrated Particle Size Distribution (IPSD).

    PubMed

    Quiros, David C; Zhang, Sherry; Sardar, Satya; Kamboures, Michael A; Eiges, David; Zhang, Mang; Jung, Heejung S; Mccarthy, Michael J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Ayala, Alberto; Zhu, Yifang; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2015-05-01

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) adopted the low emission vehicle (LEV) III particulate matter (PM) standards in January 2012, which require, among other limits, vehicles to meet 1 mg/mi over the federal test procedure (FTP). One possible alternative measurement approach evaluated to support the implementation of the LEV III standards is integrated particle size distribution (IPSD), which reports real-time PM mass using size distribution and effective density. The IPSD method was evaluated using TSI's engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, 5.6-560 nm) and gravimetric filter data from more than 250 tests and 34 vehicles at ARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL). IPSD mass was persistently lower than gravimetric mass by 56-75% over the FTP tests and by 81-84% over the supplemental FTP (US06) tests. Strong covariance between the methods suggests test-to-test variability originates from actual vehicle emission differences rather than measurement accuracy, where IPSD offered no statistical improvement over gravimetric measurement variability.

  19. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  20. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  1. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  2. Risk and Injury Severity of Obese Child Passengers in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Hsieh, Min-Heng; Shum, Phillip C.; Tubbs, R. Shane; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk and injury severity on the regional body (head, neck, and chest) of obese children in frontal motor vehicle crashes. Design and Methods No physical surrogates (i.e., crash dummies) for obese children are available and experiments on pediatric cadavers are generally not feasible. Therefore, we developed computational models of obese children using medical imaging processing and state-of-the-art modeling techniques. A hybrid modeling technique was used to integrate finite element model for torso fat layer into the standard multibody model to represent various levels of obese children for 3- and 6-year-old age group. The models were used to investigate injury severity under various crash scenarios through model simulations. Results The head injury criterion and chest acceleration were observed to increase as body mass index (BMI) increased. Meanwhile, no such correlations were found between BMI and neck injury and chest deformation. Forward head and torso excursions were observed to increase as obesity increased, owing to the momentum effect of greater body mass. Conclusions Obese children appear to have greater risks of the head and chest injuries than do their non-obese counterparts in frontal motor vehicle crashes, owing to higher head and chest accelerations induced by greater body excursion. PMID:25645729

  3. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  4. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  5. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-12-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  6. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. PMID:23906874

  7. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  8. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  9. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  10. Surface electromyography as a tool to assess the responses of car passengers to lateral accelerations. Part II: Objective comparison of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Farah, G; Petit-Boulanger, C; Hewson, D J; Duchêne, J

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the response of car passengers to lateral accelerations. Surface EMG signals were collected bilaterally from the cervical erector spinae (CES), latissimus dorsi (LD), erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of 10 subjects. Lateral acceleration was also recorded. Three chassis-seat configurations AA, BA and BB were tested, with the first letter denoting the chassis and the second the seat. SEMG signals were often contaminated by noise, and were, therefore, denoised using the methods explained in part I. Reciprocal phasic activity was observed for all muscles except for the EO, and the reaction of passengers to lateral accelerations was interpreted as a bust torsion. The RMS of EMG segments was used as an indication of muscle activity. Muscle activation of VL and ES were significantly affected by the configuration tested (p<0.05), with greater activation levels observed for the chassis A than for the chassis B. Such a finding implies that greater roll requires greater muscle activity, thus resulting in less comfortable vehicles. Therefore, SEMG can be used to provide an objective measure of discomfort in passengers subjected to lateral accelerations in a car seat.

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  12. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  13. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1980-01-01

    Tradeoff study activities and the analysis process used are described with emphasis on (1) review of the alternatives; (2) vehicle architecture; and (3) evaluation of the propulsion system alternatives; interim results are presented for the basic hybrid vehicle characterization; vehicle scheme development; propulsion system power and transmission ratios; vehicle weight; energy consumption and emissions; performance; production costs; reliability, availability and maintainability; life cycle costs, and operational quality. The final vehicle conceptual design is examined.

  16. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  17. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  18. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  19. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  20. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  1. Effects of diesel/biodiesel blends on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a passenger vehicle operated over the European and the Athens driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    This paper presents the regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions of a diesel passenger vehicle, operated with low sulphur automotive diesel and soy methyl ester blends. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted under real driving conditions (Athens Driving Cycle, ADC) and compared with those of a modified New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a chassis dynamometer. A Euro II compliant diesel vehicle was used in this study, equipped with an indirect injection diesel engine, fuelled with diesel fuel and biodiesel blends at proportions of 5, 10, and 20% respectively. Unregulated emissions of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 nitro-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate matter were measured. Qualitative hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the SOF. Regulated emissions of NO x, CO, HC, CO 2, and PM were also measured over the two test cycles. It was established that some of the emissions measured over the (hot-start) NEDC differed from the real-world cycle. Significant differences were also observed in the vehicle's fuel consumption between the two test cycles. The addition of biodiesel reduced the regulated emissions of CO, HC and PM, while an increase in NO x was observed over the ADC. Carbonyl emissions, PAHs and nitro-PAHs were reduced with the addition of biodiesel over both driving cycles.

  2. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.

  3. Austrian Economics: A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig von Mises Inst., Auburn, AL.

    This guide presents a 139-item bibliography of books and articles on the school of thought known as the Austrian school of economics. The first nine of the ten sections contain bibliographic entries, classified by topic. Part 1 is an introduction to Austrian economics, listing sources on the school in general and on three principal members. Each…

  4. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary formations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Rumiko; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of on-road and in-vehicle NO and NO2 levels, particle number concentrations (PNCs), and particles size distributions were performed while driving using a test vehicle equipped with real-time sensors. The results obtained on regional roads showed that heavy-duty vehicles in traffic seem to have a major impact on on-road air quality. Measurements on highways that included a 10km tunnel and a 2km uphill section of road indicated that sub-50nm particles have different features from the other species because of their higher volatility. The other species showed quite high on-road concentrations in the tunnel. In-vehicle conditions were made similar to the on-road ones by setting the air conditioning (AC) mode to the fresh air mode. The in-vehicle NO2 concentration in the tunnel was over 0.50ppmV, which is almost five times higher than the 1-hour ambient air quality standard proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In sections other than the tunnel, the in-vehicle NO2 concentration was almost the same as the 1-hour WHO standard. Higher on-road NO2/NOx ratios than those of exhaust gases and different behavior of sub-50nm particles from other species suggested that NO2 and sub-50nm particles were mainly due to secondary products formed by atmospheric reactions. PMID:26806073

  6. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  7. Phase 1 of the near team hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, efficiency, manufacturability, production costs, life cycle cost, and safety of sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, and lead-acid batteries for electric hybrid vehicles are discussed. Models are given for simulating the vehicle handling quality, and for finding the value of: (1) the various magnetic quantities in the different sections in which the magnetic circuit of the DC electric machine is divided; (2) flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetization curve under load conditions; and (3) the mechanical power curves versus motor speed at different values of armature current.

  8. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  9. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  10. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Apurba; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a techno-economic analysis of Li-ion NMC-G prismatic pouch battery and pack designs for electric vehicle applications. We develop models of power capability and manufacturing operations to identify the minimum cost cell and pack designs for a variety of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) requirements. We find that economies of scale in battery manufacturing are reached quickly at a production volume of ∼200-300 MWh annually. Increased volume does little to reduce unit costs, except potentially indirectly through factors such as experience, learning, and innovation. We also find that vehicle applications with larger energy requirements are able to utilize cheaper cells due in part to the use of thicker electrodes. The effect on cost can be substantial. In our base case, we estimate pack-level battery production costs of ∼545 kWh-1 for a PHEV with a 10 mile (16 km) all-electric range (PHEV10) and ∼230 kWh-1 for a BEV with a 200 mile (320 km) all-electric range (BEV200). This 58% reduction, from 545 kWh-1 to 230 kWh-1, is a larger effect than the uncertainty represented by our optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Electrodes thicker than about 100 or 125 microns are not currently used in practice due to manufacturing and durability concerns, but relaxing this constraint could further lower the cost of larger capacity BEV200 packs by up to an additional 8%.

  11. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-04 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, must not be greater than 1... electric vehicles) as described in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart F, except that these procedures do not apply...) Manufacturers must measure NMOG emissions using the procedures described in 40 CFR 1066.635. (2)...

  13. The Austrian National Network 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Jia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    In the year 2014, the Austrian National Network( network code OE ), operated by the Austrian Seismological Service at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, consists of 21 strong-motion sites (FBA-23 and Episensor, triggered data acquisition) and 16 broadband stations (STS-2 or STS-2.5, continuous data acquisition). Among the 16 broadband stations there are 14 sites collocated with accelerometers (FAB-23 or Episensor). The Research Group Geophysics at the Vienna University of Technology and the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics at the University of Vienna are operating temporary seismic stations, data from these instruments is integrated in the processing at the Austrian Seismic Network. Data from instruments in neighboring countries is also integrated in the processing. The Austrian Seismological Service collects and evaluates felt reports. A major upgrade of both hard- and software used for processing (Antelope 5.4, Intel based hardware) is planned for the year 2015. Some new tools for data processing processing and evaluation are presented. An overview of the seismic monitoring at the Austrian Seismological Service will be presented for the year 2014. We compare automatic processing and manual evaluation results. Performance of the automated data processing (rate of valid, false and missed events), statistics and information about significant earthquakes and earthquake sequences in Austria will be presented.

  14. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  15. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  16. The consequences of an increase in heavy goods vehicles for passenger car drivers' mental workload and behaviour: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Kruizinga, Anje; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2008-03-01

    The effects of an increase in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) on merging behaviour and on mental workload of motorists during filtering in and out of traffic were studied. Participants drove in a driving simulator in a total of 12 conditions; twice in each of two weather conditions and in three traffic conditions. The weather conditions were clear weather and foggy weather. The traffic conditions were without HGVs (i.e. only private cars), the current mix of HGVs and private cars, and a condition with a 70% increase of HGVs leading to an HGV column in the slow lane. The focus of the study was on assessing effects on behaviour and mental workload during filtering into traffic, and during exiting from the motorway. During the experiment driving performance was registered, behaviour was observed, self reports were collected, and the participant's heart rate was recorded. The results showed that directly after filtering into traffic the variation in driving speed increased and the minimum time headway decreased with an increase in the proportion of HGVs. Joining motorway traffic was considered to involve greater effort and risk in the condition with a column of HGVs. The effects of the conditions on heart rate are less clear, although the moment when the participants joined the traffic is clearly visible. The effects of weather conditions were limited, drivers adapting their driving behaviour in adverse weather by reducing speed. To exit the motorway is not a difficult manoeuvre. For that reason the lane change from the left hand to the right hand lane that preceded the exit was analysed. Although increased mental effort was reported and the lane change was visible in the heart rate record, no critical changes as a result of increase in proportion of HGVs were found for this manoeuvre. However, in the condition with a column of HGVs, the exit that had to be taken was most frequently missed as HGVs obstructed the view of the exit signs. It is concluded that an increase in

  17. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  18. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle.

  19. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  20. 77 FR 70538 - Final Decision That Certain Canadian-Certified Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... the United States (77 FR 57641). The notice identified these vehicles as: (a) All passenger cars... the vehicles identified below: FMVSS No. 110 for all passenger cars and all multipurpose passenger... 1, 2009; FMVSS No. 118 for all passenger cars and all multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks,...

  1. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae. PMID:26856055

  2. [The forensic medical evaluation of the injuries to the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern motor vehicle after the frontal crash].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, I; Dubrovin, A; Sedykh, E p; Mosoyan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the lesions of the cervical spine in the driver and the front-seat passenger of a modern car after the frontal crash. We made use of the archival materials of forensic medical expertises concerning the traffic accidents carried out in the city of Moscow during the period from 2005 to 2012. The study was focused on the analysis of the character of the fractures of cervical vertebrae in the drivers (n = 55) and the front-seat passengers (n = 85) of a modern motor vehicle involved in a traffic accident. It was shown that the drivers most frequently suffer bending-extension fractures of the cervical vertebrae, with the II-IV vertebrae being especially frequently subject to multiple fractures resulting in the damage to the anterior support column, sometimes to both the anterior and posterior columns, and much rarer to the posterior column. The front-seat passengers also suffer bending-extension fractures. The IV-VI vertebrae are most frequently affected in them with isolated damages to either the anterior or the posterior support column of the neck vertebrae.

  3. Vehicle crash mortality in the Kimberley region, 1990 to 1994: the role of open-load-space passengers in utility trucks.

    PubMed

    Garrow, S C

    1997-06-01

    Coroner's reports, police records and the state crash database provided information on 65 crash fatalities in the Kimberley region of Western Australia from 1990 to 1994. Passengers travelling in the open load space of utility trucks comprised 18 per cent of fatalities. Open-load-space passenger fatalities were associated with open highway or community access road travel. The fatality rate for the region was 41.5 per 100,000 population and the rate ratio for Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal fatalities was 2.5. Only 50 of the 65 identified deaths were included in official crash statistics. State crash statistics do not provide information on the position of passengers in road crashes.

  4. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  5. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicles development program. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Applicable data was categorized and processed according to vehicle usage and trip parameters with consideration of payload (cargo, people, size) and driving cycles. A mission that maximizes the fuel potential savings for the total 1985 vehicle fleet was selected. Mission requirements that have a bearing on conventional and hybrid vehicle performance and characteristics were identified and formulated and a reference ICE vehicle was selected that meets or exceeds all requirements while maintaining within applicable constraints. Specifications for vehicle performance were established based on mission requirements, mission related vehicle characteristics, and fuel consumption.

  6. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  7. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A...

  8. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  9. 40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of 40 CFR part 1066, as follows: (i) Establish appropriate load settings based on loaded vehicle..., the US06 driving schedule, and the SC03 driving schedule. See 40 CFR 1066.801 for further information... substitute for the SC03 value in the equation for the types of vehicles identified in 40 CFR 600.115...

  10. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  11. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  12. 48 CFR 212.271 - Limitation on acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 212.271 Section 212.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans. 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) limits the authority to purchase right-hand drive passenger sedans to a cost of not more than $40,000 per vehicle....

  13. [Contributions by Austrian physicians to skeletal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ellegast, H H; Strasser, E

    1991-01-01

    We report about Austrian physicians who made major contributions to the scientific research of skeletal disorders. They include pathologists, radiologists, clinicians, pediatricians and surgeons. We present a short biography as well as a brief discussion of their major papers.

  14. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle crashes. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles... requirements. S5.1Vehicle requirements. S5.1.1Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less. Each passenger car... has an electrically driven fuel pump that normally runs when the vehicle's electrical system...

  15. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle crashes. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles... requirements. S5.1Vehicle requirements. S5.1.1Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less. Each passenger car... has an electrically driven fuel pump that normally runs when the vehicle's electrical system...

  16. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle crashes. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles... requirements. S5.1Vehicle requirements. S5.1.1Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less. Each passenger car... has an electrically driven fuel pump that normally runs when the vehicle's electrical system...

  17. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle crashes. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles... requirements. S5.1Vehicle requirements. S5.1.1Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less. Each passenger car... has an electrically driven fuel pump that normally runs when the vehicle's electrical system...

  18. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  19. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  20. Emergent double valve replacement in Austrian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Haywood, Yolanda; Najam, Farzad; Taheri, M Reza

    2015-02-01

    Bi-valvular pneumococcal endocarditis in Austrian syndrome, which includes a triad of pneumococcal endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis, is a rare but life-threatening disease. We present a case of a woman found to have Austrian syndrome who presented to the emergency department (ED) with dehydration and radiographical signs of lobar pneumonia and quickly deteriorated to fulminant cardiogenic shock in less than four hours. An early echocardiogram in the ED confirmed a diagnosis of bi-valvular endocarditis with severe aortic and mitral valve insufficiency and large vegetations on the valve leaflets requiring emergent surgical intervention with double valve replacement. Assumed meningitis as a part of the triad of Austrian syndrome was confirmed by imaging the day after hospital admission. Early diagnosis of endocarditis by obtaining the echocardiogram in the ED along with emergent surgical intervention allowed for a favorable outcome for the patient.

  1. Current Concerns for Austrian School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz-Viechtbauer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes four recent concerns of the Austrian Institute for School and Sport Facilities, which is responsible for current issues and problems related to educational buildings in the country: schools as low energy buildings, electromagnetic fields and school buildings, chairs and tables for educational buildings, and school grounds (learnscapes).…

  2. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  3. 76 FR 76481 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... driver), and severely injuring the two occupants of a MY 1990 Ford Tempo vehicle that was struck by the... to the accident scene. The driver and passenger in Vehicle 1 were unconscious and unresponsive. The driver and passenger in Vehicle 2 were also unconscious and unresponsive. The driver of Vehicle 3...

  4. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  5. Contamination of Austrian soil with caesium-137.

    PubMed

    Bossew, P; Ditto, M; Falkner, T; Henrich, E; Kienzl, K; Rappelsberger, U

    2001-01-01

    Austria ranks among the countries that have been most strongly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. The mean contamination with 137Cs is 21.0 kBq/m2, of which 18.7 kBq/m2 is due to the Chernobyl accident, whereas global fallout contributes 2.3 kBq/m2. Maximum values of total 137Cs contamination are nearly 200 kBq/m2. Total deposition of Chernobyl 137Cs on Austrian territory is 1.6 PBq or a fraction of around 2% of the 137Cs released from the reactor. 2115 measurements were used to draw the Austrian "caesium map". The geographical pattern of fallout distribution shows regional differences of contamination as high as 1:100.

  6. 76 FR 54290 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...: Nonconforming Vehicles: 2006 Mercedes-Benz CLS class passenger cars manufactured prior to September 1, 2006. Substantially Similar U.S. Certified Vehicles: 2006 Mercedes-Benz CLS class passenger cars manufactured prior to.... NHTSA-2011-0019: Nonconforming Vehicles: 2005 Mercedes-Benz 350 CLS passenger cars. Because there are...

  7. Construction and verification of a model of passenger response to STOL aircraft characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for evaluating passenger acceptance of a transportation system's environment has been developed. This includes a model of passenger reaction to the vehicle, as well as the relative satisfaction compared to other system attributes. The technique is applied to two commercial airline operations - a U.S. commuter, and the Canadian Airtransit STOL system. It is demonstrated that system convenience and aircraft interior seating can play a large role in satisfying the passenger.

  8. Should states require child passenger protection?

    PubMed

    1981-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death and injury in children over one year of age in the United States. In response to this problem, bills have been introduced in the legislatures of more than twenty states that would require children to be restrained when riding in motor vehicles. Details such as age limits and types of allowable restraint devices have varied with the individual proposals. Laws have been passed in Tennessee and Rhode Island requiring child passengers to be restrained under certain circumstances. In both these states, as well as in many other states where similar laws have been proposed, objections have been raised on the basis of individual and family rights. A state legislative commission has drafted a Proposed Model Law: Every driver transporting a child under the age of five years in a motor vehicle registered in this state and operated on the roadways, streets, or highways of this state shall provide for the protection of the child by properly using a child passenger restraint system meeting applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Is such a law a necessary protection, or does it violate due process, privacy, and the right of parents to raise children as they see fit? Does it also discriminate economically? PMID:7239892

  9. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

  10. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  16. The Injury Risk to Wheelchair Occupants Using Motor Vehicle Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Rotko, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The transportation safety experience for persons using wheelchairs is largely unknown. Motor vehicle crash involvement and injury frequency was examined in a telephone interview completed by 596 wheelchair users. Overall, 42% were drivers. Most subjects also rode as passengers in private vehicles (87%) and public vehicles (61%). Wheelchair use as a seat in the vehicle was higher among passengers than drivers. Crash involvement was highest among drivers and lower in passengers. Reported injuries from non-crash scenarios, though, were higher in passengers compared to drivers. Persons seated in wheelchairs in vehicles appear to be at a greater safety risk. PMID:15319121

  17. Announcement: National Child Passenger Safety Week - September 18-24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This year, National Child Passenger Safety Week is September 18-24. In the United States, motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children (1). In 2014, a total of 602 passenger vehicle occupants aged 0-12 years died as a result of a crash (2), and more than 121,350 were injured (1). Of the children who died in 2014, 34% were known to be unrestrained (2). To keep child passengers as safe as possible, drivers should use age- and size-appropriate restraints for all child passengers until adult seat belts fit properly (a lap belt should lay across upper thighs, not abdomen, and a shoulder belt should lay across shoulder and chest, not neck or face) and follow the American Academy of Pediatrics child passenger safety recommendations (3). In addition, children aged <13 years should be properly restrained in the back seat. PMID:27631727

  18. Announcement: National Child Passenger Safety Week - September 18-24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This year, National Child Passenger Safety Week is September 18-24. In the United States, motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children (1). In 2014, a total of 602 passenger vehicle occupants aged 0-12 years died as a result of a crash (2), and more than 121,350 were injured (1). Of the children who died in 2014, 34% were known to be unrestrained (2). To keep child passengers as safe as possible, drivers should use age- and size-appropriate restraints for all child passengers until adult seat belts fit properly (a lap belt should lay across upper thighs, not abdomen, and a shoulder belt should lay across shoulder and chest, not neck or face) and follow the American Academy of Pediatrics child passenger safety recommendations (3). In addition, children aged <13 years should be properly restrained in the back seat.

  19. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. 78 FR 74225 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Mercedes-Benz SLR Passenger Cars (Manufactured Prior to September 1, 2006) Substantially Similar U.S. Certified Vehicles: 2005, 2006 Mercedes-Benz SLR Passenger Cars (Manufactured Prior to September 1, 2006... Passenger Cars Notice of Petition Published at: 78 FR 45997 (July 30, 2013) Vehicle Eligibility Number:...

  1. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  2. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  3. 75 FR 34524 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...-0045 Nonconforming Vehicles: 2006-2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long Wheelbase Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicle. Substantially Similar U.S. Certified Vehicles: 2006-2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long Wheelbase... Vehicles: 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz S Class Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1,...

  4. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  5. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger... means a motor vehicle that is a passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR...

  6. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  7. PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharlemann, Carsten; Seifert, Bernhard; Kohl, Dominik; Birschitzky, David; Gury, Lionel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Obertscheider, Christof; Ottensamer, Roland; Reissner, Alexander; Riel, Thomas; Sypniewski, Richard; Taraba, Michael; Trausmuth, Robert; Turetschek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    PEGASUS - An Austrian Nanosatellite for QB50 C. Scharlemann* David Birschitzky* Lionel Gury*, Franz Kerschbaum~, Dominik Kohl#, Christof Obertscheider*, Roland Ottensamer~, Alexander Reissner+, Thomas Riel#, B. Seifert+, Richard Sypniewski*, Michael Taraba?, Robert Trausmuth*, Thomas Turetschek?, …. (*)University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+)FOTEC GmbH, Wiener Neustadt, Austria (+) Spaceteam, TU Wien, Austria (~) University Wien, Wien, Austria The QB50 project is an international project with the goal to send up to 50 Nanosatellites, a.k.a. CubeSat, into the Thermosphere. The scientific goal of this mission is to monitor over a period of up to nine months the prevailing conditions in this rather unknown part of Earth's atmosphere. Each of the 50 nanosatellites will be equipped with one of three possible scientific instruments: (i) a set of Langmuir probes, (ii) atomic oxygen measurement device, (iii) ion/neutral mass spectrometer. All satellites will be launched together and released in a string-of-pearls type fashion. It is predicted that the satellites will drift apart rather rapidly following the release. Therefore, the QB50 missions offers the possibility of a measurement grid in the thermosphere of unprecedented scope and accuracy. One of the satellites, named PEGASUS, is designed and build by a team of Austrian researches and students. PEGASUS will be equipped with the aforementioned Langmuir probes and will provide information about essential properties of the plasma in the thermosphere such as the electrontemperature and -density. In order to ensure the capability to collect and downlink the data over several months, PEGASUS requires about the same types of subsystems as one would find on large-scale satellites. This includes an attitude control system, an on-board computer, telecommunication devices, an electrical power systems allowing to harvest the solar power and either distribute or store it for later use, a thermal control system

  8. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  9. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  10. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  11. Compliance of Austrian tourists with prophylactic measures.

    PubMed

    Kollaritsch, H; Wiedermann, G

    1992-03-01

    Physicians dealing with prophylactic measures for tourists going to developing countries will often not be able to foresee the outcome of their recommendations. Therefore an open study with 2,627 Austrian tourists on their flight home from a tropical destination was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of typical short-term travellers with respect to different kinds of precautionary measures. 94.1% of all tourists informed themselves before travelling abroad, but a high proportion of travellers tends to contact only their travel agency or their personal friends, this leading to inadequate information. Regarding the individual performance of precautionary measures the results indicate a few principal conclusions: Among the recommended inoculations the vaccinations against typhoid fever, poliomyelitis and tetanus are widely underestimated, the latter two in particular for adults, while compliance with the passive immunization against Hepatitis A is generally good (more than 80% of all travellers receive Hepatitis A immunoglobulins prophylactically). The most crucial point seems to be the chemoprophylaxis against malaria in as much as a) there seems to be a considerable lack of information about malaria endemic areas among physicians, b) tourists tend to use the most simple applicable drug unaware of epidemiological considerations and c) the regular intake of chemoprophylaxis declines significantly with the complexity of the intake procedure. In addition, tourists are in general well informed about nutritional risks, but only half of them will receive adequate information on the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and a basic medical travel kit. PMID:1644143

  12. Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family.

    PubMed

    Almer, G; Hainfellner, J A; Brücke, T; Jellinger, K; Kleinert, R; Bayer, G; Windl, O; Kretzschmar, H A; Hill, A; Sidle, K; Collinge, J; Budka, H

    1999-01-01

    We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

  13. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity. PMID:25962215

  14. Increased risk of driver fatality due to unrestrained rear-seat passengers in severe frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    While belt usage among rear-seat passengers is disproportionately lower than their front-seat counterpart, this may have serious consequences in the event of a crash not only for the unbelted rear-seat passenger but also for the front-seat passengers as well. To quantify that effect, the objective of the study is to evaluate the increased likelihood of driver fatality in the presence of unrestrained rear-seat passengers in a severe frontal collision. U.S.-based census data from 2001 to 2009 fatal motor vehicle crashes was used to enroll frontal crashes which involved 1998 or later year vehicle models with belted drivers and at least one adult passenger in the rear left seat behind the driver. Results using multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of a belt restrained driver sustaining a fatal injury was 137% (95% CI=95%, 189%) higher when the passenger behind the driver was unbelted in comparison to a belted case while the effects of driver age, sex, speed limit, vehicle body type, airbag deployment and driver ejection were controlled in the model. The likelihood of driver fatality due to an unrestrained rear left passenger increased further (119-197%) in the presence of additional unrestrained rear seat passengers in the rear middle or right seats. The results from the study highlight the fact that future advances to front row passive safety systems (e.g. multi-stage airbag deployment) must be adapted to take into account the effect of unrestrained rear-seat passengers. PMID:23411155

  15. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  16. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  17. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  18. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... passenger vehicles, station wagons, passenger vans, and sport utility vehicles, except for vehicles that are.... (vii) The words “Star ratings based on the risk of injury in a frontal impact.”, followed (on the...

  19. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.104 Department... transportation in passenger automobiles and station wagons and other vehicles used only for transportation...

  20. Some highlights of aircraft passenger behavior research.

    PubMed

    Altman, H B

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is offered of the field of aircraft passenger safety research. Probelms associated with passenger behavior, e.g. panic, and passenger safety education studies and requirements are discussed. In addition, a comparison is drawn between commerical and corporate aircraft passenger safty requirements and current research and development programs. It is concluded there is a need for increased funding and more emphasis to be placed on education in the areas of aircraft passenger safty research.

  1. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  2. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  3. [Opinion of the Austrian Society of Radiology and the Austrian Society of Pneumology].

    PubMed

    Prosch, Helmut; Studnicka, Michael; Eisenhuber, Edith; Olschewski, Horst; Stiefsohn, Elisabeth; Hartl, Sylvia; Herold, Christian; Burghuber, Otto; Mostbeck, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) could demonstrate, for the first time, in a prospective randomized trial, that low-dose CT screening (LD-CT) may decrease lung cancer mortality. At the moment, it is unclear how these results will be applicable to Austria. Specifically, the definition of the population at an increased risk for lung cancer and management of the high rate of false-positive results are problematic. As a consequence, lung cancer screening in Austria is recommended following the guidelines of the Austrian Society of Radiology and the Austrian Society of Pneumology. The recommendations suggest that only individuals with a significantly increased risk for lung cancer should be screened (age > 55 years, 30 pack-years, active or former smokers since < 15 years). The screened individuals must be informed about the high probability of false-positive screening results and the necessity for additional follow-up examinations or invasive examinations. The screened individuals must be informed that a CT screening may not prevent them from developing an inoperable lung cancer. In addition, CT screening examinations should be performed with a low-dose CT technique for at least three years at yearly intervals. In view of the high probability of false-positive findings, the evaluation of detected pulmonary nodules should be performed according to an already established standardized protocol.

  4. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. PMID:22633252

  5. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  6. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  7. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  9. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  10. 75 FR 8424 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Leaves From an Austrian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Leaves From an Austrian Mahzor... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Leaves from an Austrian Mahzor,'' imported...

  11. An Inpatient Child Passenger Safety program.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Lindsey Nichole; DiGirolamo, Barbara; McMahon, Maria; Damian, Frances; Brostoff, Marcie; Shermont, Herminia; Mooney, David Patrick; Lee, Lois Kaye

    2013-11-01

    Background. Our institution implemented an Inpatient Child Passenger Safety (CPS) program for hospitalized children to improve knowledge and compliance with the Massachusetts CPS law, requiring children less than 8 years old or 57 inches tall to be secured in a car seat when in a motor vehicle. Methods. After the Inpatient CPS Program was piloted on 3 units in 2009, the program was expanded to all inpatient units in 2010. A computerized nursing assessment tool identifies children in need of a CPS consult for education and/or car seat. Results. With the expanded Inpatient CPS Program, 3650 children have been assessed, 598 consults initiated, and 325 families have received CPS education. Car seats were distributed to 419 children; specialty car seats were loaned to 134 families. Conclusions. With a multidisciplinary approach, we implemented an Inpatient CPS Program for hospitalized children providing CPS education and car seats to families in need. PMID:24137036

  12. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  13. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  14. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code of... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and...

  15. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and light-duty.... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code...

  16. 40 CFR 51.120 - Requirements for State Implementation Plan revisions relating to new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and later model year passenger cars and light-duty trucks (0-5750 pounds loaded vehicle weight), as... sale of their passenger cars, light-duty trucks 0-3750 pounds loaded vehicle weight, and light-duty.... (vii) The provisions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), as defined in Title 13 California Code...

  17. Austrian Osteoporosis Report: epidemiology, lifestyle factors, public health strategies.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Weichselbaum, Elisabeth; Lawrence, Kitty; Viktoria Stein, K; Rieder, Anita

    2009-05-01

    The first Austrian Osteoporosis Report was initiated to create a comprehensive reference document for the pathogenesis, diagnostics, therapy, and rehabilitation of osteoporosis. Furthermore, the aim was to present the extent and severity of osteoporosis and the associated complications in Austria. On the basis of current international prevalence, it can be estimated that approximately 740,000 of people in Austria over 50 years are affected by osteoporosis, of whom around 617,000 are women. A special analysis of the hospital discharge statistics showed that, in the year 2005, 1382 men and 8080 women were discharged from Austrian hospitals with the main diagnosis, osteoporosis. Added to these 9711 male cases and 54,840 females cases were documented with osteoporosis as a secondary diagnosis. In Austria around 16,500 people suffer a hip fracture each year. Thus, with a fracture rate of 19.7 fractures per year per 10,000 inhabitants over the age of 65 years, Austria lies within the peak for Europe. The hospital mortality rate amongst patients with fracture of the femur is 3.8% in men and 3.2% in women in Austria. Everybody's bone health can be positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle; however, the Osteoporoses Report revealed insufficiencies regarding lifestyle risk factors in the Austrian population. Average calcium intake amongst Austrian adult women and amongst male and female seniors is lower than recommended and only adult men achieve around the recommended amount. The mean vitamin D intake in Austria is very poor, especially amongst pre-schoolers and seniors. The rate of Austrians reporting regular physical exercise is in need of improvement, especially amongst elderly people. The data presented in the Austrian Osteoporosis Report are useful to enable the development of public health strategies and methods to help resolve some of these problems, and ultimately contribute to improved bone health in the nation.

  18. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Passenger Presence was associated with waiting for a greater number of vehicles to pass before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and

  19. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger... passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5. (3) Manufacturer has the...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger... passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5. (c) Fleet average CO 2...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger... passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5. (3) Manufacturer has the...

  4. Are SUVs dangerous vehicles?

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-05-01

    This study was a population cohort study of all licensed passenger vehicles in New Zealand in the years 2005--2006. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on road safety of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) compared to other passenger vehicle types. Statistical models were fitted to the population of 2,996,000 vehicles of which 17,245 were involved in an injury crash. Controlling for distance driven, vehicle and owner characteristics, SUVs were found to be relatively safe vehicles in terms of injury crash involvement and in terms of the injury rate of their own occupants or other road users into which they crashed. Current research on SUV safety clearly shows them to be a road safety concern, but only once a collision occurs. The present study shows that SUVs in New Zealand have relatively few collisions compared to other passenger vehicle types, allowing for factors such as distance driven, some allowance for the type of driving exposure (via the owners' addresses) and for owner age and gender. Overall, the vehicle type implicated most frequently in injury crashes and involving the highest rate of road injuries was sports cars, causing clearly the most harm per licensed vehicle. Instead of concerning themselves primarily with SUVs, the focus of road safety agencies should be on the relatively high crash risk of sports cars, which are clearly a road safety concern. Their high crash involvement rate and injury rate is likely to be largely due to the way they are driven rather than to inherent characteristics of the vehicles themselves. PMID:18460363

  5. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS...

  6. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (see § 4.6 of this part) and required to make entry, except a vessel arriving from Canada, otherwise... passengers required by Customs and Immigration Form I-418 shall be included therein. (b) A passenger...

  7. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (see § 4.6 of this part) and required to make entry, except a vessel arriving from Canada, otherwise... passengers required by Customs and Immigration Form I-418 shall be included therein. (b) A passenger...

  8. 46 CFR 90.10-29 - Passenger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-29 Passenger. (a) The term passenger means— (1) On an... under 1 year of age. (2) On other than an international voyage, an individual carried on the...

  9. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  10. Forecasting Austrian national elections: The Grand Coalition model

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Julian; Willmann, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting the outcomes of national elections has become established practice in several democracies. In the present paper, we develop an economic voting model for forecasting the future success of the Austrian ‘grand coalition’, i.e., the joint electoral success of the two mainstream parties SPOE and OEVP, at the 2013 Austrian Parliamentary Elections. Our main argument is that the success of both parties is strongly tied to the accomplishments of the Austrian system of corporatism, that is, the Social Partnership (Sozialpartnerschaft), in providing economic prosperity. Using data from Austrian national elections between 1953 and 2008 (n=18), we rely on the following predictors in our forecasting model: (1) unemployment rates, (2) previous incumbency of the two parties, and (3) dealignment over time. We conclude that, in general, the two mainstream parties benefit considerably from low unemployment rates, and are weakened whenever they have previously formed a coalition government. Further, we show that they have gradually been losing a good share of their voter basis over recent decades. PMID:26339109

  11. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  12. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  13. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  14. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  15. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  16. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  17. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  18. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must include a statement, as appropriate, that the regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards,...

  20. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  1. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  2. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... evacuate passengers. See 73 FR 6369 (February 1, 2008). While this final rule did not make any changes to... existing requirements as well as create new requirements for passenger train emergency systems. See 77...

  3. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master...

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  5. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  6. Measurement and Assessment of Noise Within Passenger Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HARDY, A. E. J.

    2000-03-01

    Railways are becoming increasingly market-driven. Consequently, it is important that passengers are provided with a comfortable environment that reflects the operator's desired image for the service. A major factor in determining how passengers perceive the environment within trains is the level and nature of sound to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, the subject of noise within railway vehicles has had less attention in recent years, and is therefore less well developed, than external “environmental” noise. Two specific areas that merit investigation are methods for its quantification and assessment. A variety of criteria are used for assessing the noise environment within buildings, and may be considered appropriate for the quantification of internal train noise. These include “noise criteria” (NC), “preferred noise criteria” (PNC), “noise rating” (NR), and “room criterion” (RC). Recently, the automotive industry has also been using loudness level. Simple descriptors, such as the A-weighted sound level, have not been found to correlate well with perceived acoustic comfort. A complicating factor when considering internal rail vehicle noise is that its level and quality is not constant, with significant variability likely to occur over the duration of a journey. This difficulty is compounded by acoustic spatial variation within a vehicle. The paper considers the problems inherent in the quantification of noise within rail vehicles, and in the determination of the relationship between this noise and passenger response. Methods by which these problems may be overcome are discussed, drawing on real data and on long experience of study in this field.

  7. Combined effect of noise and vibration on passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    An extensive research program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive model of passenger comfort response to combined noise and vibration environments has been completed. This model was developed for use in the prediction and/or assessment of vehicle ride quality and as a ride quality design tool. The model has the unique capability to transform individual elements of vehicle interior noise and vibration into subjective units and combining the subjective units to produce a total subjective discomfort index as well as the other useful subjective indices. This paper summarizes the basic approach used in the development of the NASA ride comfort model, presents some of the more fundamental results obtained, describes several application of the model to operational vehicles, and discusses a portable, self-contained ride quality meter system that is a direct hardware/software implementation of the NASA comfort algorithm.

  8. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  9. 49 CFR 37.95 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by public entities. 37.95 Section 37.95 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles By...

  10. 49 CFR 37.109 - Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries and other passenger vessels operated by private entities. 37.109 Section 37.109 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Acquisition of Accessible Vehicles by...

  11. A Smartphone App to Communicate Child Passenger Safety: An Application of Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, A. C.; McDonald, E. M.; Omaki, E.; Shields, W.; Case, J.; Aitken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Child passenger safety remains an important public health problem because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children, and the majority of children ride improperly restrained. Using a mobile app to communicate with parents about injury prevention offers promise but little information is available on how to create such a tool.…

  12. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... objectives listed in 41 CFR 101-38.104. (1)-(4) (5) Requests to exempt certain light trucks from the fleet... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... objectives listed in 41 CFR 101-38.104. (1)-(4) (5) Requests to exempt certain light trucks from the fleet... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests...

  14. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... objectives listed in 41 CFR 101-38.104. (1)-(4) (5) Requests to exempt certain light trucks from the fleet... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests...

  15. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... objectives listed in 41 CFR 101-38.104. (1)-(4) (5) Requests to exempt certain light trucks from the fleet... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests...

  16. Motions of passenger cars in low-speed falls over embankments.

    PubMed

    Le Fevre, W F

    1987-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of motions of passenger cars in falls over embankments at speeds less than that required to launch a car into a free-fall trajectory is developed in this paper as an aid in evaluating initial vehicle speed in this particular type of crash involved in the forensic science field of accident reconstruction.

  17. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  18. Comfort studies of rail passengers

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, J. F.; Doré, C.; Weiner, J. S.; Lee, D. E.; Prestidge, S. P.; Andrews, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Nicol, J. F., Doré, C., Weiner, J. S., Lee, D. E., Prestidge, S. P., and Andrews, M. J. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 325-334. Comfort studies of rail passengers. A short series of trials is described in which a specimen car of the new High Density Rolling Stock was laden with passengers at different densities and under different environmental constraints, designed to simulate `shut-down' conditions. The results suggest that the limit for comfort, 21·8°C corrected effective temperature (CET), proposed by Bell and Watts (1971) is reasonable but that temperatures some 3 or 4°C higher can be tolerated without undue discomfort. The physiological limit for safety recommended by Bell and Watts is a CET of 30·6°C. This will be reached in less than 20 minutes if there is a power failure in warm conditions in crowded trains. An undesirable, possibly dangerous, level of discomfort will be experienced by passengers in ventilated but crowded trains after 30 minutes. In any case it is recommended that the globe temperature in a carriage should not exceed 30°C. Images PMID:4753715

  19. University of Virginia acquisition of passenger ride quality data aboard the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The subjective response of passengers to vehicle motions was investigated on the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft. Prerecorded signals were converted into controlled aircraft motion for evaluation by ten subjects on a seven-point rating scale. Eighteen test flights were flown on August and September 1974, the results of which are to be used in validation studies on ground based simulators at NASA/Langley Research Center and to extend passenger response models.

  20. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... passenger vehicle impacts the rear of a ] tractor-trailer. The primary findings are the following: Data from... occupants when rear-ending a tractor-trailer subsequent to the implementation of Safety Standards 223 and... passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in terms of total number of fatalities,...

  1. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... driving conditions. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars manufactured on or after... addition, at the option of the manufacturer, passenger cars manufactured before September 1, 2000, and... divided by the gravitational acceleration constant. Electric vehicle or EV means a motor vehicle that...

  2. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  3. Individual factors affecting the risk of death for rear-seated passengers in road crashes.

    PubMed

    Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2006-05-01

    We studied the effect of age, gender, use of restraint systems and seat position on the risk of death for rear-seated passengers of cars involved in road crashes. The data source was the Spanish register of traffic crashes with victims compiled by the Government's General Traffic Directorate. Data for crashes recorded from 1993 to 2002, inclusive, were studied. We used a matched cohort design to analyze all 5260 rear-seated passengers in vehicles occupied by two or three rear-seated passengers for accidents in which at least one of these passengers was killed. Conditional Poisson regression with death as the dependent variable was used. An increased risk of death was observed for females and children aged <3 years. For passengers aged 25 years and older, the risk increased with age. The use of restraint systems and central and right-side seats was associated with a lower risk. These results should be considered in research focused on passenger fragility and strategies to prevent injury and death. PMID:16426561

  4. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  5. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  6. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  7. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  8. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  9. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  10. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  11. [The peculiar features of conducting comprehensive expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents. This, in turn, creates difficulties for the forensic medical experts as regards personality identification of the subjects who happened to be inside the car at the moment of the collision especially in the case of unascertainable circumstances of the accident and/or the involvement of several victims. The authors describe peculiarities of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during road traffic accidents including such that result from bringing the driver and the passengers closer to the construction elements of the car (stage I), their direct contact with these elements (stage II), and subsequent displacement (stage III). PMID:27500476

  12. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  13. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  14. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  15. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  16. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  17. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  18. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  19. Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

    This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  5. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  6. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  7. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  8. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  9. 31 CFR 0.209 - Use of Government vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of Government vehicles. 0.209... TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.209 Use of Government vehicles. Employees shall not use Government vehicles for unofficial purposes, including to transport unauthorized passengers....

  10. Opportunities and challenges for novel heat engines in passenger automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozurkewich, George

    2005-09-01

    Modern automobiles provide several opportunities for potential application of novel heat engines, including air conditioning, waste-heat recovery, auxiliary power units, and motive power. The driving force behind these potential applications is the prospect of reducing the vehicle's environmental impact by increasing its overall thermal efficiency, decreasing its emissions of greenhouse gases, or both. However, because the automotive sector is mature and highly competitive, any attempt to displace existing technology faces daunting hurdles. Weight and packaging impose tight constraints. Compatibility with existing systems is essential. Reliability must be ensured, often for 150000 miles. Last but not least, cost is paramount in an industry where pennies matter. Some implications of these factors for implementation of thermoacoustic heat engines on passenger vehicles will be surveyed.

  11. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passengers permitted on any vessel may be the greatest number permitted by the length of rail criterion, deck area criterion, or fixed seating criterion described in this paragraph or a combination of these criteria as allowed by paragraph (c) of this section. (1) Length of rail criterion. One passenger may...

  12. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following... normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow pulpits, swimming...

  13. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section. (1) Length of rail criterion. One passenger may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches... passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow pulpits, swimming platforms and areas that do...

  14. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the... would not normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow...

  15. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the... would not normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow...

  16. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

  17. Passenger and Naturalization Lists: The New Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filby, P. William

    1983-01-01

    Reviews information sources designed to assist the genealogical researcher with the arrival of his/her ancestors: "A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists 1538-1825"; "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index"; "Philadelphia Naturalization Records." Examples provided include name entry, source citation, annotation, and subject entries. Nineteen…

  18. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  19. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  20. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

  1. New batteries and their impact on electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of electric vehicles and electric vehicle batteries. The present and predicted performance levels of some battery systems such as lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and zinc-chlorine are considered, as are the characteristics that an electric vehicle must possess in order to appeal to customers. The implications of battery improvements for manufacturers of electric vehicles are discussed. Lack of knowledge of passenger range requirements for electric vehicles is noted.

  2. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    PubMed

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  3. [Consensus statement "Dementia 2010" of the Austrian Alzheimer Society].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Marksteiner, Michael; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Ransmayr, G; Bancher, C; Benke, T; Wancata, J; Fischer, P; Leblhuber, C F; Psota, G; Ackerl, M; Alf, C; Berek, K; Croy, A; Delazer, M; Fasching, P; Frühwald, T; Fruhwürth, G; Fuchs-Nieder, B; Gatterer, G; Grossmann, J; Hinterhuber, H; Iglseder, B; Imarhiagbe, D; Jagsch, C; Jellinger, K; Kalousek, M; Kapeller, P; Ladurner, G; Lampl, C; Lechner, A; Lingg, A; Nakajima, T; Rainer, M; Reisecker, F; Spatt, J; Walch, T; Uranüs, M; Walter, A

    2010-01-01

    The Austrian Alzheimer Society developed evidence-based guidelines based on a systematic literature search and criteria-guided assessment with subsequent transparent determination of grades of clinical recommendation. The authors evaluated currently available therapeutic approaches for the most common forms of dementia and focused on diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, taking into consideration the situation in Austria. The purpose of these guidelines is the rational and cost-effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in dementing illnesses. Users are physicians and all other providers of care for patients with dementia in Austria. PMID:20605003

  4. [Consensus statement "Dementia 2010" of the Austrian Alzheimer Society].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Marksteiner, Michael; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Ransmayr, G; Bancher, C; Benke, T; Wancata, J; Fischer, P; Leblhuber, C F; Psota, G; Ackerl, M; Alf, C; Berek, K; Croy, A; Delazer, M; Fasching, P; Frühwald, T; Fruhwürth, G; Fuchs-Nieder, B; Gatterer, G; Grossmann, J; Hinterhuber, H; Iglseder, B; Imarhiagbe, D; Jagsch, C; Jellinger, K; Kalousek, M; Kapeller, P; Ladurner, G; Lampl, C; Lechner, A; Lingg, A; Nakajima, T; Rainer, M; Reisecker, F; Spatt, J; Walch, T; Uranüs, M; Walter, A

    2010-01-01

    The Austrian Alzheimer Society developed evidence-based guidelines based on a systematic literature search and criteria-guided assessment with subsequent transparent determination of grades of clinical recommendation. The authors evaluated currently available therapeutic approaches for the most common forms of dementia and focused on diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, taking into consideration the situation in Austria. The purpose of these guidelines is the rational and cost-effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in dementing illnesses. Users are physicians and all other providers of care for patients with dementia in Austria.

  5. Effect of Vehicle Incompatibility on Child Occupant Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kallan, Michael J.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    With the vehicle fleet of family transportation in the United States continuing to evolve primarily through the increasing number of light truck vehicles (LTV), studying the effects of vehicle incompatibility has become increasingly important. Using data collected from a population-based sample of child-involved crashes in insured vehicles, we explored the effect of variations in crash partner vehicle type on child occupant injury risk, stratified by direction of impact. Children in passenger cars and LTVs involved in onside collisions were at an increased risk of serious injury if struck by a LTV as compared to a passenger vehicle (passenger cars and minivans). Though smaller in magnitude, this trend was also present in offside and rear crashes as well. PMID:16179154

  6. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  7. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  8. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  9. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    PubMed Central

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  10. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  11. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  12. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  13. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  14. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  15. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  16. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  17. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  18. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  19. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  20. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  1. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  2. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  3. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  4. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  5. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a disability on board a passenger vessel? 39.85 Section 39.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.85 What services must PVOs provide to passengers with...

  6. Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrup, Al

    1995-01-01

    Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 4-10 determine the Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in their community and develop, administer, and analyze a survey to determine attitudes toward carpooling. (DDR)

  7. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  8. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    PubMed

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  9. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tintner, J.; Smidt, E.; Boehm, K.; Binner, E.

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  10. A fractal comparison of real and Austrian business cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Robert F.

    2010-06-01

    Rescaled range and power spectral density analysis are applied to examine a diverse set of macromonetary data for fractal character and stochastic dependence. Fractal statistics are used to evaluate two competing models of the business cycle, Austrian business cycle theory and real business cycle theory. Strong evidence is found for antipersistent stochastic dependence in transactions money (M1) and components of the monetary aggregates most directly concerned with transactions, which suggests an activist monetary policy. Savings assets exhibit persistent long memory, as do those monetary aggregates which include savings assets, such as savings money (M2), M2 minus small time deposits, and money of zero maturity (MZM). Virtually all measures of economic activity display antipersistence, and this finding is invariant to whether the measures are adjusted for inflation, including real gross domestic product, real consumption expenditures, real fixed private investment, and labor productivity. This strongly disconfirms real business cycle theory.

  11. Sex differential for suicide among Austrian age cohorts.

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E; Piribauer, F; Sonneck, G

    1996-04-01

    The suicide mortality data in Austria were studied over a period of four decades of continuous reporting. The data were studied for age, period and cohort effects. For the period 1951 to 1990 suicides among eight birth cohorts, born between 1932 and 1975, show a marked sex differential in time trends. Up to 1985, the rates increase in a constant manner for males in all age groups, in contrast to females. Results obtained using the Poisson regression models demonstrate a 35% (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.35%; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45) increased risk for male cohorts born later compared with those born earlier. The risk for later-born females was not increased (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). Explanations such as improved living conditions for Austrian women remain tentative, however, as age, period and cohort effects cannot be separated as independent variables in the suicide mortality data available in Austria. PMID:8712021

  12. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  13. Thermal Analysis and Test Program to Evaluate Passenger Compartment Thermal Load Reduction and Improve: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00231

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.

    2011-05-01

    This activity supported a GM and NREL collaborative exploration of strategies to minimize and alleviate the temperature rise in the passenger compartment of an automobile during prolonged exposure to solar radiation in hot climates. It developed and exercised math-based models to simulate the air flow and thermal environment in the passenger compartment in order to compare the effectiveness of the strategies. This activity also assessed the strategies using vehicle tests.

  14. Deleterious Passengers in Adapting Populations

    PubMed Central

    Good, Benjamin H.; Desai, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Most new mutations are deleterious and are eventually eliminated by natural selection. But in an adapting population, the rapid amplification of beneficial mutations can hinder the removal of deleterious variants in nearby regions of the genome, altering the patterns of sequence evolution. Here, we analyze the interactions between beneficial “driver” mutations and linked deleterious “passengers” during the course of adaptation. We derive analytical expressions for the substitution rate of a deleterious mutation as a function of its fitness cost, as well as the reduction in the beneficial substitution rate due to the genetic load of the passengers. We find that the fate of each deleterious mutation varies dramatically with the rate and spectrum of beneficial mutations and the deleterious substitution rate depends nonmonotonically on the population size and the rate of adaptation. By quantifying this dependence, our results allow us to estimate which deleterious mutations will be likely to fix and how many of these mutations must arise before the progress of adaptation is significantly reduced. PMID:25194161

  15. Cooling performance and evaluation of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajitno, Deendarlianto, Majid, Akmal Irfan; Mardani, Mahardeka Dhias; Wicaksono, Wendi; Kamal, Samsul; Purwanto, Teguh Pudji; Fauzun

    2016-06-01

    A new design of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car was proposed. To ensure less energy consumption and optimal thermal comfort, the performance of the system were evaluated. This current research was aimed to evaluate the refrigeration characteristics of the system for several types of cooling load. In this present study, a four-passenger wagon car with 1500 cc gasoline engine that equipped by a belt driven compressor (BDC) was used as the tested vehicle. To represent the tropical condition, a set of lamps and wind sources are installed around the vehicle. The blower capacity inside a car is varied from 0.015 m/s to 0.027 m/s and the compressor speed is varied at variable 820, 1400, and 2100 rpm at a set temperature of 22°C. A set of thermocouples that combined by data logger were used to measure the temperature distribution. The system uses R-134a as the refrigerant. In order to determine the cooling capacity of the vehicle, two conditions were presented: without passengers and full load conditions. As the results, cooling capacity from any possible heating sources and transient characteristics of temperature in both systems for the cabin, engine, compressor, and condenser are presented in this work. As the load increases, the outlet temperature of evaporator also increases due to the increase of condensed air. This phenomenon also causes the increase of compressor work and compression ratio which associated to the addition of specific volume in compressor inlet.

  16. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  17. [CGM-Continuous Glucose Monitoring--Statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    PubMed

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence. PMID:27052243

  18. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aftermarket conversion certifiers, as those terms are defined in 40 CFR 85.502, of all model year light-duty... means a motor vehicle that is a passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR...

  19. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  20. Severe upper limb injuries in four passengers of a 'People Carrier'; the contribution of design faults.

    PubMed

    Teanby, D N; Perks, A G; Watson, S B; Thorlby, A

    1995-05-01

    Four passengers of a 'People Carrier' in a single vehicle motor accident sustained severe left upper limb trauma, when the vehicle rolled onto the near side. These injuries were directly attributable to the large glass interface between patient and road. The glass windows shattered on contact, providing no protection and in effect created a secondary injury mechanism. We advocate both the use of laminated side windows and mandatory testing of 'roll-over' characteristics for these 'People Carriers' to reduce the incidence of such injuries.

  1. 40 CFR 1027.110 - What special provisions apply for certification related to motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE... adjust fees for 2006 and later years for light-duty, medium-duty passenger, and complete heavy-duty... certificates by applying the light-duty, medium-duty passenger, and complete heavy-duty highway...

  2. 40 CFR 1027.110 - What special provisions apply for certification related to motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE... adjust fees for 2006 and later years for light-duty, medium-duty passenger, and complete heavy-duty... certificates by applying the light-duty, medium-duty passenger, and complete heavy-duty highway...

  3. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... injury by 44 percent. For rear seat passenger van and sport utility vehicle occupants, seat belts reduce... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... estimates that seat belts (lap/shoulder belts) reduce the risk of fatal injury to front seat passenger...

  4. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacture.” (l)(1) In the case of a passenger car imported into the United States under 49 CFR 591.5(f... position. If none of the preceding locations is practicable, notification of that fact, together with... following statements, as appropriate: (i) For passenger cars, the statement: “This vehicle conforms to...

  5. 49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufacture.” (l)(1) In the case of a passenger car imported into the United States under 49 CFR 591.5(f... position. If none of the preceding locations is practicable, notification of that fact, together with... following statements, as appropriate: (i) For passenger cars, the statement: “This vehicle conforms to...

  6. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  7. [Recommendations of the Austrian Society of Rheumatology/Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for the application of ultrasound in rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Duftner, Christina; Dejaco, Christian; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; DeZordo, Tobias; Husic, Rusmir; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    It is the current goal in rheumatology to diagnose and treat inflammatory rheumatic diseases early in order to avoid structural damage. Functional imaging methods such as musculoskeletal sonography are increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis. To ascertain the quality of ultrasound assessments performed by rheumatologists in Austria, the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (ARRIMUS) proposed recommendations for a training curriculum, technical standards for ultrasound equipment, minimum requirements for documentation, indications for sonography and the use of ultrasound for interventions. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Austrian Society of Rheumatology and should aid rheumatologists to perform high quality ultrasound assessment in clinical practice.

  8. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    PubMed

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  9. Medical guidelines for space passengers--II.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B; Antuñano, Melchor J; Garber, Mitchell A; Hastings, John D; Illig, Petra A; Jordan, Jon L; Landry, Roger F; McMeekin, Robert R; Northrup, Susan E; Ruehle, Charles; Saenger, Arleen; Schneider, Victor S

    2002-11-01

    It now appears likely that commercial entities will carry paying passengers on suborbital spaceflights in this decade. The stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and the limited capability for medical care onboard make it advisable to develop a system of medical clearance for such space tourists. The Aerospace Medical Association, therefore, organized a Space Passenger Task Force whose first report on medical guidelines was published in 2001. That report consisted of a list of conditions that would disqualify potential passengers for relatively long orbital flights. The Task Force reconvened in 2002 to focus on less stringent medical screening appropriate for short duration suborbital flights. It was assumed that such commercial flights would involve: 1) small spacecraft carrying 4-6 passengers; 2) a cabin maintained at sea-level "shirt-sleeve" condition; 3) maximum accelerations of 2.0-4.5 G; 4) about 30 min in microgravity. The Task Force addressed specific medical problems, including space motion sickness, pregnancy, and medical conditions involving the risk of sudden incapacitation. The Task Force concluded that a medical history should be taken from potential passengers with individualized follow-up that focuses on areas of concern.

  10. 46 CFR 78.40-1 - Stowage of vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disaster. Where there is insufficient clearance to provide for easy egress at all times, both passengers and operators shall be directed to leave their vehicles and to occupy other spaces reserved for them... indicate the vehicle runways and the aisle spaces. (b)...

  11. Motor vehicle exhaust emissions and control in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Laurikko, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the status and trends of atmospheric pollution in Finland caused by motor vehicles and evaluates the effect of the current regulatory policy. Details of new emission regulations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles are given. Research activities and items of particular concern like the effect of low ambient temperature on emissions are also discussed.

  12. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or...

  13. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a...

  14. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or...

  15. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a...

  16. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or...

  17. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or...

  18. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or...

  19. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a...

  20. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a...

  1. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a...

  2. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  3. Passenger well-being in airplanes.

    PubMed

    Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

    2006-10-30

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort.

  4. Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.; Le, N. T.; Marriott, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles.

  5. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  6. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.156 Release of passengers. No passengers arriving from Cuba by aircraft will be released by Customs, nor will the aircraft be cleared or...

  11. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have a... conditions by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen) whose eye-point is located outside the...

  12. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have a... conditions by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen) whose eye-point is located outside the...

  13. Austrian results from Matroshka poncho and organ dose determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Bergmann, R.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Cosmic rays in low-earth orbits LEO primarily consist of high-energy charged particles originating from galactic cosmic radiation GCR energetic solar particle events SPE and trapped radiation belts These radiations of high linear energy transfer LET generally inflict greater biological damage than that resulting from typical terrestrial radiation hazards Particle and energy spectra are attenuated in interaction processes within shielding structures and within the human body Reliable assessment of health risks to astronaut crews is pivotal in the design of future expeditions into interplanetary space and requires knowledge of absorbed radiation doses in critical radiosensitive organs and tissues The European Space Agency ESA Matroshka experiment---conducted under the aegis of the German Aerospace Center DLR ---is aimed at simulating an astronaut s body during extravehicular activities EVA Matroshka basically consists of a human phantom torso attached to a base structure and covered with a protective carbon-fibre container acting as a spacesuit model The phantom is divided into 33 tissue-equivalent polyurethane slices of specific density for tissue and organs Natural bones are embedded Channels and cut-outs enable accommodation of active and passive radiation monitors The torso is dressed by a skin-equivalent poncho which is also designed for dosimeter integration The phantom houses in total 7 active and more than 6000 passive radiation sensors Thereof the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities ATI provided more than

  14. ``Gold corrosion'': red stains on a gold Austrian Ducat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusmano, G.; Montanari, R.; Kaciulis, S.; Montesperelli, G.; Denk, R.

    Stains of different colours have been observed on historic and modern gold coins in several countries. An Austrian Ducat at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has developed some red spots on its surface over the years. The same defects have also been observed in modern coins of higher gold purity. The spots have been examined by OM, SEM, EDS, XPS and AES. Optical microscopy showed that ``red'' defects exhibit in fact a nuance of colours. The surface analysis put in evidence the presence in the stains, in addition to gold, of silver and sulphur. The values of the modified Auger parameter α' of silver correspond to those of Ag2S; thus, it can be assumed that the stains are composed of silver sulphide (Ag2S). It was not possible to determine whether the presence of silver on the surface is due to segregation towards the surface or to external particles of silver embedded in the matrix. Depth profiling performed on modern coins suffering from the same problem allowed us to demonstrate that the nuance of colours is due to the inhomogeneous thickness of the spots. Moreover, it was demonstrated that spots are formed by two layers: an outer layer of silver sulphide and an inner layer of silver.

  15. Facial solar UV exposure of Austrian farmers during occupation.

    PubMed

    Schmalwieser, Alois W; Cabaj, Alexander; Schauberger, Günther; Rohn, Herbert; Maier, Bernhard; Maier, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Optoelectronic personal UV-meters were used to monitor the occupational facial solar erythemally effective exposure of 12 Austrian full-time farmers with high temporal resolution. To ensure high quality measurements several quality assurance procedures were applied, like calibration with respect to solar elevation and total ozone column. From April to October the test persons carried the UV-meters on the forehead during working hours. A digital diary (activity, location, weather, photoprotective measures) was completed on an hourly basis. Our field test produced 1427 complete daily records (measurement and diary). The total exposures showed high variability (77-757 standard erythema dose [SED]) which correlates with the number of working days and even stronger with the little numbers of days with high exposure (>10 SED). Risk factors for high exposures were: mixed-culture farms with aggravated working conditions, low degree of automation of working processes, inadequate operating logistics (summarized as manual work outdoor), driving machines without cabins, and female gender. UV exposure of female farmers was approximately twice as high as that of men: Women received 15% of ambient radiation while men got 8%. Avoiding daily exposure >10 SED could reduce exposure down to 40% and the risk in developing skin cancer by a factor of 40. PMID:21039574

  16. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  17. 77 FR 55267 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Volkswagen New Jetta Passenger Car. Notice of Petition Published at: 77 FR 5303 (February 2, 2012). Vehicle... Petition Published at: 77 FR 20485 (April 4, 2012). Vehicle Eligibility Number: VSP-539 (effective date... Vehicles Manufactured prior to September 1, 2006. ] Notice of Petition Published at: 77 FR 24264 (April...

  18. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have a... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported...

  19. 49 CFR 565.24 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... motor vehicle. (b) A passenger car certified by a Registered Importer under 49 CFR part 592 shall have a... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS Alternative VIN Requirements In Effect for Limited Period § 565.24 Motor vehicles imported...

  20. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a... motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor... door, or lowering the floor of the vehicle. (8) 49 CFR 571.202 and 571.202a, in any case in which:...

  1. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a... motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor... door, or lowering the floor of the vehicle. (8) 49 CFR 571.202 and 571.202a, in any case in which:...

  2. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 2: Airport feeder vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Airport Feeder vehicle is a VTOL, semi-buoyant ellipsoidal airship capable of transporting passengers or cargo to major CTOL hub terminals from suburban and downtown depots. Six tasks were reviewed: (1) vehicle design definition, (2) operational procedures analysis, (3) cost analysis, (4) comparison with alternate transportation modes, (5) mission/vehicle feasibility assessment, and (6) technology assessment.

  3. Biomechanics of under ride motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Sances, Anthony; Enz, Bruce; Frieder, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the biomechanical aspects of injuries sustained by occupants of passenger cars during collisions with the trailer portion of a tractor/trailer rig. In such collisions, the occupants of the passenger car often sustain serious injuries when the passenger car passes beneath the trailer. This process by which the car "underrides" the trailer occurs due to the mismatch in height between the lowermost edge of the trailer and the crash mitigation structures in the vehicle. The study outlines a car-to-trailer crash testing methodology used to determine the effectiveness of one potential trailer underride guard in preventing serious injuries to occupants of passenger cars. The results from initial crash tests suggest that occupants of cars that collide with the unguarded sides of trailers are at a high risk of serious injury to the head, neck, and chest due the large intrusion of the roof and roof support structures into the occupant compartment. Testing of a trailer fitted with an underride guard showed that occupants of vehicles that collide with the sides of trailers that have been modified to engage the energy absorbing structures of passenger cars are exposed to a smaller risk of injury.

  4. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours duration, passengers shall...

  5. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  6. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  7. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  8. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  9. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  10. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  11. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  12. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  13. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  14. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  15. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  16. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  17. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  18. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  19. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  1. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  2. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  4. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  5. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  6. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  7. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  8. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  9. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  10. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  11. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  12. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  13. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  14. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  15. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  16. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a “Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet the requirements of this chapter...

  17. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original...

  18. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  19. Comparison of real-world emissions from two-wheelers and passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Ana-Marija; Weilenmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Passenger cars are the primary means of transportation in Europe. Over the past decade, a great deal of attention has therefore been paid to reducing their emissions. This has resulted in notable technical progress, leading to unprecedentedly low exhaust emissions. In the meantime, emissions from motorcycles have been ignored due to their subordinate role in traffic. Even though the motorcycle fleet is small in comparison with the car fleet, and logs lower yearly mileage per vehicle, their contribution to traffic emissions has become disproportionately high. Exhaust emissions of CO, HC, NOx, and CO2 from 8 powered two-wheelers were measured and compared to previous measurements from 17 gasoline-powered passenger cars performed at EMPA with the aim of ascertaining their relevance. Using exhaust emission ratios from both vehicle types, comparisons based on mean unit, mean yearly, and fleet emissions are considered. Present-day aftertreatment technologies for motorcycles are not as efficient as those for cars. A comparison of mean unit emissions shows that motorcycles exceed cars in NOx emissions. All comparisons reveal a significant HC ratio, to the detriment of two-wheelers. Overall, the relevance of emissions from powered two-wheelers is not negligible when compared with modern gasoline-powered passenger cars.

  20. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  1. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  2. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger briefings. 136.7 Section 136.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... must also include: (1) Procedures for water ditching; (2) Use of required life preservers; and...

  3. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  4. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  5. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... airline passenger protections. See 73 FR 74586 (December 8, 2008). After reviewing and considering the... deceptive'' practice. That rule took effect on April 29, 2010. See 74 FR 68983 (December 30, 2009). In...

  6. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  7. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... physical barriers rendering an area not readily accessible and usable to the passenger. (b) If food is provided to passengers on the vessel, assistance in preparation for eating, such as opening packages and identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf...

  8. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  9. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  10. Exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria while commuting in passenger cars and public buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The present study examined airborne microbe levels inside and outside passenger cars and public buses during two seasons (winter and summer). The prevalence level of individual fungal genera depended on the fungi and agar type, whereas a constant higher prevalence (>90%) was found for the total bacteria and total fungi. The four most prevalent fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria in a descending order. The major parameters associated with the airborne microbe measurements included agar type, vehicle type, and seasonal variation. When compared to the malt extract agar (MEA), the dichloran glycerol 18 agar (DG-18) was found to produce better counts for the target fungi. The summer in-vehicle bacterial concentrations were significantly higher for public buses than for the passenger cars, whereas the reverse was true for summer in-vehicle total fungal concentrations. This pattern was also consistent with summer outdoor results. In contrast, the winter in-vehicle and outdoor airborne microbe levels were similar for cars and buses. Meanwhile, summer was generally found to have higher in-vehicle fungal concentrations than winter. The current in-vehicle airborne microbe concentrations were found to be similar to residential indoor values from other reports, such as bacterial values between 10 and 10 3 CFU m -3 and total fungal aerosol concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 3 CFU m -3. It was suggested that motor vehicles in which many individuals spend a certain percentage of their day or week for travel are also a potential microenvironment for individual exposure to airborne microbes.

  11. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  12. Climate Modeling at the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, C.; Anders, I.; Auer, I.

    2009-05-01

    In later 2007 the Austrian Weather Service (ZAMG) established a group that shall deal with climate change modeling. Two of the group's main goals are to provide climate change scenarios for the assessment of the impact on ecosystems and to reconstruct past climate states along with their change. The former aim is to derive estimates of might happen to our ecosystems under different emission-pathways, whilst the latter goal is to better understand what has caused characteristical changes, which are to be found in proxies. Both aims can be achieved by empirical or dynamical downscaling models, which are ultimately based on the reliability of the driving GCMs results. It is well known that empirical and dynamical downscaling models do have advantages and disadvantages, which are different. As such it appears reasonable to use the approach which is better adapted to the considered question. It may be meaningful to apply empirical downscaling if long periods of time (such as substantial parts of the Holocene) are in the center of attention, whereas dynamical downscaling may be better suited to address questions that are related to decades. Up to now we were more involved with empirical downscaling that helped us to work together with scientists assessing the impact on ecosystems, as for instance, fish in a river (Matulla et al. 2007), forests (Lexer et al. 2002) or phenological phases (Scheifinger et al. 2007). After catching a glimpse of those results, we will turn to dynamical modeling. Here we would like to present findings from case studies, which are related to the more recent past. Our next target is the modelling of possible future climate conditions within the Greater Alpine Region (GAR, see e.g. Auer et al. 2007) as well as some characteristical periods throughout the Holocene as for instance the 8.2k event. This event is to be found in a variety of proxies within and also outside GAR. Auer I., Boehm R., Jurkovic A., Lipa W., Orlik A., Potzmann R., Schoener W

  13. Medical guidelines for space passengers. Aerospace Medical Association Task Force on Space Travel.

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    In the foreseeable future, private companies will manufacture space vehicles with a capacity of transporting tourists into low Earth orbit. Because of the stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and limited medical care capability, a system of medical clearance is highly recommended for these space tourists. It is our purpose to establish guidelines for use by private businesses, medical providers, and those planning on being a space tourist. Consequently, a Task Force was organized by the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) for the purpose of facilitating safety of passengers, fellow passengers, crew, and flight operations. The guidelines are meant to serve only as a template with the full expectation that exceptions might be made with appropriate rationale.

  14. Emissions of unregulated pollutants from European gasoline and diesel passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplain, Isabelle; Cazier, Fabrice; Nouali, Habiba; Mercier, Agnès; Déchaux, Jean-Claude; Nollet, Valérie; Joumard, Robert; André, Jean-Marc; Vidon, Robert

    Within the framework of the European Artemis project, the emissions of unregulated compounds were measured on new technology passenger cars. A sample of passenger cars was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS). The measurement of unregulated compounds comprised about 100 different volatile organic campounds (VOC) in the C 2-C 6 and C 7-C 15 range and carbonyl compounds. The sampling of these compounds was made using sorbent tubes followed by analysis with liquid and gas phase's chromatography. The influence of cold and warm starting conditions on the VOC composition was determined. The emission factors were determined and compared for both gasoline and diesel vehicles. The influence of the technology was evaluated and a first approach to understand the effect of recent technology on the ozone formation was developed.

  15. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  16. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  17. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  18. Feasibility study for a future Austrian lightning nano-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jaffer, Ghulam; Koudelka, O.; Khan, S.; Grant, C.; Unterberger, M.; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Macher, W.; Hausleitner, W.

    A feasibility study for an Austrian lightning nano-satellite is presented. The satellite will carry a radio-frequency receiver payload for the investigation of electromagnetic signatures produced by lightning strokes. A special emphasis will be on the investigation of transient electromagnetic waves in VHF range (20-40MHz) known as sferics. The onboard RF lightning triggering system will be a special capability of the nano-satellite. The lightning experiment will also observe VHF signals of ionospheric and magnetospheric origin. Adaptive filters will be developed to differentiate terrestrial electromagnetic impulsive signals from ionospheric or magnetospheric signals. One of the major problems using a nano-satellite is to integrate the lightning experiment antenna, receiver and data acquisition unit into the nano-satellite structure. Using a gravity gradient boom as a lightning antenna can increase the sensitivity and directional capability. A major part of this study is devoted to the design of a combined gravity-gradient boom and a sferics antenna. The compact structure of a nano-satellite faces special EMC issues e.g., impulsive electromagnetic events from DC converters. The low power and mass budget of a nano-satellite requires merging of the satellite housekeeping and lightning experiment units. The Lightning nano-satellite team has participated in various space missions (HUYGENS, DEMETER, PHOBOS, CLUSTER) investigating electromagnetic phenomena. The data of these missions will be used to test the hardand software of the lightning experiment before the launch. Further tests with a satellite mock-up, high frequency electronics and gravity gradient boom acting as lightning antenna will be carried out in a high voltage chamber, where artificial lightning can be generated. Additionally ground based and balloon-borne tests are planned with the satellite engineering model using terrestrial lightning.

  19. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%). The majority of the injured persons were male (86%), over 40-years-old (86%) with an agricultural or forestry education (91%). The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69%) and on afternoons during the working week (79%). The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55%) and the loss of control (73%) during their operation (60%) and harvesting work (63%). The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81%) to the upper and lower extremities (66%). The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  20. Novel CDKN2A mutations in Austrian melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, Sebastian; Marko, Martha; Müller, Christoph; Wendt, Judith; Pehamberger, Hubert; Okamoto, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    CDKN2A is the most prominent familial melanoma gene, with mutations occurring in up to 40% of the families. Numerous mutations in the gene are known, several of them representing regional founder mutations. We sought to determine, for the first time, germline mutations in CDKN2A in Austria to identify novel mutations. In total, 700 individuals (136 patients with a positive family history and 164 with at least two primary melanomas as the high-risk groups; 200 with single primary melanomas; and 200 healthy individuals as the control groups) were Sanger sequenced for CDKN2A exon 1α, 1β, and 2. The 136 patients with affected relatives were also sequenced for CDK4 exon 2. We found the disease-associated mutations p.R24P (8×), p.N71T (1×), p.G101W (1×), and p.V126D (1×) in the group with affected relatives and p.R24P (2×) in the group with several primary melanomas. Furthermore, we discovered four mutations of unknown significance, two of which were novel: p.A34V and c.151-4 G>C, respectively. Computational effect prediction suggested p.A34V as conferring a high risk for melanoma, whereas c.151-4 G>C, although being predicted as a splice site mutation by MutationTaster, could not functionally be confirmed to alter splicing. Moreover, computational effect prediction confirmed accumulation of high-penetrance mutations in high-risk groups, whereas mutations of unknown significance were distributed across all groups. p.R24P is the most common high-risk mutation in Austria. In addition, we discovered two new mutations in Austrian melanoma patients, p.A34V and c.151-4 G>C, respectively.

  1. Novel CDKN2A mutations in Austrian melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, Sebastian; Marko, Martha; Müller, Christoph; Wendt, Judith; Pehamberger, Hubert; Okamoto, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    CDKN2A is the most prominent familial melanoma gene, with mutations occurring in up to 40% of the families. Numerous mutations in the gene are known, several of them representing regional founder mutations. We sought to determine, for the first time, germline mutations in CDKN2A in Austria to identify novel mutations. In total, 700 individuals (136 patients with a positive family history and 164 with at least two primary melanomas as the high-risk groups; 200 with single primary melanomas; and 200 healthy individuals as the control groups) were Sanger sequenced for CDKN2A exon 1α, 1β, and 2. The 136 patients with affected relatives were also sequenced for CDK4 exon 2. We found the disease-associated mutations p.R24P (8×), p.N71T (1×), p.G101W (1×), and p.V126D (1×) in the group with affected relatives and p.R24P (2×) in the group with several primary melanomas. Furthermore, we discovered four mutations of unknown significance, two of which were novel: p.A34V and c.151-4 G>C, respectively. Computational effect prediction suggested p.A34V as conferring a high risk for melanoma, whereas c.151-4 G>C, although being predicted as a splice site mutation by MutationTaster, could not functionally be confirmed to alter splicing. Moreover, computational effect prediction confirmed accumulation of high-penetrance mutations in high-risk groups, whereas mutations of unknown significance were distributed across all groups. p.R24P is the most common high-risk mutation in Austria. In addition, we discovered two new mutations in Austrian melanoma patients, p.A34V and c.151-4 G>C, respectively. PMID:26225579

  2. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%). The majority of the injured persons were male (86%), over 40-years-old (86%) with an agricultural or forestry education (91%). The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69%) and on afternoons during the working week (79%). The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55%) and the loss of control (73%) during their operation (60%) and harvesting work (63%). The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81%) to the upper and lower extremities (66%). The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work. PMID:25780843

  3. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the

  4. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the

  5. Modeling of Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension with Magnetorhological Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasa, Richard; Danko, Ján; Milesich, Tomáš; Magdolen, Ľuboš

    2014-12-01

    Modeling of suspension is a current topic. Vehicle users require both greater driving comfort and safety. There is a space to invent new technologies like magnetorheological dampers and their control systems to increase these conflicting requirements. Magnetorheological dampers are reliably mathematically described by parametric and nonparametric models. Therefore they are able to reliably simulate the driving mode of the vehicle. These simulations are important for automotive engineers to increase vehicle safety and passenger comfort.

  6. A Fast Estimation Method of Railway Passengers' Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Yusaku; Asuka, Masashi; Komaya, Kiyotoshi

    To evaluate a train schedule from the viewpoint of passengers' convenience, it is important to know each passenger's choice of trains and transfer stations to arrive at his/her destination. Because of difficulties of measuring such passengers' behavior, estimation methods of railway passengers' flow are proposed to execute such an evaluation. However, a train schedule planning system equipped with those methods is not practical due to necessity of much time to complete the estimation. In this article, the authors propose a fast passengers' flow estimation method that employs features of passengers' flow graph using preparative search based on each train's arrival time at each station. And the authors show the results of passengers' flow estimation applied on a railway in an urban area.

  7. 78 FR 44030 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2014 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... other administrative proceedings before parties may file suit in court. \\1\\ See 61 FR 4729, February 7... Journey. Dodge Magnum (2008). FORD MOTOR CO C-Maxx. Edge.\\1\\ Escape. Explorer. Focus. Fusion. Lincoln Town... applies to (1) all passenger car lines; (2) all multipurpose passenger vehicle (MPV) lines with a...

  8. 75 FR 34946 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... in court. \\1\\ See 61 FR 4729, February 7, 1996. G. Paperwork Reduction Act The Department of... (2008). Ford Motor Co Escape. Explorer.\\1\\ Ford Five-Hundred (2007). Ford Focus. Lincoln Town Car... prevention standard applies to (1) all passenger car lines; (2) all multipurpose passenger vehicle...

  9. 78 FR 5347 - Denial of Reconsideration Petition on Model Year 2012-2016 Light Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., including passenger cars, medium duty passenger vehicles, and light trucks for model years 2012-2016. 75 FR... Protection Agency FOIA Freedom of Information Act FR Federal Register GHG Greenhouse gas HFC...); see also 76 FR 28318 (May 17, 2011) and other actions there cited. Because all of the objections...

  10. Austrian medical refugees in Great Britain: from marginal aliens to established professionals.

    PubMed

    Weindling, P

    1998-02-27

    About 360 Austrian physicians were refugees in the UK between 1938 and 1945. This paper traces their experiences. Apart from a scheme to admit only fifty physicians and forty dental surgeons, support ranged from domestic service permits to the backing from scientists keen to modernize British medicine. After the wave of internments in 1940, it was possible for physicians to be placed on the Temporary Register of Medical Practitioners. Three case studies of three types of Austrian contributions to child health are presented. The position improved after World War 2 when full registration of Austrian qualifications became possible, and the National Health Service provided career opportunities for clinical specialists. Only circa 10% of the medical refugees from Austria returned there eventually. Examples are given of successful careers in a wide range of medical specialties.

  11. Tobacco addiction and smoking cessation in Austrian migrants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Matthias; Burghuber, Otto Chris; Dereci, Canan; Aydogan, Masite; Selimovic, Eldin; Catic, Selmir; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent observations revealed substantial differences in smoking behaviour according to individuals’ migration background. However, smoking cessation strategies are rarely tailored on the basis of a migration background. We aimed to determine whether smoking behaviour and preferences for smoking cessation programmes differ between Austrian migrant smokers and Austrian smokers without a migration background. Study design Cross-sectional study. Setting Recruitment and interview were performed at public places in Vienna, Austria. Participants The 420 smokers included: 140 Bosnian, 140 Turkish migrant smokers of the first or second generation, as well as 140 Austrian smokers without a migration background. Methods We cross-sectionally assessed determinants of smoking behaviour and smoking cessation of every participant with a standardised questionnaire. Primary outcome measure The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Secondary outcome measures Determinants of smoking behaviour, willingness to quit smoking and smoking cessation. Results Nicotine addiction expressed via the Fagerström score was significantly higher in smokers with a migration background versus those without (Bosnian migrant smokers 4.7±2.5, Turkish migrant smokers 4.0±2.0, Austrian smokers without a migration background 3.4±2.3, p<0.0001). Bosnian and Turkish migrant smokers described a greater willingness to quit, but have had more previous cessation trials than Austrian smokers without a migration background, indicating an increased demand for cessation strategies in these study groups. They also participated in counselling programmes less often than Austrian smokers without a migration background. Finally, we found significant differences in preferences regarding smoking cessation programmes (ie, preferred location, service offered in another language besides German, and group rather than single counselling). Conclusions We found significant differences in addictive behaviour and

  12. Fatal falls and jumps from motor vehicles.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Goins, S E

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, 345 persons were killed in the United States in jumps and falls from non-crashing motor vehicles: 64 per cent fell; 15 per cent jumped; and it was not known whether the other 21 per cent jumped or fell. Two hundred and one people had been traveling on the exterior of vehicles, especially truck beds, and almost all of these people fell from their vehicles. The other 144 fatalities involved people in passenger compartments. Many of the falls from compartments occurred when occupants opened doors, or when vehicles changed direction. Seventy-seven per cent of those who fell from passenger compartments were males, and 44 per cent were less than five years old. Among those who jumped from vehicle compartments, 62 per cent were women and all were older than 14 years. Fatal falls and jumps from vehicles could be reduced in a variety of ways. These include legislation to prohibit travel on vehicle exteriors, designing vehicles so that doors cannot be opened when in motion, improving door designs, installing signals that provide warning if doors are not closed completely, and using occupant restraints. PMID:7468860

  13. Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-07

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

  14. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections HIV / AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... the Issue Related Pages February 2014 43% Motor vehicle deaths among children age 12 and under decreased ...

  16. Pro- and paraglacial sediment fluxes in the Austrian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilhausen, Martin; Schrott, Lothar

    2014-05-01

    Proglacial zones are in transition from glacial to non-glacial conditions and thus out of equilibrium with the current climate and highly sensitive to climate change. The expansion and evolution of these zones are of importance to assess the implications of accelerated deglacierization and discharge modification on sediment transfer from mountain to foreland zones. This study quantifies (sub)recent sediment transport and storage change within and the discharge of sediment from two proglacial zones in the Austrian Alps (Pasterze & Obersulzbachkees). Archival photogrammetry, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR is used to generate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) at different dates since the early 1950s. Erosion and deposition patterns are identified by DEMs of Difference (DoD) and are linked with terrain ages (i.e. time since deglaciation). Data on reservoir sedimentation and direct measurements of sediment concentrations/turbidity and discharge allows calculation of sediment yields. Paraglacial slope adjustment operates through slope instability (glacial debuttressing), moraine degradation and gully incision, decreases in both areal extent and intensity with increasing distance from the glacier and becomes increasingly restricted to tributary channels. In ice marginal locations, geomorphic activity is more persistent as compared to the proglacial terrain. These findings are consistent with the typical rapid surface response observed elsewhere. However, the topography of the recently deglaciated terrain strongly affects the degree of subsystem (de)coupling, which in turn controls the contribution of paraglacial adjustment to the overall discharge of sediment. Proglacial lakes have formed in both study sites and contemporary paraglacial adjustment upstream of the lakes is insignificant for sediment yield. Downstream, slopes are currently decoupled from the glacifluvial transport system and till and debris are currently stored in both landsystems. Average

  17. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-06-24

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology.

  18. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-06-24

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology. PMID:27339987

  19. Ingress and egress motion strategies of elderly and young passengers for the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun-Ming; Tada, Mitsunori; Endo, Yui; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the motion strategies performed by elderly and young passengers while entering and exiting the rear seat of minivans with sliding doors. A minivan mock-up was constructed with four adjustable parameters to represent nine different conditions of vehicle geometry. Ten elderly male participants (66.8 ± 3.8 years old) and ten young male participants (31.5 ± 6.6 years old) were recruited. Each of them entered and exited the minivan mock-up for five times under each condition, and the motion data were acquired by the optical motion capture system. Based on the criteria derived from previous studies, all motions were automatically categorized into seven ingress motion strategies and seven egress motion strategies. Further, the differences among motion strategies are discussed in terms of vehicle factors and passenger factors, which provide clues for future studies. PMID:26515150

  20. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.