Science.gov

Sample records for author taylor jessica

  1. Reflections on the Historical Narrative of Jessica Park, an Artist with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, Gillian J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewpoint discusses the history of Jessica Park, a professional artist who is an adult with autism. The narrative was constructed from historical descriptive research conducted by the author using published accounts and interviews with the artist, her mother, and two childhood companions. Examples of artwork produced in elementary through…

  2. Jessica's Journey: Transforming School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kenneth O.

    2014-01-01

    Kenneth Grover, the principal at Innovations Early College High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, describes a student he calls Jessica who is, unfortunately, one of thousands of students across the country entering and walking away from high school during their first year. These students' efforts are sincere, their attendance superb, and their…

  3. Assessment of Jessica oil spill impacts on intertidal invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Agnès; Gravez, Vincent; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-11-01

    The impact of the Jessica oil-spill on intertidal macroinvertebrate communities was studied using a reference-impact design at three tidal levels at sites where oil deposits had been reported by a shoreline assessment team, and adjacent reference sites. Faunal relationships between the various sites did not show any clear pattern related to oil exposure at the time of sampling (4-11 months post-spill). Similarly, no significant differences associated with oiling were detected for total animal density nor species richness data, nor for the abundances of common taxa. We note that post-hoc studies such as this are limited by a failure to recognise different levels of oiling impacts at different sites (oiling-site interactions). Baseline information is critical if subtle effects of oiling are to be distinguished.

  4. Twenty-Five Years and Counting of "Sweet Valley": Jessica and Elizabeth in Romance Novels for Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2010-01-01

    With the 2008 reissue of Francine Pascal's (1983) "Sweet Valley High", the popular cultural icons of twins Jessica and Elizabeth have been revitalized. Jessica and Elizabeth are the much-beloved protagonists in romance novels strategically targeted for young adults in "Sweet Valley High" or "Sweet Valley U", and for first- and second-grade readers…

  5. Taylor Business Institute, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jerry

    The Office of the State Comptroller in New York audited the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) at Taylor Business Institute (Taylor) for the academic years 1995-96 through 1997-98. Taylor, located in Manhattan, offers both degree programs and diploma programs in Accounting, Business Management,…

  6. Oil contamination of sedimentary shores of the Galápagos Islands following the wreck of the Jessica.

    PubMed

    Kingston, P F; Runciman, D; McDougall, J

    2003-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from sandy beaches at a variety of sites in the southern Galápagos Archipelago to assess levels of hydrocarbon contamination following the wreck of the oil tanker Jessica. Hydrocarbon levels in sediments were generally very low by international standards ranging between 0.4 and 48.9 ppm, with contamination attributable to the Jessica only detected at three sites Santa Fe, Playa Estación (Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz) and Long Beach (Isabela). There was evidence of residual hydrocarbon contamination from sources other than the wreck of the Jessica.

  7. Taylor-Made Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was an efficiency expert whose concerns were less about avoiding worker fatigue and more about increasing profit margins by any means necessary. Taylor was devoted to finding the One Best Way to carry out a task and then training workers to do that task unvaryingly; attempts by employees to improve their own…

  8. Effects of the Jessica oil spill on artisanal fisheries in the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    Born, Abraham F; Espinoza, Eduardo; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Nicolaides, Francis; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to local perceptions, the impact on the local Galápagos artisanal fishery of the 16 January 2001 grounding of the Jessica and subsequent oil spill was relatively minor. No significant changes in fishing effort, total fishing catches or catch-per-unit effort were detected after the spill based on analyses of fisheries monitoring data. Nevertheless, large boats tended to move away from sites near the path of the spill following the grounding in 2001, with no fishing recorded from the oil-affected regions of Floreana and southern Isabela in February 2001. The total fishing effort of small boats operating from the Jessica-grounding island of San Cristóbal also declined immediately after the spill, probably in part because such boats were used in clean up operations. During 2001, prices paid to fishers remained stable at levels higher than in 2000, with the notable anomaly that prices fell precipitously to 30% of previous levels during a 1-2 week period in early February 2001. Fish exports remained at similar levels for the years 2000 and 2001; however, as in the previous year, little fish product was exported from Galápagos in the month following the spill, with most fish product dried and stored for up to two months prior to transport to the continent.

  9. Meet Jessica and Elizabeth from Sweet Valley: Who Are the Female Role Models in Popular Romance Novels for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    Jessica and Elizabeth are two female characters, twins, featured throughout Francine Pascal's Sweet Valley series, the Bantam Publishers popular series for girls from elementary school through junior high, high school, university, and well into adulthood. This paper notes that these books are a part of the same formula that are used for romance…

  10. The Dangers of Playing Dress-Up: Popular Representations of Jessica Lynch and the Controversy Regarding Women in Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Shannon L.

    2006-01-01

    Through a critical analysis of the public discourse surrounding the capture and rescue of Jessica Lynch, this essay investigates how Lynch's body "comes to matter" in political debates regarding women in combat. This article argues that popular representations of Lynch's natural femaleness rearticulate the seemingly biological distinctions between…

  11. Baker & Taylor's George Coe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine

    2009-01-01

    In his 30 years as a library wholesaler, first as VP and general manager of Brodart Books, Library, and School Automation divisions and since 2000 as president of the Library & Education division of Baker & Taylor (B&T), George Coe has been instrumental in a whole host of innovations. They go way beyond the selection, processing, and delivery of…

  12. Reply to Taylor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to Denny Taylor's critique in the same issue of an article by Richard F. West, Keith E. Stanovich, and H. R. Mitchell entitled "Reading in the Real World and Its Correlates," published in an earlier issue of "Reading Research Quarterly." (HB)

  13. Impacts of the Jessica oil spill on intertidal and shallow subtidal plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Graham J; Kerrison, Linda; Shepherd, Scoresby A; Veronica Toral-Granda, M

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fishes, invertebrates and plants at rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal sites were censused 1-2 days prior to the Jessica oil spill and compared with information obtained for the same sites one month after the spill, both for sites impacted by oil and unaffected reference sites. While the availability of pre-spill data made this analysis one of the most powerful to date for testing impacts of oil on shoreline environments, no clear changes attributable to oiling could be identified. Discharged oil appeared to cause very little impact in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, with such impacts lying within the range of natural spatial and temporal variation at sites investigated. Factors considered to minimize impact in Galápagos included paucity of fully sheltered shores in spill path, moderate wave action, warm temperature, high levels of sunlight, and mixing of bunker oil with diesel.

  14. Impacts of the Jessica oil spill on sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) populations.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Sandie

    2003-01-01

    Following the Jessica oil spill, a total of 79 oiled Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were recorded around the islands of San Cristóbal, Santa Fé, Isabela and Floreana. Almost half of these animals required washing and other treatment. One sea lion death and a high incidence of conjunctivitis and burns were detected during the period of the oil spill. Sea lion populations exhibited a tendency for decline in the first months following the spill at all three colonies monitored close to the grounding site on San Cristóbal. By comparison, declines of similar magnitude occurred at only one of six sea lion colonies monitored on islands more distant from the spill. However, no significant decreases in population numbers were detected for any colony in the year following the spill. Galápagos sea lion populations were partially recovering from the much more catastrophic impact of the 1997/98 El Niño.

  15. Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.

  16. Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.

    2016-09-01

    The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.

  17. Ionic emission from Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  18. The effect of the Jessica grounding on subtidal invertebrate and plant communities at the Galápagos wreck site.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul A; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-01-01

    Impacts of the grounding of the oil tanker Jessica off San Cristóbal island, Galápagos, included both effects of oil on biota and also mechanical effects associated with a shallow furrow 50 m x 30 m gouged across the rocky seafloor and wreckage strewn over 7500 m(2). The wreckage represented a minor but potentially chronic source of pollution to the surrounding environment through delayed releases of oil, antifouling compounds and other toxic chemicals, and a possible source of exotic marine taxa. Investigation at the wreck site indicated that impacts on subtidal plant and macro-invertebrate communities were largely confined within 100 m of the wreck site itself. Observed population effects included significant increases in cover of opportunistic algae (filamentous green algae, filamentous red algae and Ulva sp.) and the hydroid Ectopleura media adjacent to the wreck, while densities of the green sea urchin Lytechinus semituberculatus significantly decreased from 0.3 m(-2) adjacent to the wreck to 11 m(-2) at 100 m distance.

  19. The effect of the Jessica grounding on Galápagos reef fish communities adjacent to the wreck site.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Graham J; Marshall, Paul A; Mooney, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The grounding of the oil tanker Jessica off San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos, resulted in generally elevated rather than depressed densities of fishes adjacent to the wreck site 15 weeks post spill. Species richness of fishes declined along transects out from the wreck; however, patterns were inconsistent for different depth strata, with the most clearly defined decline evident for the intermediate 5-7 m depth stratum. Fish species attracted to the immediate wreck site, most notably the surgeonfish Prionurus laticlavius, the damselfish Microspathodon dorsalis and the angelfish Holacanthus passer, were considered to be responding either to the heterogeneity provided by the wreck structure or elevated densities of macroalgae. The fish community at the wreck site lay outside the range of variation for other sites investigated in the region; however, contrary to predictions of grounding impacts, the fish assemblage immediately adjacent to the wreckage showed greater faunal similarity to reference sites than did fish assemblage at 60-90 m distance from the grounding.

  20. Bursting the Taylor cone bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    A soap bubble fixed on a surface and placed in an electric field will take on the shape of a cone rather than constant curvature (dome) when the electrical field is not present. The phenomenon was introduced by J. Zeleny (1917) and studied extensively by C.T. Wilson & G.I. Taylor (1925). We revisit the Taylor cone problem by studying the deformation and bursting of soap bubbles in a point charge electric field. A single bubble takes on the shape of a cone in the electric field and a high-speed camera equipped with a micro-lens is used to observe the unsteady dynamics at the tip. Rupture occurs as a very small piece of the tip is torn away from the bubble toward the point charge. Based on experiments, a theoretical model is developed that predicts when rupture should occur. This study may help in the design of foam-removal techniques in engineering and provide a better understanding of an electrified air-liquid interface.

  1. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  2. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  3. Spectral stability of Taylor's vortex array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Tobak, M.

    1986-01-01

    In a global sense it is shown that the two-dimensional Taylor vortex array, an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, is absolutely and monotonically stable with respect to infinitesimal disturbances of all discrete frequencies as long as the viscosity is positive. It is suggested that the Taylor vortex array may also be stable with respect to finite amplitude disturbances.

  4. Taylorism and the Logic of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the shared philosophical foundations of Fredrick W. Taylor's scientific management principles and the contemporary learning outcomes movement (LOM). It analyses the shared philosophical ground between the focal point of Taylor's system--"the task"--and the conceptualization and deployment of "learning…

  5. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  6. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  7. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  8. 33 CFR 117.987 - Taylor Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylor Bayou. 117.987 Section 117.987 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.987 Taylor Bayou. The draws of the Union...

  9. Douglas Taylor School: Rooted in Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Inspiring students to become teachers and community leaders is a goal of Douglas Taylor School's leadership team. A feeling of continuity and connection are important to the school, which opened in the 19th century. Housed in a beautiful old school building in Chicago's South Side, Douglas Taylor School contains grades preK-8. To maintain the…

  10. Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.

  11. Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Natalie; Bourne, Neil; Field, John

    1997-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneeered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass. We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test. In this configuration two rods impact one upon the other in a symmetrical version of the Taylor test geometry in which the impact is perfectly rigid in the centre of mass frame. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the three glass types (float, borosilicate and a high density lead glass). These experiments will identify the 1D stress failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories will be interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the three glasses will be highlighted.

  12. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R. E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org

    2011-04-01

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  13. Nonideal Rayleigh–Taylor mixing

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Iwerks, Justin; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh–Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts. PMID:20615983

  14. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lin, Hyun K; Iwerks, Justin G; Gliman, James G

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  15. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Glimm, J.; Iwerks, J.; Sharp, D.H.

    2010-08-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts.

  16. Turbulence structure in a Taylor-Couette apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrenbacher, Noah; Aldredge, Ralph C.; Morgan, Joshua T.

    2007-10-15

    Turbulence measurements were made in a Taylor-Couette apparatus as a basis for future flame propagation studies. Results of the present study extend that of earlier work by more complete characterization of the featureless turbulence regime generated by the Taylor-Couette apparatus. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure Reynolds stresses, integral and micro time scales and power spectra over a wide range of turbulence intensities typically encountered by turbulent pre-mixed hydrocarbon-air flames. Measurements of radial velocity intensities are consistent with earlier axial and circumferential velocity measurements that indicated a linear relationship between turbulence intensity and the Reynolds number based on the average cylinder rotation speed and wall separation distance. Measured integral and micro time scales and approximated integral length scales were all found to decrease with the Reynolds number, possibly associated with a confinement of the largest scales (of the order of the cylinder wall separation distance). Regions of transverse isotropy were discovered in axial-radial cross correlations for average cylinder Reynolds numbers less than 6000 and are predicted to exist also for circumferential cross correlations at higher average Reynolds numbers, greater than 6000. Power spectra for the independent directions of velocity fluctuation exhibited -5/3 slopes, suggesting that the flow also has some additional isotropic characteristics and demonstrating the role of the Taylor-Couette apparatus as a novel means for generating turbulence for flame propagation studies. (author)

  17. Controlling Transition in Taylor-Couette Flow with Spatial Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2009-11-01

    The linear stability of the flow in the (narrow) annular gap between two infinitely long cylinders, driven by an axisymmetric sinusoidal perturbation to the radius of the inner cylinder in the axial direction is analyzed. A closed-form solution for the basic flow in the system is derived. Experiments and computational investigations of this system have given differing results. In the seminal experiment performed by Ikeda and Maxworthy (Phys. Rev. E, 1994), the perturbation was found to have no effect on the first stability boundary. In subsequent theoretical investigations, authors have concluded that circular flow cannot exist in the modified system, and that the basic flow is Taylor Vortex Flow. In this study, we find that while the perturbation seems to always be destabilizing, circular flow does indeed exist in the system, in agreement with experimental observations. For small to moderate forcing amplitudes, the critical Taylor number for the first transition is only reduced slightly, by an amount that depends on the forcing amplitude and wavelength. The reduction in the first critical Taylor number is speculated to lie within the margin of error in the experiments performed by Ikeda and Maxworthy.

  18. Shape of Taylor bubbles in vertical tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, T.R.; Bonetto, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    The shape of a Taylor bubble in a vertical downward slug flow in a pipe is studied. The phase distribution in the Taylor bubble region is investigated by still pictures and video film. The shape of the Taylor bubble is reported for different condition. These experimental results consists of the position of the interface x(r) obtained using image processing and represents the new view to the shape of the Taylor Bubble and gives some light on the basic phenomena for the hydrodynamics of the two-phase slug flow. Slug flow is one of the most common and complex flow patterns in two-phase flow. Slug flow exists over a broad range of gas and liquid flow rates and is encountered in a wide variety of industrial applications like gas wells and process vaporizers. It also occurs during certain stages of emergency core cooling of a nuclear reactor.

  19. Temperature, size, and depth of the magma reservoir for the Taylor Creek Rhyolite, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; du Bray, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 55 km3 mid-Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite in southwestern New Mexico consists of 20 lava domes and flows. This rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. Compositional zonation in feldspar phenocrysts is very minor and nonsystematic. The compositions of each feldspar species vary little throughout the suite of analyzed samples. This chemical homogeneity of phenocrysts reflects similar whole-rock homogeneity and suggests that the lavas were tapped from a single large reservoir of magma. Ages of sanidine phenocrysts determined using 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite lavas were emplaced during a period of less than 0.42 my. and possibly less than 0.13 m.y., which is consistent with the single-reservoir scenario. Two-feldspar geothermometry suggests that Taylor Creek Rhyolite phenocrysts crystallized at about 775??C, at an assumed pressure of 2 kbar. Fe-Ti-oxide geothermometry suggests phenocryst growth at about 800??C. Experimental studies suggest that quartz and potassium-feldspar crystals that grow from H2O-undersaturated granitic magmas should exhibit resorption texture, a texture ubiquitous to Taylor Creek Rhyolite quartz and sanidine phenocrysts. We tentatively conclude that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was H2O undersaturated and subliquidus at an unspecified pressure greater than 0.5 kbar during phenocryst growth and that Taylor Creek Rhyolite pyroclastic deposits formed because volatile saturation developed during the ascent of magma to sites of eruption. -from Authors

  20. Woltjer-Taylor State Without Taylor's Conjecture - Plasma Relaxation at all Wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong; Squire, Jonathan

    2012-10-10

    In astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, it has been discovered that plasmas relax towards the well-known Woltjer-Taylor state specified by ∇ x B = αB for a constant α . To explain how such a relaxed state is reached, Taylor developed his famous relaxation theory based on the conjecture that the relaxation is dominated by short wavelength fluctuations. However, there is no conclusive experimental and numerical evidence to support Taylor's conjecture. A new theory is developed, which predicts that the system will evolve towards the Woltjer-Taylor state for an arbitrary fluctuation spectrum.

  1. Rayleigh--Taylor spike evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, G. T.; Batha, S. H.; Klare, K. A.; Hollowell, D. E.; Mason, R. J.

    2001-09-01

    Laser-based experiments have shown that Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) growth in thin, perturbed copper foils leads to a phase dominated by narrow spikes between thin bubbles. These experiments were well modeled and diagnosed until this '' spike'' phase, but not into this spike phase. Experiments were designed, modeled, and performed on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton , Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to study the late-time spike phase. To simulate the conditions and evolution of late time RT, a copper target was fabricated consisting of a series of thin ridges (spikes in cross section) 150 {mu}m apart on a thin flat copper backing. The target was placed on the side of a scale-1.2 hohlraum with the ridges pointing into the hohlraum, which was heated to 190 eV. Side-on radiography imaged the evolution of the ridges and flat copper backing into the typical RT bubble and spike structure including the '' mushroom-like feet'' on the tips of the spikes. RAGE computer models [R. M. Baltrusaitis, M. L. Gittings, R. P. Weaver, R. F. Benjamin, and J. M. Budzinski, Phys. Fluids 8, 2471 (1996)] show the formation of the '' mushrooms,'' as well as how the backing material converges to lengthen the spike. The computer predictions of evolving spike and bubble lengths match measurements fairly well for the thicker backing targets but not for the thinner backings.

  2. Taylor impact of glass rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, G. R.; Radford, D. D.

    2005-05-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of soda-lime and borosilicate glass rods was examined during classic and symmetric Taylor impact experiments for impact pressures to 4 and 10GPa, respectively. High-speed photography and piezoresistive gauges were used to measure the failure front velocities in both glasses, and for impact pressures below ˜2GPa the failure front velocity increases rapidly with increasing pressure. As the pressure was increased above ˜3GPa, the failure front velocities asymptotically approached maximum values between the longitudinal and shear wave velocities of each material; at ˜4GPa, the average failure front velocities were 4.7±0.5 and 4.6±0.5mmμs-1 for the soda-lime and borosilicate specimens, respectively. The observed mechanism of failure in these experiments involved continuous pressure-dependent nucleation and growth of microcracks behind the incident wave. As the impact pressure was increased, there was a decrease in the time to failure. The density of cracks within the failed region was material dependent, with the more open-structured borosilicate glass showing a larger fracture density.

  3. Taylor impact of glass rods

    SciTech Connect

    Willmott, G.R.; Radford, D.D.

    2005-05-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of soda-lime and borosilicate glass rods was examined during classic and symmetric Taylor impact experiments for impact pressures to 4 and 10 GPa, respectively. High-speed photography and piezoresistive gauges were used to measure the failure front velocities in both glasses, and for impact pressures below {approx}2 GPa the failure front velocity increases rapidly with increasing pressure. As the pressure was increased above {approx}3 GPa, the failure front velocities asymptotically approached maximum values between the longitudinal and shear wave velocities of each material; at {approx}4 GPa, the average failure front velocities were 4.7{+-}0.5 and 4.6{+-}0.5 mm {mu}s{sup -1} for the soda-lime and borosilicate specimens, respectively. The observed mechanism of failure in these experiments involved continuous pressure-dependent nucleation and growth of microcracks behind the incident wave. As the impact pressure was increased, there was a decrease in the time to failure. The density of cracks within the failed region was material dependent, with the more open-structured borosilicate glass showing a larger fracture density.

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, N. C.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2015-10-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.

  5. MRI in Taylor-Dean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2004-11-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) can destabilize hydrodynamically stable flows which are characterized by an angular momentum that is increasing with the radius and by an angular velocity that is decreasing with radius. Its astrophysical importance comes from the fact that the Kepler flow with Ω(r) ~ r-3/2 exactly such a behaviour. In order to investigate MRI in a laboratory experiment, the Taylor-Couette flow with Ω(r) = A + Br2 with A > 0 has been proposed as a substitute for the Kepler flow. In this paper we consider the Taylor-Dean flow as another example of a flow profile which can exhibit the necessary radial dependence. Taylor-Dean flows are a combination of the traditional Taylor-Couette flow with an additional flow that is produced by an azimuthal force. Special focus is laid on the case that the Taylor-Couette part of the flow is a rigid body rotation and the magnitude of the Dean flow is adjusted in such a way that in the outer part of the flow the conditions for MRI are fulfilled. Based on the dispersion relation derived by Ji, Kageyama and Goodman, in combination with some preliminary global instability analysis, we give some first estimates for the physical parameters of a Taylor-Dean MRI experiment with liquid sodium.

  6. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-10-15

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.

  7. Deformity correction in Haiti with the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Francel; Herzenberg, John E; Nelson, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is an external-fixator that corrects deformities in 6 axes, and can successfully manage disorders involving multiplanar deformities. In the developing-world, orthopaedic surgeons are often faced with deformities from neglected trauma and birth defects more severe than those typically seen in developed-countries. This article evaluates the applicability of TSF in the challenging medical environment of Haiti. At Haiti Adventist Hospital, the authors treated 80 cases using the TSF with a minimum follow-up of 1-year. Good results were observed in 99% of the cases (79 out of 80), approaching similar outcomes than those described in literature.

  8. A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.

  9. Taylorism in a post-modern age?

    PubMed

    Freemantle, N

    1995-02-01

    F.W. Taylor made an early and important contribution to the organisation of work in an industrial society. His ideas, or versions of his ideas, are once again receiving attention. Some commentators even describe a new or neo Taylorism (Pollitt, 1990). This paper argues that the only theoretical justification for the re-introduction of Taylorist strategies in the workplace is found in the notion of the post-modern world; where rationality is replaced by a ritual of signs and work becomes part of that ritual; where form replaces rationale, and strategies for work are governed by processes of survival in the remnants of modernity.

  10. Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Nonlinear stability of Taylor's vortex array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Tobak, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is proved that the two-dimensional Taylor vortex array, which is an exact unsteady solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, is globally and asymptotically stable in the mean with respect to three-dimensional periodic disturbances. A time-dependent bound on the decay rate of the kinetic energy of disturbances is obtained.

  13. Application of Taylor's series to trajectory propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, R. H.; Berryman, K. W.; Breckheimer, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the propagation of trajectories by the application of the preprocessor ATOMCC which uses Taylor's series to solve initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other methods are presented. The current studies indicate that the ATOMCC preprocessor is an easy, yet fast and accurate method for generating trajectories.

  14. Neo-Taylorism in Educational Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter C.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews eight recent observational studies of school administrators and criticizes the studies' use of "time and motion" assumptions drawn from Frederick Winslow Taylor's ideas. Outlines an alternate approach based on "thick" description of administrators' work, including their talk, as exemplified in James Boswell's biography of Samuel Johnson.…

  15. Cusp formation in drops inside Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Here, we report the formation of cusp in insulating drops inside compound Taylor cones. The action of the electrical shear stress acting on the outer interface, which is transmitted by viscous forces inside the Taylor cone, tends to deform the drop of insulating liquid placed inside. For appropriate values of the capillary number, the insulating drop develops a steady cusp angle which depends on both the capillary number and the conducting to insulating viscosity ratio. A self-similar analysis has been developed to qualitatively describe the flow inside these compounds Taylor cones. Any perturbation of the cusp gives rise to an intermittent emission of tiny droplets; this effect may recall the tip-streaming observed by G.I. Taylor in his four-roll mill device. This emission can be stabilized by an appropriate control of the injected flow rate of the insulating liquid. When the capillary number increases, the cusped interface turns into a spout which flows coated by the conducting liquid forming the electrified coaxial jet which has been successfully employed for the production of nanocapsules, coaxial nanofibers and nanotubes (Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; JACS 126, 5376, 2004).

  16. Motivation, Time Course, and Heterogeneity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Erik Z.; Szechtman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    In response to commentary by S. Taylor, D. McKay, and J. S. Abramowitz, the authors discuss the distinctive features of their theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder outlined in their original article, which explains the disorder as a dysfunction of a security-motivation system. The authors address issues of the interrelation of emotion,…

  17. CTH simulation of PBX-9501 Taylor tests /

    SciTech Connect

    Koby, Joseph R.

    2011-09-01

    During March-May 2011, multiple Taylor impact tests were conducted at LANL, examining the behavior of PBXN-9 and PBX-9501 under rapid loading. Subsequently, a computational hydrodynamics code (CTH) model was developed to mimic the deformation behavior observed in these impact tests with PBX-9501 would likely initiate upon impact. Also examined was whether an inert slud behind the explosive would lead to initiation at lower, more easily attainable velocities. The simplified model used here showed a minimum velocity for ignition of 530 m/s which was unchanged by the addition of a plastic slud behind the sample. The use of a lead slug did lower the minimum velocity to 460 m/s. These values are likely more qualitative at this point because multiple simplifications are currently used in the materials properties and test geometry. The results do show that this approach is capable of determining ignition due to Taylor impact.

  18. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Charles Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople, Conducted by Stephen

    1996-07-01

    Charles Taylor started his university teaching career at UMIST in 1948. In 1965 he became Professor and Head of the Department of Physics at University College, Cardiff. He was a Vice-President of the Institute of Physics from 1970 to 1975, and Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal Institution from 1977 until 1989. Over the years, Professor Taylor has delighted audiences of all ages with his demonstration lectures, including the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures televised in 1971 and 1989. In 1986 he became the first recipient of the Royal Society's Michael Faraday Award for contributions to the public understanding of science. His many books include Exploring Music, The Art and Science of the Lecture Demonstration, and also the Oxford Children's Book of Science, co-written with interviewer Stephen Pople.

  19. Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1991-01-01

    Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.

  20. New trends in Taylor series based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocina, Filip; Šátek, Václav; Veigend, Petr; Nečasová, Gabriela; Valenta, Václav; Kunovský, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the solution of large system of linear ODEs when minimal comunication among parallel processors is required. The Modern Taylor Series Method (MTSM) is used. The MTSM allows using a higher order during the computation that means a larger integration step size while keeping desired accuracy. As an example of complex systems we can take the Telegraph Equation Model. Symbolic and numeric solutions are compared when harmonic input signal is used.

  1. Subcritical equilibria in Taylor-Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kengo; Meseguer, Alvaro; Mellibovsky, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear equilibrium states characterized by strongly localized vortex pairs are calculated in the linearly stable parameter region of counterrotating Taylor-Couette flow. These subcritical states are rotating waves whose region of existence is consistent with the critical threshold for relaminarization observed in experiments. For sufficiently rapid outer cylinder rotation the solutions extend beyond the static inner cylinder case to corotation, thus exceeding, for the first time, the boundary defined by the inviscid Rayleigh's stability criterion.

  2. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  3. Monitoring Biopolymer Degradation by Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamieh, Joseph; Biron, Jean Philippe; Cipelletti, Luca; Cottet, Hervé

    2015-12-14

    This work aims at demonstrating the interest of modern Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA), performed in narrow internal diameter capillary, for monitoring biopolymer degradations. Hydrolytic and enzymatic degradations of dendrigraft poly-l-lysine taken as model compounds have been performed and monitored by TDA at different degradation times. Different approaches for the data processing of the taylorgrams are compared, including simple integration of the taylorgram, curve fitting with a finite number of Gaussian peaks, cumulant-like method and Constrained Regularized Linear Inversion approach. Valuable information on the kinetics of the enzymatic/hydrolytic degradation reactions and on the degradation process can be obtained by TDA. PMID:26633075

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in binary condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, S.; Angom, D.

    2010-05-15

    We propose a well-controlled experimental scheme to initiate and examine the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates. We identify the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture as an excellent candidate to observe experimentally. The instability is initiated by tuning the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 85}Rb interaction through a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that the observable signature of the instability is the damping of the radial oscillations. We also propose a semianalytic scheme to determine the stationary state of binary condensates with the Thomas-Fermi approximation for axisymmetric traps.

  5. Hydrodynamical Dispersion in Taylor-Couette Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, M.; Calvo, A.; Aguirre, A.; Callegari, G.; Gabbanelli, S.; Rosen, M.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    In this article we study the mass tracer dispersion in organized flows. For this purpose we performed experiments in the flow arising from the Taylor-Couette hydrodynamic instability combined with axial flow. The tracer evolution is followed by means of optical measurements of the concentration. In this way transmission curves are obtained. We compare these curves with the solutions of the Gaussian models of mass diffusion and with phenomenological models including tracer trapping in the cells. This comparison gives us physical parameters related to the typical time and distances involved in the diffusive behaviour of tracers in the regions with recirculations and trapping.

  6. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8 W, Sections 6, 7, & 8 and T. 12 N, R. 9 W, Sections 1, 12, & . The Endy project area...

  7. Axially localized states in Taylor Couette flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose M.; Marques, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of the flow in a Taylor Couette system with the inner cylinder rotating and aspect ratio Γ restricted to 0 . 86 <Γ/N < 0 . 95 , being N the number of Taylor vortices. For these values a complex experimental bifurcation scenario has been reported. The transition from wavy vortex flow (WVF) to a very low frequency mode VLF happens via an axisymmetric eigenfunction. The VLF plays an essential role in the dynamics, leading to chaos through a two-tori period-doubling route. This chaotic regime vanishes with further increase in Re and gives rise to a new flow regime ALS characterized by the existence of large jet oscillations localized in some pairs of vortices. The aim of this numerical study is to extend the available information on ALS by means of a detailed exploration of the parameter space in which it occurs. Frequency analysis from time series simultaneously recorded at several points of the domain has been applied to identify the different transitions taking place. The VLF occurs in a wide range of control parameters and its interaction with the axially localized states is crucial is most transitions, either between different ALS or to the chaotic regime. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grants (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880 and BES-2010-041542.

  8. A cosmological Slavnov-Taylor identity

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Hael; Holman, R.; Vardanyan, Tereza E-mail: rh4a@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-12-01

    We develop a method for treating the consistency relations of inflation that includes the full time-evolution of the state. This approach relies only on the symmetries of the inflationary setting, in particular a residual conformal symmetry in the spatial part of the metric, along with general properties which hold for any quantum field theory. As a result, the consistency relations that emerge, which are essentially the Slavnov-Taylor identities associated with this residual conformal symmetry, apply very generally: they are true of the full Green's functions, hold largely independently of the particular inflationary model, and can be used for arbitrary states. We illustrate these techniques by showing the form assumed by the standard consistency relation between the two and three-point functions for the primordial scalar fluctuations when they are in a Bunch-Davies state. But because we have included the full evolution of the state, this approach works for a general initial state as well and does not need to have assumed that inflation began in the Bunch-Davies state. We explain how the Slavnov-Taylor identity is modified for these more general states.

  9. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Dallaston, Michael C.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1 /2 , suggesting that this "selection" of 1 /2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  10. DSM-5 and ADHD - an interview with Eric Taylor.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this podcast we talk to Prof Eric Taylor about the changes to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 and how these changes will affect clinical practice. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Taylor.mp3.

  11. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  12. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions…

  13. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... names to Taylor Airport, and Show Low Regional Airport, respectively. Additionally, the geographic... amend controlled airspace at Taylor, AZ (76 FR 3570). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by submitting written comments on the proposal to the FAA. No comments...

  14. 15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to the south. The 'spider' that carries the actual turntable is in place in the pit. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of...

  16. Role of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on prompt striation evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J. L.

    1982-12-01

    It is suggested that a Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by ion inertia is a source of additional growth for prompt striations following the saturation of the seed, kinetic, loss cone instability. The destabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor modes on the prompt striation scale size is seen as implying a simultaneous excitation of large scale size Rayleigh-Taylor modes. The long-term influence of prompt striations on large scale fluid turbulence and on the outer scale of the power spectral density may be minimal. The kinetic loss cone and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are treated in an asymptotic sense, with the kinetic loss cone instability being driven by an ion loss cone distribution function and possibly a density gradient and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (the result of a simultaneous density gradient and an electric polarization drift).

  17. The solution of the point kinetics equations via converged accelerated Taylor series (CATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.; Picca, P.; Previti, A.; Mostacci, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions of the point kinetics equations including non-linear feedback, in a fast, efficient and straightforward way. A truncated Taylor series is coupled to continuous analytical continuation to provide the recurrence relations to solve the ordinary differential equations of point kinetics. Non-linear (Wynn-epsilon) and linear (Romberg) convergence accelerations are employed to provide highly accurate results for the evaluation of Taylor series expansions and extrapolated values of neutron and precursor densities at desired edits. The proposed Converged Accelerated Taylor Series, or CATS, algorithm automatically performs successive mesh refinements until the desired accuracy is obtained, making use of the intermediate results for converged initial values at each interval. Numerical performance is evaluated using case studies available from the literature. Nearly perfect agreement is found with the literature results generally considered most accurate. Benchmark quality results are reported for several cases of interest including step, ramp, zigzag and sinusoidal prescribed insertions and insertions with adiabatic Doppler feedback. A larger than usual (9) number of digits is included to encourage honest benchmarking. The benchmark is then applied to the enhanced piecewise constant algorithm (EPCA) currently being developed by the second author. (authors)

  18. Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Gauthier, S.

    2016-07-01

    Anelastic Rayleigh–Taylor mixing layers for miscible fluids are investigated with a recently built model (Schneider and Gauthier 2015 J. Eng. Math. 92 55–71). Four Chebyshev–Fourier–Fourier direct numerical simulations are analyzed. They use different values for the compressibility parameters: Atwood number (the dimensionless difference of the heavy and light fluid densities) and stratification (accounts for the vertical variation of density due to gravity). For intermediate Atwood numbers and finite stratification, compressibility effects quickly occurs. As a result only nonlinear behaviours are reached. The influence of the compressibility parameters on the growth speed of the RTI is discussed. The 0.1—Atwood number/0.4—stratification configuration reaches a turbulent regime. This turbulent mixing layer is analyzed with statistical tools such as moments, PDFs, anisotropy indicators and spectra.

  19. Anelastic Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Gauthier, S.

    2016-07-01

    Anelastic Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layers for miscible fluids are investigated with a recently built model (Schneider and Gauthier 2015 J. Eng. Math. 92 55-71). Four Chebyshev-Fourier-Fourier direct numerical simulations are analyzed. They use different values for the compressibility parameters: Atwood number (the dimensionless difference of the heavy and light fluid densities) and stratification (accounts for the vertical variation of density due to gravity). For intermediate Atwood numbers and finite stratification, compressibility effects quickly occurs. As a result only nonlinear behaviours are reached. The influence of the compressibility parameters on the growth speed of the RTI is discussed. The 0.1—Atwood number/0.4—stratification configuration reaches a turbulent regime. This turbulent mixing layer is analyzed with statistical tools such as moments, PDFs, anisotropy indicators and spectra.

  20. Classical Rayleigh Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.; Peyser, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in a compressible medium was investigated both at an accelerating embedded interface and at the ablation front in a new series of experiments on Nova. The x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum ablatively accelerated a planar target consisting of a doped plastic pusher which was in some cases backed by a higher density titanium payload. Both target types were diagnosed by face-on and side-on radiography. Experiments have been done with a variety of wavelengths and initial amplitudes. In the case where the perturbed RT-unstable embedded interface is isolated from the ablation front, short wavelength perturbations are observed to grow strongly. When the perturbation is at the ablation front, the short wavelengths are observed to be severely stabilized.

  1. Aluminum Rayleigh Taylor Strength Measurements and Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, M J; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S M; Remington, B A; Raevsky, V A

    2007-01-10

    A traditional approach to the study of material strength has been revitalized at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF). Rayleigh Taylor strength experiments have long been utilized to measure the material response of metals at high pressure and strain rates. A modulated (sinusoidal or sawtooth perturbation) surface is shocklessly (quasi-isentropically) accelerated by a high explosive (HE) driver, and radiography is used to measure the perturbation amplitude as a function of time. The Aluminum T-6061 targets are designed with several sets of two-dimensional sawtooth perturbations machined on the loading surface. The HE driver was designed to reach peak pressures in the range of 200 to 300 kbar and strain rates in the range of 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The standard constitutive strength models, Steinberg-Guinan (SG) [1], Steinberg-Lund (SL) [2], Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) [3], Johnson-Cooke (JC) [4], and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) [5], have been calibrated by traditional techniques: (Hopkinson-Bar, Taylor impact, flyer plate/shock-driven experiments). The VNIIEF experimental series accesses a strain rate regime not attainable using traditional methods. We have performed a detailed numerical study with a two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code containing several constitutive strength models to predict the perturbation growth. Results show that the capabilities of the computational methodology predict the amplitude growth to within 5 percent of the measured data, thus validating both the code and the strength models under the given conditions and setting the stage for credible future design work using different materials.

  2. Author! Author! Beverly Cleary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

  3. Taylor dispersion of colloidal particles in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sané, Jimaan; Padding, Johan T.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-09-01

    We use a mesoscopic particle-based simulation technique to study the classic convection-diffusion problem of Taylor dispersion for colloidal discs in confined flow. When the disc diameter becomes non-negligible compared to the diameter of the pipe, there are important corrections to the original Taylor picture. For example, the colloids can flow more rapidly than the underlying fluid, and their Taylor dispersion coefficient is decreased. For narrow pipes, there are also further hydrodynamic wall effects. The long-time tails in the velocity autocorrelation functions are altered by the Poiseuille flow.

  4. The New Taylorism: Hacking at the Philosophy of the University's End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Robin Truth

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the critical writings of Mark C. Taylor. It suggests that Mark C. Taylor is rewriting a global imaginary devoid of the kind of citizenship that Henry Giroux claims as the basis for public education. Instead, Taylor wants to see the university take shape as profit-generating. According to Taylor, in lieu of learning to take…

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September 15, 1936 EXTERIOR - EAST ELEVATION FROM OLD PRINT IN POSSESSION OF OWNER - Governor's House, 149 Kearny Avenue, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County, NJ

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Everitt K. Taylor, Photographer September 15, 1936 EXTERIOR - GENERAL VIEW EAST ELEVATION FROM OLD PRINT IN POSSESSION OF OWNER - Governor's House, 149 Kearny Avenue, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County, NJ

  7. ChuckTaylor: Principal Investigator, Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    Charles (Chuck) Taylor is the Principal Investigator in the Space Technology's Game Changing Development Program for 3 major projects:Solar Electric Propulsion, Ride The Light (RTL), and Space Powe...

  8. Experimental determination of the effective Taylor dispersivity in a fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Gilardi, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The applicability and accuracy of the approximation for Taylor Dispersion was experimentally determined for the diffusion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture. 12 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  9. Taylor impact tests and simulations of plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Brad E.; Thompson, Darla; Luscher, D. J.; DeLuca, Racci; Brown, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact tests were conducted on plastic bonded explosives PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 for impact velocities between 80 and 214 m/s. High-speed photography was used to image the impact event at a rate of one frame for every 25 μs. For early times, PBXN-9 showed large-deformation mushrooming of the explosive cylinders, followed by fragmentation by an amount proportional to the impact speed, was observed at all velocities. PBX 9501 appeared to be more brittle than PBXN-9, the latter demonstrated a more viscoelastic response. The post-shot fragments were collected and particle size distributions were obtained. The constitutive model ViscoSCRAM was then used to model the Taylor experiments using the finite element code ABAQUS. Prior to the Taylor simulations, ViscoSCRAM was parameterized for the two explosives using uniaxial stress-strain data. Simulating Taylor impact tests validates the model in situations undergoing extreme damage and fragmentation.

  10. McMurdo LTER: streamflow measurements in Taylor Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.; House, H.; Von Guerard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Has established a stream gaging network for the three major lake basins in Taylor Valley. These data are critical for determining nutrient budgets for the lake ecosystems and for understanding physical factors controlling microbial mats in the streams.

  11. 5. Photocopy of painting by Frank H. Taylor showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting by Frank H. Taylor showing the south part of the square, looking west. Painting, early 20th century - Washington Square Area Study, Sixth, Seventh, Walnut & Locust Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability simulations with CRASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.-C.; Fryxell, B.; Drake, R. P.

    2012-03-01

    CRASH is a code package developed for the predictive study of radiative shocks. It is based on the BATSRUS MHD code used extensively for space-weather research. We desire to extend the applications of this code to the study of hydrodynamically unstable systems. We report here the results of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) simulations with CRASH, as a necessary step toward the study of such systems. Our goal, motivated by the previous comparison of simulations and experiment, is to be able to simulate the magnetic RTI with self-generated magnetic fields produced by the Biermann Battery effect. Here we show results for hydrodynamic RTI, comparing the effects of different solvers and numerical parameters. We find that the early-time behavior converges to the analytical result of the linear theory. We observe that the late-time morphology is sensitive to the numerical scheme and limiter beta. At low-resolution limit, the growth of RTI is highly dependent on the setup and resolution, which we attribute to the large numerical viscosity at low resolution.

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Nora; Kuranz, Carolyn; Arnett, David; Hurricane, Omar; Remington, Bruce; Robey, Harry; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2015-11-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of RT flow in supernova experiments, and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By proper accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are identified to describe asymptotic dynamics of RT flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments, the RT flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; the mixing flow may keep order. Support of the National Science Foundation is warmly appreciated.

  14. Janet Taylor Spence (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Deaux, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The long and remarkable life of Janet Taylor Spence, the sixth woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association (APA), ended on March 16, 2015, after a short illness. Janet's 1978 book, Masculinity & Femininity, coauthored with Robert Helmreich, was a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationships between personal attributes, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women, as well their links to both achievement motivation and parental characteristics. Janet's interest in achievement motivation was an extension of her gender work, as she attempted to learn more about the ways in which presumed differences in achievement motivation might be related to the key dimensions of instrumentality and expressiveness. Janet's election to the presidency of the APA was the culmination of a long and broad involvement in the organization. She served on the Board of Directors from 1976 to 1978, and again in 1983 to 1984 during her presidential term. Earlier she served on the Board of Scientific Affairs and edited Contemporary Psychology in the 1970s. Janet was a fellow in four divisions (3, 8, 12, and 35), and in 2004 she received the APA Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology. PMID:26766767

  15. Numerical Simulation of Taylor Cone-Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Ronne

    The Taylor cone-jet is a particular type of electrohydrodynamic phenomenon where electrostatic stresses and surface tension effects shape the interface of the jet in a peculiar conical shape. A thin jet is issued from the cone apex that further breaks up into a fine aerosol. Due to its monodispersive properties, this fine aerosol has found a number of applications, ranging from mass spectrometry, colloidal space propulsion, combustion, nano-fabrication, coating/painting, and many others. In this study, a general non-dimensional analysis is performed to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. In accordance with the observations of Gamero-Castano (2010), noting that droplet electric potential is insensitive to the flow rate conditions, a particular set of characteristic parameters is proposed, based on the terminal jet diameter. In order to solve the non-dimensional set of governing equations and boundary conditions, a numerical method combining the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Volume Method is developed. Results of electric current have shown good agreement with numerical and experimental data available in the literature. The main feature of the algorithm developed is related to the decoupling of the electrostatic from the hydrodynamic problem, allowing us to accurately prescribe the far field electric potential boundary conditions away from the hydrodynamic computational domain used to solve the hydrodynamics of the transition region near the cone apex.

  16. Slavnov-Taylor identities for primordial perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-02-01

    Correlation functions of adiabatic modes in cosmology are constrained by an infinite number of consistency relations, which relate N + 1-point correlation functions with a soft-momentum scalar or tensor mode to a symmetry transformation on N-point correlation functions of hard-momentum modes. They constrain, at each order n, the q{sup n} behavior of the soft limits. In this paper we show that all consistency relations derive from a single, master identity, which follows from the Slavnov-Taylor identity for spatial diffeomorphisms. This master identity is valid at any value of q and therefore goes beyond the soft limit. By differentiating it n times with respect to the soft momentum, we recover the consistency relations at each q order. Our approach underscores the role of spatial diffeomorphism invariance at the root of cosmological consistency relations. It also offers new insights on the necessary conditions for their validity: a physical contribution to the vertex functional must satisfy certain analyticity properties in the soft limit in order for the consistency relations to hold. For standard inflationary models, this is equivalent to requiring that mode functions have constant growing-mode solutions. For more exotic models in which modes do not ''freeze'' in the usual sense, the analyticity requirement offers an unambiguous criterion.

  17. Janet Taylor Spence (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Deaux, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The long and remarkable life of Janet Taylor Spence, the sixth woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association (APA), ended on March 16, 2015, after a short illness. Janet's 1978 book, Masculinity & Femininity, coauthored with Robert Helmreich, was a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationships between personal attributes, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women, as well their links to both achievement motivation and parental characteristics. Janet's interest in achievement motivation was an extension of her gender work, as she attempted to learn more about the ways in which presumed differences in achievement motivation might be related to the key dimensions of instrumentality and expressiveness. Janet's election to the presidency of the APA was the culmination of a long and broad involvement in the organization. She served on the Board of Directors from 1976 to 1978, and again in 1983 to 1984 during her presidential term. Earlier she served on the Board of Scientific Affairs and edited Contemporary Psychology in the 1970s. Janet was a fellow in four divisions (3, 8, 12, and 35), and in 2004 she received the APA Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology.

  18. Observation of the Taylor instability in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pacha, K. A.; Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Merlino, R. L.

    2012-01-15

    Observations of the Taylor instability in a laboratory dusty plasma are presented. The dust cloud, formed in a dc argon glow-discharge plasma, is stratified into regions of high and low dust densities. The instability was triggered by a spontaneous intrusion of the low density dust fluid into the high density dust fluid at the interface. The instability in the dust fluid was phenomenologically similar to the hydrodynamic Taylor instability that occurs when a light fluid is accelerated into a heavy fluid.

  19. Suppression of Rayleigh Taylor instability in strongly coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman

    2014-06-15

    The Rayleigh Taylor instability in a strongly coupled plasma medium has been investigated using the equations of generalized hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the visco-elasticity of the strongly coupled medium due to strong inter particle correlations leads to a suppression of the Rayleigh Taylor instability unless certain threshold conditions are met. The relevance of these results to experiments on laser compression of matter to high densities including those related to inertial confinement fusion using lasers has also been shown.

  20. Shear-thinning-induced chaos in taylor-couette flow

    PubMed

    Ashrafi; Khayat

    2000-02-01

    The effect of weak shear thinning on the stability of the Taylor-Couette flow is explored for a Carreau-Bird fluid in the narrow-gap limit. The Galerkin projection method is used to derive a low-order dynamical system from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. In comparison with the Newtonian system, the present equations include additional nonlinear coupling in the velocity components through the viscosity. It is found that the critical Taylor number, corresponding to the loss of stability of the base (Couette) flow, becomes lower as the shear-thinning effect increases. That is, shear thinning tends to precipitate the onset of Taylor vortex flow. Similar to Newtonian fluids, there is an exchange of stability between the Couette and Taylor vortex flows, which coincides with the onset of a supercritical bifurcation. However, unlike the Newtonian model, the Taylor vortex cellular structure loses its stability in turn as the Taylor number reaches a critical value. At this point, a Hopf bifurcation emerges, which exists only for shear-thinning fluids. PMID:11046426

  1. Jupiter's great red spot revisited. [validity of Taylor column theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.

    1972-01-01

    On the original Taylor column theory of Jupiter's Great Red Spot, the fixed latitude of the Spot is taken to imply that the Taylor column in Jupiter's atmosphere is associated with a disturbance such as a topographic feature of the surface Q underlying the atmosphere. The alternative suggestion that the Taylor column is produced by a solid raft floating at depth in the atmosphere is somewhat easier to reconcile with the approximately 10s difference between the respective rotation periods P sub S and P sub R of the Red Spot and of the radio sources, but it does not account so readily for the fixed latitude of the Spot unless it can be shown that the raft is in stable equilibrium under the north-south components of the dynamical forces, including wind effects, acting upon it. A slight wavering of the upper end of the Taylor column relative to the lower end could account at least in part for the most rapid variations in P sub S, but the slow large-amplitude variations in P sub S must reflect changes in the longitudinal motion of either the surface Q or of the raft. By generalizing the Proudman-Taylor theorem to the case of a non-homogeneous fluid it is shown that the Taylor column theory does not imply very special and therefore unlikely horizontal and vertical temperature variations in Jupiter's atmosphere, thus refuting a widely-held belief to the contrary.

  2. The Life and Legacy of G. I. Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    1996-07-01

    G.I. Taylor, one of the most distinguished physical scientists of this century, used his deep insight and originality to increase our understanding of phenomena such as the turbulent flow of fluids. His interest in the science of fluid flow was not confined to theory; he was one of the early pioneers of aeronautics, and designed a new type of anchor that was inspired by his passion for sailing. Taylor spent most of his working life in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, where he investigated the mechanics of fluid and solid materials; his discoveries and ideas have had application throughout mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering, meteorology, oceanography and materials science. He was also a noted research leader, and his group in Cambridge became one of the most productive centers for the study of fluid mechanics. How was Taylor able to be innovative in so many different ways? This interesting and unusual biography helps answer that question. Professor Batchelor, himself a student and close collaborator of Taylor, is ideally placed to describe Taylor's life, achievements and background. He does so without introducing any mathematical details, making this book enjoyable reading for a wide range of people--and especially those whose own interests have brought them into contact with the legacy of Taylor.

  3. Omissions about the sources of contaminant emissions and depositions - A reply to comments on Taylor, M.P., Davies, P.J., Kristensen, L.J., Csavina, J., 2014. Licenced to pollute but not to poison: The ineffectiveness of regulatory authorities at protecting public health from atmospheric arsenic, lead and other contaminants resulting from mining and smelting operations. Aeolian Research, 14, 35-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L. J.; Davies, P. J.; Csavina, J.; Mackay, A. K.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We would like to thank Dr Wilson for increasing the interest in our 2014 Aeolian Research study along with our other articles that he referred to in his letter to the journal. Before we tackle the specifics of his letter, we would like to inform the readers that our response is inclusive of several other authors whose Mount Isa research was referred to in Dr Wilson's letter.

  4. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  5. An Author as a Counter-Storyteller: Applying Critical Race Theory to a "Coretta Scott King Award Book"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the 2002 Coretta Scott King Award book by Mildred Taylor entitled "The Land". The novel and its author are situated within a tradition of historical fiction written by and about African Americans. I then offer an analysis that utilizes Critical Race Theory as an interpretive tool for examining the ways Taylor embeds meanings…

  6. Taylor line swimming in microchannels and cubic lattices of obstacles.

    PubMed

    Münch, Jan L; Alizadehrad, Davod; Babu, Sujin B; Stark, Holger

    2016-09-21

    Microorganisms naturally move in microstructured fluids. Using the simulation method of multi-particle collision dynamics, we study in two dimensions an undulatory Taylor line swimming in a microchannel and in a cubic lattice of obstacles, which represent simple forms of a microstructured environment. In the microchannel the Taylor line swims at an acute angle along a channel wall with a clearly enhanced swimming speed due to hydrodynamic interactions with the bounding wall. While in a dilute obstacle lattice swimming speed is also enhanced, a dense obstacle lattice gives rise to geometric swimming. This new type of swimming is characterized by a drastically increased swimming speed. Since the Taylor line has to fit into the free space of the obstacle lattice, the swimming speed is close to the phase velocity of the bending wave traveling along the Taylor line. While adjusting its swimming motion within the lattice, the Taylor line chooses a specific swimming direction, which we classify by a lattice vector. When plotting the swimming velocity versus the magnitude of the lattice vector, all our data collapse on a single master curve. Finally, we also report more complex trajectories within the obstacle lattice. PMID:27510576

  7. Crash simulation of rayleigh-taylor, richtmyer-meshkov, and magnetic rayleigh-taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Jason Chuan-Chih

    The research discussed in this thesis was motivated by the supernova Rayleigh-Taylor (SNRT) experiments conducted in 2009. Originally designed as laboratory astrophysics experiments relevant to the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) at the He-H interface during supernova explosion, these experiments exhibited unusual late-time morphology development, characterized by the lack of mushroom caps and uniform width of the spikes. In response, a "Magnetic Straitjacket" hypothesis was proposed to explain the discrepancy, based on the Biermann Battery mechanism. In order to test this hypothesis, we used the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code developed for a sufficiently similar problem and with the necessary capabilities. We validated this alternative usage of the CRASH code with simulations of pure hydrodynamic RTI and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) and identified the suitable combinations of numerical schemes and parameters. For the RTI, we compared the results of simulations to the analytical solution for the early time behavior, examined the late-time morphology, and tested the low-resolution limit for the RTI simulations using CRASH. For the RMI, we modeled Collins and Jacobs' experiment and compared the results of CRASH simulations to the experimental observations as well as to the simulation results of several other code packages. Finally, we modeled the original SNRT experiments with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Biermann battery effect. Unfortunately, the results were inconclusive due to insufficiently resolved simulations, limited by the explicit time integration of the magnetic diffusion. Furthermore, pilot runs with higher resolution indicated that simulations that fully resolve the gradients necessary to calculate the Biermann battery effect may be susceptible to the development of extraneous small-wavelength instabilities. Developments of implicit time integration of the magnetic diffusion and possibly new numerical schemes are

  8. Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1992-01-01

    A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.

  9. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  10. 43 CFR 8360.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES General § 8360.0-3 Authority. The regulations... (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670g), the Taylor Grazing Act (43 U.S.C. 315a), the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (16 U.S.C. 1281c), the Act of September 18, 1960, as amended, (16......

  11. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of

  12. Narrow fingers in the Saffman-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couder, Y.; Gerard, N.; Rabaud, M.

    1986-12-01

    Saffman-Taylor fingers with a relative width much smaller than the classical limit lambda = 0.5 are found when a small isolated bubble is located at their tip. These solutions are members of a family found by Saffman and Taylor (1958) neglecting superficial tension. Recent theories have shown that when capillary forces are taken into account an unphysical cusplike singularity would appear at the tip of all the fingers with lambda less than 0.5. Conversely, here the replacement of the tip by a small bubble makes these solutions possible. At large velocity these fingers show dendritic instability.

  13. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions of the story are quite inaccurate historically. The reality is more complex than the usual accounts have it. This article sets out to disentangle fact from fiction.

  14. Rapid Calculation of Spacecraft Trajectories Using Efficient Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    A variable-order, variable-step Taylor series integration algorithm was implemented in NASA Glenn's SNAP (Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program) code. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagation program that can propagate the trajectory of a spacecraft about virtually any body in the solar system. The Taylor series algorithm's very high order accuracy and excellent stability properties lead to large reductions in computer time relative to the code's existing 8th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Head-to-head comparison on near-Earth, lunar, Mars, and Europa missions showed that Taylor series integration is 15.8 times faster than Runge- Kutta on average, and is more accurate. These speedups were obtained for calculations involving central body, other body, thrust, and drag forces. Similar speedups have been obtained for calculations that include J2 spherical harmonic for central body gravitation. The algorithm includes a step size selection method that directly calculates the step size and never requires a repeat step. High-order Taylor series integration algorithms have been shown to provide major reductions in computer time over conventional integration methods in numerous scientific applications. The objective here was to directly implement Taylor series integration in an existing trajectory analysis code and demonstrate that large reductions in computer time (order of magnitude) could be achieved while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy. This software greatly accelerates the calculation of spacecraft trajectories. At each time level, the spacecraft position, velocity, and mass are expanded in a high-order Taylor series whose coefficients are obtained through efficient differentiation arithmetic. This makes it possible to take very large time steps at minimal cost, resulting in large savings in computer time. The Taylor series algorithm is implemented primarily through three subroutines: (1) a driver routine that automatically introduces auxiliary variables and

  15. Student understanding of Taylor series expansions in statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2013-12-01

    One goal of physics instruction is to have students learn to make physical meaning of specific mathematical expressions, concepts, and procedures in different physical settings. As part of research investigating student learning in statistical physics, we are developing curriculum materials that guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor using a Taylor series expansion of entropy. Using results from written surveys, classroom observations, and both individual think-aloud and teaching interviews, we present evidence that many students can recognize and interpret series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using a Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposures in both calculus and physics courses.

  16. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUD CONTAMINATION ON WELLBORE CEMENT- FORMATION SHEAR BOND STRENGTH Authors: Arome Oyibo1 and Mileva Radonjic1 * 1. Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, 2131 Patrick F. Taylor Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, aoyibo1@tigers.lsu.edu, mileva@lsu.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyibo, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    /not contaminated, scrapped and washed composite cores. Similarly, for the chemically contaminated samples we had 3 different sample designs: 0%, 5% and 10% mud contaminated composite cores. Shear test were performed on the composite cores to determine the shear bond strength and the results suggested that the detrimental impact of the contamination is higher when the cores are physically contaminated i.e. when we have mud cake present at the surface of the wellbore before a cement job is performed. Also, the results showed that shear bond strength is higher for sandstone formations as compared to shale formations. Material characterization analysis was carried out to determine the micro structural changes at the cement-formation interface. The results obtained from the SEM and micro CT images taken at the bond interface confirmed that chemical contamination caused substantial changes in the spatial distribution of minerals that impacted bond strength. Keywords: Cement-Formation bond strength, mud contamination, shale, sandstone and material characterization *Corresponding author

  17. Payload Specialist Taylor Wang performs repairs on Drop Dynamics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload Specialist Taylor G. Wang performs a repair task on the Drop Dynamics Module (DDM) in the science module aboard the orbiter Challenger. Fellow crew members Dr. William E. Thornton (facing camera) and Don Lind are at the right of the frame.

  18. Some observations of a sheared Rayleigh-Taylor/Benard instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, J. A. C.; Marcus, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    An account is provided of preliminary flow visualization observations made in an unstably stratified flow with shear superimposed. The structures observed appear to be the superposition of a Rayleigh-Taylor/Benard instability and a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Aside from its intrinsic fundamental value, the study of these structures is of special interest to theoreticians developing nonlinear stability calculation methodologies.

  19. Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

  20. Evaluation of Five Fracture Models in Taylor Impact Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration, is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  1. 9. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING BY J. E. TAYLOR, SHOWING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING BY J. E. TAYLOR, SHOWING SOUTH FRONT, LEGEND READS: 'BELLE GROVE HOUSE GENERAL SHERIDANS HD QTS AT CEDAR CREEK - GEN'L N. G. WRIGHT IN TEMPORARY COMMAND GORDONS TROOPS SWEEPING THE 19th CORPS BEFORE IT BY THE HOME AT DAWN - DEATH OF CAPT PHIL BIER' - Belle Grove, State Route 727, Middletown, Frederick County, VA

  2. 13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED SAND INTO A FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments in a cylindrically convergent geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, B.; Weir, S.

    1995-08-25

    Due to the sensitivity of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities to initial conditions and due to the difficulty of forming well controlled cylindrical or spherical fluid interfaces, Rayleigh-Taylor experiments are often performed with simple, planar interfaces. Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena of practical interest, however, (e.g., underwater explosions, supernova core collapses, and inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions) are typically associated with cylindrical or spherical interfaces in which convergent flow effects have an important influence on the dynamics of instability growth. Recently, Meshkov et.al. have developed a novel technique for studying Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in a cylindrically convergent geometry. Their experiments utilized low-strength gelatin rings which are imploded by a detonating gas mixture of oxygen and acetylene. Since the gelatin itself has sufficient strength to resist significant deformation by gravity, no membranes are needed to define the ring shape. This experimental technique is attractive because it offers a high degree of control over the interfacial geometry and over the material`s strength and rigidity, which can be varied by adjusting the gelatin concentration. Finally, since both the gelatin and the explosive product gases are transparent, optical diagnostics can be used.

  4. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  5. Positive Health Psychology: An Interview with Shelley Taylor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Shelley Taylor, a professor of Psychology at the University of California in Los Angles (California). Addresses topics such as how she became interested in psychology, the importance of health psychology in the curriculum, the ideal training for students in health psychology, and her work with "positive illusions." (CMK)

  6. Traveling waves in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy

    2007-07-15

    We investigate numerically a traveling wave pattern observed in experimental magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at low magnetic Reynolds number. By accurately modeling viscous and magnetic boundaries in all directions, we reproduce the experimentally measured wave patterns and their amplitudes. Contrary to previous claims, the waves are shown to be transiently amplified disturbances launched by viscous boundary layers, rather than globally unstable magnetorotational modes.

  7. The dynamics of a steady Taylor cone electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Martin; Rutgers, Maarten A.

    1998-11-01

    A liquid drop at the tip of a needle will become conical if a high voltage is supplied to the needle. This is known as a Zeleny^1-Taylor^2 cone. Due to the finite conductivity of most liquids, a thin liquid jet will emerge from the cone tip. This jet can be thinner than 1 micrometer and move with speeds in excess of 10 m/s! The jet breaks up due to a Rayleigh instability into a stream of monodisperse droplets. The particles themselves carry charge and can cause the droplet stream to break up into a diverging conical spray. De La Mora^3 has calculated the relation between the liquid and spray cone angles, but less in known about the dynamics with which the droplets move from the initial jet into the final electrospray cone. We have observed electrosprayed droplets in a regime where the Taylor cone oscillates axisymmetrically, leading to an interrupted spray. By periodically driving the volume of the Taylor cone, and illuminating the spray stroboscopically at the same frequency, we can essentially `freeze' the evolution of a packet of droplets in the spray cone. We clearly observe the disintegration of the initial jet of droplets into a growing spherical cloud. The expanding clouds can be inscribed in the cone of an uninterrupted electrospray. ^1J. Zeleny, Phys. Rev. 3:69, (1914), ^2G.I. Taylor, J. Fluid Mech. 2:1, (1965) ^3J.F. De La Mora, J. Fluid Mech. 243:561, (1992)

  8. Rayleigh Taylor instability of viscoelastic drops at high Weber numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, D. D.; Beavers, G. S.; Funada, T.

    2002-02-01

    Movies of the breakup of viscous and viscoelastic drops in the high-speed airstream behind a shock wave in a shock tube have been reported by Joseph, Belanger & Beavers (1999). They performed a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for the initial breakup of a drop of Newtonian liquid and found that the most unstable Rayleigh Taylor wave fits nearly perfectly with waves measured on enhanced images of drops from the movies, but the effects of viscosity cannot be neglected. Here we construct a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for an Oldroyd-B fluid using measured data for acceleration, density, viscosity and relaxation time [lambda]1. The most unstable wave is a sensitive function of the retardation time [lambda]2 which fits experiments when [lambda]2/[lambda]1 = O(10-3). The growth rates for the most unstable wave are much larger than for the comparable viscous drop, which agrees with the surprising fact that the breakup times for viscoelastic drops are shorter. We construct an approximate analysis of Rayleigh Taylor instability based on viscoelastic potential flow which gives rise to nearly the same dispersion relation as the unapproximated analysis.

  9. 14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR REMOVING A MOLD HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR REMOVING A MOLD HALF FROM THE PATTERN ON THE MOLDING MACHINE, REVEALING THE CAVITY THAT WILL BE FILLED WITH MOLTEN IRON AFTER IT IS ASSEMBLED WITH THE OTHER MOLD HALF INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Pentagon After Action Reports: The Jack Taylor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Stan

    In requesting after action reports--Pentagon-prepared summaries of interviews between reporters and Pentagon officials--investigative reporter Jack Taylor both aroused Pentagon opposition and created a rift between the Pentagon press corps and outside reporters. To investigate whether the full-time Pentagon press corps was reporting as…

  11. Using Taylor Expansions to Prepare Students for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative to the standard introduction to the derivative. Instead of using limits of difference quotients, students develop Taylor expansions of polynomials. This alternative allows students to develop many of the central ideas about the derivative at an intuitive level, using only skills and concepts from precalculus, and…

  12. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate {gamma} = {radical}Akg where k = 2{pi}/{lambda} is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number ({rho}{sub hi} {minus} {rho}{sub lo})/({rho}{sub hi} + {rho}{sub lo}) where {rho}{sub hi} is the density of the heavier fluid and {rho}{sub lo} is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100{mu}m. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF.

  13. Evolution of a magmatic system during continental extension: The Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V. ); Baldridge, W.S. ); DePaolo, D.J. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA ); Shafiqullah, M. )

    1990-11-10

    In this paper the authors present geologic mapping, K-Ar chronology, major and trace element data, mineral chemistry, and Nd, Sr, and O isotopic data for volcanic rocks of the Mount Taylor volcanic field (MTVF). The MTVF lies on the tectonic boundary between the Basin and Range province and the southeastern Colorado Plateau and is dominated by Mount Taylor, a composite volcano active from {approx}3 to 1.5 m.y. ago. Growth of the volcano began with eruption of rhyolite, followed by quartz latite and finally latite. Basalts erupted throughout the lifetime of the volcano. Rare mixing of evolved hy-hawaiite and rhyolite produced a few intermediate magmas, primarily in the early history of the field. Mixing may have occurred when rhyolite magmas in the lower crust ascended to upper crustal levels and were injected into the bases of mafic magma chambers. Small amounts of crustal assimilation accompanied fractional crystallization and affected all the evolved MTVF rocks. Assimilation/fractional crystallization occurred primarily in the lower crust as hy-hawaiite differentiated to mugearite or latite. Early in the history of the field, evolved lower crustal magmas ascended into the upper crust, where density filtering and a reduced tensional stress field inhibited further ascent until magmas evolved to rhyolite or quartz latite. Later in the history of the field, latite magmas ascended directly from the lower crust and erupted without further significant differentiation because of increased crustal extension.

  14. Psychoanalysis, creativity, and hope: forward edge strivings in the life and work of choreographer Paul Taylor.

    PubMed

    Press, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Psychoanalysis and creativity are not interchangeable enterprises; however, both creativity and psychoanalysis promise the hope of transformation. But hope may be fragile. Healthy aspects of self may hide and diminish hope to protect it against invasion from toxic pathological patterns. Hope may be rekindled by an empathically responsive environment and the reengagement of healthy forward edge strivings. Psychoanalysis illustrates creativity as a conduit for hope. Modern dance choreographer Paul Taylor's 1988 autobiography, Private Domain, describes Taylor's hope and strivings through creative engagement. Unfortunately, when Taylor's body inevitably falters after years of performing, he is unprepared psychologically to cope successfully. Taylor's sense of self begins to fragment and his forward edge strivings to decay. Eventually, Taylor collapses on stage from drug addiction and illness; his performing career crashes to an end. Taylor must search for his forward edge strivings with hope. Psychoanalysis illuminates Taylor's journey to find hope, motivation, meaningful intention, and transformation through creativity and dance-making. PMID:15953780

  15. Measurements of small radius ratio turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Merbold, Sebastian; Sun, Chao; Harlander, Uwe; Egbers, Christoph; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-11-01

    In Taylor-Couette flows, the radius ratio (η =ri /ro) is one of the key parameters of the system. For small η, the asymmetry of the inner and outer boundary layer becomes more important, affecting the general flow structure and boundary layer characteristics. Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry we measure flow profiles, local transport, and statistical properties of the flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of up to 4 .104 . By measuring flow profiles at varying heights, roll structures are characterized for two different rotation ratios of the inner and outer cylinder. In addition, we systematically vary the rotation ratio and the Reynolds number. These results exemplify how curvature affects flow in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow.

  16. Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov’s 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number, Re(106) (Taylor number Ta(1012)) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque- and local-velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (that is, very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov’s paradigm.

  17. Multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-11-01

    The ubiquity of turbulent flows in nature and technology makes it of utmost importance to fundamentally understand turbulence. Kolmogorov's 1941 paradigm suggests that for strongly turbulent flows with many degrees of freedom and its large fluctuations, there would only be one turbulent state as the large fluctuations would explore the entire higher-dimensional phase space. Here we report the first conclusive evidence of multiple turbulent states for large Reynolds number Re = O (106) (Taylor number Ta = O (1012) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence, by probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. The manifestation of multiple turbulent states is exemplified by providing combined global torque and local velocity measurements. This result verifies the notion that bifurcations can occur in high-dimensional flows (i.e. very large Re) and questions Kolmogorov's paradigm.

  18. A Taylor weak-statement algorithm for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Kim, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Finite element analysis, applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problem classes, presents a formal procedure for establishing the ingredients of a discrete approximation numerical solution algorithm. A classical Galerkin weak-statement formulation, formed on a Taylor series extension of the conservation law system, is developed herein that embeds a set of parameters eligible for constraint according to specification of suitable norms. The derived family of Taylor weak statements is shown to contain, as special cases, over one dozen independently derived CFD algorithms published over the past several decades for the high speed flow problem class. A theoretical analysis is completed that facilitates direct qualitative comparisons. Numerical results for definitive linear and nonlinear test problems permit direct quantitative performance comparisons.

  19. Singularities in water waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.

    1991-01-01

    Singularities in inviscid two-dimensional finite-amplitude water waves and inviscid Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed. For the deep water gravity waves of permanent form, through a combination of analytical and numerical methods, results describing the precise form, number, and location of singularities in the unphysical domain as the wave height is increased are presented. It is shown how the information on the singularity in the unphysical region has the same form as for deep water waves. However, associated with such a singularity is a series of image singularities at increasing distances from the physical plane with possibly different behavior. Furthermore, for the Rayleigh-Taylor problem of motion of fluid over a vacuum and for the unsteady water wave problem, integro-differential equations valid in the unphysical region are derived, and how these equations can give information on the nature of singularities for arbitrary initial conditions is shown.

  20. Stability of the Taylor--Culick receding rim: surprising observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been evidenced : because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh--Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. The same mechanism holds for a punctured round bubble, for which the relevant acceleration is the Culick velocity squared divided by the bubble radius. The bearing of this phenomenon on aerosols formation in Nature will be underlined.

  1. Taylor vortices in annular spherical flow at large aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukopoulos, Vassilios C.; Karahalios, George T.

    2004-07-01

    Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental work, we numerically investigate spherical Couette flow with a view to obtaining for the first time Taylor vortices at large aspect ratios σ such as 0.38, 0.42, and 0.48. It is found that Taylor vortices can exist, stable or time-dependent, in a range of Reynolds numbers [Re1, Re2] and their formation depends on the aspect ratio, on the imposition of various rotationary conditions on the boundaries, on the history of the flow and on the rate at which energy is transferred into the fluid to its final value. With increasing σ the range [Re1, Re2] manifests a clear tendency to shorten.

  2. General theory of Taylor dispersion phenomena. Part 3. Surface transport

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, L.H.; Brenner, H.

    1982-01-01

    An asymptotic theory of Brownian tracer particle transport phenomena within a bulk fluid, as augmented by surface transport, is presented in the context of generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The analysis expands upon prior work, which was limited to transport wholly within a continuous phase, so as to now include surface adsorption, diffusion, and convection of the tracer along a continuous surface bounding the continuous fluid phase.

  3. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Haan, S. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Wallace, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of fluorosilicone foils with 50 micron wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with very small amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for much longer, and show growth factors of up to 60. From comparisons with 2-dimensional computer simulations, we estimate that the growth rate is approximately 60 percent of classical, the reduction attributed to ablative and gradient scale length stabilization.

  4. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.H.; Wallace, R.J.

    1991-01-22

    Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of fluorosilicone foils with 50 {mu}m wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with very small amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for much longer, and show growth factors of up to 60. From comparisons with 2-dimensional computer simulations, we estimate that the growth rate is approximately 60% of classical, the reduction attributed to ablative and gradient scale length stabilization.

  5. Nonlinear diffusion model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, G; De Lillo, F; Musacchio, S

    2010-01-22

    The complex evolution of turbulent mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor convection is studied in terms of eddy diffusivity models for the mean temperature profile. It is found that a nonlinear model, derived within the general framework of Prandtl mixing theory, reproduces accurately the evolution of turbulent profiles obtained from numerical simulations. Our model allows us to give very precise predictions for the turbulent heat flux and for the Nusselt number in the ultimate state regime of thermal convection.

  6. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2014-09-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an inhomogeneous pair-ion plasma has been analyzed. Considering two fluid model for two species of ions (positive and negative), we obtain the possibility of the existence of RT instability. The growth rate of the RT instability as usual depends on gravity and density gradient scale length. The results are discussed in context of pair-ion plasma experiments.

  7. Numerical study of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Wei; Quan, Shaoping; Lou, Jing

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant liquids is numerically investigated using a front tracking coupled with finite difference method. Parametric studies on the dynamics of the rising Taylor bubble including the final shape, the Reynolds number (Re(T)), the Weber number (We(T)), the Froude number (Fr), the thin liquid film thickness (w/D), and the wake length (l(w)/D) are carried out. The effects of density ratio (η), viscosity ratio (λ), Eötvös number (Eo), and Archimedes number (Ar) are examined. The simulations demonstrate that the density ratio and the viscosity ratio under consideration have minimal effect on the dynamics of the Taylor bubble. Eötvös number and Archimedes number influence the elongation of the tail and the wake structures, where higher Eo and Ar result in longer wake. To explain the sudden extension of the tail, a Weber number (We(l)) based on local curvature and velocity is evaluated and a critical We(l) is detected around unity. The onset of flow separation at the wake occurs in between Ar=2×10(3) and Ar=1×10(4), which corresponds to Re(T) between 13.39 and 32.55. Archimedes number also drastically affects the final shape of Taylor bubble, the terminal velocity, the thickness of thin liquid film, as well as the wall shear stress. It is found that w/D=0.32 Ar(-0.1).

  8. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-08

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor vortices in a pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan

    2015-04-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) vortices and the analytical solution of three-mode coupling in pair-ion plasmas are investigated. It is shown that the E×B convection of polarization drift is responsible for the saturation of growing RT instability and as a result the localized dipole vortex structures are formed. The shear flow generation due to the destruction of vortex structures is discussed by the Fourier mode analysis.

  10. Taylor's Theorem: The Elusive "c" Is Not So Elusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreminski, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For a suitably nice, real-valued function "f" defined on an open interval containing [a,b], f(b) can be expressed as p[subscript n](b) (the nth Taylor polynomial of f centered at a) plus an error term of the (Lagrange) form f[superscript (n+1)](c)(b-a)[superscript (n+1)]/(n+1)! for some c in (a,b). This article is for those who think that not…

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in dusty plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2015-08-15

    The stability of a stratified dust cloud levitated in an anodic plasma is studied in the weakly and strongly coupled dust regimes. It is shown that the cloud is predominantly unstable to a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability driven by a component of the ambient gravity in a direction opposite to the direction of dust density stratification in the cloud. The elasticity of the strongly coupled dust is shown to set a threshold for the RT instability, which is consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in dusty plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2015-08-01

    The stability of a stratified dust cloud levitated in an anodic plasma is studied in the weakly and strongly coupled dust regimes. It is shown that the cloud is predominantly unstable to a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability driven by a component of the ambient gravity in a direction opposite to the direction of dust density stratification in the cloud. The elasticity of the strongly coupled dust is shown to set a threshold for the RT instability, which is consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Discrete families of Saffman-Taylor fingers with exotic shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    The mathematical problem of determining the shape of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell is known to have a countably infinite number of solutions for each fixed surface tension value. For sufficiently large surface tension values, we find that fingers on higher solution branches are non-convex. The tips of the fingers have increasingly exotic shapes as the branch number increases.

  14. Dynamic response of reverse Taylor impact based on DIC technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiancheng; Pi, Aiguo; Wu, Haijun; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-09-01

    Reverse ballistic impact test, which can obtain the response data of rod/projectile more comprehensive and quantitative than forward impact test, was widely used for the measurement of material dynamic and structure response. Based on the DIC technology and traditional optical measurement (high-speed camera measurement), the Taylor experiment of reverse ballistic with different length-diameter ratio and different impact velocities were carried out by 57 mm compression-shear type light-gas gun, which provides the instantaneous response data of the Taylor rod in microsecond level. Then, the transient structural deformation of the specimen and the characteristics of plastic wave propagation were analysed by DIC technology and compared with traditional optical measurement. Applying the theory of reverse Taylor impact deformation and combining with the simulation results by LS-DYNA, the rules of structure deformation and plastic wave propagation were obtained. The method above can be applied for the structure response of penetrator under the condition of reverse ballistic penetration.

  15. The effect of crossflow on Taylor vortices: A model problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.

    1993-01-01

    A number of practically relevant problems involving the impulsive motion or the rapid rotation of bodies immersed in fluid are susceptible to vortex-like instability modes. Depending upon the configuration of any particular problem the stability properties of any high-wavenumber vortices can take on one of two distinct forms. One of these is akin to the structure of Gortler vortices in boundary layer flows while the other is similar to the situation for classical Taylor vortices. Both the Gortler and Taylor problems have been extensively studied when crossflow effects are excluded from the underlying base flows. Recently, studies were made concerning the influence of crossflow on Gortler modes and a linearized stability analysis is used to examine crossflow properties for the Taylor mode. This work allows us to identify the most unstable vortex as the crossflow component increases and it is shown how, like the Gortler case, only a very small crossflow component is required in order to completely stabilize the flow. Our investigation forms the basis for an extension to the nonlinear problem and is of potential applicability to a range of pertinent flows.

  16. Taylor bubbles at high viscosity ratios: experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube, often occurring in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, particularly oil and gas production. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of three-dimensional Taylor bubble rising in highly viscous silicone oil in a vertical pipe. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is adopted here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rising and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control volume and finite element formulation, a `volume of fluid'-type method for the interface-capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Experimental results for the Taylor bubble shape and rise velocity are presented, together with numerical results for the dynamics of the bubbles. A comparison of the simulation predictions with experimental data available in the literature is also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of our numerical method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  17. Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  18. Dynamical study of the three dimensional Saffman-Taylor problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoli, Matteo; Henry, Hervé.; Plapp, Mathis

    2011-11-01

    The mathematical generalization of the Saffman-Taylor problem to three spatial dimensions is straightforward but, nevertheless, it has not been widely studied. Recently, Levine and Tu [Phys. Rev. A 45, 1044 (1992)] solved numerically the problem in the axisymmetric tube geometry finding several solution branches which merge for positive values of the rescaled surface tension parameter γ (of the order of 10-3). Unlike the two dimensional case, it seems that for this geometry does not exists any axisymmetric solution below this threshold. We have developed a phase-field model of two viscous flows to investigate the dynamics of the 3D Saffman-Taylor problem in the regime of small γ . Full three dimensional simulations in a channel with square section and two dimensional axisymmetric simulations in the tube geometry show that the growing finger undergoes a Plateau-Rayleigh instability leading to pinch-off at the finger tail. Through the linear stability analysis of the tube solution in the axisymmetric geometry, we show that the solutions found by Levine and Tu are unstable for any value of γ . Our phase-field model reproduces accurately this linear prediction and allows to study the influence of the finger tip on the pinch-off velocity. Moreover, we observe that the interface between the two fluids undergoes a tip splitting instability for γ < 6 . 5 ×10-3 , spoiling the stability of the Saffman-Taylor finger.

  19. High-Reynolds Number Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two coaxial co- or counter-rotating cylinders, is one of the paradigmatic systems in the physics of fluids. The (dimensionless) control parameters are the Reynolds numbers of the inner and outer cylinders, the ratio of the cylinder radii, and the aspect ratio. One key response of the system is the torque required to retain constant angular velocities, which can be connected to the angular velocity transport through the gap. Whereas the low-Reynolds number regime was well explored in the 1980s and 1990s of the past century, in the fully turbulent regime major research activity developed only in the past decade. In this article, we review this recent progress in our understanding of fully developed Taylor-Couette turbulence from the experimental, numerical, and theoretical points of view. We focus on the parameter dependence of the global torque and on the local flow organization, including velocity profiles and boundary layers. Next, we discuss transitions between different (turbulent) flow states. We also elaborate on the relevance of this system for astrophysical disks (quasi-Keplerian flows). The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

  20. Solving ODE Initial Value Problems With Implicit Taylor Series Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of numerical methods for integrating ODE initial value problems. Specifically, we propose an extension of the Taylor series method which significantly improves its accuracy and stability while also increasing its range of applicability. To advance the solution from t (sub n) to t (sub n+1), we expand a series about the intermediate point t (sub n+mu):=t (sub n) + mu h, where h is the stepsize and mu is an arbitrary parameter called an expansion coefficient. We show that, in general, a Taylor series of degree k has exactly k expansion coefficients which raise its order of accuracy. The accuracy is raised by one order if k is odd, and by two orders if k is even. In addition, if k is three or greater, local extrapolation can be used to raise the accuracy two additional orders. We also examine stability for the problem y'= lambda y, Re (lambda) less than 0, and identify several A-stable schemes. Numerical results are presented for both fixed and variable stepsizes. It is shown that implicit Taylor series methods provide an effective integration tool for most problems, including stiff systems and ODE's with a singular point.

  1. Taylor Impact Tests and Simulations on PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Brad; Thompson, Darla G.; Luscher, D. J.; Deluca, Racci

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact tests have been conducted previously on plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) to characterize the stress state of these materials as they impact smooth and flat steel anvil surfaces at speeds of ~100m/s (i.e. Christopher, et al, 11th Detonation Symposium). In 2003, C. Liu and R. Ellis (unpublished, Los Alamos National Laboratory) performed Taylor tests on PBX 9501 up to speeds of 115 m/s, capturing impact images. In the work presented here, we have extended these tests to velocities of 200 m/s using a composite-lined gun barrel and no specimen sabot. Specimen images are used to validate the thermo-mechanical constitutive model ViscoSCRAM. ViscoSCRAM has been parameterized for PBX 9501 in uniaxial stress configurations. Simulating Taylor impact experiments tests the model in situations undergoing extreme damage. In addition, experimental variations to specimen confinement and friction are introduced in an attempt to establish ignition thresholds in this velocity regime.

  2. Taylor--Couette--Poiseuille flow with a permeable inner cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard

    2010-11-01

    We consider laminar Taylor--Couette--Poiseuille flow between an outer, fixed, impermeable cylinder and a concentric, inner, rotating, permeable cylinder with radial suction. Due to centrifugal instabilities the steady flow transitions to Taylor vortex flow. This system is used in filtration because the vortices wash contaminants away from the permeable cylinder. The coupling between the axial pressure drop driving the annular Poiseuille flow, and the transmembrane pressure driving the suction induces axial variations of the velocity field of the subcritical flow, which can evolve from suction to injection (cross flow reversal) or consume the whole axial flow (axial flow exhaustion). Moreover, the stability of this flow departs from that of Taylor--Couette flow. We propose an asymptotic solution to the subcritical flow assuming slow axial variations of the velocity and pressure fields. The transmembrane suction and pressure are coupled through Darcy's law. This solution is then used as a base flow to study the appearance of instabilities in the form of global modes. The analytical results for the subcritical and supercritical flows are then compared with dedicated 3-D spectral direct numerical simulations implementing Darcy's law on the inner cylinder.

  3. Ultraviolet disinfection: similitude in Taylor-Couette and channel flow.

    PubMed

    Forney, L J; Goodridge, C F; Pierson, J A

    2003-11-01

    The inactivation data for Escherichia coli are recorded for the three reactor geometries of Taylor-Couette flow and flow between either concentric cylinders or a square channel. All of the data are shown to be correlated with the assumption of plug flow. In particular, the effects of nonuniform radiation levels are accounted for by integration across the fluid channel as done previously. However, a new correction factor is introduced that is shown to be inversely proportional to the laminar, velocity boundary thickness to account for the effects of a concentration boundary layer of surviving pathogen. It has also been demonstrated that the common problems of nonuniform radiation levels and concentration boundary layer effects in UV reactors are largely eliminated with the use of Taylor-Couette flow. Moreover, the repetitive exposure of fluid parcels to a small number of lamps in the rotating Taylor-Couette flow decreases maintainance requirements compared to the hydrodynamic equivalent of cross-flow over a tube bank or lamp array. Over a 3-log reduction in the inactivation of E. coli was demonstrated compared to a conventional channel with the same radiation dosage. Moreover, greater than a 2-log reduction was evident compared to flow through concentric cylinders.

  4. Taylor impact tests on PBX composites: imaging and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff Thompson, Daria; DeLuca, Racci; Archuleta, Jose; Brown, Geoff W.; Koby, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    A series of Taylor impact tests were performed on three plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations: PBX 9501, PBXN-9 and HPP (propellant). The first two formulations are HMX-based, and all three have been characterized quasi-statically in tension and compression. The Taylor impact tests use a 500 psi gas gun to launch PBX projectiles (approximately 30 grams, 16 mm diameter, 76 mm long), velocities as high as 215 m/s, at a steel anvil. Tests were performed remotely and no sign of ignition/reaction have been observed to date. Highspeed imaging was used to capture the impact of the specimen onto anvil surface. Side-view contour images have been analyzed using dynamic stress equations from the literature, and additionally, front-view images have been used to estimate a tensile strain failure criterion for initial specimen fracture. Post-test sieve analysis of specimen debris correlates fragmentation with projectile velocity, and these data show interesting differences between composites. Along with other quasi-static and dynamic measurements, Taylor impact images and fragmentation data provide a useful metric for the calibration or evaluation of intermediate-rate model predictions of PBX constituitive response and failure/fragmentation. Intermediate-rate tests involving other impact configurations are being considered.

  5. Reconnaissance study of the Taylor Mountains pluton, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.; Miller, Marti L.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Layer, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The Taylor Mountains pluton is a Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (median age 65 + or ? 2 Ma) epizonal, composite biotite granite stock located about 235 km (145 mi) northeast of Dillingham in southwestern Alaska. This 30 km2 (12 mi2) pluton has sharp and discordant contacts with hornfels that developed in Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks of the Kuskokwim Group. The three intrusive phases in the Taylor Mountains pluton, in order of emplacement, are (1) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar phenocrysts in a coarse-grained groundmass, (2) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar and smaller, but still coarse, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts in a fine-grained groundmass, and (3) fine-grained, leucocratic, equigranular granite. The porphyritic granites have different emplacement histories, but similar compositions; averages are 69.43 percent SiO2, 1.62 percent CaO, 5.23 percent FeO+MgO, 3.11 percent Na2O, and 4.50 percent K2O. The fine-grained, equigranular granite is distinctly felsic compared to porphyritic granite; it averages 75.3 percent SiO2, 0.49 percent CaO, 1.52 percent FeO+MgO, 3.31 percent Na2O, and 4.87 percent K2O. Many trace elements including Ni, Cr, Sc, V, Ba, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, La, Ce, Th, and Nd are strongly depleted in fine-grained equigranular granite. Trace elements are not highly enriched in any of the granites. Known hydrothermal alteration is limited to one tourmaline-quartz replacement zone in porphyritic granite. Mineral deposits in the Taylor Mountains area are primarily placer gold (plus wolframite, cassiterite, and cinnabar); sources for these likely include scattered veins in hornfels peripheral to the Taylor Mountain pluton. The granite magmas that formed the Taylor Mountains pluton are thought to represent melted continental crust that possibly formed in response to high heat flow in the waning stage of Late Cretaceous subduction beneath interior Alaska.

  6. Author's response.

    PubMed

    Crane, Judy L

    2015-01-01

    This letter to the editor rebuts flawed analyses made by O'Reilly (2014) and points out duplicative comments that have already been rebutted in the peer-reviewed literature. O'Reilly (2014) provides little new scientific information on the source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments, and the author stands by the results of her research.

  7. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  8. Visiting Author

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

  9. High Speed Solution of Spacecraft Trajectory Problems Using Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in a spacecraft trajectory analysis code-the Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program (SNAP) - and compared with the code s existing eighth-order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. Nine trajectory problems, including near Earth, lunar, Mars and Europa missions, are analyzed. Head-to-head comparison at five different error tolerances shows that, on average, Taylor series is faster than Runge-Kutta Fehlberg by a factor of 15.8. Results further show that Taylor series has superior convergence properties. Taylor series integration proves that it can provide rapid, highly accurate solutions to spacecraft trajectory problems.

  10. Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: radius ratio dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Huisman, Sander G.; Jannink, Tim J. G.; Van Gils, Dennis P. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Taylor-Couette flow with independently rotating inner (i) and outer (o) cylinders is explored numerically and experimentally to determine the effects of the radius ratio {\\eta} on the system response. Numerical simulations reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=9.5 x 10^3 and Re_o=5x10^3, corresponding to Taylor numbers of up to Ta=10^8 for four different radius ratios {\\eta}=r_i/r_o between 0.5 and 0.909. The experiments, performed in the Twente Turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup, reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=2x10^6$ and Re_o=1.5x10^6, corresponding to Ta=5x10^{12} for {\\eta}=0.714-0.909. Effective scaling laws for the torque J^{\\omega}(Ta) are found, which for sufficiently large driving Ta are independent of the radius ratio {\\eta}. As previously reported for {\\eta}=0.714, optimum transport at a non-zero Rossby number Ro=r_i|{\\omega}_i-{\\omega}_o|/[2(r_o-r_i){\\omega}_o] is found in both experiments and numerics. Ro_opt is found to depend on the radius ratio and the driving of the system. At a driving in the range between {Ta\\sim3\\cdot10^8} and {Ta\\sim10^{10}}, Ro_opt saturates to an asymptotic {\\eta}-dependent value. Theoretical predictions for the asymptotic value of Ro_{opt} are compared to the experimental results, and found to differ notably. Furthermore, the local angular velocity profiles from experiments and numerics are compared, and a link between a flat bulk profile and optimum transport for all radius ratios is reported.

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability with finite current relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, F. E. M.; Orlandi, H. I.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we explore the influence of perturbative wavelengths, shorter than those usually considered, on the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor modes. Therefore, we adopt an extended form of Ohm's law which includes a finite relaxation time of the current density due to inertial effects of charged species in the plasma. The restoring force density that acts upon charged species close to the mode rational surface takes into account a new term which is usually neglected with respect to the motional electromotive force. We find that the width of the resistive layer can be interpreted in terms of the "height" of free fall in a constant gravitational field, in the Alfvén time interval. We also show that the charged species must fall "down" in the constant gravitational field in order that the static state of equilibrium of the system becomes unstable to the linear perturbation. Through the principle of conservation of energy, we find a general formula which gives the growth rate γ of the Rayleigh-Taylor modes. When the new term becomes negligible with respect to the motional electromotive force, we recover the standard result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which establishes that γ scales with the plasma resistivity η as γ ˜ η 1 / 3 . However, in the opposite limiting situation, we find that γ does not depend any longer on the plasma resistivity and scales now with the electron number density n e as γ ˜ ne - 1 / 2 . Further developments of our theory may contribute to improve our understanding on the excitation mechanisms of resistive plasma instabilities by transient phenomena such as shock waves.

  12. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments using shaped laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Haan, S. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Wallace, R. J.

    1991-12-01

    Larege growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of planar fluorosilicone foils with 50-μm wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with large-amplitude initial perturbation quickly enter the nonlinear RT regime, and show little growth. Foils with very-small-amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for longer, and show much larger growth factors. From comparisons with two-dimensional computer simulations, we deduce that the observed growth is about 60% of that expected for classical RT growth.

  13. Large growth Rayleigh-Taylor experiments using shaped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.H.; Wallace, R.J. )

    1991-12-02

    Larege growth Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments have been conducted by pulse-shaped radiative acceleration of planar fluorosilicone foils with 50-{mu}m wavelength initial surface perturbations. Foils with large-amplitude initial perturbation quickly enter the nonlinear RT regime, and show little growth. Foils with very-small-amplitude initial perturbations grow exponentially for longer, and show much larger growth factors. From comparisons with two-dimensional computer simulations, we deduce that the observed growth is about 60% of that expected for classical RT growth.

  14. On Taylor-Series Approximations of Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Although subgrid-scale models of similarity type are insufficiently dissipative for practical applications to large-eddy simulation, in recently published a priori analyses, they perform remarkably well in the sense of correlating highly against exact residual stresses. Here, Taylor-series expansions of residual stress are exploited to explain the observed behavior and "success" of similarity models. Until very recently, little attention has been given to issues related to the convergence of such expansions. Here, we re-express the convergence criterion of Vasilyev [J. Comput. Phys., 146 (1998)] in terms of the transfer function and the wavenumber cutoff of the grid filter.

  15. Taylor's experiment in a periodically sheared particulate suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souzy, Mathieu; Pham, Phong; Metzger, Bloen

    2016-08-01

    We revisit Taylor's experiment investigating the evolution of a blob of dye in a periodically sheared suspension of non-Brownian particles. Above a critical strain amplitude, particulate suspensions are subject to phase transition where reversibility is lost and particles fail to return to their original positions. We investigate the effect of this transition on the dispersion of a blob of dye. Beyond the critical strain, the dispersion of the blob is found to increase significantly. The dispersion coefficient of the blob of dye is measured and compared to the self-diffusivity coefficient of the particles.

  16. Bubble Counts for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Gezahegne, A G; Cook, A W; Cabot, W H; Kamath, C

    2007-01-24

    We describe the use of image analysis to count bubbles in 3-D, large-scale, LES [1] and DNS [2] of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We analyze these massive datasets by first converting the 3-D data to 2-D, then counting the bubbles in the 2-D data. Our plots for the bubble count indicate there are four distinct regimes in the process of the mixing of the two fluids. We also show that our results are relatively insensitive to the choice of parameters in our analysis algorithms.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Yue Ying; Gilgenbach, Ronald

    2013-07-07

    Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.

  18. 1. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Building 4505, Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Building 4505, Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Hangar Type P-A, Floor Plan & Roof Plan, Sheet No. 16, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4315: Taylor & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4315: Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. Muroc ESA 210-50 and 210-44, Military Construction: Muroc Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Utility Yard & Shops: Carpenter & Paint Shop, Utility Shop & Lavatory, Plan & Elevations, Sheet No. 4 of 8, May 1945. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Utility & Paint Shop, Second & E Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 2. Photographic copy of architectural elevations for Building 4505, Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of architectural elevations for Building 4505, Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Hangar Type P-A, Exterior Elevations, Sheet No. 18, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Nonlinear evolution of the unmagnetized ion Rayleigh--Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hassam, A.B.; Huba, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the unmagnetized ion Rayleigh--Taylor instability is investigated. A nonlinear state corresponding to localized clumps of high-density plasma is obtained analytically. The characteristic scale size of the clumps is given by {Delta}{similar to}{ital D}({ital gL}{sub {ital n}}){sup {minus}1/2}, where {ital g} is the gravitational acceleration, {ital L}{sub {ital n}} is the density gradient scale length, and {ital D} is a diffusion coefficient associated with the short-scale dissipation processes in the system. It is shown numerically that this nonlinear state may be both accessible and stable.

  2. Simulating Hamiltonian dynamics with a truncated Taylor series.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic W; Childs, Andrew M; Cleve, Richard; Kothari, Robin; Somma, Rolando D

    2015-03-01

    We describe a simple, efficient method for simulating Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer by approximating the truncated Taylor series of the evolution operator. Our method can simulate the time evolution of a wide variety of physical systems. As in another recent algorithm, the cost of our method depends only logarithmically on the inverse of the desired precision, which is optimal. However, we simplify the algorithm and its analysis by using a method for implementing linear combinations of unitary operations together with a robust form of oblivious amplitude amplification. PMID:25793789

  3. Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2009-03-15

    A simplified analytic model is presented to describe the implosion of a plasma column by an azimuthal magnetic field of sufficient magnitude to drive a strong shock wave into the plasma. This model is employed together with buoyancy-drag-based models of nonlinear single-mode and turbulent multimode Rayleigh-Taylor growth to investigate the mixing process in such fast Z pinches. These models give predictions that characterize limitations the instability can impose on the implosion in terms of maximum convergence ratios attainable for an axially coherent pinch. Both the implosion and instability models are validated with results from high-resolution numerical simulations.

  4. Large growth, planar Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Haan, S. W.; Glendinning, S. G.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Wallace, R. J.

    1992-04-01

    A set of indirect-drive experiments to study large growth Rayleigh-Taylor instability using shaped laser pulses at the Nova laser facility has been conducted. Planar foils of fluorosilicone were accelerated by x-ray ablation. The foil trajectory was measured using edge-on radiography. In separate experiments using face-on radiography, contrast in optical depth was measured as a function of time, from which the evolution of 50 μm wavelength initially sinusoidal surface perturbations was deduced. Holding other parameters fixed, the amplitude of the initial perturbation was varied by up to a factor of 30 in separate shots. The foils with the smallest initial perturbation exhibited growth factors of 75 in contrast. Foils with large initial amplitude perturbation gave growth factors of 6 or less, and displayed the ``bubble-and-spike'' shape characteristic of the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Comparisons of two-dimensional computer simulations with both the measured foil trajectory and the perturbation growth show good agreement, provided that a suitable opacity model is chosen. In the linear regime the observed growth rates are 60%-75% of classical, the reduction attributed primarily to ablative stabilization. The observed onset of harmonic generation, signaling the transition into the nonlinear regime, is well predicted by third-order theory.

  5. Large growth, planar Rayleigh--Taylor experiments on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Munro, D.H.; Wallace, R.J. )

    1992-04-01

    A set of indirect-drive experiments to study large growth Rayleigh--Taylor instability using shaped laser pulses at the Nova laser facility has been conducted. Planar foils of fluorosilicone were accelerated by x-ray ablation. The foil trajectory was measured using edge-on radiography. In separate experiments using face-on radiography, contrast in optical depth was measured as a function of time, from which the evolution of 50 {mu}m wavelength initially sinusoidal surface perturbations was deduced. Holding other parameters fixed, the amplitude of the initial perturbation was varied by up to a factor of 30 in separate shots. The foils with the smallest initial perturbation exhibited growth factors of 75 in contrast. Foils with large initial amplitude perturbation gave growth factors of 6 or less, and displayed the bubble-and-spike'' shape characteristic of the nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. Comparisons of two-dimensional computer simulations with both the measured foil trajectory and the perturbation growth show good agreement, provided that a suitable opacity model is chosen. In the linear regime the observed growth rates are 60%--75% of classical, the reduction attributed primarily to ablative stabilization. The observed onset of harmonic generation, signaling the transition into the nonlinear regime, is well predicted by third-order theory.

  6. Asymmetric bursting of Taylor bubble in inclined tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Basanta Kumar; Das, Arup Kumar; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, experiments have been reported to explain the phenomenon of approach and collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble at free surface inside an inclined tube. Four different tube inclinations with horizontal (30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and two different fluids (water and silicon oil) are considered for the experiment. Using high speed imaging, we have investigated the approach, puncture, and subsequent liquid drainage for re-establishment of the free surface. The present study covers all the aspects in the collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble through the generation of two films, i.e., a cap film which lies on top of the bubble and an asymmetric annular film along the tube wall. Retraction of the cap film is studied in detail and its velocity has been predicted successfully for different inclinations and fluids. Film drainage formulation considering azimuthal variation is proposed which also describes the experimental observations well. In addition, extrapolation of drainage velocity pattern beyond the experimental observation limit provides insight into the total collapse time of bubbles at different inclinations and fluids.

  7. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R(2)/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R(2)/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces. PMID:26867803

  8. Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-06-12

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control.

  9. Non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Luo, Jisheng

    2008-04-01

    The direct numerical simulation method is adopted to study the non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations at the ablation front of a 200 μm planar CH ablation target. In the simulation, the classical electrical thermal conductivity is included, and NND difference scheme is used. The linear growth rates obtained from the simulation agree with the Takabe formula. The amplitude distribution of the density perturbation at the ablation front is obtained for the linear growth case. The non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations are analyzed and the numerical results show that the amplitude distributions of the compulsive harmonics are very different from that of the fundamental perturbation. The characteristics of the amplitude distributions of the harmonics and their fast growth explain why spikes occur at the ablation front. The numerical results also show that non-linear effects have relations with the phase differences of double mode initial perturbations, and different phase differences lead to varied spikes.

  10. Taylor Impact Tests on PBX Composites: Imaging and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Deluca, Racci

    2013-06-01

    A series of Taylor impact tests were performed on three plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations: PBX 9501, PBXN-9 and HPP (propellant). The first two formulations are HMX-based, and all three have been characterized quasi-statically in tension and compression. The Taylor impact tests use a 500 psi gas gun to launch PBX projectiles (approximately 30 grams, 16 mm diameter, 76 mm long) at velocities as high as 215 m/s. Tests were performed remotely and no sign of ignition/reaction have been observed to date. High-speed imaging was used to capture the impact of the specimen onto the surface of a steel anvil. Side-view contour images have been analyzed using dynamic stress equations from the literature, and additionally, front-view images have been used to estimate a tensile strain failure criterion for initial specimen fracture. Post-test sieve analysis of specimen debris correlates fragmentation with projectile velocity, and these data show interesting differences between composites. Along with other quasi-static and dynamic measurements, these impact images and fragmentation data provide a useful metric for the calibration or evaluation of intermediate-rate model predictions of PBX constituitive response and failure/fragmentation. Intermediate-rate tests involving other impact configurations are being considered.

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2016-04-01

    Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change. PMID:27176406

  12. The Inhibition of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability by Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Kyle A.; Scase, Matthew M.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the Coriolis force that acts on fluid in a rotating system can act to stabilise otherwise unstable flows. Chandrasekhar considered theoretically the effect of the Coriolis force on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between a dense fluid lying on top of a lighter fluid under gravity, concluding that rotation alone could not stabilise this system indefinitely. Recent numerical work suggests that rotation may, nevertheless, slow the growth of the instability. Experimental verification of these results using standard techniques is problematic, owing to the practical difficulty in establishing the initial conditions. Here, we present a new experimental technique for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor instability under rotation that side-steps the problems encountered with standard techniques by using a strong magnetic field to destabilize an otherwise stable system. We find that rotation about an axis normal to the interface acts to retard the growth rate of the instability and stabilise long wavelength modes; the scale of the observed structures decreases with increasing rotation rate, asymptoting to a minimum wavelength controlled by viscosity. We present a critical rotation rate, dependent on Atwood number and the aspect ratio of the system, for stabilising the most unstable mode. PMID:26130005

  13. The Inhibition of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability by Rotation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kyle A; Scase, Matthew M; Hill, Richard J A

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the Coriolis force that acts on fluid in a rotating system can act to stabilise otherwise unstable flows. Chandrasekhar considered theoretically the effect of the Coriolis force on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which occurs at the interface between a dense fluid lying on top of a lighter fluid under gravity, concluding that rotation alone could not stabilise this system indefinitely. Recent numerical work suggests that rotation may, nevertheless, slow the growth of the instability. Experimental verification of these results using standard techniques is problematic, owing to the practical difficulty in establishing the initial conditions. Here, we present a new experimental technique for studying the Rayleigh-Taylor instability under rotation that side-steps the problems encountered with standard techniques by using a strong magnetic field to destabilize an otherwise stable system. We find that rotation about an axis normal to the interface acts to retard the growth rate of the instability and stabilise long wavelength modes; the scale of the observed structures decreases with increasing rotation rate, asymptoting to a minimum wavelength controlled by viscosity. We present a critical rotation rate, dependent on Atwood number and the aspect ratio of the system, for stabilising the most unstable mode. PMID:26130005

  14. Experimental Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Using Paramagnetic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklashvili, Vladimer; Likhachev, Oleg; Jacobs, Jeffry

    2009-11-01

    Experiments that take advantage of the properties of paramagnetic liquids are used to study Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A gravitationally unstable combination of a paramagnetic salt solution and a nonmagnetic solution is initially stabilized by a magnetic field gradient that is produced by the contoured pole-caps of a large electromagnet. Rayleigh-Taylor instability originates with the rapid removal of current from the electromagnet, which results in the heavy liquid falling into the light liquid due to gravity and, thus, mixing with it. The mixing zone is visualized by back-lit photography and is recorded with a digital video camera. For visualization purposes, a blue-green dye is added to the magnetic fluid. The mixing rate of the two liquids is determined from an averaged dye concentration across the mixing layer by means of the Beer-Lambert law. After removal of the suspending magnetic field, the initially flat interface between the two liquids develops a random surface pattern with the dominant length scale well approximated by the fastest growing wavelength in accordance with the viscous linear stability theory. Several combinations of paramagnetic and nonmagnetic solutions have been considered during the course of the research. A functional dependence of the mixing layer growth constant, α, on the properties of the liquids is a primary subject of the present study.

  15. Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572

  16. A novel control strategy for a Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Mekadem, M.; Boukrif, M.; Saad, S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2015-11-01

    Advancing transition is desired in applications where heat, mass, or momentum transfer needs to be augmented. On the other hand, delaying transition is imperative in crystal growth devices, where all instabilities are to be avoided in order to prevent the appearance of geometrical irregularities in the resulting crystal. The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous flow in a closed, fully filled Taylor-Couette system is considered in the present numerical study. The fluid evolves in an annular cavity between the rotating inner cylinder and the outer fixed one. The base flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength. The Taylor number varies in the range of 0-50. Numerical simulations are implemented on a finite-volume CFD code. The control strategy involves a pulsatile motion superimposed separately on the inner and outer cylinder's cross-section, with maximum amplitude of, respectively, 5% and 15% of the radius. The frequency varies in the range of 0-100 Hz. The objective is to localize the transition and to assess the flow's response to the imposed boundary motions. Substantial advancement of transition is found when the inner cylinder's cross-section is varied, while this transition is delayed when the outer cylinder's cross-section is pulsating.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2016-04-01

    Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change.

  18. Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572

  19. Taylor-Fourier spectra to study fractional order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, Kurt; Lauwers, Lieve; Gonzales Fuentes, Lee

    2016-06-01

    In measurement science mathematical models are often used as an indirect measurement of physical properties which are mapped to measurands through the mathematical model. Dynamical systems describing a physical process with a dominant diffusion or dispersion phenomenon requires a large dimensional model due to its long memory. Ignoring a dominant difussion or dispersion component acts as a confounder which may introduce a bias in the estimated quantities of interest. For linear systems it has been observed that fractional order models outperform classical rational forms in terms of the number of parameters for the same fitting error. However it is not straightforward to deal with a fractional order system or long memory effects without prior knowledge. Since the parametric modeling of a fractional system is very involved, we put forward the question whether fractional insight can be gathered in a non-parametric way. In this paper we show that classical Fourier basis leading to the frequency response function lacks fractional insight. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a fractional Taylor-Fourier basis to obtain non-parametric insight in the fractional system. This analysis proposes a novel type of spectrum to visualize the spectral content of a fractional system: Taylor-Fourier spectrum. This spectrum is fully measurement driven which can be used as a first to explore the fractional dynamics of a measured diffusion or dispersion system.

  20. Authors reply

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Voelz, G.L.; Wiggs, L.D.; Galke, W.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Acquavella, J.F.

    1988-05-01

    The authors reply to a letter by Johnson, C.J. which was critical of their report of mortality of plutonium workers at the Rocky Flats Plant. The letter clarifies the method by which the cohort was defined in their study, defends their use of urine bioassays for the assessment of plutonium body burden, and suggests that the report makes a significant contribution to the literature on the potential plutonium has to induce human disease. They state that the results of their studies suggest that increased risk for several cancers cannot be ruled out for persons with plutonium body burdens of 2 nanocuries or more. Their previous recommendation that studies of workers should be continued in future years was reemphasized.

  1. Measurement of coefficients of the Ginzburg-Landau equation for patterns of Taylor spirals.

    PubMed

    Goharzadeh, Afshin; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2010-07-01

    Patterns of Taylor spirals observed in the counter-rotating Couette-Taylor system are described by complex Ginzburg-Landau equations (CGLE) and have been investigated using spatiotemporal diagrams and complex demodulation technique. We have determined the real coefficients of the CGLE and their variations versus the control parameters, i.e., the rotation frequency of cylinders.

  2. Taylor-Made Education: The Influence of the Efficiency Movement on the Testing of Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    Much of what has developed in the testing of reading harkens back to the days of the "Cult of Efficiency" movement in education that can be largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor spent most of his productive years studying time and motion in an attempt to streamline industrial production so that people could work as quickly and…

  3. A litmus test for exploitation: James Stacey Taylor's stakes and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, J R

    2009-12-01

    James Stacy Taylor advances a thorough argument for the legalization of markets in current (live) human kidneys. The market is seemly the most abhorrent type of market, a market where the least well-off sell part of their body to the most well off. Though rigorously defended overall, his arguments concerning exploitation are thin. I examine a number of prominent bioethicists' account of exploitation: most importantly, Ruth Sample's exploitation as degradation. I do so in the context of Taylor's argument, with the aim of buttressing Taylor's position that a regulated kidney market is morally allowable. I argue that Sample fails to provide normative grounds consistent with her claim that exploitation is wrong. I then reformulate her account for consistency and plausibility. Still, this seemingly more plausible view does not show that Taylor's regulated kidney market is prohibitively exploitative of impoverished persons. I tack into place one more piece of support for Taylor's conclusion. (wc. 148).

  4. The numerical solution of ordinary differential equations by the Taylor series method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, A. H.; Sullivan, E.

    1973-01-01

    A programming implementation of the Taylor series method is presented for solving ordinary differential equations. The compiler is written in PL/1, and the target language is FORTRAN IV. The reduction of a differential system to rational form is described along with the procedures required for automatic numerical integration. The Taylor method is compared with two other methods for a number of differential equations. Algorithms using the Taylor method to find the zeroes of a given differential equation and to evaluate partial derivatives are presented. An annotated listing of the PL/1 program which performs the reduction and code generation is given. Listings of the FORTRAN routines used by the Taylor series method are included along with a compilation of all the recurrence formulas used to generate the Taylor coefficients for non-rational functions.

  5. Lesbis sustineo! Naiad press authors remember Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from semi-structured interviews with some of Naiad Press's most celebrated women, including Katherine V. Forrest, Barbara's supervising editor at Naiad from 1983-1993; Sheila Ortiz Taylor, author of what is considered by many to be the first lesbian novel with a Chicana heroine; and the incomparable Lee Lynch, this work aims to sustain an ongoing remembrance of Grier's life and work by encouraging memory exploration--a symphonic blending of the printed and spoken word. PMID:25298097

  6. Lesbis sustineo! Naiad press authors remember Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from semi-structured interviews with some of Naiad Press's most celebrated women, including Katherine V. Forrest, Barbara's supervising editor at Naiad from 1983-1993; Sheila Ortiz Taylor, author of what is considered by many to be the first lesbian novel with a Chicana heroine; and the incomparable Lee Lynch, this work aims to sustain an ongoing remembrance of Grier's life and work by encouraging memory exploration--a symphonic blending of the printed and spoken word.

  7. Preferential accumulation of bubbles in Couette-Taylor flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, Eric; Simonnet, Marie; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the migration of bubbles in several flow patterns occurring within the gap between a rotating inner cylinder and a concentric fixed outer cylinder. The time-dependent evolution of the two-phase flow is predicted through three-dimensional Euler-Lagrange simulations. Lagrangian tracking of spherical bubbles is coupled with direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. We assume that bubbles do not influence the background flow (one-way coupling simulations). The force balance on each bubble takes into account buoyancy, added-mass, viscous drag, and shear-induced lift forces. For increasing velocities of the rotating inner cylinder, the flow in the fluid gap evolves from the purely azimuthal steady Couette flow to Taylor toroidal vortices and eventually a wavy vortex flow. The migration of bubbles is highly dependent on the balance between buoyancy and centripetal forces (mostly due to the centripetal pressure gradient) directed toward the inner cylinder and the vortex cores. Depending on the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, bubbles tend to accumulate alternatively along the inner wall, inside the core of Taylor vortices or at particular locations within the wavy vortices. A stability analysis of the fixed points associated with bubble trajectories provides a clear understanding of their migration and preferential accumulation. The location of the accumulation points is parameterized by two dimensionless parameters expressing the balance of buoyancy, centripetal attraction toward the inner rotating cylinder, and entrapment in Taylor vortices. A complete phase diagram summarizing the various regimes of bubble migration is built. Several experimental conditions considered by Djéridi, Gabillet, and Billard [Phys. Fluids 16, 128 (2004)] are reproduced; the numerical results reveal a very good agreement with the experiments. When the rotation rate is increased further, the numerical results indicate the formation of oscillating bubble

  8. Experiments of periodic forcing of Saffman-Taylor fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, M.; Ortín, J.; Hernández-Machado, A.; Poiré, E. Corvera

    2008-03-01

    We report on an experimental study of long normal Saffman-Taylor fingers subject to periodic forcing. The sides of the finger develop a low amplitude, long wavelength instability. We discuss the finger response in stationary and nonstationary situations, as well as the dynamics towards the stationary states. The response frequency of the instability increases with forcing frequency at low forcing frequencies, while, remarkably, it becomes independent of forcing frequency at large forcing frequencies. This implies a process of wavelength selection. These observations are in good agreement with previous numerical results reported in [Ledesma-Aguilar , Phys. Rev. E 71, 016312 (2005)]. We also study the average value of the finger width, and its fluctuations, as a function of forcing frequency. The average finger width is always smaller than the width of the steady-state finger. Fluctuations have a nonmonotonic behavior with a maximum at a particular frequency.

  9. High Reynolds number decay of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    We study the decay of high-Reynolds number turbulence in a Taylor-Couette facility for pure inner cylinder rotation. The rotation of the inner cylinder (Rei = 2 ×106) is suddenly decelerated as fast as possible, thus removing the energy input within seconds. Local velocity measurements show that the decay in this wall-bounded inhomogeneous flow is faster than observed for homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows, due to the strong viscous drag applied by the inner and outer cylinder surfaces. We found that the decay over time can be described with the differential equation Re . (t) =cf (Re)Re2 , where the effects of the walls are included through the friction coefficient. A self-similar behavior of the azimuthal velocity is found: its normalized velocity profile as a function of the radius collapses over time during the decay process.

  10. Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Huisman, Sander; Ostilla, Rodolfo; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Grossmann, Siegfried

    2013-11-01

    We provide direct measurements of boundary layer profiles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re = 2 ×106 using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, complemented by DNS data on the same system up to Re =105 . We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law, but with corrections due to the curvature of the cylinder, which we theoretically account for, based on the Navier-Stokes equation and a closure assumption for the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, we study how these corrections depend on the cylinder radius ratio and show that they are different for the boundary layers at the inner and at the outer cylinder.

  11. Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Sander G.; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-06-01

    We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re=2×106 (Ta=6.2×1012) using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law u+=1/κln⁡y++B. The von Kármán constant κ is found to depend on the driving strength Ta and for large Ta asymptotically approaches κ≈0.40. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around y+≈12 and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log dependence of y+ as also found for channel and pipe flows.

  12. Taylor's law and body size in exploited marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E; Plank, Michael J; Law, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Taylor's law (TL), which states that variance in population density is related to mean density via a power law, and density-mass allometry, which states that mean density is related to body mass via a power law, are two of the most widely observed patterns in ecology. Combining these two laws predicts that the variance in density is related to body mass via a power law (variance-mass allometry). Marine size spectra are known to exhibit density-mass allometry, but variance-mass allometry has not been investigated. We show that variance and body mass in unexploited size spectrum models are related by a power law, and that this leads to TL with an exponent slightly <2. These simulated relationships are disrupted less by balanced harvesting, in which fishing effort is spread across a wide range of body sizes, than by size-at-entry fishing, in which only fish above a certain size may legally be caught.

  13. Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Biermann Battery Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuan-Chih (Jason); Fryxell, Bruce; Drake, R.; van der Holst, Bart

    2011-10-01

    Recently, unexpected morphology has been observed in high-energy Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. In these experiments with 3D initial perturbations, the spikes lack the mushroom cap observed in 2D or low-energy counterparts. It is suspected that magnetic field generated by Biermann battery may be responsible for this unusual morphology. In order to estimate the magnitude of the magnetic field due to Biermann battery effect under the experimental circumstances, we performed preliminary simulations using CRASH and its recent implementation of Biermann battery term. Although limited by the lack of corresponding dissipation term, we are able to obtain the upper limit of the magnetic field present in the experiment. We will discuss its implication in the context of the plausibility of the Biermann battery hypothesis. Work supported by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in USDOE NNSA-ASC (grant DE-FC52-08NA28616), and by the University of Michigan.

  14. Numerical study of spherical Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, R.-J.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique to simulate Taylor vortices in a spherical gap between a rotating inner sphere and a stationary outer one has been developed and tested. Paths leading to zero-, one-, and two-vortex flows are designed heuristically. Fictitious symmetric boundaries near the equator are imposed, and the choice of the location of the fictitious boundaries is determined by either one- or two-vortex flow being stimulated. The imposition of one or two fictitious boundaries during the initial calculation generates the state suitable for one-or two-vortex flow to exist. After removing the fictitious boundaries, the flow settles down into its own attractor. Using this method, the three steady flow modes can be simulated by using a half domain. The technique can converge to desired flows very fast, and its results show excellent agreement with experimental ones.

  15. Symmetry and stability in Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubitsky, M.; Stewart, I.

    1986-01-01

    The flow of a fluid between concentric rotating cylinders (the Taylor problem) is studied by exploiting the symmetries of the system. The Navier-Stokes equations, linearized about Couette flow, possess two zero and four purely imaginary eigenvalues at a suitable value of the speed of rotation of the outer cylinder. There is thus a reduced bifurcation equation on a six-dimensonal space which can be shown to commute with an action of the symmetry group 0(2) x S0(2). The group structure is used to analyze this bifurcation equation in the simplest (nondegenerate) case, and to compute the stabilities of solutions. In particular, when the outer cylinder is counterrotated, transitions which seem to agree with recent experiments of Andereck, Liu, and Swinney (1984) are obtained. It is also possible to obtain the 'main sequence' in this model. This sequence is normally observed in experiments when the outer cylinder is held fixed.

  16. The cylindrical magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for viscous fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, K.; Forbes, L. K.

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers a cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in which a heavy fluid surrounds a light fluid, and gravity is directed radially inwards. A massive object is located at the centre of the light fluid, and it behaves like a line dipole both for fluid flow and magnetic field strength. The initially circular interface between the two conducting fluids evolves into plumes, dependent on the magnetic and fluid dipole strengths and the nature of the initial disturbance to the interface. A spectral method is presented to solve the time-dependent interface shapes, and results are presented and discussed. Bipolar solutions are possible, and these are of particular relevance to astrophysics. The solutions obtained resemble structures of some HII regions and nebulae.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative features of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprabhu, Praveen; Karkhanis, Varad; Lawrie, Andrew; Bhowmick, Aklant; Abarzhi, Snezhana; RTI Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We consider dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) flow in a large aspect ratio three-dimensional domain with square symmetry in the plane for fluids with contrasting densities. In order to quantify the interface evolution from a small amplitude single-mode initial perturbation to advanced stage of RT mixing, we apply numerical simulations using the MOBILE code, theoretical analyses, including group theory and momentum model, as well as parameters describing the interplay between acceleration and turbulence. We find: In RT flow, the fluid motion is intense near the interface and is negligible far from the interface. At late times the growth rates of RT bubbles and spikes may increase without a corresponding increase of length-scales in the direction normal to acceleration. The parameters describing the interplay between acceleration and turbulence in RT mixing are shown to scale well with the flow Reynolds number and Froude number.

  18. Nonlinear saturation amplitude of cylindrical Rayleigh—Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wan-Hai; Yu, Chang-Ping; Ye, Wen-Hua; Wang, Li-Feng

    2014-09-01

    The nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) of the fundamental mode in the classical Rayleigh—Taylor instability with a cylindrical geometry for an arbitrary Atwood number is analytically investigated by considering the nonlinear corrections up to the third order. The analytic results indicate that the effects of the initial radius of the interface (r0) and the Atwood number (A) play an important role in the NSA of the fundamental mode. The NSA of the fundamental mode first increases gently and then decreases quickly with increasing A. For a given A, the smaller the r0/λ (λ is the perturbation wavelength), the larger the NSA of the fundamental mode. When r0/λ is large enough (r0 ≫ λ), the NSA of the fundamental mode is reduced to the prediction in the previous literatures within the framework of the third-order perturbation theory.

  19. Shercliff layers in strongly magnetic cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerbach, Rainer; Hulot, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    We numerically compute the axisymmetric Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of axially periodic magnetic fields, with Hartmann numbers up to Ha2 =107. The geometry of the field singles out special field lines on which Shercliff layers form. These are simple shear layers for insulating boundaries, versus super-rotating or counter-rotating layers for conducting boundaries. Some field configurations have previously studied spherical analogs, but fundamentally new configurations also exist, having no spherical analogs. Finally, we explore the influence of azimuthal fields Bϕ ∼r-1eˆϕ on these layers, and show that the flow is suppressed for conducting boundaries, but enhanced for insulating boundaries. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Taylor dispersion in equilibrium gradient focusing at steady state.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Cornelius F

    2015-03-01

    An analytic expression is presented for the effective dispersion coefficient in the case where a solute is focused in a parabolic flow against a linear gradient in a restoring force. This expression was derived by employing a minor variation on the method of moments used by Aris in his development of the dispersion coefficients for a time-dependent, isocratic system. In the present case, dispersion is controlled by two dimensionless groups, a Peclet number which is proportional to the parabolic component of the flow, and a gradient number which is proportional to the slope of the restoring force. These results confirm that the Aris-Taylor expression for the dispersion coefficient should not be applied in cases where a solute is focused to a stationary steady state.

  1. Collisional effects on Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Flaig, M.; Plewa, T.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V.

    2015-05-15

    Magnetic-field generation from the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability was predicted more than 30 years ago, though experimental measurements of this phenomenon have only occurred in the past few years. These pioneering observations demonstrated that collisional effects are important to B-field evolution. To produce fields of a measurable strength, high-intensity lasers irradiate solid targets to generate the nonaligned temperature and density gradients required for B-field generation. The ablation process naturally generates an unstable system where RT-induced magnetic fields form. Field strengths inferred from monoenergetic-proton radiographs indicate that in the ablation region diffusive effects caused by finite plasma resistivity are not negligible. Results from the first proof-of-existence experiments are reviewed and the role of collisional effects on B-field evolution is discussed in detail.

  2. Plasma transport driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.

    2016-06-01

    Two important differences between the giant magnetospheres (i.e., Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres) and the terrestrial magnetosphere are the internal plasma sources and the fast planetary rotation. Thus, there must be a radially outward flow to transport the plasma to avoid infinite accumulation of plasma. This radial outflow also carries the magnetic flux away from the inner magnetosphere due to the frozen-in condition. As such, there also must be a radial inward flow to refill the magnetic flux in the inner magnetosphere. Due to the similarity between Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability and the centrifugal instability, we use a three-dimensional RT instability to demonstrate that an interchange instability can form a convection flow pattern, locally twisting the magnetic flux, consequently forming a pair of high-latitude reconnection sites. This process exchanges a part of the flux tube, thereby transporting the plasma radially outward without requiring significant latitudinal convection of magnetic flux in the ionosphere.

  3. Size invariance of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Øistein; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2010-04-01

    The size scaling behavior of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability [J. L. Vinningland , Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 048001 (2007)] is investigated experimentally, numerically, and theoretically. An upper layer of grains displaces a lower gap of air by organizing into dense fingers of falling grains separated by rising bubbles of air. The dependence of these structures on the system and grain sizes is investigated. A spatial measurement of the finger structures is obtained by the Fourier power spectrum of the wave number k . As the size of the grains increases the wave number decreases accordingly which leaves the dimensionless product of wave number and grain diameter, dk , invariant. A theoretical interpretation of the invariance, based on the scaling properties of the model equations, suggests a gradual breakdown of the invariance for grains smaller than ˜70μm or greater than ˜570μm in diameter.

  4. The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Papadopoulos, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    This is our first study of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the inner edge of an astrophysical disc around a central back hole. We derive the equations governing small-amplitude oscillations in general relativistic ideal magnetodydrodynamics and obtain a criterion for the onset of the instability. We suggest that static disc configurations where magnetic field is held by the disc material are unstable around a Schwarzschild black hole. On the other hand, we find that such configurations are stabilized by the space-time rotation around a Kerr black hole. We obtain a crude estimate of the maximum amount of poloidal magnetic flux that can be accumulated around the centre, and suggest that it is proportional to the black hole spin. Finally, we discuss the astrophysical implications of our result for the theoretical and observational estimations of the black hole jet power.

  5. A novel technique for performing symmetric Taylor impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walley, S. M.; Taylor, N. E.; Williamson, D. M.; Jardine, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    A novel spring tensioned wire cradle arrangement has been developed to hold the target rod lightly but firmly in place when performing rod-on-rod (symmetric Taylor) impact in a vacuum. In addition, a soft capture system has been designed and used to decelerate both rods while reducing the chance of them colliding a second time. High-speed photography was used to obtain the profile of a pure aluminium target rod as a function of time. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was also deployed to record the velocity of the rear of the target rod as a function of time. Voiding in the interior of recovered rods was investigated non-destructively using X-ray tomography. The data provides comprehensive validation information for predictive constitutive models.

  6. Subcritical Transition and Spiral Turbulence in Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin, M. J.; Czarnocki, C. J.; Dapron, T.; McDonald, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    We present measurements characterizing the transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow for a fully cyclonic regime, i.e. with only the outer cylinder rotating. Under this arrangement the flow is linearly-stable and the shear-driven transition to turbulence is understood to be both `catastrophic' and spatiotemporally intermittent. En route to a fully turbulent state, we observe a regime featuring co-extant laminar/turbulent domains known as spiral turbulence. To better understand this regime, and the transition in general, we have obtained velocimetry data (via LDV) and angular momentum transport estimates (via torque), in addition to flow visualization. These observations are discussed with respect to similar transition phenomena in planar and counter-rotating Couette flows. By utilizing three different inner cylinder radii within the apparatus, we also demonstrate the sensitivity of the subcritical transition scenario to annular gap width.

  7. Recent advances in the turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, Guy; Ramaprabhu, P.; Youngs, D.L.; Andrews, M.J.; Rosner, R.

    2005-05-15

    In the turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the light fluid penetrates the heavy fluid as bubbles with a diameter D{sub b} and amplitude h{sub b} that grow self-similarly D{sub b}{proportional_to}h{sub b}{approx}{alpha}{sub b}A gt{sup 2} where A is Atwood number, g is acceleration, and t is time. Experiments measure an acceleration constant {alpha}{sub b}{approx}0.04-0.08 whereas the highest resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations obtain {alpha}{sub b}{approx}0.02-0.03 with idealized initial conditions. This paper reconciles this apparent discrepancy with new simulations that quantify the importance of initial conditions on {alpha}{sub b}. The results compare favorably with experiments and a model based on self-similar bubble dynamics.

  8. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-01

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].

  9. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guangjun; Liu, Juan E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com; Wu, Xiaoqun E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com; Lu, Jun-an; Guo, Chi

    2015-04-15

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields.

  10. Linear analysis of incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Tahir, N A

    2009-10-01

    The study of the linear stage of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic solids is performed by considering thick plates under a constant acceleration that is also uniform except for a small sinusoidal ripple in the horizontal plane. The analysis is carried out by using an analytical model based on the Newton second law and it is complemented with extensive two-dimensional numerical simulations. The conditions for marginal stability that determine the instability threshold are derived. Besides, the boundary for the transition from the elastic to the plastic regime is obtained and it is demonstrated that such a transition is not a sufficient condition for instability. The model yields complete analytical solutions for the perturbation amplitude evolution and reveals the main physical process that governs the instability. The theory is in general agreement with the numerical simulations and provides useful quantitative results. Implications for high-energy-density-physics experiments are also discussed.

  11. Linear analysis of incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Piriz, A. R.; Lopez Cela, J. J.; Tahir, N. A.

    2009-10-15

    The study of the linear stage of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic solids is performed by considering thick plates under a constant acceleration that is also uniform except for a small sinusoidal ripple in the horizontal plane. The analysis is carried out by using an analytical model based on the Newton second law and it is complemented with extensive two-dimensional numerical simulations. The conditions for marginal stability that determine the instability threshold are derived. Besides, the boundary for the transition from the elastic to the plastic regime is obtained and it is demonstrated that such a transition is not a sufficient condition for instability. The model yields complete analytical solutions for the perturbation amplitude evolution and reveals the main physical process that governs the instability. The theory is in general agreement with the numerical simulations and provides useful quantitative results. Implications for high-energy-density-physics experiments are also discussed.

  12. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjun; Wu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Juan; Lu, Jun-an; Guo, Chi

    2015-04-01

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields.

  13. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  14. Exploring elastic and plastic regimes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, Rinosh; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-11-01

    The elastic-plastic (EP) transition stage of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an accelerated non-Newtonian material (soft solid) is investigated. The material exhibits both elastic and plastic behavior when the applied stress is less than yield stress. Different combinations of perturbation amplitude and wavelength are employed at the solid-gas interface. Plastic deformation of a stable interface under various acceleration profiles is analyzed. In addition, the evolution of single mode perturbations at various strain rates is examined by altering the angular acceleration of rotating disk on which the test section is mounted. These findings are used to characterize the effects of strain rate variation on the instability growth rate and the experimental results are compared to several analytical models on RTI in solids. The instability threshold for a perturbation of given amplitude and wavelength is observed to increase with an increase in angular acceleration. The perturbation velocities are measured and used to estimate values of growth-rate parameter in the unstable phase. Authors acknowledge financial support through a DOE-SSAA Grant # DE-NA0001975 and a LANL subcontract.

  15. Measurements of premixed-flame turbulence generation and modification in a Taylor-Couette burner

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomand-Kermani, Amir M.; Aldredge, Ralph C.

    2007-10-15

    Turbulent, premixed lean methane-air flames were studied experimentally in a Taylor-Couette burner, extending the previous work of non-reacting turbulent-flow measurements. A laser-Doppler velocimetry system is employed to measure velocity fluctuations in the circumferential direction at the center of the annulus where mean velocities are nearly zero. Turbulence parameters such as the intensities, approximated integral and micro-time and length scales and one-dimensional frequency spectra are obtained for the flow-field ahead and behind the flame front. The frequency spectra exhibit a -5/3 slope reaffirming isotropic characteristics. It is found that there is an increase in intensity, turbulence Reynolds number and energy across a broad range of frequencies behind the flame along with a shift toward larger scales. However, there appears to be a decrease in amplification of the intensities and turbulence Reynolds number with increasing pre-ignition turbulence in the burner (generated by counter-rotation of the cylinder walls). Results suggest that the presence of flame-generated turbulence in the TC burner is sensitive to both pre-ignition turbulence and equivalence ratio. (author)

  16. Experiments on Effects of Initial Conditions and Material Strength on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Pamela; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-11-01

    The effects of initial conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an accelerated elastic-plastic solid were studied. A novel rotating wheel RT experiment that uses centrifugal forces to accelerate a two-material interface was utilized to study the effect of amplitude and wavelength on RT instability with an elastic-plastic solid. The experiment consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise, a non-Newtonian emulsion, with an initial perturbation between the two materials. Single mode perturbations of various amplitudes and wavelengths were analyzed and results indicated the acceleration required for instability increased for both decreasing initial amplitude and wavelength. Three-dimensional interfaces were found to be more stable than two-dimensional interfaces. Critical amplitude and growth rates were compared with prior experimental results and analytical growth models. Elastic and plastic peak amplitude responses were observed for stable interfaces using a variable acceleration profile where the test section was first accelerated to slightly below the critical acceleration and then decelerated at the same rate. This exercise allowed for verification of the elastic-plastic (EP) transition process before instability was reached. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-LANL subcontract # 173667-1 to Lehigh University and a NSF-Graduate Research Fellowship to Pamela Roach.

  17. Ablation front rayleigh taylor dispersion curve in indirect drive

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K S; Lasinski, B; Edwards, M J; Wan, A S; Remington, B A; Weber, S V; Glendinning, S G; Suter, L; Stry, P

    2000-11-17

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which occurs when a lower-density fluid accelerates a higher-density layer, is common in nature. At an ablation front a sharp reduction in the growth rate of the instability at short wave-lengths can occur, in marked contrast to the classical case where growth rates are highest at the shortest wavelengths. Theoretical and numerical investigations of the ablative RT instability are numerous and differ considerably on the level of stabilization expected. We present here the results of a series of laser experiments designed to probe the roll-over and cutoff region of the ablation-front RT dispersion curve in indirect drive. Aluminum foils with imposed sinusoidal perturbations ranging in wavelength from 10 to 70 pm were ablatively accelerated with a radiation drive generated in a gold cylindrical hohlraum. A strong shock wave compresses the package followed by an {approx}2 ns period of roughly constant acceleration and the experiment is diagnosed via face-on radiography. Perturbations with wavelengths {ge} 20 {micro}m experienced substantial growth during the acceleration phase while shorter wavelengths showed a sharp drop off in overall growth. These experimental results compared favorably to calculations with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code, however, the growth is significantly affected by the rippled shock launched by the drive. We performed numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of the rippled shock wave on the eventual growth of the perturbations, allowing comparisons to the analytic model developed by Betti et al. This combination of experiments, simulations and analytic modeling illustrates the qualitative simplicity yet quantitative complexity of the compressible RT instability. We have measured the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) dispersion curve for a radiatively-driven sample in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility. Planar aluminum foils were ablatively-accelerated and the subsequent perturbation growth

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the

  19. Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids in un-magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Tiwari, A.; Argal, S.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    The linear Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible Newtonian fluids is discussed with the effect of surface tension which can play important roles in space plasma. As in both the superposed Newtonian fluids, the system is stable for potentially stable case and unstable for potentially unstable case in the present problem also. The equations of the problem are solved by normal mode method and a dispersion relation is obtained for such a system. The behaviour of growth rate is examined in the presence of surface tension and it is found that the surface tension has stabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids. Numerical analysis is performed to show the effect of sound velocity and surface tension on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability. It is found that both parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability.

  20. A Numerical and Graphical Approach to Taylor Polynomials Using an Electronic Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Described is an instructional method that makes use of an electronic spreadsheet for the numerical and graphical introduction of the fundamentals of Taylor polynomials. Included is a demonstration spreadsheet using the expansion polynomial to evaluate the cosine function. (JJK)

  1. Employing Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities to simulate turbulent statistics in LES models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrazia, G. A.; Rizza, U.; Puhales, F. S.; Welter, G. S.; Acevedo, O. C.; Maldaner, S.

    2012-02-01

    A turbulent subfilter viscosity for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based on the Taylor statistical diffusion theory is proposed. This viscosity is described in terms of a velocity variance and a time scale, both associated to the inertial subrange. This new subfilter viscosity contains a cutoff wavenumber kc, presenting an identical form (differing by a constant) to the Heisenberg subfilter viscosity. Therefore, both subfilter viscosities are described in terms of a sharp division between large and small wavenumbers of a turbulent flow and, henceforth, Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities are in agreement with the sharp Fourier filtering operation, frequently employed in LES models. Turbulent statistics of different orders, generated from atmospheric boundary layer simulations employing both Taylor and Heisenberg subfilter viscosities have been compared with observations and results provided by other simulations. The comparison shows that the LES model utilizing the approaches of Taylor and Heisenberg reproduces these turbulent statistics correctly in different vertical regions of a planetary convective boundary layer (CBL).

  2. Characteristic time scales of mixing, mass transfer and biomass growth in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi; Kong, Bo; Vigil, R Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that algal biomass yield can be enhanced using fluid flow patterns known as Taylor vortices. It has been suggested that these growth rate improvements can be attributed to improved light delivery as a result of rapid transport of microorganisms between light and dark regions of the reactor. However, Taylor vortices also strongly impact fluid mixing and interphase (gas-liquid) mass transport, and these in turn may also explain improvements in biomass productivity. To identify the growth-limiting factor in a Taylor vortex algal photobioreactor, experiments were performed to determine characteristic time scales for mixing and mass transfer. By comparing these results with the characteristic time scale for biomass growth, it is shown that algal growth rate in Taylor vortex reactors is not limited by fluid mixing or interphase mass transfer, and therefore the observed biomass productivity improvements are likely attributable to improved light utilization efficiency.

  3. Numerical study of eccentric Couette Taylor flows and effect of eccentricity on flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, C.; Wang, L.; Chew, Y. T.; Zhao, N.

    2004-10-01

    In this study, the differential quadrature (DQ) method was used to simulate the eccentric Couette Taylor vortex flow in an annulus between two eccentric cylinders with rotating inner cylinder and stationary outer cylinder. An approach combining the SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations) and DQ discretization on a non-staggered mesh was proposed to solve the time-dependent, three-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations in the primitive variable form. The eccentric steady Couette Taylor flow patterns were obtained from the solution of three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations. The reported numerical results for steady Couette flow were compared with those from Chou [1], and San and Szeri [2]. Very good agreement was achieved. For steady eccentric Taylor vortex flow, detailed flow patterns were obtained and analyzed. The effect of eccentricity on the eccentric Taylor vortex flow pattern was also studied.

  4. A model of mixing and transport in wavy Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Shinbrot, Troy; Lueptow, Richard M.

    1998-10-01

    Wavy Taylor vortex flow was simulated by developing a stream function model of the velocity vector field in a radial-axial plane that mimics an experimentally obtained velocity field. The simulation neglects the azimuthal component of velocity but provides estimates of the mixing and axial transport properties of wavy vortex flow in the axial-radial plane at higher Taylor numbers ( Ta) and larger gap widths than previous models. Based on the estimated Lyapunov numbers, the particle paths appear to be chaotic for wavy vortex flow in the range 131 ≤ Ta ≤ 253. The axial particle transport increases with the Taylor number in this range, most likely due to increased axial transport of fluid between vortices. The mixing within vortices is also enhanced with increasing Taylor number as a result of increased stretching and folding within a vortex.

  5. Modeling of Nova indirect drive Rayleigh--Taylor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S.V.; Remington, B.A.; Haan, S.W.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K. )

    1994-11-01

    The growth due to the Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) instability of single-wavelength surface perturbations on planar foils of brominated CH [CH(Br)] and fluorosilicone (FS) was measured. The foils were accelerated by x-ray ablation with temporally shaped drive pulses. A range of initial amplitudes ([ital a][sub 0]) and wavelengths ([lambda]) have been used. This paper focuses upon foils with small [ital a][sub 0]/[lambda], which exhibit substantial growth in the linear regime, and are most sensitive to the calculated growth rate. The CH(Br) foils exhibit slower RT perturbation growth because opacity differences result in a larger ablation velocity and a longer density scale length than for FS. Tabulated opacities from detailed atomic models, OPAL [Astrophys. J. [bold 397], 717 (1992)] and super transition array (STA) [Phys. Rev. A [bold 40], 3183 (1989)] were employed. Unlike previous simulations which employed the average atom (XSN) opacity treatment, parameter adjustments to fit experimental data no longer appear necessary. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects do not appear to be important. Other variables which may affect the modeling, such as changes of the equation of state and radiation drive spectrum, were also examined. The current calculational model, which incorporates physically justified choices for these calculational ingredients, agrees with the Nova single wavelength RT perturbation growth data.

  6. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-07-10

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  7. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. B.; Piriz, A. R.

    2014-07-01

    A linear analysis of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between a Newtonian fluid and an elastic-plastic solid is performed by considering a uniform magnetic B →, parallel to the interface, which has diffused into the fluid but not into the solid. It is found that the magnetic field attributes elastic properties to the viscous fluid which enhance the stability region by stabilizing all the perturbation wavelengths shorter than λ 0 ∝ B 2 for any initial perturbation amplitude. Longer wavelengths are stabilized by the mechanical properties of the solid provided that the initial perturbation wavelength is smaller than a threshold value determined by the yield strength and the shear modulus of the solid. Beyond this threshold, the amplitude grows initially with a growth rate reduced by the solid strength properties. However, such properties do not affect the asymptotic growth rate which is only determined by the magnetic field and the fluid viscosity. The described physical situation intends to resemble some of the features present in recent experiments involving the magnetic shockless acceleration of flyers plates.

  8. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Sengupta, Aditi; Sengupta, Soumyo; Bhole, Ashish; Shruti, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    Here, the fundamental problem of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS), where the two air masses at different temperatures, kept apart initially by a non-conducting horizontal interface in a 2D box, are allowed to mix. Upon removal of the partition, mixing is controlled by RTI, apart from mutual mass, momentum, and energy transfer. To accentuate the instability, the top chamber is filled with the heavier (lower temperature) air, which rests atop the chamber containing lighter air. The partition is positioned initially at mid-height of the box. As the fluid dynamical system considered is completely isolated from outside, the DNS results obtained without using Boussinesq approximation will enable one to study non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a finite reservoir undergoing strong irreversible processes. The barrier is removed impulsively, triggering baroclinic instability by non-alignment of density, and pressure gradient by ambient disturbances via the sharp discontinuity at the interface. Adopted DNS method has dispersion relation preservation properties with neutral stability and does not require any external initial perturbations. The complete inhomogeneous problem with non-periodic, no-slip boundary conditions is studied by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equation, without the Boussinesq approximation. This is important as the temperature difference between the two air masses considered is high enough (Δ T = 70 K) to invalidate Boussinesq approximation. We discuss non-equilibrium thermodynamical aspects of RTI with the help of numerical results for density, vorticity, entropy, energy, and enstrophy.

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor instability at ionization fronts: perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The linear growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at ionization fronts is investigated via perturbation analysis in the limit of incompressible fluids. In agreement with previous numerical studies, it is found that absorption of ionizing radiation inside the H II region due to hydrogen recombinations suppresses the growth of instabilities. In the limit of a large density contrast at the ionization front, the RTI growth rate has the simple analytical solution n=-ν _rec+(ν _rec^2+gk)^{1/2}, where νrec is the hydrogen recombination rate inside the H II region, k is the perturbation's wavenumber and g is the effective acceleration in the frame of reference of the front. Therefore, the growth of surface perturbations with wavelengths λ ≫ λ _cr ≡ 2π g/ν _rec^2 is suppressed by a factor ˜(λcr/4λ)1/2 with respect to the non-radiative incompressible RTI. Implications on stellar and black hole feedback are briefly discussed.

  10. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR UNSTABLE FLAMES—FAST OR FASTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, E. P.

    2015-04-20

    Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of supernovae Ia. However, the dynamics of these flames are still not well understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from traditional turbulent flames: they are thinner rather than thicker when turbulence is stronger. We also show that none of the several different types of turbulent flame speed models accurately predicts measured flame speeds. In addition, we find that the RT flame speed model only correctly predicts the measured flame speed in a certain parameter regime. Finally, we propose that the formation of cusps may be the factor causing the flame to propagate more quickly than predicted by the RT model.

  11. Towards Fully Diagnosed Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with material ablation through the unstable interface is the key physics that determines the success or failure of inertial fusion energy. The ablative RT instability has also general resemblance to hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in Type Ia supernovae and in interstellar clouds, such as the Eagle Nebula. In the laser fusion community, it is generally accepted that the Bodner-Takabe formula [1] with significant improvement by Betti [2] may predict correct dispersion relation of the growth rates of the ablative RT instability. However, there still exist theoretical uncertainties due to the different treatment of electron transport from the laser absorption region to the ablation region. The difference in the electron transport is most pronounced at short wavelength perturbation that is below spatial resolution of most x-ray imagers. The direct effect of the transport is the ablation density profile, which measurement is also a formidable task with conventional diagnostic techniques. We will present our RT growth as well as the ablation density measurements based on recently developed novel techniques of high spatial resolution: moir interferometry, penumbral imaging, and Fresnel-phase-zone-plate imaging. [1] S. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 761 (1974); H. Takabe et al., Phys. Fluids 28, 3676 (1985). [2] R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1446 (1998).

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor stabilization by material strength at Mbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Remington, B A; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V

    2009-05-27

    Studies of solid-state material dynamics at high pressures ({approx}1 Mbar) and ultrahigh strain rates (>10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) are performed using a unique laser based, quasi-isentropic high-pressure acceleration platform. Vanadium foils with pre-imposed sinusoidal ripples are accelerated in the solid state with this ramped high pressure drive. This causes Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth at the interface, where the rate of growth is sensitive to the solid-state material properties. The RT growth history is measured by face-on radiography using synchronized laser-driven x-ray backlighters at the Omega Laser. The experimental results are compared with 2D hydrodynamics simulations utilizing constitutive models of high pressure material strength. We find that the vanadium strength increases by a factor of 3.5-4 at peak pressure, compared to its ambient (undriven) strength. Both pressure hardening and strain rate hardening are the suggested cause for this increase in strength. An analysis treating strength as an effective lattice viscosity finds that a viscosity of {approx}400 poise is required to reproduce our RT data.

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in non-premixed reacting flames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen

    2015-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at a perturbed interface between fluids of different densities when a light fluid pushes a heavier fluid. The mixing driven by RTI affects several physical phenomena, such as Inertial Confinement Fusion, Supernovae detonation, centrifugal combustors and liquid rocket engines. The RTI in such flows is often coupled with chemical/nuclear reactions that may form complex density stratifications in the form of flames or ablative layers. We investigate such a non-premixed fuel-air interface subject to a constant acceleration and developing under the influence of chemical reactions using high-resolution, Navier-Stokes simulations. The H2 fuel is diluted with N2 to vary the density difference across the interface in thermal equilibrium (at 1000K). The intervening layer between fuel and air is subject to exothermic combustion reactions to form a flame. Following combustion, initially unstable fuel-air interfaces at an Atwood number (At) <0.5, transform into stable (fuel-flame) and unstable (flame-air) interfaces. We report on interfaces (At = 0.2 and 0.6) with single wavelength, sinusoidal perturbations and a broadband spectrum of multimode perturbations.

  14. On Taylor dispersion in liquid-cooled electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    We are interested in extending classical asymptotic approaches to allow for the spatial pattern wavenumber to vary on the macroscale variables and to find how changes in microstructure geometry affect macroscopic properties and transport. To this end, we consider here the thermal transport of a coolant through nonuniformly spaced laminates, as a simple model for heat sinks in electronics. Power is continuously being generated by the laminates, and the local rates of heat transport depend on convection, fluid inertia, buoyancy and Taylor dispersion in the coolant and conduction within both the fluid and the laminates. We find a coupled system of partial differential equations that describe the local microscale temperature and deviations from the Darcy pressure. Microscale values of all of these quantities are known in terms of the solutions to these effective eqautions. We are especially interested in geometries in the laminate spacing which allow for better thermal transport by the coolant for a prescribed power distribution. The choice of the channel geometries depend on the ability to transfer heat from the device to the enviornment, the orientation of the device with respect to gravity, and the available power needed to drive the fluid motion. This work is supported by a grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, (Award No. FA9550-11-1-0197).

  15. Regimes of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.

    1996-11-01

    Hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and massless fluid electrons are used to investigate the linear and nonlinear behavior of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in slab geometry with the plasma subject to a constant gravity. Three regimes are found, which are determined by the magnitude of the complex frequency {omega}={omega}{sub {ital r}}+{ital i}{gamma}. For {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}({Omega}{sub {ital i}}= ion gyrofrequency), one finds the typical behavior of the usual fluid regime, namely the development of {open_quote}{open_quote}mushroom-head{close_quote}{close_quote} spikes and bubbles in the density and a strongly convoluted boundary between the plasma and magnetic field, where the initial gradient is not relaxed much. A second regime, where {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}0.1{Omega}{sub {ital i}}, is characterized by the importance of the Hall term. Linearly, the developing flute modes are more finger-like and tilted along the interface; nonlinearly, clump-like structures form, leading to a significant broadening of the interface. The third regime is characterized by unmagnetized ion behavior, with {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}. Density clumps, rather than flutes, form in the linear stage, while nonlinearly, longer-wavelength modes that resemble those in fluid regime dominate. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of short-wavelength modes is observed in each regime. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Nonaxisymmetric linear instability of cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Child, Adam; Kersalé, Evy; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    We consider the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability present in Taylor-Couette flow under the application of helical magnetic fields, mainly for magnetic Prandtl numbers close to the inductionless limit, and conduct a full examination of marginal stability in the resulting parameter space. We allow for the azimuthal magnetic field to be generated by a combination of currents in the inner cylinder and fluid itself and introduce a parameter governing the relation between the strength of these currents. A set of governing eigenvalue equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability are derived and solved by spectral collocation with Chebyshev polynomials over the relevant parameter space, with the resulting instabilities examined in detail. We find that by altering the azimuthal magnetic field profiles the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, nonaxisymmetric helical magnetorotational instability, and Tayler instability yield interesting dynamics, such as different preferred mode types and modes with azimuthal wave number m>1. Finally, a comparison is given to the recent WKB analysis performed by Kirillov et al. [Kirillov, Stefani, and Fukumoto, J. Fluid Mech. 760, 591 (2014)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/jfm.2014.614] and its validity in the linear regime.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations of Immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Accurate simulations of multi-mode immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are presented with the recently developed generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (GCHNS) equations method. In immiscible turbulent flows, besides the viscous cut-off scale, there are two additional characteristic length scales, which also affect the flow. One is the so-called ``cut-off'' length scale caused by the presence of surface tension and the other is the physical interface thickness. While in some practical applications the interface thickness can be large, in many other cases this thickness approaches the molecular scales. Accurate results can be obtained for these cases if the interface thickness is maintained smaller than all the cut-off scales of the flow, but still much larger than the molecular scales (e.g. mean free path). Our study shows that, as long as the scale-separation (e.g. the ratio of Kolmogorov scale to the interface thickness) is above a certain value (4 to 6 for the RTI problem considered in this study), the numerical results are fully converged with respect to the interface thickness. The results are used to study the physics of multi-mode immiscible RTI and contrasted to those obtained for the miscible case.

  18. An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames -- Fast or Faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, E. P.

    2015-04-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of supernovae Ia. However, the dynamics of these flames are still not well understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from traditional turbulent flames: they are thinner rather than thicker when turbulence is stronger. We also show that none of the several different types of turbulent flame speed models accurately predicts measured flame speeds. In addition, we find that the RT flame speed model only correctly predicts the measured flame speed in a certain parameter regime. Finally, we propose that the formation of cusps may be the factor causing the flame to propagate more quickly than predicted by the RT model.

  20. DSMC Simulations of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael; Koehler, Timothy; Torczynski, John; Plimpton, Steven

    2015-11-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics is applied to simulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in atmospheric-pressure monatomic gases (e.g., argon and helium). The computational domain is a 1 mm × 4 mm rectangle divided into 50-nm square cells. Each cell is populated with 1000 computational molecules, and time steps of 0.1 ns are used. Simulations are performed to quantify the growth of a single-mode perturbation on the interface as a function of the Atwood number and the gravitational acceleration. The DSMC results qualitatively reproduce all observed features of the RTI and are in reasonable quantitative agreement with existing theoretical and empirical models. Consistent with previous work in this field, the DSMC simulations indicate that the growth of the RTI follows a universal behavior. For cases with multiple-mode perturbations, the numbers of bubble-spike pairs that eventually appear are found to be in agreement with theoretical results for the most unstable wavelength. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom

    2006-11-15

    Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.

  2. Spontaneous layer formation dynamics in stratified Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Colin; Partridge, Jamie L.; Augier, Pierre; Caulfield, C. P.; Linden, Paul F.; Dalziel, Stuart B.; MUST Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The spontaneous formation of horizontal layers is a common feature of strongly and stably stratified flows and plays a major role in the dynamics of geophysical flows. However, little is known about the physical mechanism setting the depth of the layers spontaneously emerging in ``stratified Taylor-Couette flow'' in the annulus between a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder, initially filled with stably, axially and linearly stratified fluid. Using linear stability analysis, direct numerical simulations and experiments, we investigate the relative importance of primary linear instability and secondary nonlinear processes in the transient dynamics leading to the experimentally and numerically observed step-like density profile in this flow. We explore the effects of the particular form of the spin-up of the inner cylinder and initial conditions on the transient dynamics and nonlinear attractor of the flow. By better understanding the dynamics of layer formation, we are able to identify the approriate scaling laws relating layer depth to rotation rate, initial stratification, gap width and radius ratio. EPSRC programme grant EP/K034529/1.

  3. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Growth Control in HIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatomi, Yuya; Kawata, Shigeo; Koseki, Shunsuke; Kurosaki, Tatsuya; Ogoyski, Alexander; Barada, Daisuke

    2010-11-01

    Uniformity of heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination is one of key issues in HIB inertial confinement fusion (HIF): deviation from fuel implosion symmetry should be less than a few percent in order to compress a fuel sufficiently and release fusion energy effectively. In this paper a new mitigation method of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability growth is presented in order to make a HIF target robust against a non-uniform implosion. In this study a new mitigation method of the R-T instability growth is proposed based on an oscillating perturbed acceleration, which can be realized by a rotating or oscillating HIB illumination onto a fuel pellet. The R-T instability analyses and fluid simulations demonstrate that the oscillating acceleration reduces the R-T instability growth significantly. In this paper a baseline steady acceleration g is perturbed by a perturbed oscillating acceleration g1, which is spatially non-uniform and oscillates in time (g >> g1 ). An example result shows 84% reduction of the R-T instability growth.

  4. Mechanism of Bursting Taylor Bubbles at Free Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rana, Basanta K; Das, Arup K; Das, Prasanta K

    2015-09-15

    Collapse of a Taylor bubble inside a pipe at the free surface of a liquid is studied experimentally using speed imaging camera and illumination and subsequent image analysis. Three different fluids, water, glycerin, and silicone oil, are employed in the experiments. For all conditions studied herein, the bubble punctures at the free surface to form two thin films, i.e., one covering the cross-section of the tube near the free surface and one along the tube wall in the vertical direction. Surface tension acts to collapse the first film, which widens the punctured hole in the outward radial direction, thereby feeding the liquid in the vertical film. After the shrinking of the radial film, gravity causes the collapse of the vertical film, which generates a tiny jet of liquid at the end of collapse. Experiments with different fluids show a drastic change in shape and thickness of the vertical film that leads to higher drainage time. Analysis of time scale for the drainage of the horizontal film exhibits a favorable match with experiments. Finally, evolution of the vertical film is analyzed using a simple hydrodynamic model to estimate the order magnitude of time taken to collapse, which compares well with processed image data from experiments. PMID:26301827

  5. Weakly nonlinear analysis of the Saffman-Taylor problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Jose A.

    The Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering instability occurs when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous one between narrowly spaced parallel plates in a Hele-Shaw cell. Experiments in radial and rectangular flow geometries form finger-like patterns, in which fingers of different lengths compete, spread and split. Our weakly nonlinear analysis of the instability predicts these phenomena, which are beyond the scope of linear stability theory. Finger competition arises through enhanced growth of sub-harmonic perturbations, while spreading and splitting occur through the growth of harmonic modes. Nonlinear mode-coupling enhances the growth of these specific perturbations with appropriate relative phases, as we demonstrate through a symmetry analysis of the mode coupling equations. We extend our mode coupling theory to include the situation in which one of the fluids is a ferrofluid and a magnetic field is applied normal to the Hele-Shaw cell. Our analysis indicates that the onset of interface symmetry breaking observed in experiments involving ferrofluids depends on viscosity contrast, not on the applied magnetic field. We also show how magnetic fields lead to finger tip-splitting.

  6. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid media

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. B.; Piriz, A. R.

    2014-07-15

    A linear analysis of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between a Newtonian fluid and an elastic-plastic solid is performed by considering a uniform magnetic B{sup →}, parallel to the interface, which has diffused into the fluid but not into the solid. It is found that the magnetic field attributes elastic properties to the viscous fluid which enhance the stability region by stabilizing all the perturbation wavelengths shorter than λ{sub 0}∝B{sup 2} for any initial perturbation amplitude. Longer wavelengths are stabilized by the mechanical properties of the solid provided that the initial perturbation wavelength is smaller than a threshold value determined by the yield strength and the shear modulus of the solid. Beyond this threshold, the amplitude grows initially with a growth rate reduced by the solid strength properties. However, such properties do not affect the asymptotic growth rate which is only determined by the magnetic field and the fluid viscosity. The described physical situation intends to resemble some of the features present in recent experiments involving the magnetic shockless acceleration of flyers plates.

  7. On the modeling of the Taylor cylinder impact test for orthotropic textured materials: Calculations and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Bingert, J.F.; House, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Taylor impact tests using specimens cut from a rolled plate of Ta were conducted. The Ta was well-characterized in terms of flow stress and crystallographic texture. A piece-wise yield surface was interrogated from this orthotropic texture, and used in EPIC-95 3D simulations of the Taylor test. Good agreement was realized between the calculations and the post-test geometries in terms of major and minor side profiles and impact-interface footprints.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of Al6063 duralumin using Taylor impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, L.; Anaszewicz, Ł.; Janiszewski, J.; Grązka, M.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents results of experimental and numerical analysis of dynamic behaviour Al6063 duralumin. Dynamical experiments were made using Taylor impact test. Experimental results at next step of study were used in numerical analyses of dynamic yield stress of tested material and model parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation. The main aim of this analysis is to find out dynamical properties of Al6063 duralumin tested in Taylor impact test.

  9. A Taylor-Galerkin finite element algorithm for transient nonlinear thermal-structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Dechaumphai, Pramote

    1985-01-01

    A Taylor-Galerkin finite element solution algorithm for transient nonlinear thermal-structural analysis of large, complex structural problems subjected to rapidly applied thermal-structural loads is described. The two-step Taylor-Galerkin algorithm is an application of an algorithm recently developed for problems in compressible fluid dynamics. The element integrals that appear in the algorithm can be evaluated in closed form for two and three dimensional elements.

  10. Transition to two-dimensionality in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yurong; Tao, Jianjun; Zikanov, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Transition from a Taylor-Couette turbulent flow to a completely two-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent state is realized numerically by increasing gradually the strength of the azimuthal magnetic field produced by electric current flowing through the axial rod. With the increase of the Hartmann number, the Taylor-vortex-like structures shrink, move closer to the inner cylinder, and turn into unsteady but perfect tori at sufficiently high Hartmann numbers.

  11. Taylor Dispersion Analysis as a promising tool for assessment of peptide-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Høgstedt, Ulrich B; Schwach, Grégoire; van de Weert, Marco; Østergaard, Jesper

    2016-10-10

    Protein-protein and peptide-peptide (self-)interactions are of key importance in understanding the physiochemical behavior of proteins and peptides in solution. However, due to the small size of peptide molecules, characterization of these interactions is more challenging than for proteins. In this work, we show that protein-protein and peptide-peptide interactions can advantageously be investigated by measurement of the diffusion coefficient using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. Through comparison to Dynamic Light Scattering it was shown that Taylor Dispersion Analysis is well suited for the characterization of protein-protein interactions of solutions of α-lactalbumin and human serum albumin. The peptide-peptide interactions of three selected peptides were then investigated in a concentration range spanning from 0.5mg/ml up to 80mg/ml using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. The peptide-peptide interactions determination indicated that multibody interactions significantly affect the PPIs at concentration levels above 25mg/ml for the two charged peptides. Relative viscosity measurements, performed using the capillary based setup applied for Taylor Dispersion Analysis, showed that the viscosity of the peptide solutions increased with concentration. Our results indicate that a viscosity difference between run buffer and sample in Taylor Dispersion Analysis may result in overestimation of the measured diffusion coefficient. Thus, Taylor Dispersion Analysis provides a practical, but as yet primarily qualitative, approach to assessment of the colloidal stability of both peptide and protein formulations.

  12. Distribution of glacial deposits, soils, and permafrost in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bockheim, J.G.; Prentice, M.L.; McLeod, M.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a map of lower and central Taylor Valley, Antarctica, that shows deposits from Taylor Glacier, local alpine glaciers, and grounded ice in the Ross Embayment. From our electronic database, which includes 153 sites from the coast 50 km upvalley to Pearse Valley, we show the distribution of permafrost type and soil subgroups according to Soil Taxonomy. Soils in eastern Taylor Valley are of late Pleistocene age, cryoturbated due to the presence of ground ice or ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, and classified as Glacic and Typic Haploturbels. In central Taylor Valley, soils are dominantly Typic Anhyorthels of mid-Pleistocene age that have dry-frozen permafrost within the upper 70 cm. Salt-enriched soils (Salic Anhyorthels and Petrosalic Anhyorthels) are of limited extent in Taylor Valley and occur primarily on drifts of early Pleistocene and Pliocene age. Soils are less developed in Taylor Valley than in nearby Wright Valley, because of lesser salt input from atmospheric deposition and salt weathering. Ice-cemented permafrost is ubiquitous on Ross Sea, pre-Ross Sea, and Bonney drifts that occur within 28 km of the McMurdo coast. In contrast, dry-frozen permafrost is prevalent on older (???115 ky) surfaces to the west. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  13. The stability of Taylor bubbles in large-diameter tubes: Linear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Habib; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Taylor bubbles are a characteristic feature of the slug flow regime in gas-liquid pipe flows. With increasing pipe diameter, previous experimental observations have shown that at sufficiently large diameter (> 0.1 m), the slug flow regime, and hence Taylor bubbles, are not observed in gas-liquid flows in vertical pipes. Numerical simulations of a Taylor bubble rising in a quiescent liquid (see companion talk at this APS/DFD conference) have also shown that the wake of Taylor bubbles rising in a riser of such sizes is turbulent and has great impact on the stability of the subsequent, trailing bubbles. In view of these observations, a linear stability analysis is carried out to establish the stability conditions for a Taylor bubble rising in a turbulent flowing liquid. The stability of an axisymmetric Taylor bubble to a small-amplitude, three dimensional, perturbation is studied and the dimensionless flow parameters of the liquid investigated include the Froude number, the inverse viscosity number, and the Eotvos numbers. Nigerian Government scholarship (for HA).

  14. Very-high-growth-factor Planar Ablative Rayleigh Taylor Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D K; Braun, D G; Glendinning, S G; Edwards, M J; Milovich, J L; Sorce, C M; Collins, G W; Haan, S W; Page, R H

    2006-10-30

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is an important factor in bounding the performance envelope of ignition targets. This paper describes an experiment for ablative RT instability that for the first time achieves growth factors close to those expected to occur in ignition targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The large growth allows small seed perturbations to be detected and can be used to place an upper bound on perturbation growth at the ablation front resulting from microstructure in the preferred Be ablator. The experiments were performed on the Omega laser using a halfraum 1.2 mm long by 2 mm diameter with a 75% laser entrance hole. The halfraum was filled with {approx} 1 atm of neopentane to delay gold plasma from closing the diagnostic line of sight down the axis of the halfraum. The ablator was mounted at the base of the halfraum, and was accelerated by a two stepped X-ray pulse consisting of an early time section {approx} 100 eV to emulate the NIF foot followed by an approximately constant {approx} 150 eV drive sustained over an additional 5-7ns. It is this long pulse duration and late time observation that distinguishes the present work from previous experiments, and is responsible for the large growth that is achieved. The growth of a 2D sinusoidal perturbation machined on the drive side of the ablator was measured using face-on radiography. The diagnostic view remained open until {approx} 11 ns with maximum growth factors measured to be {approx} 200. The trajectory of the ablator was measured using streaked backlit radiography. The design and analysis of the experiments is described, and implications for experiments on ignition target ablators are discussed.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Evolution in Ablatively Driven Cylindrical Implosions^*,**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, W. W.

    1996-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an important limitation in ICF capsule designs. Significant work both theoretically and experimentally has been done to demonstrate the stabilizing effects due to material flow through the unstable region. The experimental verification has been done predominantly in planar geometry. Convergent geometry introduces effects not present in planar geometry such as shell thickening and accelerationless growth of modal amplitudes (e.g. Bell-Plesset growth). Amplitude thresholds for the nonlinear regime are reduced, since the wavelength of a mode m decreases with convergence λ ~ r/m, where r is the radius. We have investigated convergent effects using an imploding cylinder driven by x-ray ablation on the NOVA laser. By doping sections of the cylinder with high-Z materials, in conjunction with x-ray backlighting, we have measured the growth and feedthrough of the perturbations from the ablation front to the inner surface of the cylinder for various initial modes and amplitudes from early time through stagnation. Mode coupling of illumination asymmetries with material perturbations is observed, as well as phase reversal of the perturbations from near the ablation front to the inner surface of the cylinder. Imaging is performed with an x-ray pinhole camera coupled to a gated microchannel plate detector. In collaboration with C. W. Barnes, J. B. Beck, N. Hoffman (LANL), D. Galmiche, A. Richard (CEA/L-V), J. Edwards, P. Graham, B. Thomas (AWE). ^**This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  16. Boundary selection of stable wavenumbers in Taylor-vortex flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linek, Marcus; Ahlers, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    Non-rotating rigid ends in Taylor-vortex flow (TVF) with a rotating inner and stationary outer cylinder produce large-amplitude Ekman vortices which pin the phase of the pattern. The band of stable wavenumbers is then limited by a bulk instability, namely the Eckhaus instability. For small ɛ, this leads to a stable wavenumber band of order ɛ ^1/2 where ɛ ≡ (f - f_c)/fc with f the inner-cylinder speed and fc the value of f for the onset of TVF. When one of the ends of a vertical TVF system has a free surface, the vortex amplitude adjacent to this surface is considerably reduced and the phase pinning is weaker. Experimentally we find that this can lead to a different instability mechanism consisting of losses or gains of vortices at the free boundary. This mechanism yields a more narrow wavenumber band of order ɛ, as predicted by Cross et al.^1 Specifically we find that TVF is stable for wavenumbers k over the range λ- ɛ < (k - k_c)/kc < λ+ ɛ where kc is the value of k at onset. We find that λ - ~= - 0.55 and λ + ~= 0.70 in a system with a radius ratio η = 0.75. A detailed calculation of λ_+,- would be most interesting. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMR94-19168, and by the Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA).l ^1 M.C. Cross, P.G. Daniels, P.C. Hohenberg, and E.D. Siggia, J. Fluid Mech.127, 155 (1983).

  17. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor's law.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Cohen, Joel E; Maritan, Amos

    2015-06-23

    Taylor's law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V = aM(b). TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests a context-independent mechanism. Sample exponents b measured empirically via the scaling of sample mean and variance typically cluster around the value b = 2. Some theoretical models of population growth, however, predict a broad range of values for the population exponent b pertaining to the mean and variance of population density, depending on details of the growth process. Is the widely reported sample exponent b ≃ 2 the result of ecological processes or could it be a statistical artifact? Here, we apply large deviations theory and finite-sample arguments to show exactly that in a broad class of growth models the sample exponent is b ≃ 2 regardless of the underlying population exponent. We derive a generalized TL in terms of sample and population exponents b(jk) for the scaling of the kth vs. the jth cumulants. The sample exponent b(jk) depends predictably on the number of samples and for finite samples we obtain b(jk) ≃ k = j asymptotically in time, a prediction that we verify in two empirical examples. Thus, the sample exponent b ≃ 2 may indeed be a statistical artifact and not dependent on population dynamics under conditions that we specify exactly. Given the broad class of models investigated, our results apply to many fields where TL is used although inadequately understood.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Daisuke

    2009-12-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  19. Taylor O(h³) Discretization of ZNN Models for Dynamic Equality-Constrained Quadratic Programming With Application to Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bolin; Zhang, Yunong; Jin, Long

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new Taylor-type numerical differentiation formula is first presented to discretize the continuous-time Zhang neural network (ZNN), and obtain higher computational accuracy. Based on the Taylor-type formula, two Taylor-type discrete-time ZNN models (termed Taylor-type discrete-time ZNNK and Taylor-type discrete-time ZNNU models) are then proposed and discussed to perform online dynamic equality-constrained quadratic programming. For comparison, Euler-type discrete-time ZNN models (called Euler-type discrete-time ZNNK and Euler-type discrete-time ZNNU models) and Newton iteration, with interesting links being found, are also presented. It is proved herein that the steady-state residual errors of the proposed Taylor-type discrete-time ZNN models, Euler-type discrete-time ZNN models, and Newton iteration have the patterns of O(h(3)), O(h(2)), and O(h), respectively, with h denoting the sampling gap. Numerical experiments, including the application examples, are carried out, of which the results further substantiate the theoretical findings and the efficacy of Taylor-type discrete-time ZNN models. Finally, the comparisons with Taylor-type discrete-time derivative model and other Lagrange-type discrete-time ZNN models for dynamic equality-constrained quadratic programming substantiate the superiority of the proposed Taylor-type discrete-time ZNN models once again.

  20. Reconnaissance and deep-drill site selection on Taylor Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootes, Pieter M.; Waddington, Edwin D.

    1993-01-01

    Taylor Dome is a small ice dome near the head of Taylor Valley, Southern Victoria Land. The location of the dome, just west of the Transantarctic Mountains, is expected to make the composition of the accumulating snow sensitive to changes in the extent of the Ross Ice Shelf. Thus, it is linked to the discharge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet but protected against direct influences of glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. The record of past climatic and environmental changes in the ice provides a valuable complement to the radiocarbon-dated proxy record of climate derived from perched deltas, strandlines, and moraines that have been obtained in the nearby Dry Valleys. We carried out a reconnaissance of the Taylor Dome area over the past two field seasons to determine the most favorable location to obtain a deep core to bedrock. A stake network has been established with an 80-km line roughly along the crest of Taylor Dome, and 40-km lines parallel to it and offset by 10 km. These lines have been surveyed 1990/91, and the positions of 9 grid points have been determined with geoceivers. A higher density stake network was placed and surveyed around the most likely drill area in the second year. Ground-based radar soundings in both years provided details on bedrock topography and internal layering of the ice in the drill area. An airborne radar survey in January 1992, completed the radar coverage of the Taylor Dome field area.

  1. Bubbly drag reduction in a vertical Couette-Taylor system with superimposed axial flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryami, R.; Farahat, S.; Javad poor, M.; Shafiei Mayam, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of axial flow on bubbly drag reduction has been experimentally investigated in a vertical Couette-Taylor flow system. The water flow is combined from circumferential and axial flow. Flow condition is fully turbulence and Taylor vortices have appeared in the annulus gap. The shear stress modification in the simultaneous presence of air bubbles and axial flow in the system has been studied by measuring torque acting on the inner cylinder. The results show that axial flow improves the effect of bubbles on drag reduction by damping Taylor vortices and increasing upward velocity of bubbles. In this case, drag reduction of more than 25% has been achieved, which corresponds to lower tested {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} and this amount is gradually decreased with increasing {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} in each {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{a}} and {{Q}_{a}}. Increasing {{Q}_{a}} causes drag reduction enhancement which could be due to the effect of bubbles on flow density reduction, flow fluctuations and Taylor vortices. Moreover, it is observed that skin friction is affected by axial flow solely and by increasing its volume rates, drag reduction reaches 11%. It is concluded that when bubbles and axial flow are simultaneously applied into the Couette-Taylor flow, the amount of achieved drag reduction is more than when they are separately applied.

  2. Bifurcations and dynamo action in a Taylor Green flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrulle, B.; Blaineau, P.; Mafra Lopes, O.; Daviaud, F.; Laval, J.-P.; Dolganov, R.

    2007-08-01

    We report successive bifurcations in direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a Taylor-Green flow, in both a hydro- and a magneto-hydrodynamic case. Hydrodynamic bifurcations occur in between different metastable states with different dynamo action, and are triggered by the numerical noise. The various states encountered range from stationary to chaotic or turbulent through possible oscillatory states. The corresponding sequence of bifurcations is reminiscent of the sequence obtained in the von Karman (VK) flow, at aspect ratio Γ=2 (Nore et al 2003 J. Fluid Mech. 477 51). We then use kinematic simulations to compute the dynamo thresholds of the different metastable states. A more detailed study of the turbulent state reveals the existence of two windows of dynamo action. Stochastic numerical simulations are then used to mimic the influence of turbulence on the dynamo threshold of the turbulent state. We show that the dynamo threshold is increased (respectively decreased) by the presence of large scale (resp. small scale) turbulent velocity fluctuations. Finally, DNSs of the magneto-hydrodynamic equations are used to explore the linear and nonlinear stage of the dynamo instability. In the linear stage, we show that the magnetic field favours the bifurcation from the basic state directly towards the turbulent or chaotic stable state. The magnetic field can also temporarily stabilize a metastable state, resulting in cycles of dynamo action, with different Lyapunov exponents. The critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action is found to increase strongly with the Reynolds number. Finally, we provide a preliminary study of the saturation regime above the dynamo threshold. At large magnetic Prandtl number, we have observed two main types of saturations, in agreement with an analytical prediction of Leprovost and Dubrulle (2005 Eur. Phys. J. B 44 395): (i) intermittent dynamo, with vanishing most probable value of the magnetic energy; (ii) dynamo with non vanishing

  3. Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.

  4. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.

  5. THE VIOLATION OF THE TAYLOR HYPOTHESIS IN MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, qualitative and quantitative predictions are made for the effects of the violation of the Taylor hypothesis on the magnetic energy frequency spectrum measured in the near-Sun environment. The synthetic spacecraft data method is used to predict observational signatures of the violation for critically balanced Alfvénic turbulence or parallel fast/whistler turbulence. The violation of the Taylor hypothesis can occur in the slow flow regime, leading to a shift of the entire spectrum to higher frequencies, or in the dispersive regime, in which the dissipation range spectrum flattens at high frequencies. It is found that Alfvénic turbulence will not significantly violate the Taylor hypothesis, but whistler turbulence will. The flattening of the frequency spectrum is therefore a key observational signature for fast/whistler turbulence.

  6. On the use of modified Taylor diagrams to compare ionospheric assimilation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvidge, S.; Angling, M. J.; Nava, B.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the construction and use of "modified Taylor diagrams" and the comparison of three real-time assimilative ionospheric models. The paper expands on the work by McNamara et al. (2013) and serves as an addendum to that work. Modified Taylor diagrams provide an easy way of visualizing and comparing statistical information about a number of models, and for multiple parameters, simultaneously. Using modified Taylor diagrams has led to new conclusions about the models tested in McNamara et al. (2013); also, the comparison of the data ingestion version of NeQuick is included. It is shown that the modified NeQuick model performs comparably with the data assimilation models from McNamara et al. (2013) and in multiple cases also shows considerable improvement, such as in hmF2 at the Hermanus Digisonde station.

  7. Large-scale analysis of unconfined self-similar Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, Olivier; Griffond, Jérôme; Gréa, Benoît-Joseph

    2015-09-01

    The large-scale properties of unconfined Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence are investigated using an eddy-damped quasi-normal markovianized approximation. Within this framework, turbulent spectra are shown to undergo at late times and at large scales, an evolution dominated by non-linear backscattering processes. As a result, the analysis predicts that large scale initial conditions are eventually forgotten: there is no large scale invariant and no equivalent of a principle of permanence of large eddies. Additional properties of Rayleigh-Taylor large scales are also discussed. In particular, their scaling and anisotropy are examined, with an emphasis put on the combined influence of buoyancy production and non-linearities. The different assumptions and predictions of this work are verified by performing an implicit large eddy simulation of a Rayleigh-Taylor configuration.

  8. Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method

    SciTech Connect

    Darlington, R

    1999-12-01

    This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.

  9. Revisiting Taylor Dispersion: Differential enhancement of rotational and translational diffusion under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. B. L. acknowledges supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  10. Nonuniform deformations in polycrystals and aspects of the validity of the Taylor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, S. V.; Asaro, R. J.

    F ULL SOLUTIONS to mixed rate boundary value problems over polycrystalline domains are performed via the finite element method. In order to make these finite element calculations feasible, an idealized two-dimensional crystal structure is studied. These boundary value problems rigorously satisfy the averaging theorems of Hill (Proc. R. Soc.A326, 131, 1972) so that well defined Taylor model analogue problems may be identified and solved. Comparisons between the finite element solutions and their corresponding Taylor model analogues yield a quantitative assessment of the Taylor model's validity with respect to its predictions of texture development and global stress-strain response. The finite element calculations also provide physical insight into the mechanisms contributing to the development of nonuniform and localized deformations in polycrystals.

  11. Saffman-Taylor fingering with lateral injection with applications to imbibition coarsening dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagree, Bertrand; Zaleski, Stephane; Bondino, Igor; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Stephane

    2013-11-01

    We report 2D simulations of Saffman-Taylor fingering motivated by the analysis of experiments on the imbibition of porous media in square slab geometries. We use a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method to model a two-phase Darcy flow with a sharp interface between the two fluids. The Gerris code which allows efficient parallel computations with quad-tree mesh refinement is used. It is tested for accuracy and precision using several levels of refinement and comparing to reference simulations in the literature. A fingering pattern is observed after lateral injection of a less viscous fluid into a region filled with a more viscous one. Large fractal-like clusters are observed allowing the measurements of several scaling exponents which are compared to the known Diffusion-Limited-Aggregation (DLA) and Saffman-Taylor scalings. An interesting effect is the transition from a transient cylindrical DLA pattern to a small number then a single Saffman Taylor finger.

  12. A modified Taylor rule for dealing with demand shocks and uncertain potential macroeconomic output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-02-01

    A critical issue for central banks in modern economies is the inflation stabilization about a prescribed level. The best-known simple instrumental rule to guide monetary policy to control inflation is the Taylor rule, where the instrument (e.g., a short interest rate) responds to changes in the inflation and the output gaps. The objective of this paper is to introduce some modifications to the Taylor rule in order to improve its robustness with respect to uncertainties about potential output and unanticipated shocks. To this end, departing from feedback control theory, the Taylor rule is equipped with an adaptive control scheme to reject the adverse effects of shocks and to estimate the deviations of the potential output. It is shown that the proposed adaptation procedure is equivalent to a classical integral feedback controller whose characteristics and implementation issues are well understood in practical control engineering. Singular perturbation methods are used to establish the stability properties of the resulting control system.

  13. The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.

    2008-03-01

    Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.

  14. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  15. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor's approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor's approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed. PMID:26543472

  16. Dimensional Analysis of Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry in both Laminar and Turbulent Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Previously we have presented preliminary measurements indicating that the irregular generation of new Taylor Vortex Pairs in laminar Taylor-Couette flow with hourglass geometry could be characterized as low dimensional chaos and in the corresponding case of turbulent flow the chaotic dimension was higher. We now present data from far more extended time series of the periods between vortex formation, confirming and extending our original results. We present confirmation of our computational methodology in other systems. T. Olsen, R. Bjorge, & R. Wiener, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47-10, 76 (2002). T. Olsen, B. Tomlin, R. Bjorge, & R. Wiener, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48-10, 111 (2003)

  17. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor's approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor's approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed. PMID:26543472

  18. The Taylor Impact and Large Strain Response of Poly(Ether-Etherketone) (PEEK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Philip J.; Brown, Eric N.

    2006-07-01

    Taylor impacts experiments were conducted on PEEK at velocities between 150 & 360 m s-1. The material was found to respond in a ductile manner and exhibit a color change later found to be associated with large compressive strains in PEEK, irrespective of strain-rate. No changes in molecular weight were detected as a result of high-strain rate or large strain deformation. Melting has been shown not to be responsible for the ductile deformation and limited tearing response of PEEK subject to Taylor impact.

  19. Authority in Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes John Wilson's account of authority in educational relationships by reconstructing his views on different types of authority. Explores the topic of parental authority arguing that parental authority differs from the authority of teachers. Comments on whether authoritative parental supervision is essential. Includes references. (CMK)

  20. Changing Course: Thurgood Marshall College Fund President Johnny Taylor Seeks New Partnerships and Avenues of Support for Public HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…

  1. 75 FR 42281 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... 19, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-17989 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a... connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  2. 78 FR 43751 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor pursuant to...

  3. 76 FR 43799 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 20, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-18703 Filed 7-20-11; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348,...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of July 19, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004,...

  5. Subscales to the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in Three Chronically Ill Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Peter N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines factors of anxiety in the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale in 150 asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic pain patients. Key cluster analysis revealed five clusters: restlessness, embarrassment, sensitivity, physiological anxiety, and self-confidence. Embarrassment is fairly dependent on the other factors. (JAC)

  6. Applications of Taylor-Galerkin finite element method to compressible internal flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Jeong L.; Kim, Yongmo; Chung, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    A two-step Taylor-Galerkin finite element method with Lapidus' artificial viscosity scheme is applied to several test cases for internal compressible inviscid flow problems. Investigations for the effect of supersonic/subsonic inlet and outlet boundary conditions on computational results are particularly emphasized.

  7. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  8. The Taylor spectrum and transversality for a Heisenberg algebra of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosi, Anar A.

    2010-05-01

    A problem on noncommutative holomorphic functional calculus is considered for a Banach module over a finite-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra. As the main result, the transversality property of algebras of noncommutative holomorphic functions with respect to the Taylor spectrum is established for a family of bounded linear operators generating a Heisenberg algebra. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  9. Application of Morse Theory to Analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P L; Bremer, P T; Cabot, W H; Cook, A W; Laney, D E; Mascarenhas, A A; Pascucci, V

    2007-01-24

    We present a novel Morse Theory approach for the analysis of the complex topology of the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. We automatically extract bubble structures at multiple scales and identify the resolution of interest. Quantitative analysis of bubble counts over time highlights distinct mixing trends for a high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) [1].

  10. Effect of resistivity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, J.L. ); Huerta, M.A. )

    1993-11-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in finite-conductivity accelerated plasma arcs of the type found in electromagnetic rail launchers. For a plasma of length [ital l], acceleration [ital a], and thermal speed [ital v][sub [ital T

  11. Taylor Approximations to Logistic IRT Models and Their Use in Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veerkamp, Wim J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Showed how Taylor approximation can be used to generate a linear approximation to a logistic item characteristic curve and a linear ability estimator. Demonstrated how, for a specific simulation, this could result in the special case of a Robbins-Monro item selection procedure for adaptive testing. (SLD)

  12. Magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, P. M.; Gao, L.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Fiksel, G.; Yan, R.; Davies, J. R.; Martinez, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Haines, M. G.; Blackman, E. G.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.

  13. 78 FR 61451 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... On October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61938), we published a proposed rule to list the Taylor's checkerspot... species may be found in the proposed rule, which was published October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61938). Previous... horned lark as candidates for listing in our 2001 candidate notice of review (CNOR) (66 FR 54808;...

  14. Life Review in the Novels of Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt-Brown, A. M.

    Gerontologists have studied the role of memory and reminiscence in later life to see if life review leads to increased satisfaction in old age. Novelists offer some concrete examples of the varying ways that this review can affect the self-esteem of aging persons. Molly Keane, Elizabeth Bowen, and Peter Taylor all agree that late middle age…

  15. The Taylor spectrum and transversality for a Heisenberg algebra of operators

    SciTech Connect

    Dosi, Anar A

    2010-05-11

    A problem on noncommutative holomorphic functional calculus is considered for a Banach module over a finite-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra. As the main result, the transversality property of algebras of noncommutative holomorphic functions with respect to the Taylor spectrum is established for a family of bounded linear operators generating a Heisenberg algebra. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  16. Ethics, organ donation and tax: a reply to Quigley and Taylor.

    PubMed

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2012-08-01

    A national opt-out system of post-mortem donation of scarce organs is preferable to an opt-in system. Unfortunately, the former system is not always feasible, and so in a recent JME article we canvassed the possibility of offering people a tax break for opting-in as a way of increasing the number of organs available for donation under an opt-in regime. Muireann Quigley and James Stacey Taylor criticize our proposal. Roughly, Quigley argues that our proposal is costly and, hence, is unlikely to be implemented, while Taylor contests our response to a Titmuss-style objection to our scheme. In response to Quigley, we note that our proposal's main attraction lies in gains not reflected in the figures presented by Quigley and that the mere fact that it is costly does not imply that it is unfeasible. In response to Taylor, we offer some textual evidence in support of our interpretation of Taylor and responds to his favoured interpretation of the Titmuss-style objection that many people seem to want to donate to charities even if they can deduct their donations from their income tax. Finally, we show why our views do not commit us to endorsing a free organ-market. PMID:22661457

  17. A Taylor-Galerkin finite element algorithm for transient nonlinear thermal-structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.

    1986-01-01

    A Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for solving large, nonlinear thermal-structural problems is presented. The algorithm is formulated for coupled transient and uncoupled quasistatic thermal-structural problems. Vectorizing strategies ensure computational efficiency. Two applications demonstrate the validity of the approach for analyzing transient and quasistatic thermal-structural problems.

  18. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  19. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  20. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  1. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  2. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  3. The Robert Taylor Boys and Girls Club of Chicago. Practitioner Perspectives: Bulletin from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Patrick J.; Lahey, Elizabeth; Orlando, Kristine

    The Robert Taylor Boys and Girls Club of Chicago is located in this country's largest public housing development, serving over 1,500 predominantly African American members. It offers a brightly-colored building in a dilapidated, deprived area. It provides a clean, warm, safe haven for children to play, build strong bodies, get help with homework,…

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor modes in constant-density incompressible fluids accelerated by radiation pressure. [astrophysical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines the behavior of linear perturbations in an incompressible fluid undergoing acceleration by radiation pressure, with reference to processes occurring in quasars, supernovae, and planetary nebulae. It is shown that, contrary to prior expectation, fluids accelerated by radiation pressure, are not always unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor modes. Some are, in fact, unstable, but the nature of the instability is qualitatively different.

  5. Differences between Experts' and Students' Conceptual Images of the Mathematical Structure of Taylor Series Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Taylor series convergence is a complicated mathematical structure which incorporates multiple concepts. Therefore, it can be very difficult for students to initially comprehend. How might students make sense of this structure? How might experts make sense of this structure? To answer these questions, an exploratory study was conducted using…

  6. 78 FR 61505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Taylor's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 61937) a proposed rule to list the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly and... Federal Register on April 3, 2012 (78 FR 20074), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis... comment periods. The first comment period, ] associated with the publication of the proposed rule (77...

  7. Anolis marsupialis Taylor 1956, a valid species from southern Pacific Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae).

    PubMed

    Köhler, Johannes J; Poe, Steven; Ryan, Mason J; Köhler, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the holotype of Anolis marsupialis Taylor 1956 along with recently collected specimens reveals that A. marsupialis is a valid species. It differs from its closest congeners A. humilis Peters 1863 and A. quaggulus Cope 1885, in male dewlap coloration, scalation, body size, and hemipenial morphology. These findings are supported by preliminary molecular genetic analysis. 

  8. The simultaneous onset and interaction of Taylor and Dean instabilities in a Couette geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, C. P.; Bassom, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    The fluid flow between a pair of coaxial circular cylinders generated by the uniform rotation of the inner cylinder and an azimuthal pressure gradient is susceptible to both Taylor and Dean type instabilities. The flow can be characterised by two parameters: a measure of the relative magnitude of the rotation and pressure effects and a non-dimensional Taylor number. Neutral curves associated with each instability can be constructed but it has been suggested that these curves do not cross but rather posses `kinks'. Our work is based in the small gap, large wavenumber limit and considers the simultaneous onset of Taylor and Dean instabilities. The two linear instabilities interact at exponentially small orders and a consistent, matched asymptotic solution is found across the whole annular domain, identifying five regions of interest: two boundary adjustment regions and three internal critical points. We construct necessary conditions for the concurrent onset of the linear Taylor and Dean instabilities and show that neutral curve crossing is possible.

  9. The role of the modified taylor impact test in dynamic material research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagusat, Frank; Rohr, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic material research with strain rates of more than 1000 1/s is experimentally very often done with a Split-Hopkinson Bar, Taylor impact tests or planar plate impact test investigations. At the Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), a variant of an inverted classical Taylor impact test is used by application of velocity interferometers of the VISAR type ("Modified Taylor Impact Test", MTT). The conduction of the experiments is similar to that of planar plate impact tests. The data reduction and derivation of dynamic material data can also be restricted to an analysis of the VISAR signal. Due to these properties, nearly each highly dynamic material characterization in our institute done by planar plate investigations is usually accompanied by MTT experiments. The extended possibilities and usefulness of a combined usage of these two highly dynamic characterization methods are explained. Recently, further developed MTT experiments with very small specimen sizes are presented. For the first time, Taylor impact and planar impact specimen can be used for which the load directions even in case of thin plate test material are identical and not perpendicular to each other. Consequences for testing construction elements are discussed.

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Janet Taylor Spence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is awarded to Janet Taylor Spence. She is recognized for her outstanding scientific contributions that have had a profound theoretical and empirical impact on two areas of inquiry: Her early seminal research on the motivational properties of trait anxiety led the way to…

  11. Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-07-10

    The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.

  12. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  13. Approximate Expressions for the Period of a Simple Pendulum Using a Taylor Series Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Arribas, Enrique; Marquez, Andres; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    An approximate scheme for obtaining the period of a simple pendulum for large-amplitude oscillations is analysed and discussed. When students express the exact frequency or the period of a simple pendulum as a function of the oscillation amplitude, and they are told to expand this function in a Taylor series, they always do so using the…

  14. The stability of Taylor bubbles in large-diameter tubes: direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanjal, Amanjalot; Saravan-Butler, Maya; Smith, Sydney; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Slug flow corresponds to intermittent Taylor bubbles and liquid slugs, and is widely observed in the oil-and-gas industry. The fluctuating flow rate caused by Taylor bubbles is problematical; thus, the destabilisation of this regime would be beneficial. To gain better understanding of this regime in vertical tubes, three-dimensional CFD simulations of Taylor air bubble rise in initially stagnant water and progressively larger diameter tubes, are carried out. Tubes with diameters in the range of 0.032m-0.290m and a height of 2m are considered. The topology of the Taylor bubbles and their rise velocity are predicted and validated against experimental results. Our results suggest that the wake of leading bubbles plays a key role in the deformation and break-up of trailing bubbles. Motivated by these results, the effect of bubble separation distance, and aspect ratio, on bubble stability and the slug flow regime is investigated. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  15. A new Termination I temperature history from the Taylor Dome area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggenstos, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Maselli, O.; Bauska, T. K.; Brook, E.; Petit, J. R.; Grente, B.

    2012-12-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of climate changes during the last glacial cycle are an important clue to understand the causes and mechanisms of these events. The consensus Antarctic temperature history through the last glacial transition begins with a gradual warming from 19 ka to 14.7 ka BP followed by a small cooling, termed the Antarctic cold reversal, to 13 ka and a strong final warming to typical Holocene values by 11.5 ka. This temperature signal is a robust feature in many ice cores throughout all of Antarctica. The only record that does not support this block behavior is from Taylor Dome where an abrupt, Greenland-like warming has been documented. The validity of the Taylor Dome record has been questioned but there are to date no other temperature records from that region. We present a new d18Oice proxy record from Taylor Glacier, which is fed by ice deposited on the northern slope of Taylor Dome. We describe a transect spanning 80m in the ablation zone of Taylor Glacier that contains the full deglaciation from ~30 ka to ~12 ka. A sequence of 50cm long sticks, cut with a chainsaw from 70-80cm below the surface, was analyzed for dust proxies, stable water isotopes, and other aerosol tracers using a continuous melter system at DRI. We use the dust data to tie our record to the EPICA Dome C timescale. The absolute values of the d18Oice and dDice records indicate that the ice was deposited at similar elevation as the Taylor Dome deep ice core. This confirms that the deposition sites must have been relatively close. The results show that the Taylor Dome region went through a similar deglacial climatic transition as the rest of Antarctica. Antarctic Isotope Maximum 2 features prominently at the end of the LGM as in West Antarctic ice cores, but unlike e.g. Talos Dome despite its proximity. The subsequent deglacial warming happens rather smoothly in general but there are episodes where rapid changes are apparent. We also discuss in greater detail the regional

  16. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  17. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid-Gas Taylor Flows incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. A.; Walsh, P. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the heat transfer characteristics associated with liquid-gas Taylor flows in mini channels incorporating microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM). Taylor flows have been shown to result in heat transfer enhancements due to the fluid recirculation experienced within liquid slugs which is attributable to the alternating liquid slug and gas bubble flow structure. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) also offer significant potential with increased thermal capacity due to the latent heat required to cause phase change. The primary aim of this work was to examine the overall heat transfer potential associated with combining these two novel liquid cooling technologies. By investigating the local heat transfer characteristics, the augmentation/degradation over single phase liquid cooling was quantified while examining the effects of dimensionless variables, including Reynolds number, liquid slug length and gas void fraction. An experimental test facility was developed which had a heated test section and allowed MPCM-air Taylor flows to be subjected to a constant heat flux boundary condition. Infrared thermography was used to record high resolution experimental wall temperature measurements and determine local heat transfer coefficients from the thermal entrance point. 30.2% mass particle concentration of the MPCM suspension fluid was examined as it provided the maximum latent heat for absorption. Results demonstrate a significant reduction in experimental wall temperatures associated with MPCM-air Taylor flows when compared with the Graetz solution for conventional single phase coolants. Total enhancement in the thermally developed region is observed to be a combination of the individual contributions due to recirculation within the liquid slugs and also absorption of latent heat. Overall, the study highlights the potential heat transfer enhancements that are attainable within heat exchange devices employing MPCM

  18. Taylor's power law and fluctuation scaling explained by a central-limit-like convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    A power function relationship observed between the variance and the mean of many types of biological and physical systems has generated much debate as to its origins. This Taylor's law (or fluctuation scaling) has been recently hypothesized to result from the second law of thermodynamics and the behavior of the density of states. This hypothesis is predicated on physical quantities like free energy and an external field; the correspondence of these quantities with biological systems, though, remains unproven. Questions can be posed as to the applicability of this hypothesis to the diversity of observed phenomena as well as the range of spatial and temporal scales observed with Taylor's law. We note that the cumulant generating functions derived from this thermodynamic model correspond to those derived over a quarter century earlier for a class of probabilistic models known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These latter models are characterized by variance-to-mean power functions; their phenomenological basis rests with a central-limit-theorem-like property that causes many statistical systems to converge mathematically toward a Tweedie form. We review evaluations of the Tweedie Poisson-gamma model for Taylor's law and provide three further cases to test: the clustering of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the horse chromosome 1, the clustering of genes within human chromosome 8, and the Mertens function. This latter case is a number theoretic function for which a thermodynamic model cannot explain Taylor's law, but where Tweedie convergence remains applicable. The Tweedie models are applicable to diverse biological, physical, and mathematical phenomena that express power variance functions over a wide range of measurement scales; they provide a probabilistic description for Taylor's law that allows mechanistic insight into complex systems without the assumption of a thermodynamic mechanism.

  19. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  20. OMEGA experiments to characterize the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with planar foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    Understanding and control of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are of critical importance to the eventual sucess of direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF). During a capsule implosion the ablation surface is unstable during the acceleration phase, and the fuel-pusher interface is unstable during the deceleration phase. We have continued experiments (begun on the Nova laser facility) to determine both the growth rate and sources of initial perturbations on the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility. These experiments were done with laser irradiation at 351 nm and intensities of (1 ) to ( 3 × 10^14) W/cm^2. The laser system uniformity was improved with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and distributed phase plates (DPP). We characterized the drive beams with x-ray microscopy and optical equivalent-target-plane (ETP) measurements. Experimental results along with theoretical modeling will be presented for growth rates during the "linear growth phase" (amplitude of perturbation less than 0.1 times the wavelength) at the ablation interface, initial perturbations from smooth and non-SSD irradiation with one to six laser beams, and mitigation of initial imprinting using foam layers.(M. Desselberger, M. W. Jones, J. Edwards, M. Dunne, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett., 74), 2961, (1995)) The temporal shape of the laser illumination for these experiments is both Gaussian with a 1-ns FWHM and non-Gaussian (a 1-ns rise to a 2-ns constant intensity). Data were collected with both time-dependent and time-integrated x-ray and optical diagnostics in both emission and shadow radiography. footnote In collaboration with R. Betti, T, Boehly, D. Bradley, S. G. Glendinning, D. Kalantar, D.D. Meyerhofer, D. Ofer, V. Smalyuk, C. Verdon, R, Watt, and O. Willi This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development

  1. Three dimensional hydrodynamic calculations with adaptive mesh refinement of the evolution of Rayleigh Taylor and Richtmyer Meshkov instabilities in converging geometry: Multi-mode perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.I. |; Bell, J.; Pember, R.; Kelleher, T.

    1993-04-01

    The authors present results for high resolution hydrodynamic calculations of the growth and development of instabilities in shock driven imploding spherical geometries in both 2D and 3D. They solve the Eulerian equations of hydrodynamics with a high order Godunov approach using local adaptive mesh refinement to study the temporal and spatial development of the turbulent mixing layer resulting from both Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The use of a high resolution Eulerian discretization with adaptive mesh refinement permits them to study the detailed three-dimensional growth of multi-mode perturbations far into the non-linear regime for converging geometries. They discuss convergence properties of the simulations by calculating global properties of the flow. They discuss the time evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and compare its development to a simple theory for a turbulent mix model in spherical geometry based on Plesset`s equation. Their 3D calculations show that the constant found in the planar incompressible experiments of Read and Young`s may not be universal for converging compressible flow. They show the 3D time trace of transitional onset to a mixing state using the temporal evolution of volume rendered imaging. Their preliminary results suggest that the turbulent mixing layer loses memory of its initial perturbations for classical Richtmyer Meshkov and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities in spherically imploding shells. They discuss the time evolution of mixed volume fraction and the role of vorticity in converging 3D flows in enhancing the growth of a turbulent mixing layer.

  2. Shallow Sub-Permafrost Groundwater Systems In A Buried Fjord: Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica, represent a unique geologic setting where permanent lakes, ephemeral streams, and subglacial waters influence surface hydrology in a cold polar desert. Past research suggested that the MDV are underlain by several hundreds of meters of permafrost. Here, we present data collected from an Airborne EM (AEM) resistivity sensor flown over the MDV during the 2011-12 austral summer. A focus of our survey was over the Taylor Glacier where saline, iron-rich subglacial fluid releases at the glacier snout at a feature known as Blood Falls, and over Taylor Valley, where a series of isolated lakes lie between Taylor Glacier and the Ross Sea. Our data show that in Taylor Valley there are extensive areas of low resistivity, interpreted as hypersaline brines, beneath a relatively thin layer of high resistivity material, interpreted as dry- or ice-cemented permafrost. These hypersaline brines remain liquid at temperatures well below 0°C due to their salinity. They appear to be contained within the sedimentary fill deposited in Taylor Valley when it was still a fjord. This brine system continues up valley and has a subglacial extension beneath Taylor Glacier, where it may provide the source that feeds Blood Falls. By categorizing the resistivity measurements according to surficial land cover, we are able to distinguish between ice, permafrost, lake water, and seawater based on characteristic resistivity distributions. Furthermore, this technique shows that areas of surface permafrost become increasingly conductive (brine-filled) with depth, whereas the large lakes exhibit taliks that extend through the entire thickness of the permafrost. The subsurface brines represent a large, unstudied and potentially connected hydrogeologic system, in which subsurface flows may help transfer water and nutrients between lakes in the MDV and into the Ross Sea. Such a system is a potential habitat for extremophile life, similar to that already detected in

  3. Numerical investigation of the Taylor-Couette and Batchelor flows with heat transfer: physics and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełczewski, K.; Tuliszka-Sznitko, E.; Bontoux, P.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper the authors present the results obtained during a numerical investigation (Direct Numerical Simulation/Spectral Vanishing Viscosity method - DNS/SVV) of a flow with heat transfer in rotating cavities (i.e. the flow between two concentric disks and two concentric cylinders). These model flows are useful from numerical and experimental point of view among others because of the simplicity of their geometry. Simultaneously, the flows in rotating cavities appear in numerous industrial installations and machines in the field of mechanics and chemistry, e.g., in ventilation installations, desalination tanks and waste water tanks, in cooling system, in gas turbines and axial compressors. In the paper attention is focused on the laminar-turbulent region in the configuration of the large aspect ratio i.e. Taylor-Couette flow (a Batchelor flow case of small aspect ratio Γ = 0.04 is also presented for comparison). The main purpose of computations is to investigate the influence of different parameters (the aspect ratio, the end-wall boundary conditions and temperature gradient) on the flow structure and flow characteristics. For the non-isothermal flow cases the Nusselt number distributions along cylinders are presented and are correlated with the flow structures. The λ2 method has been used for visualization.

  4. And Speaking of Authority...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

  5. Authority in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  6. Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

  7. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  8. Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Huisman, Sander; Dung, On Yu; Tang, Ho Lun; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    It was recently found that multiple turbulent states exist for large Reynolds number (Re =106) Taylor-Couette flow in the regime of ultimate turbulence. Here we investigate how the transitions between the multiple states depend on the Reynolds number in the range of Re =105 to 2 .106 , by measuring global torque and local velocity while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinder. This sheds light on the question whether multiple states persist for Reynolds numbers beyond those currently reached. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in two Taylor-Couette setups with equal radius ratio but different aspect ratio, we furthermore investigate the influence of aspect ratio on the characteristics of the multiple states.

  9. A numerical simulation of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    The processes leading to laminar-turbulent transition in finite-channel-length Taylor-Couette flow are investigated analytically, solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by spectral-collocation methods. A time-split algorithm, implementable in both axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional time-accurate versions, and an algorithm based on the staggered-mesh discretization of Bernardi and Maday (1986) are described in detail, and results obtained by applying the axisymmetric version of the first algorithm and a steady-state version of the second are presented graphically and compared with published experimental data. The feasibility of full three-dimensional simulations of the progression through chaotic states to turbulence under the constraints of Taylor-Couette flow is demonstrated.

  10. Elimination of Gravity Influence on Flame Propagation Via Enhancement of the Saffman-Taylor Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldredge, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this analytical work the influence of the Saffman-Taylor instability on flame propagation is formulated for computational investigation. Specifically, it is of interest to examine the influence of this instability as a potential means of eliminating the effect of gravitational acceleration on the development of thermoacoustic instability. Earlier experimental investigations of thermoacoustic instability employed tubes of large circular or annular cross-section, such that neither heat loss nor viscosity at the burner walls was of significant importance in influencing flame behavior. However, it has been demonstrated recently that flames propagating between closely spaced walls, may be subject to long-wavelength wrinkling associated with the Saffman-Taylor instability, known to be relevant when a less-viscous fluid pushes a more-viscous fluid through a porous medium or between two closely spaced walls.

  11. Simulation of spatially evolving turbulence and the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis in compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sangsan; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz

    1992-01-01

    For the numerical simulation of inhomogeneous turbulent flows, a method is developed for generating stochastic inflow boundary conditions with a prescribed power spectrum. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations using this method with a low fluctuation Mach number are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validates the procedure. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations are also compared to those from temporal simulations using Taylor's hypothesis. Statistics such as turbulence intensity, vorticity, and velocity derivative skewness compare favorably with the temporal simulation. However, the statistics of dilatation show a significant departure from those obtained in the temporal simulation. To directly check the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis, space-time correlations of fluctuations in velocity, vorticity, and dilatation are investigated. Convection velocities based on vorticity and velocity fluctuations are computed as functions of the spatial and temporal separations. The profile of the space-time correlation of dilatation fluctuations is explained via a wave propagation model.

  12. James Taylor (1859-1946): favourite disciple of Hughlings Jackson and William Gowers.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2013-01-01

    In neurological circles today the name James Taylor (1859-1946) is probably remembered mainly for his role in editing the Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson, the most readily available source of Jackson's contributions to neurological knowledge. Taylors' own neurological achievements are largely or entirely forgotten, but in his day he was an influential figure whose career linked the great figures of the golden era of late nineteenth century British neurology to the neurology of the first half of the twentieth century. Not only was he a junior professional colleague and close friend of both John Hughlings Jackson and William Gowers, he also produced a substantial corpus of neurological writings in his own right, including a textbook of child neurology and the first English language account of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. PMID:24350323

  13. Analytical mitigation of solute-capillary interactions in double detection Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Latunde-Dada, Seyi; Bott, Rachel; Hampton, Karl; Leszczyszyn, Oksana Iryna

    2015-08-21

    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in the presence of interactions between solutes and capillary walls yields inaccurate results for the diffusion coefficients of the solutes because the resulting concentration profiles are broadened and asymmetric. Whilst there are practical ways of mitigating these interactions, it is not always possible to eradicate them completely. In this paper, an analytical method of mitigating the effects of the adsorptions is presented. By observing the dispersion of the solute molecules at two detection points and using the expected relations between measured parameters, such as the standard deviations and peak amplitudes, the dispersive components of the profiles were isolated with a constrained fitting algorithm. The method was successfully applied to lysozyme and cytochrome C which adsorb onto fused silica capillary walls. Furthermore, this illustrates an advantage of using the fitting method for Taylor Dispersion Analysis. PMID:26189206

  14. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, Riccardo; Anderson, Mark; Smith, Leslie

    2005-02-09

    The present research program is centered on the experimental and numerical study of two instabilities that develop at the interface between two different fluids when the interface experiences an impulsive or a constant acceleration. The instabilities, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, respectively, adversely affect target implosion in experiments aimed at the achievement of nuclear fusion by inertial confinement by causing the nuclear fuel contained in a target and the shell material to mix, leading to contamination of the fuel, yield reduction or no ignition at all. The laboratory experiments summarized in this report include shock tube experiments to study a shock-accelerated bubble and a shock-accelerated 2-D sinusoidal interface; and experiments based on the use of magnetorheological fluids for the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Computational experiments based on the shock tube experimental conditions are also reported.

  15. Study on Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Heat and Mass Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Srivastava, Vineet K.

    2014-01-01

    The linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the interface between two viscous and dielectric fluids in the presence of a tangential electric field has been carried out when there is heat and mass transfer across the interface. In our earlier work, the viscous potential flow analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of tangential electric field was studied. Here, we use another irrotational theory in which the discontinuities in the irrotational tangential velocity and shear stress are eliminated in the global energy balance. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, heat transfer coefficient, and vapour fraction on the stability of the system. It has been observed that heat transfer and electric field both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system. PMID:24526897

  16. Lensing simulations by Taylor expansion — not so inefficient after all

    SciTech Connect

    Næss, Sigurd K.; Louis, Thibaut E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2013-09-01

    Cosmic Microwave Background lensing simulation by Taylor expansion has long been considered impractical due to slow convergence, but a recent flat-sky implementation shows that a simple trick eliminates this problem, making Taylor lensing a fast and simple lensing algorithm for the flat sky. Here we generalize the method to the full sky, and study its convergence and performance relative to a commonly used numerical code, Lenspix, with extensive benchmarks of both. Compared to the flat sky case, the method takes a speed hit due to the slow speed of spherical harmonic transforms compared to fast Fourier transforms, resulting in speeds of 1/3 to 2/3 of Lenspix for similar accuracy.

  17. Origins of the k(-2) spectrum in decaying Taylor-Green magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Dallas, V; Alexakis, A

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the origins of k(-2) spectrum in a decaying Taylor-Green magnetohydrodynamic flow with zero large scale magnetic flux that was reported by Lee et al. [Phys. Rev. E 81, 016318 (2010)]. So far, a possible candidate for this scaling exponent has been the weak turbulence phenomenology. From our numerical simulations, we observe that current sheets in the magnetic Taylor-Green flow are formed in regions of magnetic discontinuities. Based on this observation and by studying the influence of the current sheets on the energy spectrum, using a filtering technique, we argue that the discontinuities are responsible for the -2 power law scaling of the energy spectra of this flow.

  18. Elastorotational instability in Taylor-Couette flow with Keplerian ratio as analog of the Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    The analogy between viscoelastic instability in the Taylor-Couette flow and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been found by Ogilvie & Potter. It relies on the similarity between the governing equations of viscoelastic flows of constant viscosity (Oldroyd-B model equations)and those of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We have performed linear stability analysis of the Taylor-Couette flow with a polymer solution obeying the Oldroyd-B model. A diagram of critical states shows the existence of stationary and helicoidal modes depending on the elasticity of the polymer solution. A generalized Rayleigh criterion determines the potentially unstable zone to pure elasticity-driven perturbations. Experimental results yield four type of modes : one pure elasticity mode and three elastorotational modes that are the MRI-analog modes. Anti-Keplerian case has also been investigated. There is a good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. Work supported by the CPER and ANR-LABEX EMC3.

  19. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  20. Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry of Varying Lengths Simulated by Reaction-Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunjie; Halmstad, Andrew; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Previously, we have observed chaotic formation of Taylor-Vortex pairs in Modified Taylor- Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry. In the experiment, the chaotic formation in a shorter system has been restricted to a narrow band about the waist of the hourglass. Such behavior has been modeled by The Reaction-Diffusion equation, which has been previously studied, by Riecke and Paap. Their calculation suggested that quadrupling length of the system would lead to spatial chaos in the vortex formation. We present a careful recreation of this result and consider an intermediate length. We demonstrate that doubling the length should be sufficient to observe spatially chaotic behavior. Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991).

  1. Aeromagnetic Survey of Taylor Mountains Area in Southwest Alaska, A Website for the Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    USGS Data Series Report for the release of aeromagnetic data collected in the Taylor Mountains Area of Southwest Alaska and associated contractor reports. Summary: An airborne high-resolution magnetic and coincidental horizontal magnetic gradiometer survey was completed over the Taylor Mountains area in southwest Alaska. The flying was undertaken by McPhar Geosurveys Ltd. on behalf of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). First tests and calibration flights were completed by April 7, 2004, and data acquisition was initiated on April 17, 2004. The final data acquisition and final test/calibrations flight was completed on May 31, 2004. Data acquired during the survey totaled 8,971.15 line-miles.

  2. Velocity measurement on Taylor Couette flow of a magnetic fluid with small aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Takeda, Yasushi

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the application of ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method to investigate magnetic-fluids flow is described. The objective of the research is to measure the internal flow of a magnetic fluid on Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio using the UVP method and to analyze the influence of the applied magnetic field. The flow structure of a magnetic fluid in a concentric annular geometry with a small aspect ratio of 3 and a radius ratio of 0.6 for an inner-cylinder rotation was investigated. Axial velocity distributions were measured using the UVP measurement technique. A non-uniform magnetic field was applied to the flow field using a permanent magnet, located outside of the cylinders. The results demonstrated that the UVP method was capable to provide the information on the structure of Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio, in a magnetic fluid.

  3. Numerical analysis of the Taylor-Vortex flow of a slightly rarefied gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Kagaya, Ryo; Kosuge, Shingo; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    The axisymmetric Taylor-vortex flow of a rarefied gas between two coaxial circular cylinders, a rotating inner cylinder and a resting outer one, is investigated numerically for small Knudsen numbers on the basis of the compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) equations and their appropriate slip boundary conditions. The accuracy of the result as an approximate solution to the Boltzmann equation is confirmed by comparing it with the result obtained by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for Knudsen numbers of the order of 10-2. The flow field for smaller Knudsen numbers (of the order of 10-3) exhibits a boundary-layer like structure near the cylinders. It is shown that, compared with the cylindrical Couette flow, the velocity slip in the circumferential direction is enhanced in the Taylor-vortex flow.

  4. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardo Bonazza, Mark Anderson, Jason Oakley

    2006-11-03

    The present research program is centered on the experimental and numerical study of two instabilities that develop at the interface between two different fluids when the interface experiences an impulsive or a constant acceleration. The instabilities, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, respectively, adversely affect target implosion in experiments aimed at the achievement of nuclear fusion by inertial confinement by causing the nuclear fuel contained in a target and the shell material to mix, leading to contamination of the fuel, yield reduction or no ignition at all. The laboratory experiments summarized in this report include shock tube experiments to study a shock-accelerated bubble and a shock-accelerated 2-D sinusoidal interface; and experiments based on the use of magnetorheological fluids for the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Computational experiments based on the shock tube experimental conditions are also reported.

  5. Designs for highly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Masse, L.; Igumenshchev, I.; Liberatore, S.; Jacquet, L.; Chicanne, C.; Loiseau, P.; Poujade, O.; Bradley, D. K.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present two designs relevant to ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008)]. The sensitivity of nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability physics to ablation velocity is addressed with targets driven by indirect drive, with stronger ablative stabilization, and by direct drive, with weaker ablative stabilization. The indirect drive design demonstrates the potential to reach a two-dimensional bubble-merger regime with a 20 ns duration drive at moderate radiation temperature. The direct drive design achieves a 3 to 5 times increased acceleration distance for the sample in comparison to previous experiments allowing at least 2 more bubble generations when starting from a three-dimensional broadband spectrum.

  6. Influence of Polyethylene Molecular Conformation on Taylor Impact Measurements: a Comparison of Hdpe, Uhmwpe, and Pex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. N.; Trujillo, C. P.; Gray, G. T.

    2007-12-01

    The current work presents the comparison of the Taylor impact response of three different industrial forms of polyethylene. Specifically, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) were tested. From quasi-static and intermediate strain-rate compression measurements as a function of temperature (-75 to 100 °C) and strain-rate (10-4 to 2600 s-1) the responses of UHMWPE and PEX are very similar, whereas HDPE exhibits some differences. The HDPE samples display a significantly higher yield stress followed by a flat flow behavior. Conversely UHMWPE and PEX both exhibit significant strain hardening after yield. Taylor impact experiments are presented as a function of velocity to probe the dynamic yield behavior and ductile-to-brittle response of these polymers.

  7. Influence of polyethylene molecular conformation on Taylor impact measurements: a comparison of HDPE, UHMWPE, and PEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Carl P.; Brown, Eric N.; Gray, George T., III

    2007-06-01

    The current work presents the comparison of the Taylor impact response of three different industrial forms of polyethylene. Specifically, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) were tested. From quasi-static and intermediate strain-rate compression measurements as a function of temperature (75 to 100C) and strain-rate (10-4 to 2600 s-1) the responses of UHMWPE and PEX are very similar, whereas HDPE exhibits some differences. The HDPE samples display a significantly higher yield stress followed by a flat flow behavior. Conversely UHMWPE and PEX both exhibit significant strain hardening after yield. Taylor impact experiments are presented as a function of velocity and temperature to probe the dynamic yield behavior and ductile-to-brittle response of these polymers.

  8. New Perspectives on Turbulent Mixing Induced by Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y; Remington, B A; Glendinning, S G; Dimits, A; Buckingham, A C; Robey, H F; Cook, A W; Clark, T T; Zimmerman, G; Burke, E W; Peyser, T A; Cabot, W; Eliason, D

    2002-10-30

    Turbulent hydrodynamic mixing induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities occurs in settings as varied as exploding stars (supernovae), inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions, and macroscopic flows on fluid dynamics facilities such as shock tubes. We have developed a quantitative description of turbulence from the onset to the asymptotic end-state. Our treatment, based on a combined approach of theory, direct numerical simulation (DNS), and experimental data analysis, has broad generality. We will report two key areas in our progress. First, we have developed a robust, easy to apply criteria for the mixing transition in a time-dependent flow. This allows an assessment of whether flows, be they from supernova explosions or ICF experiments, should be turbulent or not. Second, we inspect the structure, scaling and spectra of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities induced flows.

  9. An h-p Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.; Hardy, O.

    1991-01-01

    An extension of the familiar Taylor-Galerkin method to arbitrary h-p spatial approximations is proposed. Boundary conditions are analyzed, and a linear stability result for arbitrary meshes is given, showing the unconditional stability for the parameter of implicitness alpha not less than 0.5. The wedge and blunt body problems are solved with both linear, quadratic, and cubic elements and h-adaptivity, showing the feasibility of higher orders of approximation for problems with shocks.

  10. A numerical simulation of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Results from numerical simulations of finite-length Taylor-Couette flow are presented. Included are time-accurate and steady-state studies of the change in the nature of the symmetric two-cell/asymmetric one-cell bifurcation with varying aspect ratio and of the Reynolds number/aspect ratio locus of the two-cell/four-cell bifurcation. Preliminary results from wavy-vortex simulations at low aspect ratios are also presented.

  11. The ATOMFT integrator - Using Taylor series to solve ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Kenneth W.; Stanford, Richard H.; Breckheimer, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of ATOMFT, an integration package based on Taylor series solution with a sophisticated user interface. ATOMFT has the capabilities to allow the implementation of user defined functions and the solution of stiff and algebraic equations. Detailed examples, including the solutions to several astrodynamics problems, are presented. Comparisons with its predecessor ATOMCC and other modern integrators indicate that ATOMFT is a fast, accurate, and easy method to use to solve many differential equation problems.

  12. Pattern selection and tip perturbations in the Saffman-Taylor problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, D. C.; Langer, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic approach to the Saffman-Taylor problem of predicting the width of a viscous finger in a Hele-Shaw cell is presented. The first purpose is to provide a systematic description of the way in which the singular perturbation introduced by capillary forces leads to a solvability mechanism for pattern selection. It is then shown how recent experimental observations by Couder et al. (1986) may be interpreted in terms suggested by this mechanism.

  13. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2010-02-19

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is damped but the observation provides a means for predicting the onset of the magnetorotational instability.

  14. [Operative treatment of pediatric open fractures of the lower limb using the Taylor spatial frame fixator].

    PubMed

    Gessmann, J; Baecker, H; Graf, M; Ozokyay, L; Muhr, G; Seybold, D

    2010-05-01

    The operative management of open fractures of the lower limb requires a consistent treatment to avoid soft tissue complications. Acute angular shortening of the fracture enabling primary soft tissue closure is still an uncommon operative technique because of difficulties in correcting the secondary deformity. The case of a pediatric open fracture of the lower limb (Gustilo type IIIa) is described, which was treated with acute angular shortening followed by gradual correction using the Taylor spatial frame (TSF).

  15. Observation of Magnetocoriolis Waves in a Liquid Metal Taylor-Couette Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nornberg, M. D.; Ji, H.; Schartman, E.; Roach, A.; Goodman, J.

    2009-09-14

    The first observation of fast and slow magnetocoriolis (MC) waves in a laboratory experiment is reported. Rotating nonaxisymmetric modes arising from a magnetized turbulent Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal are identified as the fast and slow MC waves by the dependence of the rotation frequency on the applied field strength. The observed slow MC wave is marginally damped but will become destabilized by the magnetorotational instability with a modest increase in rotation rate.

  16. Rayleigh--Taylor instability of a continuously stratified magnetofluid under a general rotation field

    SciTech Connect

    Davalos-Orozco, L. A.; Aguilar-Rosas, J. E.

    1989-09-01

    The Rayleigh--Taylor instability of a continuously stratified magnetofluid under a general rotation field and a vertically stratified horizontal magnetic field is investigated. The upper bound for the growth rate of the perturbation is found and corrections to that obtained by Chakraborty (Phys. Fluids /bold 25/, 743 (1982)) are given. The theory predicts the formation of rolls appearing in natural rotating convection and magnetoconvection.

  17. A herringbone bedform pattern of possible Taylor-Görtler type flow origin seen in sonographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toimil, Lawrence J.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1979-01-01

    Side-scan sonar records collected in a shallow arctic lagoon (2–2.5 m depth) reveal a herringbone pattern of current-aligned linear reflectors with branching diagonals. The major longitudinal reflectors have no detectable relief (<20 cm), are spaced 5–10 m apart, and may represent current-aligned helical cell boundaries preserved in the silty fine sand of the lagoon floor. The pattern suggests a three-dimensional flow regime of the Taylor-Görtler type.

  18. Self-generated Magnetic Fields in Blast-wave Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaig, Markus; Plewa, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    We study the generation of magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect in blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. Previous estimates have shown that in a typical experiment, one should expect fields in the MG range to be generated, with the potential to influence the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology. We perform two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, where we solve the extended set of MHD equations known as the Braginskii equations. The simulation parameters reflect the physical conditions in past experiments performed on the OMEGA laser and potential future experiments on the NIF laser facility. When neglecting the friction force between electrons and ions in the simulations, magnetic fields of the order of a few 0.1 MG (with a plasma smaller than 1000) are generated, and are found to be dynamically significant. However, it turns out that once the friction force is included, the magnetic fields become much smaller (with a plasma beta greater than 100000) which have negligible influence on the dynamics of the system. Our results therefore indicate that, contrary to previous speculations, it is highly unlikely that self-generated magnetic fields can influence the morphology of a typical blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiment. M.F. and T.P. were supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG52- 09NA29548 and the NSF Grant AST-1109113. This research used resources of the National Energy Re.

  19. Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

    2004-01-12

    A Type Ia supernova explosion likely begins as a nuclear runaway near the center of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The outward propagating flame is unstable to the Landau-Darrieus, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which serve to accelerate it to a large fraction of the speed of sound. We investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame at the transition from the flamelet regime to the distributed-burning regime, around densities of 10e7 gm/cc, through detailed, fully resolved simulations. A low Mach number, adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code is used to achieve the necessary resolution and long time scales. As the density is varied, we see a fundamental change in the character of the burning--at the low end of the density range the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates the burning, whereas at the high end the burning suppresses the instability. In all cases, significant acceleration of the flame is observed, limited only by the size of the domain we are able to study. We discuss the implications of these results on the potential for a deflagration to detonation transition.

  20. Observation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacha, K. A.; Merlino, R. L.; Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S. H.

    2011-10-01

    Lord Rayleigh showed that the interface between two fluids of different densities, with the dense fluid above a fluid of lesser density, is unstable to the growth of downward moving irregularities which develop into finger-like structures. Taylor showed that this situation is equivalent to one in which a lighter fluid is accelerated into a heavier fluid. We have observed a Taylor-type instability in a dusty plasma formed in a dc-glow discharge in argon at P = 13 Pa. The glow discharge is formed using a 4 cm diameter anode disk biased at 300 V with respect to the walls of a vacuum chamber. An axial magnetic field ~30 mT confines the glow to a cylindrical region protruding outward from the anode. Micron size spherical iron particles are incorporated into the discharge from a floating tray located below the anode. The conical dust suspension is separated into a region of high dust density near the anode and a low density region farther from the anode. Periodically, the boundary of the high density region is locally perturbed by a pressure disturbance from the low density region. The surface irregularity grows rapidly, forming a bubble and spike, classic signatures of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The instability is studied with laser light scattering and video imaging. This work was supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG01-04ER54795.

  1. Designing of Multi-Interface Diverging Experiments to Model Rayleigh-Taylor Growth in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosskopf, Michael; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Meakin, C.; Arnett, D.; Miles, A.; Robey, H.; Hansen, J.; Hsing, W.; Edwards, M.

    2008-05-01

    In previous experiments on the Omega Laser, researchers studying blast-wave-driven instabilities have observed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities under conditions scaled to the He/H interface of SN1987A. Most of these experiments have been planar experiments, as the energy available proved unable to accelerate enough mass in a diverging geometry. With the advent of the NIF laser, which can deliver hundreds of kJ to an experiment, it is possible to produce 3D, blast-wave-driven, multiple-interface explosions and to study the mixing that develops. We report scaling simulations to model the interface dynamics of a multilayered, diverging Rayleigh-Taylor experiment for NIF using CALE, a hybrid adaptive Lagrangian-Eulerian code developed at LLNL. Specifically, we looked both qualitatively and quantitatively at the Rayleigh-Taylor growth and multi-interface interactions in mass-scaled, spherically divergent systems using different materials. The simulations will assist in the target design process and help choose diagnostics to maximize the information we receive in a particular shot. Simulations are critical for experimental planning, especially for experiments on large-scale facilities. *This research was sponsored by LLNL through contract LLNL B56128 and by the NNSA through DOE Research Grant DE-FG52-04NA00064.

  2. Ring-bursting behavior en route to turbulence in narrow-gap Taylor-Couette flows.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Taylor-Couette system where the radius ratio is close to unity. Systematically increasing the Reynolds number, we observe a number of previously known transitions, such as one from the classical Taylor vortex flow (TVF) to wavy vortex flow (WVF) and the transition to fully developed turbulence. Prior to the onset of turbulence, we observe intermittent bursting patterns of localized turbulent patches, confirming the experimentally observed pattern of very short wavelength bursts (VSWBs). A striking finding is that, for a Reynolds number larger than that for the onset of VSWBs, a new type of intermittently bursting behavior emerges: patterns of azimuthally closed rings of various orders. We call them ring-bursting patterns, which surround the cylinder completely but remain localized and separated in the axial direction through nonturbulent wavy structures. We employ a number of quantitative measures including the cross-flow energy to characterize the ring-bursting patterns and to distinguish them from the background flow. These patterns are interesting because they do not occur in the wide-gap Taylor-Couette flow systems. The narrow-gap regime is less studied but certainly deserves further attention to gain deeper insights into complex flow dynamics in fluids. PMID:26651790

  3. Instability of Taylor-Sedov blast waves propagating through a uniform gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Stamper, J.; Manka, C.; Resnick, J.; Burris, R.

    1991-05-01

    An instability in Taylor-Sedov blast waves was measured as the waves propagated through a uniform gas with a low adiabatic index. The first measurements of the instability are given and compared to theoretical predictions. The classical Taylor-Sedov blast waves resulted from the expansion of ablation plasma into an ambient gas from laser-irradiated foils, and photographs were taken using the dark-field imaging method. Visible emission from the blasts were recorded with a four-frame microchannel-plate intensifier camera. Blast waves formed in nitrogen gas are shown to be stable and smooth, whereas the waves propagating through xenon gas are found to be unstable and wrinkled. A power law is fitted to the experimental data, and the adiabatic indices are theorized to cause the different responses in the two gases. The results generally agree with theoretical predictions in spite of some minor discrepancies, and an explanation of the instability mechanism is developed. When the adiabatic index is sufficiently low, the Taylor-Sedov blast waves in a uniform gas will be unstable, and the perturbed amplitudes will grow as a power of time.

  4. Ekman-Hartmann layer in a magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarski, Jacek; Ruediger, Guenther

    2007-12-15

    We study magnetic effects induced by rigidly rotating plates enclosing a cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Taylor-Couette flow at the finite aspect ratio H/D=10. The fluid confined between the cylinders is assumed to be liquid metal characterized by small magnetic Prandtl number, the cylinders are perfectly conducting, an axial magnetic field is imposed with Hartmann number Ha{approx_equal}10, and the rotation rates correspond to Reynolds numbers of order 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}. We show that the end plates introduce, besides the well-known Ekman circulation, similar magnetic effects which arise for infinite, rotating plates, horizontally unbounded by any walls. In particular, there exists the Hartmann current, which penetrates the fluid, turns in the radial direction, and together with the applied magnetic field gives rise to a force. Consequently, the flow can be compared with a Taylor-Dean flow driven by an azimuthal pressure gradient. We analyze the stability of such flows and show that the currents induced by the plates can give rise to instability for the considered parameters. When designing a MHD Taylor-Couette experiment, special care must be taken concerning the vertical magnetic boundaries so that they do not significantly alter the rotational profile.

  5. Measuring Taylor Slough boundary and internal flows, Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillis, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Four intensive data-collection efforts, intended to represent the spectrum of precipitation events and associated flow conditions, were conducted during 1997 and 1998 in the Taylor Slough Basin, Everglades National Park. Flow velocities were measured by newly developed, portable Acoustic Doppler Velocity meters along three transects bisecting the Taylor Slough Basin from east to west, roughly perpendicular to the centerline axis of the slough as well as a fourth transect along the slough's axis. These meters provided the required levels of accuracy in flow-velocity measurements while enabling the rapid collection of multiple time series of flow data at remote sites. Concurrently, flow measurements were made along bordering road culverts and under L-31W and Taylor Slough bridges. Flows across the study area's boundaries provided net flow of water into the system and transect measurements provided flow data within the basin. Collected data are available through the World Wide Web (http://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/flow_velocity/). The high-water and low-water events corresponded with the highest and lowest flow velocities, respectively. The July 1998 data had lower than expected flow velocities and, in some cases, strong winds reversed flow direction.

  6. OPTIMIZATION-BASED CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION FROM SPARSE TAYLOR CYLINDER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Lacy

    2010-10-01

    The classic Taylor impact test imparts temporally and spatially varying fields of strain, strain rate, and temperature through the specimen. It is possible to exploit this complexity to directly identify constitutive model parameters from the deformed shape of the specimen. Where prior investigators have employed various mathematical fitting methods to identify or improve strength model parameters from Taylor cylinder profiles, we extend the method to employ a multi-objective genetic optimization algorithm to minimize the cylinder profile errors simultaneously on three cylinders impacted at different velocities. No experimental data other than the three Taylor cylinders is employed in developing the constitutive model parameter set, and generic starting coefficients are employed. To validate the accuracy of the resulting coefficients, both split Hopkinson pressure bar and axisymmetric expanding ring tests were conducted and compared to the resultant Johnson-Cook strength model. The derived strength model agreed well with experimental data available to date. Further work is necessary to evaluate the range of rates and temperatures over which parameters derived by this method may be applied.

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in colliding-plasma-jet experiments with magnetic and viscous stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Colin Stuart

    2015-01-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.

  8. Investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardo Bonazza; Mark Anderson; Leslie Smith

    2004-01-14

    Some of the major difficulties encountered in the effort to achieve nuclear fusion by means of inertial confinement arise from the unstable behavior of the interface between the shell material and the nuclear fuel which develops upon implosion of the shell by direct or indirect laser drive. The fluid flows that develop (termed the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities) cause the gassified shell material to mix with the nuclear fuel, causing a reduction in energy yield or no ignition altogether. The present research program addresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with extensive laboratory and computational experiments. In the past year, three new activities have been initiated: a new shock tube experiment, involving the impulsive acceleration of a test gas-filled soap bubble, diagnosed with planar Mie scattering or planar induced fluorescence; a Rayleigh-Taylor experiment based on the use of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid to fix the initial shape of the interface between the MR fluid and water; and a series of computer calculations using the Raptor code (made available by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) to design and simulate the shock tube experiments.

  9. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  10. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. PMID:21859403

  11. Akenti Authorization System

    2000-06-01

    Akenti is an authorization service for distributed resources. The authorization policy is kept in distributed certificates signed by one or more stakeholders for the resources. The package consists of the following components: Java GUI tools to create and sign the policy certificates C++ libraries to do make acess decisions based on the policy certificates A standalone authorization server that make access decisions C interfaces to the libraries and server

  12. Authoring tool evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  13. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  14. Parental authority questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  15. The Voice of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  16. Talking Back to Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Students will see writing as a powerful act when they learn to analyze a published author's writing style and send a written critique straight to the source. The author critiques help students to analyze their own writing and the Sentence Opening Sheet is an excellent device for this purpose as it reformats the text so that students can see their…

  17. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Rod Ellis's comments on their study on motivated classroom behavior. As Ellis correctly summarizes, the three student variables selected for investigation in the authors' study were attention, participation, and volunteering for teacher-fronted activity. These three components were then summed up in a…

  18. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  19. Bringing Authors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II

    2005-01-01

    Traditional story times begin with "The author of this book is..." and "The illustrator of this book is...". Although library media specialists emphasize the role of an author and an illustrator in creating a book, students often have difficulty making the connection between the name and a real person. Learning involves making connections and…

  20. Charter Authorizers Face Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Since the first charter school opened 20 years ago in Minnesota, charters have been a focus of school reform advocates and the subject of substantial research. Yet the regulators of the charter industry (called "authorizers" or "sponsors") remain a mystery to many. In fact, many authorizers work in isolation, developing their…

  1. Authorizing Online Learning. Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Susan; Vander Ark, Tom

    2011-01-01

    processing to personalized learning. There will also be a slow enrollment shift from traditional district-operated schools to schools and programs operated by organizations authorized under contracts or…

  2. Taylor-Couette flow control by amplitude variation of the inner cylinder cross-section oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, Hamid; Mekadem, Mahmoud; Lebbi, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Ahcene

    2015-07-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous fluid flow evolving in an annular space between a rotating inner cylinder with a periodically variable radius and an outer fixed cylinder is considered. The basic flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength along the whole filled system length. The numerical simulations are implemented on the commercial Fluent software package, a finite-volume CFD code. It is aimed to make investigation of the early flow transition with assessment of the flow response to radial pulsatile motion superimposed to the inner cylinder cross-section as an extension of a previous developed work in Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)] where a comparative controlling strategy is applied to the outer cylinder. The same basic system is considered with similar calculating parameters and procedure. In Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)], it is concluded that for the actuated outer cylinder and relatively to the non-controlled case, the critical Taylor number, Tac1, characterizing the first instability onset illustrated by the piled Taylor vortices along the gap, increases substantially to reach a growing rate of 70% when the deforming amplitude is ɛ = 15%. Interestingly, when this controlling strategy is applied to the inner cylinder cross-section with a slight modification of the actuating law, this tendency completely inverts and the critical Taylor number decreases sharply from Tac1 = 41.33 to Tac1 = 17.66 for ɛ = 5%, corresponding to a reduction rate of 57%. Fundamentally, this result is interesting and can be interpreted by prematurely triggering instabilities resulting in rapid development of flow turbulence. Practically, important applicative aspects can be met in several industry areas where substantial intensification of transport phenomena (mass, momentum and heat) is

  3. Connections between centrifugal, stratorotational, and radiative instabilities in viscous Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Colin; Nguyen, Florian; Kerswell, Rich R.

    2016-10-01

    The "Rayleigh line" μ =η2 , where μ =Ωo/Ωi and η =ri/ro are respectively the rotation and radius ratios between inner (subscript i ) and outer (subscript o ) cylinders, is regarded as marking the limit of centrifugal instability (CI) in unstratified inviscid Taylor-Couette flow, for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric modes. Nonaxisymmetric stratorotational instability (SRI) is known to set in for anticyclonic rotation ratios beyond that line, i.e., η2<μ <1 for axially stably stratified Taylor-Couette flow, but the competition between CI and SRI in the range μ <η2 has not yet been addressed. In this paper, we establish continuous connections between the two instabilities at finite Reynolds number Re, as previously suggested by Le Bars and Le Gal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 064502 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.064502], making them indistinguishable at onset. Both instabilities are also continuously connected to the radiative instability at finite Re. These results demonstrate the complex impact viscosity has on the linear stability properties of this flow. Several other qualitative differences with inviscid theory were found, among which are the instability of a nonaxisymmetric mode localized at the outer cylinder without stratification and the instability of a mode propagating against the inner cylinder rotation with stratification. The combination of viscosity and stratification can also lead to a "collision" between (axisymmetric) Taylor vortex branches, causing the axisymmetric oscillatory state already observed in past experiments. Perhaps more surprising is the instability of a centrifugal-like helical mode beyond the Rayleigh line, caused by the joint effects of stratification and viscosity. The threshold μ =η2 seems to remain, however, an impassable instability limit for axisymmetric modes, regardless of stratification, viscosity, and even disturbance amplitude.

  4. Gauge Symmetry and Slavnov-Taylor Identities for Randomly Stirred Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David

    2007-12-21

    The path integral for randomly forced incompressible fluids is shown to have an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry as a consequence of Galilean invariance. This symmetry must be respected to have a consistent generating functional, free from both an overall infinite factor and spurious relations amongst correlation functions. We present a procedure for respecting this BRS symmetry, akin to gauge fixing in quantum field theory. Relations are derived between correlation functions of this gauge-fixed, BRS symmetric theory, analogous to the Slavnov-Taylor identities of quantum field theory.

  5. First Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The first experimental demonstration of Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields due to the Biermann battery effect has been made. Experiments with laser-irradiated plastic foils were performed to investigate these illusive fields using a monoenergetic proton radiography system. Path-integrated B field strength measurements were inferred from radiographs and found to increase from 10 to 100Tμm during the linear growth phase for 120μm perturbations. Proton fluence modulations were corrected for Coulomb scattering using measured areal density profiles from x-ray radiographs.

  6. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength.

  7. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a non-Newtonian incompressible complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, S.; Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-03-01

    The stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is investigated in a non-Newtonian unmagnetized dusty plasma with an experimentally verified model of shear flow rate dependent viscosity. It has been found that non-Newtonian property has also a significant role in stabilization of RT instability along with velocity shear stabilization in the short wavelength regime. The effect of the non-Newtonian parameters is more profound in the higher velocity shear rate regime. A detailed study is reported on the role of non-Newtonian effect on RT instability with conventional dust fluid equations using standard numerical eigenvalue analysis.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Uniaxial Strain Shock Tests and Taylor Tests for Armor and Maraging Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mescheryakov, Yu. I.; Zhigacheva, N. I.; Petrov, Yu. A.; Divakov, A. K.; Cline, C. F.

    2004-07-01

    High-strength constructional 38KhN3MFA steel and 02H18К9M5-BИ maraging steel were tested to determine the yield stress under dynamic loading. The 38KhN3MFA steel was used as central test material to work out the experimental technique. For both kinds of steel the results obtained in the plane shock tests under uniaxial strain condition show approximately the identical yield stress values as those obtained in Taylor tests. Cracking of maraging steel occurs along the shock-induced austenite bands where microhardness is much smaller than that for the rest of the matrix.

  9. Verification of the Taylor (minimum energy) state in the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.W.; Janos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Yamada, M.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the equilibrium in the S-1 Spheromak by use of magnetic probes inside the plasma show that the final magnetic equilibrium is one which has relaxed close to the Taylor (minimum-energy) state, even though the plasma is far from that state during formation. The comparison is made by calculating the two-dimensional ..mu.. profile of the plasma from the probe data, where ..mu.. is defined as ..mu../sub 0/j/sub parallel//B. Measurements using a triple Langmuir probe provide evidence to support the conclusion that the pressure gradients in the relaxed state are confined to the edge region of the plasma.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Elastoplastic Solids: A Local Catastrophic Process.

    PubMed

    Maimouni, I; Goyon, J; Lac, E; Pringuey, T; Boujlel, J; Chateau, X; Coussot, P

    2016-04-15

    We show that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastoplastic solids takes the form of local perturbations penetrating the material independently of the interface size, in contrast with the theory for simple elastic materials. Then, even just beyond the stable domain, the instability abruptly develops as bursts rapidly moving through the other medium. We show that this is due to the resistance to penetration of a finger which is minimal for a specific finger size and drops to a much lower value beyond a small depth (a few millimeters). PMID:27127971

  11. Rayleigh-taylor instability growth experiments in a cylindrically convergent geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S. T., LLNL

    1997-06-11

    Convergent geometry Rayleigh-Taylor experiments have been performed with a 122-point detonation initiation system on cylinders having sinusoidal perturbations on the outer surface ranging from mode-6 to mode-36. Experiments were performed with various perturbation mode numbers, perturbation amplitudes, and ring accelerations. Feedthrough perturbation growth on the inner surface was observed in several experiments, and in one experiment the feed through perturbation underwent a phase inversion. These experimental results were found to be in good agreement with linear, small-amplitude analysis of feedthrough growth in an incompressible, cylindrically convergent geometry.

  12. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a non-Newtonian incompressible complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-03-15

    The stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is investigated in a non-Newtonian unmagnetized dusty plasma with an experimentally verified model of shear flow rate dependent viscosity. It has been found that non-Newtonian property has also a significant role in stabilization of RT instability along with velocity shear stabilization in the short wavelength regime. The effect of the non-Newtonian parameters is more profound in the higher velocity shear rate regime. A detailed study is reported on the role of non-Newtonian effect on RT instability with conventional dust fluid equations using standard numerical eigenvalue analysis.

  13. Extended local balance model of turbulence and couette-taylor flow

    PubMed

    Balonishnikov

    2000-02-01

    An extended local balance model of turbulence, based on a new transport equation for the dissipation rate with a negative diffusion coefficient, is presented. Analytical solutions for the mean velocity and the dissipation rate for the turbulent Couette-Taylor problem are derived. The dependence of torque on the Reynolds number is obtained. These solutions depend only on two constants k=0.4 and C=9.5 of the turbulent boundary layer and, within the limits of a narrow channel, are reduced to the well-known von Karman's solutions for planar Couette flow. Strange attractor behavior in this limit is also observed. PMID:11046418

  14. Truncation effect on Taylor-Aris dispersion in lattice Boltzmann schemes: Accuracy towards stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Roux, Laetitia

    2015-10-01

    The Taylor dispersion in parabolic velocity field provides a well-known benchmark for advection-diffusion (ADE) schemes and serves as a first step towards accurate modeling of the high-order non-Gaussian effects in heterogeneous flow. While applying the Lattice Boltzmann ADE two-relaxation-times (TRT) scheme for a transport with given Péclet number (Pe) one should select six free-tunable parameters, namely, (i) molecular-diffusion-scale, equilibrium parameter; (ii) three families of equilibrium weights, assigned to the terms of mass, velocity and numerical-diffusion-correction, and (iii) two relaxation rates. We analytically and numerically investigate the respective roles of all these degrees of freedom in the accuracy and stability in the evolution of a Gaussian plume. For this purpose, the third- and fourth-order transient multi-dimensional analysis of the recurrence equations of the TRT ADE scheme is extended for a spatially-variable velocity field. The key point is in the coupling of the truncation and Taylor dispersion analysis which allows us to identify the second-order numerical correction δkT to Taylor dispersivity coefficient kT. The procedure is exemplified for a straight Poiseuille flow where δkT is given in a closed analytical form in equilibrium and relaxation parameter spaces. The predicted longitudinal dispersivity is in excellent agreement with the numerical experiments over a wide parameter range. In relatively small Pe-range, the relative dispersion error increases with Péclet number. This deficiency reduces in the intermediate and high Pe-range where it becomes Pe-independent and velocity-amplitude independent. Eliminating δkT by a proper parameter choice and employing specular reflection for zero flux condition on solid boundaries, the d2Q9 TRT ADE scheme may reproduce the Taylor-Aris result quasi-exactly, from very coarse to fine grids, and from very small to arbitrarily high Péclet numbers. Since free-tunable product of two

  15. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as analog of the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2015-09-01

    A linear stability analysis and an experimental study of a viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow corotating in the Keplerian ratio allow us to elucidate the analogy between the viscoelastic instability and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). A generalized Rayleigh criterion allows us to determine the potentially unstable zone to pure-elasticity-driven perturbations. Experiments with a viscoelastic polymer solution yield four modes: one pure-elasticity mode and three elastorotational instability (ERI) modes that represent the MRI-analog modes. The destabilization by the polymer viscosity is evidenced for the ERI modes.

  16. Identification of complex flows in Taylor-Couette counter-rotating cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarny, O.; Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    The transition in confined rotating flows is a topical problem with many industrial and fundamental applications. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Taylor-Couette flow in a finite-length cavity with counter-rotating walls, for two aspect ratios L=5 or L=6. Two complex regimes of wavy vortex and spirals are emphasized for the first time via direct numerical simulation, by using a three-dimensional spectral method. The spatio-temporal behavior of the solutions is analyzed and compared to the few data actually available. c2001 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  17. Flow visualization of Taylor-mode breakup of a viscous liquid jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Luu, Patrick; Tam, Patrick; Roski, Gerald; Tsai, Chen S.

    1999-06-01

    We recently reported a new spray technique called ultrasound-modulated two-fluid (UMTF) atomization and the pertinent "resonant liquid capillary wave (RLCW) theory" based on linear models of Taylor-mode breakup of capillary waves. In this article, flow visualizations of liquid jets near the nozzle tip are presented to verify the central assumption of the RLCW theory that the resonant liquid capillary wave in UMTF atomization is initiated by the ultrasound at the nozzle tip. Specifically, a bright band beneath the nozzle tip was seen in ultrasonic and UMTF atomization separately, but not in two-fluid atomization. The bright band can be attributed to scattering of laser light sheet by the capillary waves generated by the ultrasound on the intact liquid jet. As the capillary wave travels downstream in the direction of airflow, it is amplified by the air blowing around it and eventually collapsed into drops. Therefore, the jet breakup time can be determined by dividing the measured band length with the capillary wave velocity. The breakup times thus determined for water and glycerol/water jets are twice the values predicted by the modified Taylor's model with a sheltering parameter, and are one order of magnitude shorter than those in conventional two-fluid atomization. Furthermore, the images of the spray in the proximity of the nozzle tip obtained by 30 ns laser pulses are consistent with the drop sizes obtained 2.3-6 cm downstream from the nozzle tip by 13 s time average of continuous laser light. Also reported in this article is the good agreement between the measured viscosity effects on the drop-size and size distribution in UMTF atomization and those on the relative amplitude growth rates of capillary waves at different wavelengths predicted by Taylor's model as a result of its inclusion of higher order terms other than the first in viscosity. These new findings have led to the conclusion that UMTF atomization occurs via Taylor-mode breakup of capillary waves

  18. Photographic copy of architectural plan for Administration Building (T50): Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural plan for Administration Building (T-50): Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Administration Building Type OB-H-T, Plans and - Details, Sheet No. 38 of 38, March 1944. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Administration Building T-50, D Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4332 (T82): Taylor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawings for Building 4332 (T-82): Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. Muroc ESA 210-48 and 210-49, Military Construction: Muroc Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Warehouses and Additional Housing for Officers: Warehouse "A" Plans & Elevations, Sheet No. 4 of 16, May 1945. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives; Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Warehouse A, North Base Road at E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15%-35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ??biotite, ??hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5??0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  1. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in a plasma with magnetic and viscous effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, Colin S.; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-11-06

    We present time-resolved observations of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability (RTI) evolution at the interface between an unmagnetized plasma jet colliding with a stagnated, magnetized plasma. The observed instability growth time (~10μs) is consistent with the estimated linear RTI growth rate calculated using experimentally inferred values of density (~1014cm–3) and deceleration (~109 m/s2). The observed mode wavelength (≳1 cm) nearly doubles within a linear growth time. Furthermore, theoretical estimates of magnetic and viscous stabilization and idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model both suggest that the observed instability evolution is subject to magnetic and/or viscous effects.

  2. Analog of astrophysical magnetorotational instability in a Couette-Taylor flow of polymer fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Huynh, Don; Pariev, Vladimir

    2009-12-15

    We report experimental observation of an instability in a Couette-Taylor flow of a polymer fluid in a thin gap between two coaxially rotating cylinders in a regime where their angular velocity decreases with the radius while the specific angular momentum increases with the radius. In the considered regime, neither the inertial Rayleigh instability nor the purely elastic instability is possible. We propose that the observed 'elastorotational' instability is an analog of the magnetorotational instability which plays a fundamental role in astrophysical Keplerian accretion disks.

  3. Spiral vortices traveling between two rotating defects in the Taylor-Couette system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ch.; Lücke, M.; Pinter, A.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical calculations of vortex flows in Taylor-Couette systems with counter rotating cylinders are presented. The full, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a combination of a finite difference and a Galerkin method. Annular gaps of radius ratio η=0.5 and of several heights are simulated. They are closed by nonrotating lids that produce localized Ekman vortices in their vicinity and that prevent axial phase propagation of spiral vortices. The existence and spatiotemporal properties of rotating defects, modulated Ekman vortices, and the spiral vortex structures in the bulk are elucidated in quantitative detail.

  4. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  5. Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed.

  6. The Rayleigh-Taylor condition for the evolution of irrotational fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Antonio; Cordoba, Diego; Gancedo, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    For the free boundary dynamics of the two-phase Hele-Shaw and Muskat problems, and also for the irrotational incompressible Euler equation, we prove existence locally in time when the Rayleigh-Taylor condition is initially satisfied for a 2D interface. The result for water waves was first obtained by Wu in a slightly different scenario (vanishing at infinity), but our approach is different because it emphasizes the active scalar character of the system and does not require the presence of gravity. PMID:19553208

  7. High-Speed Solution of Spacecraft Trajectory Problems Using Taylor Series Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that Taylor series (TS) integration is among the most efficient and accurate numerical methods in solving differential equations. However, the full benefit of the method has yet to be realized in calculating spacecraft trajectories, for two main reasons. First, most applications of Taylor series to trajectory propagation have focused on relatively simple problems of orbital motion or on specific problems and have not provided general applicability. Second, applications that have been more general have required use of a preprocessor, which inevitably imposes constraints on computational efficiency. The latter approach includes the work of Berryman et al., who solved the planetary n-body problem with relativistic effects. Their work specifically noted the computational inefficiencies arising from use of a preprocessor and pointed out the potential benefit of manually coding derivative routines. In this Engineering Note, we report on a systematic effort to directly implement Taylor series integration in an operational trajectory propagation code: the Spacecraft N-Body Analysis Program (SNAP). The present Taylor series implementation is unique in that it applies to spacecraft virtually anywhere in the solar system and can be used interchangeably with another integration method. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagator that includes force models for central body gravitation with N X N harmonics, other body gravitation with N X N harmonics, solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag (for Earth orbits), and spacecraft thrusting (including shadowing). The governing equations are solved using an eighth-order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg (RKF) single-step method with variable step size control. In the present effort, TS is implemented by way of highly integrated subroutines that can be used interchangeably with RKF. This makes it possible to turn TS on or off during various phases of a mission. Current TS force models include central body

  8. Strong stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability by material strength at Mbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Remington, B A

    2009-11-19

    Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure effective lattice viscosity are presented. Using a laser created ramped drive, vanadium samples are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the sample in the solid-state. Comparisons with simulations and theory indicate that the high pressure, high strain rate conditions trigger a phonon drag mechanism, resulting in the observed high effective lattice viscosity and strong stabilization of the RT instability.

  9. New type of magnetorotational instability in cylindrical taylor-couette flow.

    PubMed

    Hollerbach, Rainer; Rüdiger, Günther

    2005-09-16

    We study the stability of cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields, and show that adding an azimuthal field profoundly alters the previous results for purely axial fields. For small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, the critical Reynolds number Re(c) for the onset of the magnetorotational instability becomes independent of Pm, whereas for purely axial fields it scales as Pm-1. For typical liquid metals, Re(c) is then reduced by several orders of magnitude, enough that this new design should succeed in realizing this instability in the laboratory.

  10. Harmonic growth of spherical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in weakly nonlinear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wanhai; Chen, Yulian; Yu, Changping E-mail: lixl@imech.ac.cn; Li, Xinliang E-mail: lixl@imech.ac.cn

    2015-11-15

    Harmonic growth in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) on a spherical interface is analytically investigated using the method of the parameter expansion up to the third order. Our results show that the amplitudes of the first four harmonics will recover those in planar RTI as the interface radius tends to infinity compared against the initial perturbation wavelength. The initial radius dramatically influences the harmonic development. The appearance of the second-order feedback to the initial unperturbed interface (i.e., the zeroth harmonic) makes the interface move towards the spherical center. For these four harmonics, the smaller the initial radius is, the faster they grow.

  11. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  12. Incorrect author affiliation.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Incorrect Author Affiliation: In the article titled “Effect of Human Papillomavirus on Patterns of Distant Metastatic Failure in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiotherapy,”published online March 5, 2015, and also in this issue of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery (doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015 .136), the Author Affiliations were incorrect. That section should have been given as follows: "Author Affiliations: Head and Neck Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Trosman, Lamarre, Scharpf, Khan, Lorenz, Burkey); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Koyfman,Ward, Greskovich); Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois (Al-Khudari); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology,Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Nwizu, Adelstein)." This article was corrected online and in print.

  13. Adolescent attitudes to authority.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Coleman, E Z

    1984-06-01

    This study is concerned with adolescent attitudes to authority. In particular the investigation focuses on notions of the ideal authority figure, attitudes to the sorts of conflicts experienced at home and in school, and on the types of resolutions to conflicts preferred by young people. Subjects were 43 adolescents from working class areas in outer London boroughs, all of whom were given a semistructured interview. Results indicated important differences in the amount of control required at home and in the school, and showed adolescents of 14 and 15 to have relatively little need for autonomy but a very considerable need for support from parents and teachers.

  14. The onset of Taylor-like vortices in the flow induced by an impulsively started rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Chan; Chung, Tae Joon; Choi, Chang Kyun

    2004-11-01

    The onset of instability in the flow by an impulsively started rotating cylinder is analyzed under linear theory. It is well-known that at the critical Taylor number Tc=1695 the secondary flow in form of Taylor vortices sets in under the narrow-gap approximation. Here the dimensionless critical time τc to mark the onset of instability for T≫Tc is presented as a function of the Taylor number T. Available experimental data of water indicate that deviation of the velocity profiles from the primary flow occurs starting from a certain time τ≅4τc. It seems evident that during τc≤τ≤4τc the secondary flow is very weak and the primary state of time-dependent annular Couette flow is maintained.

  15. Modelling Rayleigh Taylor instability of a sedimenting suspension of several thousand circular particles in a direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. W.; Joseph, D. D.; Glowinski, R.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we study the sedimentation of several thousand circular particles in two dimensions using the method of distributed Lagrange multipliers for solid liquid flow. The simulation gives rise to fingering which resembles Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. The waves have a well-defined wavelength and growth rate which can be modelled as a conventional Rayleigh Taylor instability of heavy fluid above light. The heavy fluid is modelled as a composite solid liquid fluid with an effective composite density and viscosity. Surface tension cannot enter this problem and the characteristic shortwave instability is regularized by the viscosity of the solid liquid dispersion. The dynamics of the Rayleigh Taylor instability are studied using viscous potential flow, generalizing work of Joseph, Belanger & Beavers (1999) to a rectangular domain bounded by solid walls; an exact solution is obtained.

  16. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  17. Experiments on the rarefaction wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability initiated with a random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    Experiments are presented in which a diffuse interface between two gases is accelerated to become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable. The initially flat interface is generated by the opposing flow of two test gases at matched volumetric flow rates exiting through small holes in the test section. A random, three-dimensional interface perturbation is forced using a loudspeaker. The interface is then accelerated by an expansion wave which is generated by the rupturing of a diaphragm separating the heavy gas from a vacuum tank evacuated to ~0.01 atm. The expansion wave generates a large (of order 1000 g), non-constant acceleration acting on the interface causing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Planar Mie scattering is employed to visualize the flow using a planar laser sheet generated at the top of the apparatus, which illuminates smoke particles seeded in the heavy gas. The scattered light is then recorded using a CMOS camera operating at 12 kHz. The mixing layer width is obtained from an ensemble of experiments and the turbulent growth parameter α is extracted and compared with previous experiments and simulations.

  18. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection

    PubMed Central

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development. PMID:25514497

  19. Taylor Glacier basal ice, Antarctica; a biogeochemical hot-spot in a glacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Christner, B.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing evidence points to a significant role for microbes in mediating the dissolution and oxidation of minerals in sediments beneath ice masses (i.e., subglacial weathering). Subglacial microbial ecosystems are local hotspots of microbial activity relative to the glacial ice overlying them due to the presence of liquid water and finely comminuted rock debris, providing nutrients and chemical energy sources. Eight different ice units from a 4 m basal ice sequence (ice temperature, -17°C) at the Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, were identified and sampled for microbiological and geochemical analysis. The vertical profile of cell and gas concentration in basal ice from Taylor Glacier indicates that the debris-rich ice layers have higher CO2 and cell concentrations relative to the glacier ice, but are depleted in O2 relative to atmospheric values. Acetate mineralization experiments were undertaken on a subset of glacial and basal ice samples with varying debris content, CO2 concentration, and cell biomass to assess heterotrophic activity at 2°C. Our results show that 14C-acetate was respired to CO2 in all the melted debris-rich ice samples analyzed, but little activity was observed in glacial ice samples of meteoric origin. Together, these data suggest that microorganisms entrapped within the debris-rich basal ice may be metabolically active in situ.

  20. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Blood Falls, a Subglacial Outflow from the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica▿

    PubMed Central

    Mikucki, Jill A.; Priscu, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Blood Falls is the surface manifestation of brine released from below the Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Geochemical analyses of Blood Falls show that this brine is of a marine origin. The discovery that 74% of clones and isolates from Blood Falls share high 16S rRNA gene sequence homology with phylotypes from marine systems supports this contention. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library was dominated by a phylotype that had 99% sequence identity with Thiomicrospira arctica (46% of the library), a psychrophilic marine autotrophic sulfur oxidizer. The remainder of the library contained phylotypes related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and the division Bacteroidetes and included clones whose closest cultured relatives metabolize iron and sulfur compounds. These findings are consistent with the high iron and sulfate concentrations detected in Blood Falls, which are likely due to the interactions of the subglacial brine with the underlying iron-rich bedrock. Our results, together with previous reports, suggest that the brine below the Taylor Glacier hosts a viable ecosystem with microorganisms capable of growth, supported by chemical energy present in reduced iron and sulfur compounds. The metabolic and phylogenetic structure of this subglacial microbial assemblage appears to be controlled by glacier hydrology, bedrock lithology, and the preglacial ecosystem. PMID:17468282

  1. Reynolds number effects on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, W H; Cook, A W

    2006-03-22

    Spontaneous mixing of materials at unstably stratified interfaces occurs in a wide variety of atmospheric, oceanic, geophysical and astrophysical flows. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, in particular, plays key roles in the death of stars, planet formation and the quest for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Despite its ubiquity, fundamental questions regarding Rayleigh-Taylor instability persist. Among such questions are: Does the flow forget its initial conditions? Is the flow self-similar? What is the value of the scaling constant? How does mixing influence the growth rate? Here we show results from a 3072{sup 3} grid-point Direct Numerical Simulation in an attempt to answer these and other questions. The data indicate that the scaling constant cannot be found by fitting a curve to the width of the mixing region (as is common practice) but can only be accurately obtained by recourse to the similarity equation for the growth rate. The data further establish that the ratio of kinetic energy to released potential energy is not constant, as has heretofore been assumed. The simulated flow reaches a Reynolds number of 32,000, far exceeding that of all previous simulations. The latter stages of the simulation reveal a weak Reynolds number dependence, which may have profound consequences for modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as other high Reynolds number flows.

  2. On the Taylor test, Part 3: A continuum mechanics code analysis of steady plastic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Foster, J.C. Jr.; Jones, S.E.

    1994-11-01

    Simple conservation relationships (``Jump`` conditions) in conjunction with postulated material constitutive behavior are applied to steady plastic strain waves propagating in problems of uniaxial stress and Taylor Cylinder Impact. These problems are simulated with a two-dimensional Lagrangian continuum mechanics code for numerically validating the Jump relationships as an accurate analytical representation of plastic wave propagation. The constitutive behavior used in this effort assumes isotropy and models the thermodynamic response with a Mie-Grunisen Equation-of-State and the mechanical response with the rate-dependent Johnson-Cook and MTS flow stress models. The Jump relationships successfully replicate the results produced by continuum code simulations of plastic wave propagation and provide a methodology for constructing mechanical constitutive models from experimental plastic wave speed information. Comparisons are also presented between experimental speeds from Taylor Cylinder Impact tests with Jump relationships and continuum code predictions, indicating that the above mentioned flow stress models may not accurately capture plastic wave propagation speeds in annealed and hardened copper.

  3. Selective interaction between microbubbles and modulating waves in a Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watamura, Tomoaki; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi

    2012-11-01

    Modifications of a coherent vortical structure by dispersed microbubbles have been investigated in a vertical Taylor-Couette flow, which is the flow generated between coaxial-rotating double cylinders. Radii of the inner and outer cylinders are 95 mm and 105 mm, respectively. The radius ratio and aspect ratio are 0.905 and 20, respectively. Flow mode in the experiments represents wavy vortex flow and modulated wavy vortex flow. Hydrogen bubbles with 60 μm in the mean diameter were generated by water electrolysis and dispersed from a platinum-wire electrode mounted at the bottom of the fluid layer. Maximum void fraction estimated by input power is smaller than 0.01%. Velocity distribution of microbubbles in a Taylor vortex array is determined by image analysis, and show preferential distribution and motion in the oscillating vortex tube. The fluctuation power of the basic wave was increased by adding microbubbles, while the power of its modulation was decreased. The gradient of the azimuthal velocity in the radial direction, i.e. origin of skin frictional drag acting on the cylinder walls, was decreased. These modifications of flow structure represent the suppression of the flow transition, due to the excitation of the basic wave oscillation and increase of momentum transfer by bubble swarm.

  4. Juice irradiation with Taylor-Couette flow: UV inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Forney, L J; Pierson, J A; Ye, Z

    2004-11-01

    A novel reactor is described with flow characteristics that approach that of ideal plug flow but with a residence time that is uncoupled from the hydrodynamics or boundary layer characteristics. The design described consists of an inner cylinder that rotates within a stationary but larger outer cylinder. At low rotation rates, a laminar, hydrodynamic configuration called Taylor-Couette flow is established, which consists of a system of circumferential vortices within the annular fluid gap. The latter constitutes a spatially periodic flow that is the hydrodynamic equivalent to cross flow over a tube bank or lamp array. These vortices provide radial mixing, reduce the boundary layer thickness, and are independent of the axial flow rate and thus the fluid residence time. An additional feature of the rotating design is the repetitive exposure of the fluid parcels to a minimum number of lamps, which substantially reduces the maintenance requirements. Inactivation data for Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597) were recorded in commercial apple and grape juice that are relatively opaque to UV radiation. With initial E. coli concentrations of approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, Taylor-Couette flow was found to provide a 3- to 5-log improvement in the inactivation efficiency compared with simple channel flow between concentric cylinders. PMID:15553621

  5. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130–115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 40–80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  6. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development.

  7. Symmetry breaking of decaying magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Green flows and consequences for universality.

    PubMed

    Dallas, V; Alexakis, A

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the evolution and stability of a decaying magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Green flow, using pseudospectral simulations with resolutions up to 2048(3). The chosen flow has been shown to result in a steep total energy spectrum with power law behavior k(-2). We study the symmetry breaking of this flow by exciting perturbations of different amplitudes. It is shown that for any finite amplitude perturbation there is a high enough Reynolds number for which the perturbation will grow enough at the peak of dissipation rate resulting in a nonlinear feedback into the flow and subsequently break the Taylor-Green symmetries. In particular, we show that symmetry breaking at large scales occurs if the amplitude of the perturbation is σ(crit)∼Re(-1) and at small scales occurs if σ(crit)∼Re(-3/2). This symmetry breaking modifies the scaling laws of the energy spectra at the peak of dissipation rate away from the k(-2) scaling and towards the classical k(-5/3) and k(-3/2) power laws.

  8. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as an anolog of Magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Our investigation of the viscoelastic instability (VEI) in the corotating Couette-Taylor system is motivated by the prediction of Ogilvie et. al that such an instability is analogous to the MRI (magneto-rotational instability) which is believed to play a key role in the angular momentum transport in accretion disks. This analogy is supported by stretched spring argument developed by Balbus and Hawley which is similar to that of the polymer stretching model in viscoelastic solutions. To our best knowledge, only one experiment by Boldyrev et al. has been reported for the search of the analogy VEI-MRI. We present both theoretical and experimental results obtained in the viscoelastic Couette-Taylor system when both the cylinders are constrained to rotate along the Keplerian and anti-Keplerian lines. The polymer solutions have a constant solution with respect to shear rate and can be described by the Odlroyd-B model. The control parameters are the aspect ratio Γ, the radius ratio η, the Reynolds number Re , the elastic number E = Wi / Re and the viscosity ratio S =μp / μ . After linear stability analysis, critical modes are oscillatory and non-axisymmetric. The observed modes are either stationary or oscillatory modes. A state diagram allows for a comparison to MRI Partial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the program Investissements d'Avenir (ANR-10 LABX-09-01), LABEX EMC3.

  9. Spatially Ramped Turbulence in Taylor-Couette Flow with Hourglass Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaker, Eric; Wiener, Richard J.; Olsen, Thomas; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2003-11-01

    Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry undergoes a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics, as the rotation rate is increased(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).. The pattern of laminar flow in Taylor Vortex is unstable to the formation phase slips, generating new vortex pairs. For higher rotation rates, the pattern freezes. At even greater rotation rates the flow becomes demonstrably turbulent, and remarkably, the pattern again becomes unstable to phase slips. Our measurements document and quantify the spatial variation of this turbulence. Light was scattered off Kalliroscope tracer in the fluid. The time-varying intensity was Fourier transformed and the turbulence was quantified by the Spectral Mode Number, Spectral Number Distribution, and Degrees of Freedom measures. The strength of the turbulence is ramped in a manner consistent with the ramped Reynolds number along the hourglass. This is in keeping with our suggestion that the ramped turbulence gives rise to the persistent dynamics of the phase slips in the presence of turbulence.

  10. Experimental observations of direct laminar-turbulent transition in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Christopher; Krygier, Michael; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow typically occurs through a sequence of supercritical bifurcations of stable flow states (e.g. spiral vortices, interpenetrating spirals (IPS), and wavy interpenetrating spirals). Coughlin and Marcus have proposed a mechanism by which these laminar spiral flows undergo a secondary instability that leads to turbulence. We report the discovery of a counter-rotating regime (Reout = - 1000 , Rein ~ 640) of small aspect ratio/large radius ratio Taylor-Couette flow (Γ = 5 . 26 / η = 0 . 91), where the system bypasses the primary instability to stable laminar spirals and instead undergoes a direct transition to turbulence as the inner cylinder rotation rate is slowly increased. This transition is mediated by an unstable IPS state. We study the transition experimentally using flow visualization and tomographic PIV, and show that it is both highly repeatable and that it shows hysteresis as the inner cylinder rotation rate is decreased. As Rein is decreased, the turbulent flow relaminarizes into an intermediate, stable IPS state. Decreasing Rein further returns the system back to circular Couette flow. This study was supported by NSF DMS-1125302 and NSF CMMI-1234436.

  11. Saffman-Taylor-like instability in a narrow gap induced by dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shang-Yan; Chu, Hong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    This work is inspired by the expansion of the plasma bubble in a narrow gap reported by Chu and Lee [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 225001 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.225001. We report the unstable phenomena of the plasma-liquid interface with different curvature in a Hele-Shaw cell. Dielectric barrier discharge is produced in the cell at atmospheric pressure which is partially filled with silicone oil. We show that the Saffman-Taylor-like instability is observed on the bubble-type, channel-type, and drop-type interfaces. The Schlieren observation of the plasma-drop interaction reveals that there is a vapor layer around the drop and the particle image velocimetry shows the liquid flow inside the drop. We propose that the thermal Marangoni effect induced by the plasma heating is responsible for the unstable phenomena of the plasma-liquid interaction. The fluctuation of the interface is shown consistently with the Saffman-Taylor instability modified by the temperature-dependent velocity and surface tension.

  12. Coupling of Interfacial Mixing Events in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Jamie; Le Bihan, Anne-Claire; Caulfield, C. P.; Dalziel, Stuart; Augier, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    We examine experimentally the coupling of mixing events that occur in stratified Taylor-Couette flow. It has previously been observed that in a density-stratified Taylor-Couette flow consisting of two homogeneous layers there is a periodic mixing event that occurs on the interface separating the two layers. Additionally, if the fluid in the annulus is initially linearly stratified, layers spontaneously form, and an apparently similar quasi-periodic mixing event appears on each of the interfaces. By tracking the mixing event around the annulus we show that the mixing event is not temporally intermittent but is continuously advected around the annulus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mixing events on adjacent interfaces can couple and become phase locked with an almost constant phase shift between events on each interface. We investigate how robust this coupling is and how it depends on the initial conditions and time evolution of the flow. Research supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled `Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence'.

  13. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kamojjala, Krishna; Lacy, Jeffrey; Chu, Henry S.; Brannon, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  14. Combined Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on cylindrical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Vadivukkarasan; Panchagnula, Mahesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities that occur on a fluid interface are of interest to a wide range of applications. We study the combined effect of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) mechanisms of instability simultaneously attempting to destabilize a cylindrical interface. Linear stability analysis is used to study the process by which relative velocity (characterized by a Weber number) and acceleration (characterized by a Bond number) induced effects distort the interface. We investigate the effect of three dimensional disturbances and study the effect of varying Bo and We. From the dispersion relation obtained in this study, we are able to recover the R-T and K-H mechanism dispersion relations as special cases. From this study, we observe the occurrence of two-dimensional Taylor and flute modes as well as three-dimensional helical modes. A regime chart is presented in the (Bo,We) space to demonstrate the energy budget in the acceleration and shear induced instability mechanisms. In addition, we show that the length scale associated with the distorted interface is minimum in the helical mode. Finally, we show that an optimal Weber number exists above which it is not beneficial to increase relative velocity based kinetic energy.

  15. Measuring arbitrary diffusion coefficient distributions of nano-objects by taylor dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Cipelletti, Luca; Biron, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Michel; Cottet, Hervé

    2015-08-18

    Taylor dispersion analysis is an absolute and straightforward characterization method that allows determining the diffusion coefficient, or equivalently the hydrodynamic radius, from angstroms to submicron size range. In this work, we investigated the use of the Constrained Regularized Linear Inversion approach as a new data processing method to extract the probability density functions of the diffusion coefficient (or hydrodynamic radius) from experimental taylorgrams. This new approach can be applied to arbitrary polydisperse samples and gives access to the whole diffusion coefficient distributions, thereby significantly enhancing the potentiality of Taylor dispersion analysis. The method was successfully applied to both simulated and real experimental data for solutions of moderately polydisperse polymers and their binary and ternary mixtures. Distributions of diffusion coefficients obtained by this method were favorably compared with those derived from size exclusion chromatography. The influence of the noise of the simulated taylorgrams on the data processing is discussed. Finally, we discuss the ability of the method to correctly resolve bimodal distributions as a function of the relative separation between the two constituent species.

  16. High-Rate Material Modeling and Validation Using the Taylor Cylinder Impact Test

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. III; Cady, C.M.; Kaschner, G.C.

    1998-10-21

    Taylor Cylinder impact testing is used to validate anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive modeling by comparing polycrystal simulated yield surface shapes (topography) to measured shapes from post-test Taylor impact specimens and quasistatic compression specimens. Measured yield surface shapes are extracted from the experimental post-test geometries using classical r-value definitions modified for arbitrary stress state and specimen orientation. Rolled tantalum (body-centered-cubic metal) plate and clock-rolled zirconium (hexagonal-close-packed metal) plate are both investigated. The results indicate that an assumption of topography invariance with respect to strain-rate is justifiable for tantalum. However, a strong sensitivity of topography with respect to strain-rate for zirconium was observed, implying that some accounting for a deformation mechanism rate-dependence associated with lower-symmetry materials should be included in the constitutive modeling. Discussion of the importance of this topography rate-dependence and texture evolution in formulating constitutive models appropriate for FEM applications is provided.

  17. SHOCK CORRUGATION BY RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I. E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu

    2014-08-10

    Afterglow jets are Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and therefore turbulent during the early part of their deceleration. There are also several processes which actively cool the jet. In this Letter, we demonstrate that if cooling significantly increases the compressibility of the flow, the turbulence collides with the forward shock, destabilizing and corrugating it. In this case, the forward shock is turbulent enough to produce the magnetic fields responsible for synchrotron emission via small-scale turbulent dynamo. We calculate light curves assuming the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy and discover that dynamic magnetic fields are well approximated by a constant magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of 1%, though there is a sizeable delay in the time of peak flux as the magnetic field turns on only after the turbulence has activated. The reverse shock is found to be significantly more magnetized than the forward shock, with a magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of the order of 10%. This work motivates future Rayleigh-Taylor calculations using more physical cooling models.

  18. Large-eddy simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on a massively parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Amala, P.A.K.

    1995-03-01

    A computational model for the solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is developed. This model includes a turbulence model: a modified Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity with a stochastic backscatter extension. The resultant equations are solved using finite difference techniques: the second-order explicit Lax-Wendroff schemes. This computational model is implemented on a massively parallel computer. Programming models on massively parallel computers are next studied. It is desired to determine the best programming model for the developed computational model. To this end, three different codes are tested on a current massively parallel computer: the CM-5 at Los Alamos. Each code uses a different programming model: one is a data parallel code; the other two are message passing codes. Timing studies are done to determine which method is the fastest. The data parallel approach turns out to be the fastest method on the CM-5 by at least an order of magnitude. The resultant code is then used to study a current problem of interest to the computational fluid dynamics community. This is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Lax-Wendroff methods handle shocks and sharp interfaces poorly. To this end, the Rayleigh-Taylor linear analysis is modified to include a smoothed interface. The linear growth rate problem is then investigated. Finally, the problem of the randomly perturbed interface is examined. Stochastic backscatter breaks the symmetry of the stationary unstable interface and generates a mixing layer growing at the experimentally observed rate. 115 refs., 51 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility.

  20. Identifying coherent structures and vortex clusters in Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandan, Vamsi; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Lohse, Detlef; Verzicco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The nature of the underlying structures in Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders is investigated by two methods. First, the quadrant analysis technique for identifying structures with intense radial-azimuthal stresses (also referred to as ‘Q’s) of Lozano-Durán et al., (J. Fluid Mech. 694, 100-130) is used to identify the main structures responsible for the transport of angular velocity. Second, the vortex clusters are identified based on the analysis by del Álamo et al., (J. Fluid. Mech., 561, 329-358). In order to test these criteria, two different radius ratios η = ri/ro are considered, where ri and ro are the radii of inner and outer cylinder, respectively: (i) η = 0.5 and (ii) η = 0.909, which correspond to high and low curvature geometries, respectively and have different underlying structures. The Taylor rolls, i.e. the large-scale coherent structures, are effectively captured as ‘Q’s for the low curvature setup and it is observed that curvature plays a dominant role in influencing the size and volumes of these ‘Q’s. On the other hand, the vortex clusters are smaller in size when compared to the ‘Q’ structures. These vortex clusters are found to be taller in the case of η = 0.909, while the distribution of the lengths of these clusters is almost homogenous for both radius ratios.

  1. Centrifugal instability of pulsed Taylor-Couette flow in a Maxwell fluid.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Mehdi; Aniss, Saïd; Ouazzani Touhami, Mohamed; Skali Lami, Salah

    2016-08-01

    Centrifugal instability of a pulsed flow in a viscoelastic fluid confined in a Taylor-Couette system is investigated. Both cylinders are subject to an out-of-phase modulation of rotation with equal modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. The fluid is assumed to obey a linear Maxwell fluid with a relaxation time and a constant viscosity. Attention is focused on the linear stability analysis and on the effect of Deborah and frequency numbers on the critical values of the Taylor and wave numbers. Using Floquet theory, we show that in the limit of low frequency, the Deborah number has no effect on the stability of the basic state which tends to the classical configuration of steady circular Couette flow. When the frequency number increases, the stability of the basic flow is enhanced and the Deborah number has a destabilizing effect which is strongly pronounced in the high-frequency limit. In this frequency limit, the critical parameters tend to constant values independently of the frequency number. These numerical results are in good agreement with the asymptotic solutions obtained in the limit of low and high frequencies. Moreover, a correlation between the rheological proprieties of the fluid in a rheometric experience, especially the loss and storage modulus, and this hydrodynamical instability behavior is presented. PMID:27589859

  2. Numerical study of crude oil fouling in a Taylor-Couette-type reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crastes, Misha; Lagkaditi, Lydia; Ball, Jonathan; Yang, Junfeng; Coletti, Francesco; Macchietto, Sandro; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    We consider the non-isothermal flow of crude-oil mixtures in a Taylor-Couette-type reactor; this flow is accompanied by the deposition of soft-solid wall-layers, commonly referred to as ``fouling'', driven by chemical reactions and phase separation. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are carried out to resolve the flow and temperature fields, as well as the volume fraction of the foulant phase. The simulations also account for the effect of evolving deposit rheology. The CFD predictions are validated against published results for isothermal flow, in the absence of fouling, in terms of the characteristics of the vortical structures that accompany the flow. In the presence of fouling, we examine the spatial distribution of the wall stresses as a function of the Reynolds and Taylor numbers, and demonstrate that wall regions exposed to higher (lower) shear stresses tend to form thinner (thicker) fouling layers. The simulation results capture the trends observed experimentally. Skolkovo Foundation through the UNIHEAT Project.

  3. Ablation Front Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Experiments in Spherically Convergent Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Cherfils, C.; Colvin, J.; Divol, L.; Galmiche, D.; Haan, S.; Marinak, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Richard, A.L.; Wallace, R.

    1999-11-03

    Experiments were performed on the Nova laser, using indirectly driven capsules mounted in cylindrical gold hohlraums, to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor growth at the ablation front by time-resolved radiography. Modulations were preformed on the surface of Ge-doped plastic capsules. With initial modulations of 4 {micro}m, growth factors of about 6 in optical depth were seen, in agreement with simulations using the radiation hydrocode FCI2. With initial modulations of 1 {micro}m, growth factors of about 100-150 in optical depth were seen. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at the ablation front in an inertial confinement fusion capsule has been the subject of considerable investigation. Much of this research has been concentrated on planar experiments, in which RT growth is inferred from radiography. The evolution is somewhat different in a converging geometry; the spatial wavelength decreases (affecting the onset of nonlinear saturation), and the shell thickens and compresses rather than decompressing as in a planar geometry. In a cylindrically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius, while in spherically convergent geometry, the latter effect is proportional to the radius squared. Experiments were performed on the Nova and Omega lasers in cylindrical geometry (using both direct and indirect drive) and have been performed in spherical geometry using direct drive.

  4. Carbon-Isotopic Dynamics of Streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Biological Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, K.; DesMarais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of biological processes in the C-isotopic dynamics of the aquatic ecosystems in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. This cold desert ecosystem is characterized by the complete lack of vascular plants, and the presence of algal mats in ephemeral streams and perennially ice covered lakes. Streams having abundant algal mats and mosses have very low sigma CO2 concentrations, as well as the most depleted delta C-13 values (-4%). Previous work has shown that algal mats in these streams have delta C-13 values averaging -7.01%. These values are similar to those observed in the algal mats in shallow areas of the lakes in Taylor Valley, where CO2 is thought to be colimiting to growth. These low Sigma CO2 concentrations, and delta C(13) signatures heavier than the algal mats, suggest that CO2 may be colimiting in the streams, as well. Streams with little algal growth, especially the longer ones in Fryxell Basin, have higher Sigma CO2 concentrations and much more enriched isotopic signatures (as high as +8%). In these streams, the dissolution of isotopically enriched, cryogenic CaCO3 is probably the major source of dissolved carbonate. The delta C(13) geochemistry of Antarctic streams is radically different from the geochemistry of more temperate streams, as it is not affected by terrestrially produced, isotopically depleted Sigma CO2. These results have important implications for the understanding of "biogenic" carbonate that might have been produced from aquatic ecosystems in the past on Mars.

  5. Weakly nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a finite-thickness fluid layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. F. Ye, W. H. Liu, Jie; He, X. T.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, J. F. Zhang, W. Y.

    2014-12-15

    A weakly nonlinear (WN) model has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a finite-thickness incompressible fluid layer (slab). We derive the coupling evolution equations for perturbations on the (upper) “linearly stable” and (lower) “linearly unstable” interfaces of the slab. Expressions of temporal evolutions of the amplitudes of the perturbation first three harmonics on the upper and lower interfaces are obtained. The classical feedthrough (interface coupling) solution obtained by Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London A 201, 192 (1950)] is readily recovered by the first-order results. Our third-order model can depict the WN perturbation growth and the saturation of linear (exponential) growth of the perturbation fundamental mode on both interfaces. The dependence of the WN perturbation growth and the slab distortion on the normalized layer thickness (kd) is analytically investigated via the third-order solutions. Comparison is made with Jacobs-Catton's formula [J. W. Jacobs and I. Catton, J. Fluid Mech. 187, 329 (1988)] of the position of the “linearly unstable” interface. Using a reduced formula, the saturation amplitude of linear growth of the perturbation fundamental mode is studied. It is found that the finite-thickness effects play a dominant role in the WN evolution of the slab, especially when kd < 1. Thus, it should be included in applications where the interface coupling effects are important, such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and supernova explosions.

  6. Interaction of a rotational motion and an axial flow in small geometries for a Taylor Couette problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordag, L. A.; Chkhetiani, O. G.; Fröhner, M.; Myrnyy, V.

    2005-07-01

    We analyze the stability of a Taylor Couette flow under the imposition of a weak axial flow in the case of a very short cylinder with a narrow annulus gap. We consider an incompressible viscous fluid contained in the narrow gap between two concentric short cylinders, in which the inner cylinder rotates with constant angular velocity. The caps of the cylinders have narrow tubes conically tapering to very narrow slits, allowing an axial flow along the surface of the inner cylinder. The approximated solution for the Taylor Couette flow for short cylinders was found and used for the stability analysis instead of the precise but bulky solution. The sensitivity of the Taylor Couette flow to small perturbations and to weak axial flow was studied. We demonstrate that perturbations coming from the axial flow cause the propagation of dispersive waves in the Taylor Couette flow. While in long cylinders the presence of an axial flow leads to the breaking of axial symmetry, in small cylinders it leads to the breaking of mirror symmetry. The coexistence of a rotation and an axial flow requires that, in addition to the energy and the angular momentum of the flow, the helicity must also be studied. The approximated form for the helicity formula in the case of short cylinders was derived. We found that the axial flow stabilizes the Taylor Couette flow. The supercritical flow includes a rich variety of vortical structures, including a symmetric pair of Taylor vortices, an anomalous single vortex and quasiperiodic oscillating vortices. Pattern formation was studied at large for rated ranges of azimuthal and axial Reynolds numbers. A region where three branches of different states occur was localized. Numerical simulations in 3-D and in the axisymmetrical case of the model flow are presented, which illustrate the instabilities analyzed.

  7. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  8. Authoring with Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strassman, Barbara K.; O'Connell, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are hungry for strategies that will motivate their students to engage in reading and writing. One promising method is the Authoring With Video (AWV) approach, which encourages teachers to use captioning software and digital video in writing assignments. AWV builds on students' fascination with television and video but removes the audio…

  9. Children as Authors Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Intended for teachers, librarians, and administrators, this handbook explores the possibilities of implementing a "Children as Authors" project by using collaborative and integrative teaching strategies to motivate elementary school children to write. After describing the project and explaining its benefits, the handbook explores ways teachers and…

  10. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  11. Students as Textbook Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Hsiao-Yi; Lau, Sok-Han; Yang, Huei-Chia; Murphey, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe their experience using a learner-centered approach to turn learner writing into booklets. When students write about their own lives, they can focus on the language they need to express their ideas. Interaction increases because interest is high. Near beginners can create fact sheets about themselves, and more advanced students…

  12. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  13. Creating Digital Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…

  14. The Authors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The authors of proposals for a child care allowance for poor families, a parental leave program to ensure infant care, and a linkage of child care and public education systems respond to comments by three reviewers. The commentaries illustrate the diversity of perspectives on child care and the public sector. (SLD)

  15. Taylor expansion of luminosity distance in Szekeres cosmological models: effects of local structures evolution on cosmographic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Villani, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    We consider the Goode-Wainwright representation of the Szekeres cosmological models and calculate the Taylor expansion of the luminosity distance in order to study the effects of the inhomogeneities on cosmographic parameters. Without making a particular choice for the arbitrary functions defining the metric, we Taylor expand up to the second order in redshift for Family I and up to the third order for Family II Szekeres metrics under the hypotesis, based on observation, that local structure formation is over. In a conservative fashion, we also allow for the existence of a non null cosmological constant.

  16. Modified Taylor-Couette Flow in Multiply-Waisted Hourglass Geometries Simulations based upon Reaction-Diffusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Hou, Yu; Kowalski, Adam; Wiener, Richard

    2006-05-01

    The Reaction-Diffusion model predicted a period doubling cascade to chaos in a situation analagous Taylor- Couette flow with hourglass geometry. This cascade to chaos was discovered in the actual fluid flow experiments. We model Taylor-Couette flow in a cylindrical geometry with multiple waists of super-critical flow connected by regions of barely super-critical flow by corresponding Reaction-Diffusion models. We compare our results to the findings of an ongoing experimental program. H. Riecke and H.-G. Paap, Europhys. Lett. 14, 1235 (1991). Richard J. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997).

  17. [The Taylor spatial frame fixator. Soft-tissue distraction for post-traumatic varus deformities of the hindfoot].

    PubMed

    Gessmann, J; Seybold, D; Baecker, H; Muhr, G; Graf, M

    2009-02-01

    Despite adequate primary treatment many ankle fractures result in post-traumatic deformities and arthrosis. Revision mostly requires a multidirectional correction whereas internal fixation procedures are often not applicable due to soft tissue damage and the extent of deformity. The Taylor spatial frame enables simultaneous correction of multidirectional deformities through a virtual hinge using the same ideas of distraction osteogenesis as the Ilizarov fixator. The presented case demonstrates minimally invasive correction of a complex deformity of the ankle with the Taylor spatial frame fixator. Orthogonal alignment was achieved and a stabilizing tibiotalar arthrodesis was performed achieving a good functional and pain-free result.

  18. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

  19. Groundwater seeps in Taylor Valley Antarctica: an example of a subsurface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Welch, Kathleen A.; Carey, Anne E.; Doran, Peter T.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Csathó, Bea M.; Tremper, Catherine M.

    The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (˜78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named 'Wormherder Creek' (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ˜6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in 'rinsing' the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota

  20. Megacrystic Clinopyroxene Basalts Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of basaltic vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali basalts and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero basaltic necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These basalts contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed

  1. The late-time dynamics of the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprabhu, P.; Dimonte, Guy; Woodward, P.; Fryer, C.; Rockefeller, G.; Muthuraman, K.; Lin, P.-H.; Jayaraj, J.

    2012-07-01

    We report on numerical simulations of the detailed evolution of the single mode Rayleigh-Taylor [Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers II (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1900), p. 200; G. I. Taylor, "The instability of liquid surfaces when accelerated in a direction perpendicular to their plane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 201, 192 (1950), 10.1098/rspa.1950.0052; S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1961)] instability to late times and high aspect ratios. In contrast to established potential flow models that predict a terminal velocity and a constant Froude number at low Atwood numbers, we observe a complex sequence of events that can be summarized in four stages: I. Exponential growth of imposed perturbations, II. Saturation to terminal velocity, III. Reacceleration to a higher Froude number, and IV. Chaotic mixing. The observed reacceleration away from the Froude number predicted by potential flow theory is attributed to the appearance of secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz structures, and described with a modification to the potential flow model proposed by Betti and Sanz [R. Betti and J. Sanz, "Bubble acceleration in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205002 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.205002]. The secondary KH instability is in turn sensitive to several parameters, and can be suppressed at large Atwood numbers, as well as viscosity (physical or numerical), with the bubble/spike velocity in each case reverting to the potential flow value. Our simulations delineate the change in dynamics of the primary and secondary instabilities due to changes in these flow parameters. When the flow is allowed to evolve to late times, further instability is observed, resulting in chaotic mixing which is quantified here. The increased atomic mixing due to small-scale structures results in a dramatic drop in the late-time Froude number. Spike behavior resembles bubbles at low A, while for large A

  2. Myotrioza myopori Taylor, a designation of the type species for the genus Myotrioza gen. nov. (Psylloidea: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Taylor et al. (2016) described twenty new species in one new genus of Australian jumping plant-lice from the plant family Scrophulariaceae but did not nominate a type species, a requirement under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature under Article 13.3 to make the genus name available (ICZN 1999).

  3. Looking for the Women in Baron and Taylor's (1969) "Educational Administration and the Social Sciences"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kay

    2014-01-01

    A search for women in Baron and Taylor's (1969) "Educational administration and the social sciences" [London: The Athlone Press] using feminist poststructural discourse analysis (FPDA) has revealed a changing discourse about gendered educational administration over the course of 50 years. Whilst few women are featured in the text…

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic... extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of..., and economic institutions and resources. The President further noted that the Comprehensive...

  5. Oxygen transport and cell viability in an annular flow bioreactor: comparison of laminar Couette and Taylor-vortex flow regimes.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen J; Black, Richard A

    2005-03-30

    Rotating wall vessel bioreactors have been proposed as a means of controlling the fluid dynamic environment during long-term culture of mammalian cells and engineered tissues. In this study, we show how the delivery of oxygen to cells in an annular flow bioreactor is enhanced by the forced convective transport afforded by Taylor vortex flows. A fiberoptic oxygen probe with negligible lag time was used to measure the dissolved oxygen concentration in real time and under carefully controlled aeration conditions. From these data, the overall mass transfer coefficients were calculated and mass transport correlations determined under laminar Couette flow conditions and discrete Taylor vortex flow regimes, including laminar, wavy, and turbulent flows. While oxygen transport in Taylor vortex flows was significantly greater, and the available oxygen exceeded that consumed by murine fibroblasts in free suspension, the proportion of cells that remained viable decreased with increasing Reynolds number (101.8 < Rei < 1018), which we attribute to the action of fluid shear stresses on the cells as opposed to any limitation in mass transport. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest that laminar Taylor-vortex flow regimes provide an effective means of maintaining the levels of oxygen transport required for long-term cell culture. PMID:15696514

  6. Taylor, Graicunas, Worthy, Likert, and Thayer: Span of Control and Organizational Structure--Where They Fit on the "Leadership Continuum."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.

    The "Leadership Continuum" model developed in 1961 by R. Tannenbaum, I. Weschler, and F. Massarik clearly illustrates the ideas that management scholars like Frederick Taylor, V. A. Graicunas, James Worthy, Rensis Likert, and Frederick Thayer have posited concerning span of control and organizational structure. Each of these scholars fits at some…

  7. Economic Impact of Impasse Procedures in Teacher Negotiations: The Experience Under New York's Taylor Law, 1968-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drotning, John E.; Lipsky, David B.

    This study investigated whether the use of the impasse procedures established by New York's Taylor Law affected the level of teacher salaries in New York public school districts between 1968 and 1972. Data for the study were gathered from all 693 New York public school districts (except New York City) that were involved in collective bargaining…

  8. Bayard Taylor Memorial Library, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Alice L.; Calio, Susan

    This final performance report provides project outcome information and data to the U.S. Department of Education for the federally-funded Library Literacy Program. The Bayard Taylor Memorial Library (Kennett Square, Pennsylvania) conducted the Outreach Project, a project that involved public awareness, training, rural oriented programs, basic…

  9. Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

  10. Compressible magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in stratified plasmas: Comparison of analytical and numerical results in the linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, S.; Jaouen, S.; Tabakhoff, E.; Canaud, B.

    2009-04-15

    Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability is addressed in compressible hydrostatic media. A full model is presented and compared to numerical results from a linear perturbation code. A perfect agreement between both approaches is obtained in a wide range of parameters. Compressibility effects are examined and substantial deviations from classical Chandrasekhar growth rates are obtained and confirmed by the model and the numerical calculations.

  11. Validity of the Taylor-Sedov Theory for Studying Laser-Induced Phase Explosion and Shock Waves.

    PubMed

    Hendijanifard, Mohammad; Willis, David A

    2015-04-01

    Phase explosion is a phase change process that occurs during short pulse laser ablation. Phase explosion is a result of homogeneous nucleation of vapor in the superheated melt and results in a rapid transition from a superheated melt to a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets that expand from the surface. The sudden phase transition results in rapid material removal, and if occurring in an ambient gas, causes a shock wave to propagate away from the surface. Measurements of this shock wave are commonly used with the Taylor-Sedov blast wave theory to estimate shock wave pressure and temperature. At low laser fluences the Mach number of the shock wave can be small, resulting in significant errors in pressure and temperature. The paper will demonstrate conditions for which the more general form of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations for thermo-fluid parameters simplifies to the Taylor-Sedov similarity solutions and when the Taylor-Sedov solutions are applicable. The results are compared to experimental shock wave data from the literature to explain why using the Taylor-Sedov blast wave solutions can result in large errors at low Mach numbers. PMID:26353572

  12. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  13. Knudsen-number dependence of two-dimensional single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor fluid instabilities.

    PubMed

    Sagert, Irina; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance; Colbry, Dirk; Bauer, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with a modified direct simulation Monte Carlo (MDSMC) code in two dimensions. The MDSMC code is aimed to capture the dynamics of matter for a large range of Knudsen numbers within one approach. Our method combines the traditional Monte Carlo technique to efficiently propagate particles and the point-of-closest-approach method for high spatial resolution. Simulations are performed using different particle mean free paths and we compare the results to linear theory predictions for the growth rate including diffusion and viscosity. We find good agreement between theoretical predictions and simulations and, at late times, observe the development of secondary instabilities, similar to hydrodynamic simulations and experiments. Large mean free paths favor particle diffusion, reduce the occurrence of secondary instabilities, and approach the noninteracting gas limit.

  14. The effect of normal electric field on the evolution of immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofighi, Nima; Ozbulut, Murat; Feng, James J.; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Manipulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using an external electric field has been the subject of many studies. However, most of these studies are focused on early stages of the evolution. In this work, the long-term evolution of the instability is investigated, focusing on the forces acting on the interface between the two fluids. To this end, numerical simulations are carried out at various electric permittivity and conductivity ratios as well as electric field intensities using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The electric field is applied in parallel to gravity to maintain unstable evolution. The results show that increasing top-to-bottom permittivity ratio increases the rising velocity of the bubble while hindering the spike descent. The opposite trend is observed for increasing top-to-bottom conductivity ratio. These effects are amplified at larger electric field intensities, resulting in narrower structures as the response to the excitation is non-uniform along the interface.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Laser-Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability using TVD MUSCL Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohnishi, Naofumo; Takeuchi, Hajime; Takabe, Hideaki; Mima, Kunioki

    1996-11-01

    For the inertial confinement fusion, it is important to simulate and predict the hydrodynamic instabilities. The numerical simulation of the laser-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability was performed by using a newly developed numerical code which include the two temperature plasma effect and the equation of state. This code is robust and less dissipative because the scheme is based on flux vector splitting method. Furthermore, this method is coupled with high-order MUSCL TVD scheme which enable to capture the shock, the vortices and the contact discontinuity clearly. In the two temperature model, the relaxation of the ion and electron temperature is considered. Cowan ion equation and Thomas-Fermi fitting formula for electron are applied to the equation of state. The dependence on the equation of state will be discussed in this presentation. Also, some numerical results which are solved by the other numerical codes will be shown for the comparison.

  16. Magnetized Ekman layer and Stewartson layer in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we present axisymmetric nonlinear simulations of magnetized Ekman and Stewartson layers in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow with a centrifugally stable angular-momentum profile and with a magnetic Reynolds number below the threshold of magnetorotational instability. The magnetic field is found to inhibit the Ekman suction. The width of the Ekman layer is reduced with increased magnetic field normal to the end plate. A uniformly rotating region forms near the outer cylinder. A strong magnetic field leads to a steady Stewartson layer emanating from the junction between differentially rotating rings at the endcaps. The Stewartson layer becomes thinner with larger Reynolds number and penetrates deeper into the bulk flow with stronger magnetic field and larger Reynolds number. However, at Reynolds number larger than a critical value ˜600 , axisymmetric, and perhaps also nonaxisymmetric, instabilities occur and result in a less prominent Stewartson layer that extends less far from the boundary.

  17. Nanohydrodynamics simulations: An atomistic view of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    PubMed Central

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy C.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Dimonte, Guy; Holian, Brad Lee; Alder, Berni J.

    2004-01-01

    Nanohydrodynamics simulations, hydrodynamics on the nanometer and nanosecond scale by molecular dynamics simulations for up to 100 million particles, are performed on the latest generation of supercomputers. Such simulations exhibit Rayleigh–Taylor instability, the mixing of a heavy fluid on top of a light in the presence of a gravitational field, initiated by thermal fluctuations at the interface, leading to the chaotic regime in the long-time evolution of the mixing process. The early-time behavior is in general agreement with linear analysis of continuum theory (Navier–Stokes), and the late-time behavior agrees quantitatively with experimental observations. Nanohydrodynamics provides insights into the turbulent mixing process that are inaccessible to either continuum calculations or to experiment. PMID:15067117

  18. Progress on a Taylor weak statement finite element algorithm for high-speed aerodynamic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Freels, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    A new finite element numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithm has matured to the point of efficiently solving two-dimensional high speed real-gas compressible flow problems in generalized coordinates on modern vector computer systems. The algorithm employs a Taylor Weak Statement classical Galerkin formulation, a variably implicit Newton iteration, and a tensor matrix product factorization of the linear algebra Jacobian under a generalized coordinate transformation. Allowing for a general two-dimensional conservation law system, the algorithm has been exercised on the Euler and laminar forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Real-gas fluid properties are admitted, and numerical results verify solution accuracy, efficiency, and stability over a range of test problem parameters.

  19. Nonequilibrium thermohydrodynamic effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Huilin; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Gan, Yanbiao; Ying, Yangjun; Succi, Sauro

    2016-08-01

    The effects of compressibility on Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are investigated by inspecting the interplay between thermodynamic and hydrodynamic nonequilibrium phenomena (TNE, HNE, respectively) via a discrete Boltzmann model. Two effective approaches are presented, one tracking the evolution of the local TNE effects and the other focusing on the evolution of the mean temperature of the fluid, to track the complex interfaces separating the bubble and the spike regions of the flow. It is found that both the compressibility effects and the global TNE intensity show opposite trends in the initial and the later stages of the RTI. Compressibility delays the initial stage of RTI and accelerates the later stage. Meanwhile, the TNE characteristics are generally enhanced by the compressibility, especially in the later stage. The global or mean thermodynamic nonequilibrium indicators provide physical criteria to discriminate between the two stages of the RTI.

  20. Reduced ablative Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements in indirectly driven laminated foils

    SciTech Connect

    Huser, G.; Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Galmiche, D.; Jacquet, L.; Theobald, M.

    2011-01-15

    Indirectly driven, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth measurements in Ge-doped plastic foils were studied using face-on and side-on x-ray radiography. Laminated samples consisting of alternating layers of Ge-doped and undoped plastic and homogeneous Ge-doped foils were considered. We show for the first time that hydrodynamics do not depend upon structuration of the samples and that stabilization occurs in the case of laminated samples. All data were found to be in good agreement with bi-dimensional hydrosimulations based on theoretical and numerical predictions published earlier [L. Masse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245001 (2007)], encouraging new designs using laminated structures for ignition capsules.