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Sample records for autistic disorders review

  1. Gastrointestinal Factors in Autistic Disorder: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Corkins, Mark R.; Posey, David J.; Fitzgerald, Joseph F.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the gastrointestinal (GI) factors of autistic disorder (autism) has developed from descriptions of symptoms such as constipation and diarrhea in autistic children and advanced towards more detailed studies of GI histopathology and treatment modalities. This review attempts to critically and comprehensively analyze the literature as it…

  2. Neurochemical Correlates of Autistic Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Review of neurochemical investigations in autistic disorder revealed that a wide array of transmitter systems have been studied, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, oxytocin, endogenous opioids, cortisol, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very…

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  4. Research Review: Structural Language in Autistic Spectrum Disorder--Characteristics and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and…

  5. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  6. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  7. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  8. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  9. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  10. Autistic spectrum disorders: A review of clinical features, theories and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that is among the most severe in terms of prevalence, morbidity and impact to the society. It is characterized by complex behavioral phenotype and deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact cause of ASD is still not known, the main findings emphasize the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autistic behavior. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity. The past few years have seen an increase in the prevalence of ASD, as a result of enhanced clinical tests and diagnostic tools. Despite growing evidence for the involvement of endogenous biomarkers in the pathophysiology of ASD, early detection of this disorder remains a big challenge. This paper describes the main behavioral and cognitive features of ASD, as well as the symptoms that differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. An attempt will be made to integrate all the available evidence which point to reduced brain connectivity, mirror neurons deficits, and inhibition-excitation imbalance in individuals with ASD. Finally, this review discusses the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of ASD, and illustrates some of the most important markers used for the diagnosis of this debilitating disorder.

  11. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  12. Autistic spectrum disorder: diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jones, G S

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of the autistic spectrum disorders is becoming more widespread amongst basic scientists, clinicians, and the general population. The term does not imply anything about pathology or aetiology, although it has proved to be a useful concept clinically. From Kanner's classical autism the concept has widened in scope to include milder and more subtle impairments. From a clinical perspective, there are many alternative diagnoses in an individual with autistic-like symptoms, and thorough investigation is necessary to exclude these. PMID:10970710

  13. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  14. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  15. Deafness and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are defined. Important medical conditions often present in ASD are named, and their roles in treatment and diagnosis are described. Because autism is generally regarded as increasing in prevalence, some say to epidemic proportions, there is an increase in children who are both deaf and autistic. The resulting pressure on day and residential school programs for the Deaf to accept and educate these difficult, multiply disabled children is increasing. The parents of autistic children are a sophisticated, politically active group who are demanding services through legal and legislative means, among others. PMID:19569300

  16. Deafness and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are defined. Important medical conditions often present in ASD are named, and their roles in treatment and diagnosis are described. Because autism is generally regarded as increasing in prevalence, some say to epidemic proportions, there is an increase in children who are both deaf and autistic. The resulting pressure on day and residential school programs for the Deaf to accept and educate these difficult, multiply disabled children is increasing. The parents of autistic children are a sophisticated, politically active group who are demanding services through legal and legislative means, among others.

  17. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  18. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  19. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs. PMID:25093654

  20. Autistic disorder symptoms in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A; Scholte, Evert M

    2009-11-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same level of functioning. To investigate, parents of 52 females with classical and atypical Rett syndrome (2.4-49.3 years) completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) and the Dutch Vineland Screener 0-6 (VS 0-6). All participants had a severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) according to the VS 0-6. Behavior indicated an autistic disorder in 42 (DBC) to 58 percent (DISCO) of the Rett cases. Autistic behavior had decreased in 19 percent such that they no longer met the criteria for autistic disorder. Some participants were suspected of having a comorbid autistic disorder, though not more often than can be expected at their level of functioning. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of a comorbid autistic disorder as much as they should be in other people with this level of functioning.

  1. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  2. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  3. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  4. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Learning Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wire, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    The number of young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) coming into mainstream foreign languages classes is increasing, and this is causing some concern to teachers. Based on her extensive professional experience, Vivienne Wire here considers the implications for teaching and learning of the "triad of impairments" found in…

  5. Novel Treatments for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    In no area of developmental pediatric practice is there more controversy regarding the choice of treatment than related to children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) are often elected because they are perceived as treating the cause of symptoms rather than the symptoms themselves. CAM…

  6. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  7. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  8. [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Kelmanson, I A

    2015-01-01

    An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

  9. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  10. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  11. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  12. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  13. Pitch Perception in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias; Williams, Tim I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (M[subscript age]=9.34, SD[subscript age]=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (M[subscript age]=9.13, SD[subscript…

  14. Thought Disorder in High-Functioning Autistic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of thought disorders in 11 high functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents found poverty of speech, poor reality testing, perceptual distortions, and areas of cognitive slippage. In comparison with a schizophrenic reference group, autistic subjects demonstrated more poverty of speech and less illogic as well as similar…

  15. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals. PMID:22409507

  16. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  17. Autistic spectrum disorder: the challenge for dentists.

    PubMed

    Berman, Marvin H

    2010-10-01

    Those who actively work with children are, with increasing frequency, encountering patients who have been diagnosed with autistic disorders. Often, dentists may be the first healthcare providers to recognize that a 1- or 2-year-old child has some type of extraordinary pervasive behavioral disorder that a parent, fearing the worst, may have suspected instinctively and emotionally but never faced objectively. Currently, there are no empirical biological tests (eg, blood tests or brain scans) for ASD that are reliable. The definitive diagnosis of ASD is usually made by pediatricians, psychologists, or psychiatrists who institute a process of analysis which involves a developmental and clinical history, tests for cognitive function, and assessment of receptive and expressive language skills. The etiology of ASD is an enigma. Highly regarded researchers are of the opinion that there is probably more than one cause since the disorder can have such disparate manifestations. Genetics, environmental poisons, neurologic psychopathy, dietary deficiencies, and allergies have all been implicated. Pervasive developmental disorders, Asperger's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood degenerative disorders are all considered a part of the ASD group, but the distinction between the various entities is not always clear. Given the fact that the etiology and the increased incidence of the various ASDs are scientifically puzzling, treatment modalities tend to be wide ranging and very much trial and error, especially since there is no cure. Dental professionals who treat patients with ASDs should be knowledgeable about the special needs of not only these patients, but also of their parents.

  18. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard . E-mail: rlathe@pieta-research.org

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  19. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  20. Mirtazapine treatment in a subject with autistic disorder and fetishism.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Murat; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2008-04-01

    The presence of inappropriate sexual behaviors in individuals with autistic disorder is one of the important factors disturbing their social adaptation and distressing their families and environment. Therefore, appropriate management of these behaviors seems necessary. This case report describes a 13-year-old male with diagnosis of autistic disorder and fetishistic behavior. His fetishistic behavior was treated successfully using mirtazapine 15 mg/day. The clinical picture and efficacy of mirtazapine will be discussed. PMID:18439117

  1. Hyperserotonemia in Adults with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 [plus or minus] 37.4 ng/[microliters])…

  2. The effectiveness of aripiprazole in the management of problem behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities and/or autistic spectrum disorder--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Shoumitro; Farmah, Baldeep K; Arshad, Ebrahim; Deb, Tanya; Roy, Meera; Unwin, Gemma L

    2014-03-01

    The management of problem behaviours (PB) in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), developmental disabilities (DD) and/or autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) can be challenging. Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed where other strategies have failed. A systematic review (SR) was conducted to establish the research evidence for the efficacy of aripiprazole in the management of PB in adults and children with ID, DD and/or ASD. Although included studies supported the efficacy of aripiprazole for this indication, the overall quality of studies was poor. Of the 20 studies included in this systematic review there were only two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on children with ASD and/or ID/DD, both of which were conducted by the pharmaceutical company that manufactures aripiprazole, and it is not clear whether a number of same participants were included in both RCTs. One of the RCTs was extended into an open label long term follow up, which showed that aripiprazole's efficacy lasted over 52 weeks and the adverse effects were tolerable. Four studies were open label prospective studies, 11 were retrospective case reports which included four single case reports, and two were prospective case series. Most studies reported adverse effects from aripiprazole in the form of weight gain, increased appetite, sedation, tiredness, drooling and tremor. However, aripiprazole improved serum prolactin level in some participants and overall did not show any adverse effect on QTc interval. There is a need for more carefully designed RCTs into the use of aripiprazole in the management of PB in people with ID/DD and/or ASD, which should be carried out independent of pharmaceutical companies.

  3. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  4. Neonatal Factors in Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Fukuda, Tokiko; Ito, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    The prenatal and neonatal factors of 225 children diagnosed with Autistic Disorder were compared with those of 1580 typically developing children. Each of the neonatal factors was compared between the Autistic Disorder and control groups, and between males and females. The results showed that males in the "Autistic Disorder" group had a…

  5. Sign Language and Motor Functioning in Students with Autistic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.; Bonvillian, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Sign language production of 14 low-functioning students (ages 9 to 20) with autistic disorder were examined. The location aspect of signs was produced more accurately by subjects than either the handshape or movement aspects. Wide individual differences were observed. Sign vocabulary size and accuracy was correlated with performance on two…

  6. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  7. Sensory and Attention Abnormalities in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Miriam; Saulnier, Celine; Fein, Deborah; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, "sensory overreactivity", "sensory…

  8. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  9. Brief Report: Autistic Disorder in Three Children with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeten, Thayne L.; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has identified a relationship between autistic disorder (autism) and specific congenital infections. Three cases of congenital or perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurring in association with autism are described. Hypothetical mechanisms relating congenital infection, such as CMV, to the development of autism are…

  10. Mental Health Aspects of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, N.; Gallagher, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported variable and at times opposite findings on comorbid psychiatric problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: This study aimed to examine patterns of comorbid psychiatric problems in children with ASD and their parents compared with IQ matched controls and their parents. Methods:…

  11. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations and autism: literature review and a case report of a patient with Cowden syndrome, autistic disorder, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Sara; Condò, Maria; Posar, Annio; Mari, Francesca; Resta, Nicoletta; Renieri, Alessandra; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Parmeggiani, Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations are associated with a spectrum of clinical disorders characterized by skin lesions, macrocephaly, hamartomatous overgrowth of tissues, and an increased risk of cancers. Autism has rarely been described in association with these variable clinical features. At present, 24 patients with phosphatase and tensin homolog gene mutation, autism, macrocephaly, and some clinical findings described in phosphatase and tensin homolog syndromes have been reported in the literature. We describe a 14-year-old boy with autistic disorder, focal epilepsy, severe and progressive macrocephaly, and multiple papular skin lesions and palmoplantar punctate keratoses, characteristic of Cowden syndrome. The boy has a de novo phosphatase and tensin homolog gene mutation. Our patient is the first case described to present a typical Cowden syndrome and autism associated with epilepsy.

  12. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  13. Clonidine treatment of hyperactive and impulsive children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Jaselskis, C A; Cook, E H; Fletcher, K E; Leventhal, B L

    1992-10-01

    Many autistic children have associated problems of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that limit the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions. Few controlled psychopharmacologic trials have been conducted in autistic children to determine which agents may be effective for these associated features. Eight male children (8.1 +/- 2.8 years) with autistic disorder, diagnosed by DSM-III-R criteria, completed a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial of clonidine. Subjects were included in the study if they had inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that was excessive for their developmental level. Subjects had not tolerated or responded to other psychopharmacologic treatments (neuroleptics, methylphenidate, or desipramine). Teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist irritability, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech factors were lower during treatment with clonidine than during treatment with placebo. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: Comprehensive Teacher's Rating Scale ratings were not significantly improved during the study, except for oppositional behavior. Parent Conners Abbreviated Parent-Teacher Questionnaire ratings significantly improved during clonidine treatment. Clonidine led to increased ratings of the side effects of drowsiness and decreased activity. Clinician ratings (Children's Psychiatric Rating Scale Autism, Hyperactivity, Anger and Speech Deviance factors; Children's Global Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impressions efficacy) of videotaped sessions were not significantly different between clonidine and placebo. Clonidine was modestly effective in the short-term treatment of irritability and hyperactivity in some children with autistic disorder.

  14. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  15. Identification of MeCP2 mutations in a series of females with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Carney, Regina M; Wolpert, Chantelle M; Ravan, Sarah A; Shahbazian, Mona; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2003-03-01

    Rett disorder and autistic disorder are both pervasive developmental disorders. Recent studies indicate that at least 80% of Rett Disorder cases are caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Since there is some phenotypic overlap between autistic disorder and Rett disorder, we analyzed 69 females clinically diagnosed with autistic disorder for the presence of mutations in the MeCP2 gene. Two autistic disorder females were found to have de novo mutations in the MeCP2 gene. These data provide additional evidence of variable expression in the Rett disorder phenotype and suggest MeCP2 testing may be warranted for females presenting with autistic disorder.

  16. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001), and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001). Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  17. Language and communication in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frith, U; Happé, F

    1994-10-29

    Communication problems form one of the key diagnostic criteria for autism, but there is a wide variety of manifestations. The theory that autistic individuals are unable to represent mental states can shed light on both the nature and range of communication impairments. This theory predicts that the specific communication deficit lies in the use of language to affect other minds. Language is not special in this respect, and is important only in so far as it may be used to give evidence of a speaker's thoughts and intentions. Thus, in autism, language level would be expected to relate strongly to performance on standard tests of theory of mind. Normal language acquisition appears to build upon the ability to recognize and orient towards ostensive behaviour. For this reason, it may not be necessary to postulate additional language impairments in order to explain the almost universal prevalence of language delay in children with autism. Autism, then, provides a model for studying the important distinction between language and communication, and demonstrates the vital part which mind-reading plays in normal human verbal and non-verbal interaction.

  18. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Millward, Claire; Ferriter, Michael; Calver, Sarah J; Connell-Jones, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of people with autism. Objectives To determine the efficacy of gluten and/or casein free diets as an intervention to improve behaviour, cognitive and social functioning in individuals with autism. Search methods The following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2007), PsycINFO (1971 to April 2007), EMBASE (1974 to April 2007), CINAHL (1982 to April 2007), ERIC (1965 to 2007), LILACS (1982 to April 2007), and the National Research register 2007 (Issue1). Review bibliographies were also examined to identify potential trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving programmes which eliminated gluten, casein or both gluten and casein from the diets of individuals diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Data collection and analysis Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were assessed to determine inclusion by two independent authors The included trials did not share common outcome measures and therefore no meta-analysis was possible. Data are presented in narrative form. Main results Two small RCTs were identified (n = 35). No meta-analysis was possible. There were only three significant treatment effects in favour of the diet intervention: overall autistic traits, mean difference (MD) = −5.60 (95% CI −9.02 to −2.18), z = 3.21, p=0.001 (Knivsberg 2002) ; social isolation, MD = −3.20 (95% CI −5.20 to 1.20), z = 3.14, p = 0.002) and overall ability to communicate and interact, MD = 1.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.90), z = 2.77, p = 0.006) (Knivsberg 2003). In addition three outcomes showed no significant difference between the

  19. Epidemiology and etiology of autistic spectrum disorders difficult to determine.

    PubMed

    Coury, Daniel L; Nash, Patricia L

    2003-10-01

    The epidemiology of the autistic spectrum disorders is changing. A clear increase in prevalence has been noted during the past 2 decades. What is less clear is the cause for this increase. Multiple factors appear to be responsible. The preponderance of evidence suggests most of the rise in incidence and prevalence is related to changes in diagnostic criteria and greater awareness on the part of both professionals and parents. Proposed theories of causation, which also seek to explain the increase in prevalence, have not been substantiated. Further research is needed to better determine the incidence and prevalence of these disorders and their etiologic factors.

  20. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    PubMed

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  1. Using Contact Work in Interactions with Adults with Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…

  2. Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Zivoder, Ivana; Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Kosic, Ana Vodanovic; Bosak, Josipa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe neurofeedback (NFB) treatment in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children. There is no specific cure for autism and therapeutic guidelines are directed to improve the quality of life of people with autism by reducing the symptoms and by increasing their functioning. Neurofeedback is a computerized method based on tracking electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and giving a feedback about it. The method has been developed in neurophysiological labs of scientific institutes in USA and has been used very successfully for over last 20 years. It has proven its efficacy in practise, but also in scientific and clinical research. During 2010 and 2011 neurofeedback treatment was administered to 10 children (N=10, 7 males and 3 females) age range 4 to 7 years which have been diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (highly functional) with an unspecific impairment of speech development and trouble communicating. An evaluation of treatment was done according to estimation of changes in functioning (parents, teachers and therapists' ratings and all other experts that were monitoring the child before, during and after the treatment) and tracking of changes in electrophysiology. The results have shown most changes in behaviour (less aggressive, more cooperation, better communication), attention span and sensory motor skills. According to the assessment of parents, teachers, therapists and other experts all children have accomplished a certain degree of improvement in the level of daily functioning. Our experiences in usage of neurofeedback in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children confirmed previous data that this method can be applied to this category of patients.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  4. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  5. Sign language and motor functioning in students with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Seal, B C; Bonvillian, J D

    1997-08-01

    Sign language production of 14 low-functioning students diagnosed with autistic disorder was examined. Videotapes of the students signing with their teachers were analyzed for frequency and accuracy of sign location, handshape, and movement production. The location aspect of signs was produced more accurately by the subjects than either the handshape or movement aspects. Wide individual differences were evident among the students in the number of signs they produced, accuracy of sign formation, and performance on measures of motor functioning. Students' sign vocabulary size and accuracy of sign formation were highly correlated with their performance on two measures of apraxia and with their fine motor age scores.

  6. Autistic disorder in Nigeria: profile and challenges to management.

    PubMed

    Lagunju, I A; Bella-Awusah, T T; Omigbodun, O O

    2014-10-01

    Autism represents one of the most common developmental disorders affecting children, but there are few reports on autism in African children. Our study describes the profile of autistic disorder in a cohort of Nigerian children and appraises short-term outcomes. Children seen at the pediatric neurology and the child psychiatry clinic of the University College Hospital, Nigeria were screened for autistic disorder using the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Forty-five males and 9 females were identified with autism, and the disease accounted for 2.3% of 2320 new cases seen during the period. The mean age at which parents observed deviations in behavior was 22.5 (SD=6.6) months, while the mean age at diagnosis was 44.7 (SD=21.2) months. Twelve (22.6%) children had a positive family history of autism, and forty (75.5%) had associated neurological comorbidities. Diagnosis of autism is often delayed in Nigeria, and affected children have a high frequency of neurological comorbidities.

  7. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder. PMID:24955274

  8. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H.

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  9. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  11. Brief Report: Assessment of Sensory Abnormalities in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, James; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2004-01-01

    Sensory functioning has long been considered crucial in the life of people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) (Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). "The Biology of Autistic Syndromes" (2nd ed.). London: Mac Keith press.) However, much of the research is methodologically flawed and based on child populations and adults' retrospective accounts (O…

  12. Mental Development and Autistic Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the features of mental development and autistic behavior in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from the viewpoint of remedial therapy. The Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), designed to be completed by children's caregivers, were used. A…

  13. Co-Occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Todd, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the concurrence between parent-reported motor problems and clinical autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results suggest that children with ADHD and parent-reported motor problems are likely to have more severe autistic symptoms than those with ADHD alone.

  14. Factors Impacting on the Outcomes of Greek Intervention Programmes for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the best predictors of the progress of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), on some developmental domains (autistic severity, language, communication and socialisation), which are related to the core features of ASD. Eighty-six children (2.5-14 years old) with ASD, from 10 schools in Greece, were included in the…

  15. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  16. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  17. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested. PMID:7559291

  18. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  19. The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome: differences in adaptive behaviour versus Down syndrome alone and autistic disorder alone.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.

  20. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  1. Recognition of Biological Motion in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parron, Carole; Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Moore, David G.; Monfardini, Elisa; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autistic children experience difficulties in processing and recognizing emotions. Most relevant studies have explored the perception of faces. However, context and bodily gestures are also sources from which we derive emotional meanings. We tested 23 autistic children and 23 typically developing control children on their…

  2. Putting Theory of Mind in Its Place: Psychological Explanations of the Socio-Emotional-Communicative Impairments in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…

  3. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age. PMID:24072047

  4. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  5. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  6. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  7. Are Autistic Traits Measured Equivalently in Individuals with and without an Autism Spectrum Disorder? An Invariance Analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Aja L.; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across…

  8. Predictors of quality of life for fathers and mothers of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-06-01

    A constant challenge for Quality of Life (QoL) research is tapping the most predictive indicators for a specific population. This study has sought to examine predictors of QoL for fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. Two multiple regression analyses were performed for fathers (N=70) and mothers (N=114) of children with Autistic Disorder. Six predictors were entered into the regression equation: Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunction Interaction (PCDI), Difficult Child Characteristics (DC), Household income, and the child's with Autistic Disorder age and number of siblings. The analyses revealed that only PD was a significant predictor for both parent's QoL, whereas DC, household income, and number of siblings were able to predict only mothers' QoL. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on predictors of QoL among both fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. The results from the current study can have several implications for professionals and researchers targeting the primary force contributing to the wellbeing of children with Autistic Disorder, the parents.

  9. Asperger's disorder: a review of its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul; El-Gabalawi, Fayez; Pirwani, Nabeel; Priest, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder that shares similar features of social impairment disorder, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors with autistic disorder. Although both Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder persist into adulthood, autistic disorder is usually apparent before the age of 3, while Asperger's disorder usually manifests itself at preschool age. Asperger's disorder in the majority of cases is not associated with delay in language development and there is an increased likelihood to seek social interactions and to engage in activities and friendship with others. In contrast to autistic disorder, most Asperger's disorder patients have normal intellectual functioning and some have motor clumsiness. Although the etiology of Asperger's disorder is still undetermined, this article will review the assessment and treatment interventions that could improve the prognosis of this illness. The historical background, epidemiology, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, and course and overall management/treatment of Asperger's disorder will be discussed. Despite the absence of a cure for Asperger's disorder, the awareness of its distinctive clinical features that differentiate it from autistic disorder could improve its prognosis and differentiate response to treatment and comorbid conditions.

  10. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the ALSPAC Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emma; Thomas, Kate; Sidebotham, Helen; Emond, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) within a large representative population sample: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Cases of ASD were identified from the clinical notes of children in the ALSPAC with a suspected developmental disorder and from the Pupil Level…

  12. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  13. Anxiety Symptoms across the Lifespan in People Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Dempsey, Tim; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of psychiatric disorders have been found to co-occur at high rates in those diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). However, to date, no study has yet examined the developmental trajectory of comorbid psychiatric symptoms across the lifespan within the AD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional…

  14. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Young Seh

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

  15. Relationship between Executive Functions and Motor Stereotypies in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMonda, Brittany C.; Holtzer, Roee; Goldman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only.…

  16. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  17. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  18. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  19. Emerging role of aripiprazole for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stachnik, Joan; Gabay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a largely misunderstood and difficult to treat neurodevelopmental disorder. Three core domains of functioning are affected by autistic disorder, ie, socialization, communication, and behavior. Signs of autistic disorder may be present early, but are frequently overlooked, resulting in a delay in its diagnosis and a subsequent delay in treatment. No one definitive therapy is available, and treatment consists of early educational and behavioral interventions, as well as drug therapy. Atypical antipsychotics have often been used in the treatment of autistic disorder to target irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, all of which can interfere with other aspects of treatment. One atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, has recently been approved for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. Based on the results from two randomized, controlled trials, with efficacy data from nearly 300 patients, treatment with aripiprazole was associated with reductions in irritability, global improvements in behavior, and improvements in quality of life from both the patient and caregiver perspectives. Dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 mg to 15 mg per day. Aripiprazole was well tolerated during clinical trials, with most adverse events considered mild or moderate. Clinically relevant weight gain occurred in about 30% of patients given aripiprazole, although when compared with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to have fewer metabolic effects and a lower risk of weight gain. However, pediatric patients taking any atypical antipsychotic should be carefully monitored for potential adverse events, because the long-term effects of antipsychotic therapy in this population are not well known. When used appropriately, aripiprazole has the potential to be an effective treatment for children with autistic disorder to improve irritability and aggressive behavior and improve quality of life.

  20. Association Between Antidepressants Use During Pregnancy and Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants have been reported in several studies in the literature to be associated with the development of autistic disorder symptoms in children exposed to them during the time of their mothers’ pregnancies. There have also been reports of neurodevelopment delays associated with exposure to antidepressants in the same conditions. Design: We searched the PUBMED, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC for original articles published between January 1983 and May 2013 to identify studies on the association between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurodevelopment delays in children and exposure to antidepressants during pregnancy. Conclusion: At the end of our preliminary work, we retained only three articles that were pertinent to the purpose of our study. We extracted the available data in Excel files and then did a meta-analysis. The final results showed a positive association between the exposure to antidepressants in utero and autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:25152842

  1. The Views and Experiences of Parents of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder about Educational Provision: Comparisons with Parents of Children with Other Disabilities from an Online Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Lewis, Ann; Ellins, Jean

    2009-01-01

    A recent review of educational provision for children with special educational needs by the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee in 2006 singled out children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) as being in need of special attention and highlighted the frustration felt by parents. One implication is that parents of children with ASD…

  2. Sensory-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2004-10-01

    Children who have been diagnosed with any one developmental disorder are very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for some other developmental disorder. Although comorbidity has long been acknowledged in childhood disorders, little is understood about the mechanisms that are responsible for the high level of comorbidity. In a series of studies, we have investigated the link between sensory-motor deficits and developmental disorders. Poor sensory-motor integration has long been implicated as a cause of motor problems in developmental disorders such as developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and our recent research has also investigated sensory-motor deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder. Based on a critical examination of relevant literature and some of our recent research findings, we argue that the importance of poor sensory-motor functioning in discriminating children with different disorders has been underestimated. Poor sensory-motor coordination appears to be linked to DCD, but not ADHD. Also, sensory-motor deficits in children with DCD and autistic disorder may provide insight into some of the social difficulties found in these groups of children. This research will increase our understanding of why children with one developmental disorder typically also have problems in other areas.

  3. [Hans Asperger and his patients--a retrospective examination of the spectrum of autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Hippler, Kathrin; Klicpera, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 1944 the Viennese paediatrician Hans Asperger described for the first time a number of boys with so-called "autistic psychopathy" but failed to give a detailed quantitative-descriptive phenomenology of the condition. The aim of this second part of a retrospective analysis of the clinical case records of children diagnosed by Asperger and his team is to provide a quantitative, in-depth description of these children, as well as to investigate Asperger's idea of a transition from autistic psychopathic personality traits towards "normality". We examined 181 case records of children seen between 1950 and 1986 who were either clearly diagnosed with autistic psychopathy (AP) or showed autistic features (AZ). Consequently, features common to both the AP and AZ groups and the differences between them are described and compared to the current ICD-10 criteria for Asperger's syndrome. Children with AZ shared the high intelligence, the social handicap and the impairment of "instincts", but showed less severe symptoms and more distinct skills, as well as fewer co-morbid disorders than children with AP. Results suggest that there is indeed something like an "autistic phenotype" with certain deficits and assets that can be found in less handicapped children with autistic impairments. The current ICD-10 criteria do not seem to fully capture Asperger's original account of the syndrome and should be discussed anew if Asperger's syndrome is reconsidered for inclusion into diagnostic criteria in the future.

  4. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    PubMed

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  5. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  6. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Speech-Generating Devices: Communication in Different Activities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and…

  7. Diagnostic Trends in Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the South Wales Valleys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A. H. A.; Williams, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the diagnostic trends in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for children aged under 17 years in the Rhondda and Taff Ely districts of South Wales. In the period 1988-2004, 336 children received a diagnosis of ASD and represent the case registry data of one community pediatric team. For the period 1994-2003, the…

  8. Do Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Adhere to Social Conventions in Virtual Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Leonard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The potential for using virtual environments (VEs) in educational contexts for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized. However, very little is known about how people with ASDs interpret and understand VEs. This study aimed to investigate this directly with a group of 12 adolescents with ASDs, each individually matched…

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  10. Brief Report: On the Concordance Percentages for Autistic Spectrum Disorder of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Henry V.; Stewart, Melbourne G.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of genetic theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) various characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are often considered. This paper sets forth a possible refinement in the interpretation of the MZ twin concordance percentages for ASD underlying such genetic theories, and, drawing the consequences from…

  11. No Evidence for Impaired Perception of Biological Motion in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2009-01-01

    A central feature of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a difficulty in identifying and reading human expressions, including those present in the moving human form. One previous study, by Blake et al. (2003), reports decreased sensitivity for perceiving biological motion in children with autism, suggesting that perceptual anomalies underlie…

  12. Motor Stereotypies and Volumetric Brain Alterations in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; O'Brien, Liam M.; Filipek, Pauline A.; Rapin, Isabelle; Herbert, Martha R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor stereotypies are defined as patterned, repetitive, purposeless movements. These stigmatizing motor behaviors represent one manifestation of the third core criterion for an Autistic Disorder (AD) diagnosis, and are becoming viewed as potential early markers of autism. Moreover, motor stereotypies might be a tangible expression of the…

  13. Episodic Memory in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Recall for Self- versus Other-Experienced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of "self awareness". The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of "self awareness". Between-group…

  14. Joint Attention, Language, Social Relating, and Stereotypical Behaviours in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delinicolas, Erin K.; Young, Robyn L.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between abilities to initiate and respond to joint attention and symptoms of autism that have, and have not, been theoretically linked to joint attention. Participants were 51 boys and five girls with autistic disorder, aged between 2 years and 6 years 5 months. Measures of joint attention…

  15. The Use and Understanding of Virtual Environments by Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Leonard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The potential of virtual environments for teaching people with autism has been positively promoted in recent years. The present study aimed to systematically investigate this potential with 12 participants with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), each individually matched with comparison participants according to either verbal IQ or performance…

  16. Living with Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Parental and Professional Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenburger, Karola; Keenan, Mickey; Doherty, Alvin; Byrne, Tony; Gallagher, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is rising and is now thought to be as high as 1:100. While the debate about best treatment continues, the effects of having a child diagnosed with ASD on family life remain relatively unexplored. This article, by Karola Dillenburger of Queens University Belfast, Mickey…

  17. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  18. Brief Report: Incidence of and Risk Factors for Autistic Disorder in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)

  19. Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Challenge and a Model for Inclusion in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Rita Jordan, Professor in Autism Studies at the School of Education, University of Birmingham, gave last year's Gulliford Lecture at the University of Birmingham on 4 October 2007. This article is based upon that lecture. In it, Professor Jordan discusses the role of education in the lives of people with autistic spectrum disorders. She traces the…

  20. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  2. Parental Perspectives on Early Intensive Intervention for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Alec; Feiler, Anthony; Webster, Valerie; Lovell, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Previous research on early intensive intervention in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) has largely focused on outcomes of treatment for children. Although some account has been taken of parental viewpoints, the potential impact of intervention on families has not achieved the same kind of research prominence. This contrasts with the considerable…

  3. Using Emergence Theory-Based Curriculum to Teach Compromise Skills to Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Lance; Jones, Don

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…

  4. Characteristics of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Served in Comprehensive Community-Based Mental Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Walrath, Christine M.; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) receiving treatment in community mental health settings. Data from a national community mental health initiative was used to identify children who had received a primary diagnosis of ASD. These children were compared with children with other diagnoses on…

  5. Virtual Environments for Social Skills Training: Comments from Two Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that computer-based tasks can motivate people with autism and encourage learning. As a computer-based medium, Virtual Environments (VEs) offer a potentially useful tool for social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, there are some concerns over whether people with ASDs can…

  6. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  7. Using Virtual Environments for Teaching Social Understanding to 6 Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter; Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Six teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experienced a Virtual Environment (VE) of a cafe. They also watched three sets of videos of real cafe and buses and judged where they would sit and explained why. Half of the participants received their VE experience between the first and second sets of videos, and half experienced it between…

  8. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  9. Community Introduction of Practice Parameters for Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Advancing Early Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Mihailescu, Raluca; Rodrigues-Degaeff, Catherine; Junier, Laurent; Muller-Nix, Carole; Halfon, Oliver; Ansermet, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Within a strong interdisciplinary framework, improvement in the quality of care for children with autistic spectrum disorders through a 2 year implementation program of Practice Parameters, aimed principally at improving early detection and intervention. Method: We developed Practice Parameters (PPs) for Pervasive Developmental…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brian R.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

    2005-01-01

    The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were…

  11. Diagnostic Grouping among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Staffed Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Perry, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence to guide the commissioning of residential provision for adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the UK. We aim to explore the degree and impact of diagnostic congregation among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and ASD living in staffed housing. Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven adults with…

  12. Event Narratives in 11-14 Year Olds with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Diane; Dockrell, Julie E.; Stuart, Morag

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulties in narrative language and especially with use of evaluative enrichment devices. However, little is known about their production of event narratives. Aims: To establish if children with ASD differ from typically developing peers in their production of general…

  13. Typical Emotion Processing for Cartoon but Not for Real Faces in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Delphine B.; Rondan, Cecilie; Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Assouline, Brigitte; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether atypical face processing in autism extends from human to cartoon faces for which they show a greater interest. Twenty children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared to two groups of typically developing children, matched on chronological and mental age. They processed the emotional expressions of real…

  14. The Relationship between Parenting Stress and Behavior Problems of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Two 9- to 10-month-Iong studies (N = 137) examined the interaction between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study 1 focused on very young children, and Study 2 employed a wider range of child ages; both studies assessed these factors at 2 points in time. The researchers noted a strong…

  15. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  16. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  17. Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

  18. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  19. Adjustment, Sibling Problems and Coping Strategies of Brothers and Sisters of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…

  20. Language Development among the Siblings of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2007-01-01

    Language development in 32 preschool siblings (aged 2-6 years) of children with diagnosed autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) was compared with that of a control group of 28 typical preschool children. Groups were matched by siblings' age, gender, maternal educational level and family income. The mean ages of the siblings group and the control group…

  1. Autism spectrum disorder risk factors and autistic traits in gender dysphoric children.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Leef, Jonathan H; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age, maternal depression, general behavioral and emotional problems, and IQ. High birth weight was associated with both high gender nonconformity and autistic traits among GD children. Developmental processes associated with high birth weight are, therefore, likely to underlie the GD-ASD link either directly or indirectly. The present study is the first to provide quantitative data bearing on possible mechanisms that lead GD and ASD to co-occur.

  2. Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder in children attending mainstream schools in a Welsh education authority.

    PubMed

    Webb, E; Morey, J; Thompsen, W; Butler, C; Barber, M; Fraser, W I

    2003-06-01

    All mainstream primary schools in Cardiff were invited in July 1998 to participate in a prevalence survey of autistic spectrum disorder. Teachers of each class filled in a questionnaire based on ICD-10 criteria for autistic disorders. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was completed on children identified with problems identified by the questionnaire. A total of 11692 children born between 1 September 1986 and 31 August 1990 were screened: 234 (2%) children were identified as requiring an ASSQ; 151 of 234 (65%) ASSQs were returned. Of the 151, 60 children (52 male, 8 female; 40%) scored 22 or more. Their notes and the involved professionals were consulted. Thirty-five children, unknown to specialist services or with complex features, required additional assessment. Seventeen children (all male) were found to be on the autistic spectrum. When the overall rubric was disentangled we found a diverse population of affected children including a handful who did not fit easily into ICD-10 classification. Correcting for incomplete ascertainment we found a minimum prevalence of 20.2 out of every 10 000 (SE = 4.5) for autistic spectrum disorder in this population.

  3. Autistic spectrum disorder: evaluating a possible contributing or causal role of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Thierry; Roulet, Eliane

    2006-01-01

    The onset of epilepsy in brain systems involved in social communication and/or recognition of emotions can occasionally be the cause of autistic symptoms or may aggravate preexisting autistic symptoms. Knowing that cognitive and/or behavioral abnormalities can be the presenting and sometimes the only symptom of an epileptic disorder or can even be caused by paroxysmal EEG abnormalities without recognized seizures, the possibility that this may apply to autism has given rise to much debate. Epilepsy and/or epileptic EEG abnormalities are frequently associated with autistic disorders in children but this does not necessarily imply that they are the cause; great caution needs to be exercised before drawing any such conclusions. So far, there is no evidence that typical autism can be attributed to an epileptic disorder, even in those children with a history of regression after normal early development. Nevertheless, there are several early epilepsies (late infantile spasms, partial complex epilepsies, epilepsies with CSWS, early forms of Landau-Kleffner syndrome) and with different etiologies (tuberous sclerosis is an important model of these situations) in which a direct relationship between epilepsy and some features of autism may be suspected. In young children who primarily have language regression (and who may have autistic features) without evident cause, and in whom paroxysmal focal EEG abnormalities are also found, the possible direct role of epilepsy can only be evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  4. Take note of the fuss: selective eating and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chater, Angel; Stein, Samuel; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2012-12-01

    Selective eating in children can be a huge concern for parents. In most cases the problem is self-limiting and it can be associated with a developmental disorder. This article presents observations from two case studies from a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) in the south east of England that link selective eating with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). It concludes with recommendations to consider ASD, alongside dietetic advice, when a child is presenting with selective eating.

  5. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  6. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  7. Four Case Histories and a Literature Review of Williams Syndrome and Autistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Rasmussen, Peder

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the case histories of four young children with concurrent autistic disorder and Williams syndrome. Williams syndrome comprises a peculiar facial appearance, learning disorder, and often hypercalcemia, mild microcephaly, large blood vessel stenosis, and a specific behavioral phenotype. Literature on Williams syndrome is…

  8. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  9. Aripiprazole: in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P

    2011-06-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years. In two, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years with irritability associated with autistic disorder, 8 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole 2-15 mg/day, compared with placebo, resulted in significant improvements in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale score at endpoint (primary endpoint), and the mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated in this patient population in the two 8-week studies and a 52-week study, with most adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Aripiprazole was associated with weight gain in both the short- and long-term studies; data from the long-term study indicated that the increase in bodyweight reached a plateau at 3-6 months.

  10. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schore, Allan N.

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the “emotional brain.” Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile–gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant–mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant–mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  11. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  12. Efficacy of DMSA Therapy in a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BLAUCOK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; DESSOKI, Hani H.; RABAH, Thanaa

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: the aim of this study was to provide evidence that DMSA detoxification treatments cause a reduction of the heavy metal burden in the autistic, and that this reduction lessens neurological symptoms associated with ASD (Autistic Spectrum Disorder). Method: The participants were 44 children, age 3 to 9 years of age, with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4t Edition, (DMS-IV). The severity of the autistics symptomatologiy had been measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (SCARS). We collected urine samples before and after the DMSA challenge test, comparing urine metal output. We also compared the results of the DMSA detoxification(=the urine challenge test) with behavioral effects, typical for ASD. Results: The DMSA challenge test increased the urine metal output for a number of potentially toxic metals. Statistically significant difference were noted between the baseline urine and DMSA challenge test regarding the level of cadmium, mercury, and lead (P=0.006, P=0.049, and P=0.008 respectively). We also noted that behavioral effects, typical for ASD (autism spectrum disorders) were reduced with this method of detoxification. A comparison between CARS Subscales and Total Score before and after a 6-month chelation program showed greatest improvements for Verbal and nonverbal communication (P <0.001), Taste, Smell and Touch (P 0.001) and Relating to People (P 0.005). Other improvements were noted for Adaptation to Change and Improvement. Conclusion: DMSA chelation increased the urinary output of toxic and neurotoxic metals. Our data supports evidence that detoxification treatment with oral DMSA has beneficial effect on ASD patients. PMID:23400264

  13. A MECP2 missense mutation within the MBD domain in a Brazilian male with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mário; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; dos Santos, Adriana Vaz; Ponchel, Frederique; Churchman, Sarah; Abdalla-Carvalho, Cláudia Bueno; dos Santos, Jussara Mendonça; dos Santos, Flavia Lima; Gikovate, Carla Gruber; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros; Pimentel, Márcia Mattos Gonçalves

    2011-11-01

    Point mutations and genomic rearrangements in the MECP2 gene are the major cause of Rett syndrome (RTT), a pervasive developmental disorder affecting almost exclusively females. MECP2 mutations were also identified in patients with autism without RTT. In this study, we present a mutational and gene dosage analysis of the MECP2 in a cohort of 60 Brazilian males with autistic features but not RTT. No duplication or deletion was identified. Sequencing analysis, however, revealed four MECP2 sequence variations. Three of them were previously discussed as non disease causing mutations and one mutation (p.T160S) was novel. It affects a highly conserved amino acid located within the MBD domain, a region of the protein involved in specific recognition and interaction with methylated CpG dinucleotides. The p.T160S variation was not found in the control sample. This mutation may represent a potential genetic factor for autistic phenotype and should be object of further studies.

  14. An Autistic Male Presenting Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and Trichotillomania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Nakayasu, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of a young adult Japanese male with infantile autism who also met diagnostic criteria for seasonal affective disorder and trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling). The case report deals with difficulties in diagnosing mood disorder in such individuals, potential treatment effectiveness of valproic acid, and…

  15. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  16. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders.

  17. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder. PMID:18445737

  18. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  19. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Piracetam Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L.; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients…

  20. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  1. Mutation screening and association study of the UBE2H gene on chromosome 7q32 in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, Patrick; Martin, Isabelle; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Marouillat, Sylviane; Barthélémy, Catherine; Pierre Müh, Jean; Andres, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder most probably caused by a complex interaction of genetic factors. Several genomewide scans identified multipoint LOD score peaks in region 7q32. In this region, UBE2H encodes an E2 enzyme of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system. Mutations in another member of this system, the UBE3A gene, cause Angelman syndrome. The participation of E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes) or E3 (ubiquitin ligases) enzymes in neural development recently emerged. Given its physical location and function, we examined UBE2H as a candidate for involvement in autistic disorder. We confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that the UBE2H gene was expressed in the rat and the human central nervous system. The rat UBE2H and human UBE2H deduced amino acid sequences are identical. We screened the seven exons of the UBE2H gene in autistic patients using single-strand conformation analysis. We observed a silent A-->G transition at position 336. A case-control association study was performed using this A/G polymorphism. A significant association was found between the G allele and a subgroup of autistic patients with developmental quotient higher than 30 (P=0.004). Although further studies are required, these results suggest that the UBE2H gene could be one of the 7q-susceptibility loci for autistic disorder.

  2. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented.

  3. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    PubMed

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  4. Putting theory of mind in its place: psychological explanations of the socio-emotional-communicative impairments in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-05-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory power, but that explorations of the psychological precursors of impaired ToM have been fruitful in increasing understanding of mindreading impairments in ASD (where 'mindreading' refers those abilities that underlie triadic interaction as well as ToM). It is argued that early explanations of impaired mindreading are untenable for various reasons, but that impairments of dyadic interaction in ASD that could lead to impaired ability to represent others' mental states may be the critical psychological cause, or causes, of impaired ToM. The complexity of causal routes to impaired ToM is emphasized.

  5. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  6. Behavioristic Procedures in the Treatment of Autistic Children: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Robert M.

    Children with infantile autism display characteristics and behaviors that severely limit their growth and functioning on many levels. Research is reviewed in which principles of operant conditioning are implemented in procedures designed to investigate and/or modify the autistic child's behavior in the following areas: (a) social interaction, (b)…

  7. Deletion 2q37.3 and autism: molecular cytogenetic mapping of the candidate region for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Lukusa, T; Vermeesch, J R; Holvoet, M; Fryns, J P; Devriendt, K

    2004-01-01

    Fine mapping of deletion regions in autistic patients represents a valuable screening tool for identifying candidate genes for autism. A number of studies have ascertained associations between autism and terminal 2q deletion with the breakpoint within 2q37. Here we describe a 12-year-old female patient with terminal 2q37.3 cryptic deletion and autistic behaviour. Her clinical features included hypotonia and feeding difficulties during infancy, coarse face with notably prominent forehead, prominent eyebrows, broad flat nasal bridge and round cheeks, small hands and feet with bilateral brachymetaphalangism, proximal implantation of the thumbs and short toenails, mild mental retardation and autistic behaviour. Recorded autistic features included early lack of eye contact and, during infancy, little social interactions, propensity to be stereotypically busy and to get anxious. In order to more closely delineate the linkage region for autism within 2q37, the findings in this patient were combined to those in 2 previously reported siblings with a well documented 2q37.3 deletion, but without autistic disorder. The exact size of the deleted segment was determined by mapping the deleted region in each group with a series of specific BAC clones linearly ordered on the 2q37 region. The deletion in the autistic patient appeared to be larger [breakpoint flanked by more centromeric clones RP11-680016 (236.9 Mb) and 201F21 (237.4 Mb)] than in the non autistic siblings [more telomeric clones RP11-205L13 (237.8 Mb) and 346114 (238.2 Mb)], revealing a distance of maximum 1.3 Mb between the breakpoints. Accordingly, the extent of the candidate region for susceptibility genes for autism on distal 2q is reduced to maximum 1.3 Mb. Comparison with another well documented autistic patient from the literature results in the same conclusion. These findings represent thus a further step towards identifying genes predisposing to autism.

  8. [Autistic-like behavioural disorders and deafness in children].

    PubMed

    Deggouj, N; Eliot, M M

    2005-01-01

    There is a co-morbidity between autism spectrum behaviour disorders and deafness in children. Their behavioural difficulties may appear primary and/or secondary to hearing deprivation. In this paper, we present how we manage those patients on the base of our clinical experience. The auditory assessment must be based on subjective tests taking account of their special reactions. It needs objective tests to complete and help the behavioural responses. The hearing aids amplification is increased progressively, to allow the development of a tolerance to the sounds world. The multidisciplinary team tends to open them to the world and to the communication. PMID:16676561

  9. Autistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  10. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  11. Challenges in evaluating psychosocial interventions for Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lord, Catherine; Wagner, Ann; Rogers, Sally; Szatmari, Peter; Aman, Michael; Charman, Tony; Dawson, Geraldine; Durand, V Mark; Grossman, Lee; Guthrie, Donald; Harris, Sandra; Kasari, Connie; Marcus, Lee; Murphy, Susan; Odom, Samuel; Pickles, Andrew; Scahill, Lawrence; Shaw, Evelyn; Siegel, Bryna; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Smith, Tristram; Yoder, Paul

    2005-12-01

    In 2002, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting concerning methodological challenges of research in psychosocial interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. This paper provides a summary of the presentations and the discussions that occurred during this meeting. Recommendations to federal and private agencies included the need for randomized clinical trials of comprehensive interventions for autism as the highest, but not the sole priority. Ongoing working groups were proposed to address psychosocial interventions with a focus on relevant statistics, standardized documentation and methods of diagnosis, development of outcome measures, establishment of standards in research; and the need for innovative treatment designs, including application of designs from other research areas to the study of interventions in ASD.

  12. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  13. Neural mechanisms of imitation and 'mirror neuron' functioning in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Justin H G; Waiter, Gordon D; Gilchrist, Anne; Perrett, David I; Murray, Alison D; Whiten, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    An association between autistic spectrum disorder and imitative impairment might result from dysfunction in mirror neurons (MNs) that serve to relate observed actions to motor codings. To explore this hypothesis, we employed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol previously used to identify the neural substrate of imitation, and human MN function, to compare 16 adolescent males of normal intelligence with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and age, sex and IQ matched controls. In the control group, in accord with previous findings, we identified activity attributable to MNs in areas of the right parietal lobe. Activity in this area was less extensive in the ASD group and was absent during non-imitative action execution. Broca's area was minimally active during imitation in controls. Differential patterns of activity during imitation and action observation in ASD and controls were most evident in an area at the right temporo-parietal junction also associated with a 'theory of mind' (ToM) function. ASD participants also failed to show modulation of left amygdala activity during imitation that was evident in the controls. This may have implications for understanding the imitation of emotional stimuli in ASD. Overall, we suggest that ASD is associated with altered patterns of brain activity during imitation, which could stem from poor integration between areas serving visual, motor, proprioceptive and emotional functions. Such poor integration is likely to adversely affect the development of ToM through imitation as well as other aspects of social cognitive function in ASD. PMID:16140346

  14. Risperidone-associated urinary incontinence in patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imasaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We report several cases in which patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation who received risperidone experienced urinary incontinence. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients housed in facilities for patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation. Those who had undergone a medical examination at a hospital in Tokyo from April 1999 to March 2009 were included in the study.Retrospective data were gathered including age, sex, IQ, birth weight, dosage of risperidone, urinary density, as well as existence of urinary and fecal incontinence. We divided the participants into those who did and did not experience urinary incontinence after taking risperidone and compared the 2 groups. Risperidone had been prescribed to 35 patients. In spite of the fact that no patient had a history of urinary incontinence, 14 patients experienced urinary incontinence after receiving risperidone. Moreover, 4 of these 14 patients also had fecal incontinence. Among the variables we examined, the only significant difference between groups was in sex, with significantly more women experiencing incontinence compared with men. When the dose of risperidone was reduced or the patients switched to other drugs, urinary incontinence of the patients improved.Hence, risperidone may have a casual relationship with urinary incontinence. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of possible effect.

  15. Relationship between executive functions and motor stereotypies in children with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    LeMonda, Brittany C.; Holtzer, Roee; Goldman, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Twenty-two children (age range = 7–9 years, 6 months, girls = 5) with AD were recruited from a longitudinal multi-site study and compared to twenty-two non-autistic children with DLD (age range = 7–9 years, 6 months, girls = 5). The two groups were matched on non-verbal IQ and demographic characteristics. Frequency and duration of stereotypies were coded from videotaped semi-structured play sessions. EF measures included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) Categories, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Mazes, and Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (SB-IV) Matrices. The scores for frequency and duration of stereotypies were higher in the AD group. Separate linear regressions revealed that group status, EF, and their interactions predict stereotypies. Specifically, lower EF scores predicted higher frequencies and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Analyses controlled for age, gender, and parent education. Findings suggest that in AD, EF impairments and stereotypies may be linked to shared brain pathways. PMID:23637708

  16. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and Early Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…

  18. Differential Amygdala Response to Lower Face in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitobi, Makoto; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Omori, Masao; Matsumura, Yukiko; Munesue, Toshio; Mizukami, Kimiko; Shimoyama, Tomohiro; Murata, Tetsuhito; Sadato, Norihiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Much functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate marked brain abnormalities in face processing. Most of these findings were obtained from studies using tasks related to whole faces. However, individuals with ASD tend to rely more on individual parts of the face for identification than on the…

  19. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  20. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and…

  1. Objective Investigation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in circadian rhythm functioning, as manifest in abnormal sleep-wake cycles, have been postulated to be present in people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). To date, research into the sleep-wake cycle in people with ASDs has been primarily dependant on third-party data collection. Method: The utilization of…

  2. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5-3.9 years. Overall,…

  3. Brief Report: Cognitive Processing of Own Emotions in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and in Their Relatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Elisabeth; Berthoz, Sylvie; Frith, Uta

    2004-01-01

    Difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions--including difficulties identifying and describing feelings--are assumed to be an integral part of autism. We studied such difficulties via self-report in 27 high-functioning adults with autistic spectrum disorders, their biological relatives (n = 49), and normal adult controls (n = 35), using…

  4. Using Multimedia to Reveal the Hidden Code of Everyday Behaviour to Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Theresa; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework which was developed for carers (teachers and parents) to help them create personalised social stories for children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). It explores the social challenges experienced by individuals with ASDs and outlines an intervention aimed at revealing the hidden code that underpins social…

  5. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  6. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  7. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals", "Special Diet",…

  8. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  9. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  10. Inclusive Education for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Secondary Mainstream Schools: Teacher Attitudes, Experience and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the experience, attitudes and knowledge of school staff in relation to inclusive education for pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream secondary schools. Fifty-three participants from 11 secondary schools in the north-west of England completed a survey that covered socio-demographic…

  11. Development of Symbolic Play through the Use of Virtual Reality Tools in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being…

  12. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  13. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  14. On the Application of Quantitative EEG for Characterizing Autistic Brain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, Lucia; Sicca, Federico; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Narzisi, Antonio; Campatelli, Giulia; Calderoni, Sara; Pioggia, Giovanni; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Autism-Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormalities in neural connectivity at both the global and local levels. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a non-invasive technique that allows a highly precise measurement of brain function and connectivity. This review encompasses the key findings of QEEG application in subjects with ASD, in order to assess the relevance of this approach in characterizing brain function and clustering phenotypes. QEEG studies evaluating both the spontaneous brain activity and brain signals under controlled experimental stimuli were examined. Despite conflicting results, literature analysis suggests that QEEG features are sensitive to modification in neuronal regulation dysfunction which characterize autistic brain. QEEG may therefore help in detecting regions of altered brain function and connectivity abnormalities, in linking behavior with brain activity, and subgrouping affected individuals within the wide heterogeneity of ASD. The use of advanced techniques for the increase of the specificity and of spatial localization could allow finding distinctive patterns of QEEG abnormalities in ASD subjects, paving the way for the development of tailored intervention strategies. PMID:23935579

  15. Short-term efficacy and safety of risperidone in young children with autistic disorder (AD).

    PubMed

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Abali, Osman; Gurkan, Kagan

    2004-10-01

    Recently, atypical antipsychotic treatments have been used in children with autistic disorder (AD). However, data on safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotic agents in autistic children are limited. In this open, prospective trial, subjects were treated with risperidone for six weeks. Nineteen children (12 male, 7 female) aged 4 to 8 years were started on 0.5 mg daily with individual titration to a maximum of 1.5 mg daily. Behavioural assessments were completed by Conner's parent 10-item index, AD symptom checklist and CGI-Global improvement. Statistically significant improvement was observed in mean total scores of Conner's parent 10-item index from baseline to the end of study (p< 0.001). On the basis of the CGI-Global improvement item, 15 children were considered responders. Statistically significant improvement was also found in some aspects of social contact, impulsive-aggression and repetitive, ritualistic behaviour based on assessment with the AD-symptom checklist. Weight gain and increase in night-time sleep were the most frequent side effects.

  16. Cost-impact of young adults with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Järbrink, Krister; McCrone, Paul; Fombonne, Eric; Zandén, Håkan; Knapp, Martin

    2007-01-01

    There is a general lack of information about the economic impact of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding adults and those with high-functioning ASD. In this study, the societal economic consequences of ASD were investigated using a sample of young high-functioning adults in need of employment support. A methodology for the collection of cost information was developed and information about how to avoid obstacles in the collection process was obtained. Today, many people with ASD who would be able to function in open employment do not get this opportunity. This study demonstrated that ASD results in high costs and indicates that a lack of supported employment programmes for people with ASD may have negative resource consequences for the economy. The study also contributes towards a methodology of economically evaluating supported employment programs as well as other interventions for people with high-functioning ASD.

  17. Using virtual environments for teaching social understanding to 6 adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Peter; Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne

    2007-03-01

    Six teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experienced a Virtual Environment (VE) of a café. They also watched three sets of videos of real cafés and buses and judged where they would sit and explained why. Half of the participants received their VE experience between the first and second sets of videos, and half experienced it between the second and third. Ten naïve raters independently coded participants' judgments and reasoning. In direct relation to the timing of VE use, there were several instances of significant improvement in judgments and explanations about where to sit, both in a video of a café and a bus. The results demonstrate the potential of Virtual Reality for teaching social skills. PMID:16900403

  18. Risk factors for self-injurious behaviours among 222 young children with autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Pascal, C; Grisi, S; Aussilloux, C

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for self-injurious behaviours (SIBs) in children with autistic disorders. The occurrence of SIB was examined in comparison with the following variables: chronological age, sex, adaptive skills, speech level, associated medical condition, degree of autism and parental social class. The subjects were 222 children aged under 7 years and all of them fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for infantile autism. Retrospective data were collected on demographic characteristics and medical condition. Children were assessed in terms of speech, degree of autism and adaptive skills in communication, socialization and daily living skills domains. Results indicated that 50% of the children experienced SIB and 14.6% had severe SIBs. Lower chronological age, associated perinatal condition, a higher degree of autism and a higher daily living skills delay were risk factors of SIBs but parental class, sex and epilepsy were not.

  19. An open-label naturalistic pilot study of acamprosate in youth with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Early, Maureen; Stigler, Kimberly A; Wink, Logan K; Mullett, Jennifer E; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    To date, placebo-controlled drug trials targeting the core social impairment of autistic disorder (autism) have had uniformly negative results. Given this, the search for new potentially novel agents targeting the core social impairment of autism continues. Acamprosate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to treat alcohol dependence. The drug likely impacts both gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. This study describes our initial open-label experience with acamprosate targeting social impairment in youth with autism. In this naturalistic report, five of six youth (mean age, 9.5 years) were judged treatment responders to acamprosate (mean dose 1,110 mg/day) over 10 to 30 weeks (mean duration, 20 weeks) of treatment. Acamprosate was well tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse effects noted in three (50%) subjects.

  20. Joint attention, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviours in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Delinicolas, Erin K; Young, Robyn L

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between abilities to initiate and respond to joint attention and symptoms of autism that have, and have not, been theoretically linked to joint attention. Participants were 51 boys and five girls with autistic disorder, aged between 2 years and 6 years 5 months. Measures of joint attention behaviours, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviour were administered during a single assessment. As predicted, the correlations between joint attention and the two behaviours theoretically linked to joint attention (i.e. social relating and language) were significantly stronger than those between joint attention and the behaviour not theoretically linked (i.e. stereotypical behaviour). While causation cannot be inferred from this study, these results support the suggestion that difficulties with joint attention behaviours commonly found among children with autism are linked to language and social relating, beyond what might be expected simply due to their co-occurrence as symptoms.

  1. The use of the Social Cognitive Skills Test with children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Naomi; Hare, Dougal Julian; Farrell, Peter; Van Manen, Teun

    2008-03-01

    With increased diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and the wide range of ability within this diagnosis, appropriate and accurate appraisal of specific ability are necessary to increase understanding of behaviour and inform effective intervention. The Social Cognitive Skills Test (SCST) focuses on the assessment of social reasoning skills. The present study investigated whether the SCST can usefully measure social reasoning ability in children with ASD. Eight children with ASD and eight typically developing children aged 5-13 years, who were matched on verbal comprehension, block design score and gender, took part in this pilot study. A decreasing trend in scores as the complexity of social cognitive skills increased was noted together with a significant difference between the two groups on three out of four social cognitive levels. This pilot study suggests the applicability of the SCST for use with children with ASD to assess social reasoning abilities.

  2. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahouee, Shohreh Mohseni; Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day) was started to decrease the patient's stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day) was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  3. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  4. The Thomas Outreach Project (TOP): An Early Years Intervention for Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Belinda; Clay, Daisy

    2008-01-01

    The Thomas Outreach Project (TOP) has developed from the Hampshire outline for meeting the needs of under fives on the autistic spectrum (THOMAS) course and has been in operation for over five years in Hampshire, supporting pre-schools and families with a range of strategies for use in all settings. In reviewing the service delivered we have…

  5. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  6. Autistic empathy toward autistic others

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Daisuke N.; Mano, Yoko; Jung, Minyoung; Fujii, Takeshi; Yanaka, Hisakazu T.; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Sato, Makoto; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to lack self-awareness and to experience difficulty empathizing with others. Although these deficits have been demonstrated in previous studies, most of the target stimuli were constructed for typically developing (TD) individuals. We employed judgment tasks capable of indexing self-relevant processing in individuals with and without ASD. Fourteen Japanese men and 1 Japanese women with high-functioning ASD (17–41 years of age) and 13 Japanese men and 2 TD Japanese women (22–40 years of age), all of whom were matched for age and full and verbal intelligence quotient scores with the ASD participants, were enrolled in this study. The results demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated in individuals with ASD in response to autistic characters and in TD individuals in response to non-autistic characters. Although the frontal–posterior network between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus participated in the processing of non-autistic characters in TD individuals, an alternative network was involved when individuals with ASD processed autistic characters. This suggests an atypical form of empathy in individuals with ASD toward others with ASD. PMID:25332405

  7. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges’ report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward. PMID:25722757

  8. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  9. [Evaluation of the quality of life in people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Gómez, José L; Casado Muñoz, Raquel; Lezcano Barbero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The search for quality of life and the trend towards continual improvement has today become a true reference which guides most social organizations. The bodies which offer support to persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (referred to hereon as ASD) have not gone untouched by the influence of this concept of quality. The serious difficulties which are associated with this disorder affect the main areas of one ??s personal development: socialisation, communication, comprehension, and adaptation to ones environment, and they require that organizations promote integral networks of resources which guarantee a lifetime of quality services and support. The difficulties of assessing quality of life in persons with ASD from the subjective perspective, make it especially necessary to find valid indicators that help us to favour certain conditions in the ASD person ??s environment. This identified need is justification for the objective put forward: to design an instrument capable of being used to assess the quality of life of persons with ASD, made up of a Guide of Indicators, which organizations and programmes can then use to promote favourable conditions.

  10. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Tim; Sierksma, Martijn C.; Meredith, Rhiannon M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain function and behavior undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability (ID) neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioral phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioral development (referred to also as “neurotypical” development) and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated. This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and ID types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1) a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically) normal-developing brain; (2) investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions. This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention. PMID:24198768

  11. [Evaluation of the quality of life in people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Gómez, José L; Casado Muñoz, Raquel; Lezcano Barbero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The search for quality of life and the trend towards continual improvement has today become a true reference which guides most social organizations. The bodies which offer support to persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (referred to hereon as ASD) have not gone untouched by the influence of this concept of quality. The serious difficulties which are associated with this disorder affect the main areas of one ??s personal development: socialisation, communication, comprehension, and adaptation to ones environment, and they require that organizations promote integral networks of resources which guarantee a lifetime of quality services and support. The difficulties of assessing quality of life in persons with ASD from the subjective perspective, make it especially necessary to find valid indicators that help us to favour certain conditions in the ASD person ??s environment. This identified need is justification for the objective put forward: to design an instrument capable of being used to assess the quality of life of persons with ASD, made up of a Guide of Indicators, which organizations and programmes can then use to promote favourable conditions. PMID:20661484

  12. Motor stereotypies and volumetric brain alterations in children with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Sylvie; O’Brien, Liam M.; Filipek, Pauline A.; Rapin, Isabelle; Herbert, Martha R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor stereotypies are defined as patterned, repetitive, purposeless movements. These stigmatizing motor behaviors represent one manifestation of the third core criterion for an Autistic Disorder (AD) diagnosis, and are becoming viewed as potential early markers of autism. Moreover, motor stereotypies might be a tangible expression of the underlying neurobiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. In this study, we videoscored stereotypies recorded during semi-structured play sessions from school age children with AD. We examined the effect of severity and persistence over time of stereotypies on brain volumetric changes. Our findings confirmed that the brain volume of school age children with AD is, on average, larger than that of age-matched typically developing children. However, we have failed to detect any sign of volumetric differences in brain regions thought to be particularly linked to the pathophysiology of stereotypies. This negative finding may suggest that, at least with respect to motor stereotypies, functional rather than structural alterations might be the underpinning of these disruptive motor manifestations of autism. PMID:23637709

  13. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with parents of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children with typical development and parents of children with other disabilities. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the WHOQOL-BREF with a sample of 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The factor structure for the WHOQOL-BREF was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Our analyses provided no evidence of a better model than the original 4-domain model. Nevertheless, some items in the measure were re-distributed to different domains based on theoretical meanings and/or clean loading criteria. The new model structure gained the measure's required validity with parents of children with Autistic Disorder.

  14. Computers and Autistic Learners: An Evolving Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedbring, Charles

    1985-01-01

    A research and demonstration computer center for severely handicapped autistic children, STEPPE-Lab, which uses computers as an augmentative communication and instructional system, is described. The article first reviews the keyboard, joystick, mouse, and drawing tablet as augmentative devices for helping communication disordered children interact…

  15. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  16. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  17. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  18. Commentary: The Treatment of Seizure Disorders and EEG Abnormalities in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Are We Getting Ahead of Ourselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary reviews studies of children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) and autistic regression (AR) and concludes that they are two distinct entities with different epileptic profiles and that the treatment modalities used in LKS cannot be expected to yield a therapeutic effect in AR. Multiple Subpial Transection is discussed. (Contains…

  19. Deletion 1q43 encompassing only CHRM3 in a patient with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrea Klunder; Ahmad, Ausaf; Shafiq, Mustafa; Brown-Kipphut, Brigette; Fong, Chin-To; Anwar Iqbal, M

    2013-02-01

    Deletions on the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 1 result in complex and highly variable clinical phenotypes which include intellectual disability, autism, seizures, microcephaly/craniofacial dysmorphology, corpus callosal agenesis/hypogenesis, cardiac and genital anomalies, hand and foot abnormalities and short stature. Genotype-phenotype correlation reported a minimum region of 2 Mb at 1q43-q44. We report on a 3 ½ year old male patient diagnosed with autistic disorder who has social withdrawal, eating problems, repetitive stereotypic behaviors including self-injurious head banging and hair pulling, and no seizures, anxiety, or mood swings. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed an interstitial deletion of 473 kb at 1q43 region (239,412,391-239,885,394; NCBI build37/hg19) harboring only CHRM3 (Acetylcholine Receptor, Muscarinic, 3; OMIM: 118494). Recently, another case with a de novo interstitial deletion of 911 kb at 1q43 encompassing three genes including CHRM3 was reported. The M3 muscarinic receptor influences a multitude of central and peripheral nervous system processes via its interaction with acetylcholine and may be an important modulator of behavior, learning and memory. We propose CHRM3 as a candidate gene responsible for our patient's specific phenotype as well as the overlapping phenotypic features of other patients with 1q43 or 1q43-q44 deletions.

  20. Interpersonal distance and social anxiety in autistic spectrum disorders: A behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    An inherent feature of social interactions is the use of social space or interpersonal distance-the space between one individual and another. Because social deficits are core symptoms of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we hypothesized that individuals on this spectrum will exhibit abnormal interpersonal distance preferences. The literature on interpersonal distance in ASD is not conclusive. While some studies show preferences for closer distances among this group, others show preferences for farther distances than controls. A common symptom of ASD that may explain the variance in responses to interpersonal distance in this population is social anxiety (SA), which has been shown to correlate with interpersonal distance preferences. In the current study, we investigated interpersonal distance preferences in a group of individuals with ASD using both behavioral and ERP measures. We found greater variance in interpersonal distance preferences in the ASD group than in the control group. Furthermore, we showed that this variance can be explained by differences in SA level and can be predicted by the N1 amplitude, an early ERP component related to attention and discrimination processes. These results hint at the early sensory and attentional processes that may be affecting higher social behaviors, both in subclinical and in clinical populations. PMID:25666260

  1. Seven-star needle stimulation improves language and social interaction of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes S; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Sze, Sophia L; Leung, Winnie W

    2009-01-01

    This is a randomized controlled trial that aimed to evaluate the effect of the Seven-star Needle Stimulation treatment on children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Thirty-two children with ASD were assigned randomly into the treatment and control groups. Children in the treatment group underwent 30 sessions of stimulation over 6 weeks, while children in the control group were on a waiting list and did not receive treatment during this period of time. Intervention consisted of a treatment regime comprising of 30 sessions of Seven-star Needle Stimulation, delivered over 6 weeks. Each session lasted 5 to 10 min, children in the treatment group were stimulated at the front and back sides of their body and the head by using Seven-star Needles. The change in the children's behavior was evaluated using parents' report and neurophysiological changes were measured by quantitative EEG (qEEG). Results showed that the treatment group demonstrated significant improvement in language and social interaction, but not in stereotyped behavior or motor function, compared to the control group. qEEG spectral amplitudes in the treatment, but not in the control group, were also reduced significantly. The results suggested that Seven-star Needle Stimulation might be an effective intervention to improve language and social functioning of children with ASD.

  2. The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Coben, Robert; Myers, Thomas E

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication, social interaction, and a limited range of interests with repetitive stereotypical behavior. Various abnormalities have been documented in the brains of individuals with autism, both anatomically and functionally. The connectivity theory of autism is a recently developed theory of the neurobiological cause of autisic symptoms. Different patterns of hyper- and hypo-connectivity have been identified with the use of quantitative electroencephalogray (QEEG), which may be amenable to neurofeedback. In this study, we compared the results of two published controlled studies examining the efficacy of neurofeedback in the treatment of autism. Specifically, we examined whether a symptom based approach or an assessment/connectivity guided based approach was more effective. Although both methods demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms of autism, connectivity guided neurofeedback demonstrated greater reduction on various subscales of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Furthermore, when individuals were matched for severity of symptoms, the amount of change per session was significantly higher in the Coben and Padolsky (J Neurother 11:5-23, 2007) study for all five measures of the ATEC. Our findings suggest that an approach guided by QEEG based connectivity assessment may be more efficacious in the treatment of autism. This permits the targeting and amelioration of abnormal connectivity patterns in the brains of people who are autistic.

  3. Do salt cravings in children with autistic disorders reveal low blood sodium depleting brain taurine and glutamine?

    PubMed

    Good, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Because boys are four times more likely than girls to develop autism, the role of male hormones (androgens) has received considerable scrutiny. Some researchers implicate arginine vasopressin, an androgen-dependent hormone from the pituitary gland that elicits male behavior. Elevated vasopressin is also the most common cause of low blood sodium (hyponatremia)--most serious in the brains of children. Hyponatremia causes astrocytes to swell, then release the amino acids taurine and glutamine and their water to compensate. Taurin--the brain osmolyte/inhibitory neurotransmitter that suppresses vasopressin--was the amino acid most wasted or depleted in urine of autistic children. Glutamine is a critical metabolic fuel in brain neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and the intestines, especially during hypoglycemia. Because glutamine is not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier significantly, the implications of low blood glutamine in these children are not recognized. Yet children with high brain glutamine from urea cycle disorders are rarely diagnosed with autistic disorders. Other common events in autistic children that release vasopressin are gastrointestinal inflammation, hypoglycemia, and stress. Signs of hyponatremia in these children are salt cravings reported online and anecdotally, deep yellow urine revealing concentration, and relief of autistic behavior by fluid/salt diets. Several interventions offer promise: (a) taurine to suppress vasopressin and replenish astrocytes; (b) glutamine as fuel for intestines and brain; (c) arginine to spare glutamine, detoxify ammonia, and increase brain blood flow; and (d) oral rehydration salts to compensate dilutional hyponatremia. This hypothesis appears eminently testable: Does your child crave salt? Is his urine deep yellow?

  4. Childhood disintegrative disorder: distinction from autistic disorder and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Rosman, N Paul; Bergia, Berta M

    2013-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, a rare, relentlessly progressive neurologic disorder, first described by Heller in 1908, remains a condition of great interest. It has long been debated whether it is a discrete disorder or simply a late-onset variant of childhood autism. We have studied 6 cases of childhood disintegrative disorder, collected over 8 years, and followed for 2.5 to 22 years (mean 8.6 years). Childhood disintegrative disorder begins later in life than autism, and following a period of entirely normal development; the regression is more global and more severe than in autism; seizures are more frequent than in autism, yet demonstrable organicity in childhood disintegrative disorder is decidedly rare. Lastly, the prognosis is usually much worse than in autism, but in those cases with neither seizures nor epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG), the outcome may be more favorable. Childhood disintegrative disorder should be viewed as a condition distinct from childhood autism.

  5. Evaluation of planning dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorders using the zoo map task.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Marin, M D; Moreno-Granados, J M; Ruiz-Veguilla, M; Ferrin, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This study evaluates the planning function problems in 80 male children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and 23 male children and adolescents with ASD using the Zoo Map Task; both groups were comparable in terms of age and IQ. The relationship between planning function and other executive functions is also assessed. In comparison to the ADHD groups, ASD children presented more errors in the open-ended tasks; these planning function problems seem to be mediated by processing speed and motor coordination, however it does not seem to be mediated by other executive function problems, including attention, working memory or response inhibition. In the time for planning, an interaction between the specific subgroups and working memory components was observed. ADHD and ASD present with different patterns of planning function, even when other components of executive function are taken into account; clinical and educational implications are discussed.

  6. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Hair and Urine of a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; RABAH, Thanaa

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT General information: Autism is a severe developmental disorder which involves social withdrawal, communication deficits, and stereotypic/repetitive behavior. The pathophysiological etiologies which precipitate autism symptoms remain elusive and controversial in many cases, but both genetic and environmental factors (and their interactions) have been implicated. While autism is considered multicausal, environmental factors have received significant attention. International discussion has ocused on neurotoxins such as mercury and lead, suggesting that these and other toxic metals contribute to the development of the disorder. An epidemiological study released in 2006 (Palmer et al.) linking Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data on mercury to special education data in Texas reported a 61% increase in autism prevalence rates (or 17% adjusted) per 1000 pounds of mercury released into the environment (1). We attempted to further evaluate whether exposure to variable environmental contributes to the genesis of autistic spectrum disorder, and thus is a factor increasing the risk for developing autism symptoms in utero or in early childhood. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury and other heavy metals in children with autism spectrum disorder versus controls. Through laboratory diagnostics we are able to distinguish between present and past exposure (i.e. hair analysis measurements reflect past exposure), urinary excretion levels of unprovoked urine represent immediate exposure. By assessing a spectrum of trace elements and heavy metals in hair and urine of both autistic and control groups, we focused on the participants≈ past and present exposure. Methodology: The participants were 25 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children (22 boys and 3 girls) between the age of 3 and 9 years. They were either diagnosed previously by other psychiatrist, psychologist, and developmental pediatrician

  7. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  8. The role of trace elements, thiamin (e) and transketolase in autism and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Obrenovich, Mark E; Shola, Dorjee; Schroedel, Kathleen; Agrahari, Aditya; Lonsdale, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much research into autism or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), there is room for considerable conjecture regarding the etiology of these developmental brain disorders. ASD is marked by a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition, including epistasis. This manuscript argues that changes in oxidative metabolism, thiamine homeostasis, heavy metal deposition and cellular immunity have a role in the etiopathogenesis of autism and ASD. Recent findings from our group and others provide evidence for abnormal thiol metabolism, marked by significant alteration in the deposition of several trace heavy metal species. Together with these, we find differences in thiamine homeostasis in ASD patients, which can be corrected by supplementation. We hypothesize that altered thiol metabolism from heavy metal toxicity, one of the key mechanisms for oxidative stress production, may be responsible for the biochemical alterations in transketolase, dysautonomia and abnormal thiamine homeostasis. Although it is unknown why these particular metals accumulate, we suspect that children with ASD and forms of autism may have particular trouble excreting thiol-toxic heavy metal species, many of which exist as divalent cations. We maintain mercury accumulation is evidence of altered clearance. Together with concomitant oxidative stress, these findings may offer an intriguing component or possible mechanism for oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration in ASD patients. Regardless of the exact cause, these factors may be more important to the etiology of this symptomatically diverse disease spectrum. Here, we offer insight into new avenues of exploration as well as the development of novel treatment approaches for these growing and devastating diseases.

  9. Advances in the Research of Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Literature Review and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Najjar, Imen; Bellissant, Eric; Anderson, George M.; Barburoth, Marianne; Cohen, David; Jaafari, Nemat; Schischmanoff, Olivier; Fagard, Rémi; Lagdas, Enas; Kermarrec, Solenn; Ribardiere, Sophie; Botbol, Michel; Fougerou, Claire; Bronsard, Guillaume; Vernay-Leconte, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in melatonin physiology may be involved or closely linked to the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, given its role in neurodevelopment and reports of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, decreased nocturnal melatonin production, and beneficial therapeutic effects of melatonin in individuals with autism. In addition, melatonin, as a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. More specifically, the role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators opens interesting perspectives to ascertain better the mechanisms underlying the significant relationship found between lower nocturnal melatonin excretion and increased severity of autistic social communication impairments, especially for verbal communication and social imitative play. In this article, first we review the studies on melatonin levels and the treatment studies of melatonin in autistic disorder. Then, we discuss the relationships between melatonin and autistic behavioral impairments with regard to social communication (verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction), and repetitive behaviors or interests with difficulties adapting to change. In conclusion, we emphasize that randomized clinical trials in autism spectrum disorders are warranted to establish potential therapeutic efficacy of melatonin for social communication impairments and stereotyped behaviors or interests. PMID:24129182

  10. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  11. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  12. Is long-term prognosis for pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified different from prognosis for autistic disorder? Findings from a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-06-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that differed significantly between the AD and PDD NOS groups (89% vs. 72%, p < 0.05). The lower rate of disability pension award in the PDD NOS group was predicted by better psychosocial functioning. The lack of substantial differences in prognosis between the groups supports a dimensional description of autism spectrum disorder, in line with proposed DSM-V revision.

  13. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys.

  14. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  15. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  16. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  17. Autistic Disorder in Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Reconsideration of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M.; Botbol, Michel; Toutain, Annick; Sarda, Pierre; Carlier, Michèle; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Baumann, Clarisse; Cohen, David; Lagneaux, Céline; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Verloes, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a rare developmental disorder caused by deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23, has been characterized by strengths in socialization (overfriendliness) and communication (excessive talkativeness). WBS has been often considered as the polar opposite behavioral phenotype to autism. Our objective was to better understand the range of phenotypic expression in WBS and the relationship between WBS and autistic disorder. Methodology The study was conducted on 9 French individuals aged from 4 to 37 years old with autistic disorder associated with WBS. Behavioral assessments were performed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scales. Molecular characterization of the WBS critical region was performed by FISH. Findings FISH analysis indicated that all 9 patients displayed the common WBS deletion. All 9 patients met ADI-R and ADOS diagnostic criteria for autism, displaying stereotypies and severe impairments in social interaction and communication (including the absence of expressive language). Additionally, patients showed improvement in social communication over time. Conclusions The results indicate that comorbid autism and WBS is more frequent than expected and suggest that the common WBS deletion can result in a continuum of social communication impairment, ranging from excessive talkativeness and overfriendliness to absence of verbal language and poor social relationships. Appreciation of the possible co-occurrence of WBS and autism challenges the common view that WBS represents the opposite behavioral phenotype of autism, and might lead to improved recognition of WBS in individuals diagnosed with autism. PMID:22412832

  18. Anthropomorphic Bias Found in Typically Developing Children Is Not Found in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The anthropomorphic bias describes the finding that the perceived naturalness of a biological motion decreases as the human-likeness of a computer-animated agent increases. To investigate the anthropomorphic bias in autistic children, human or cartoon characters were presented with biological and artificial motions side by side on a touchscreen.…

  19. "THOMAS" Training: An Early Years Intervention for Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Belinda; Beresford, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    The "THOMAS" course (The Hampshire Outline for Meeting the needs of under fives on the Autistic Spectrum) is a four-day training programme to enhance the learning of young children with impairments in social understanding, communication and play by increasing the use of appropriate interventions. It has been supporting families and professionals…

  20. Brief Report: A Case-Control Study of Obstetric Complications and Later Autistic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryan, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contemporaneous birth records of 49 Dublin (Ireland) children with autism were compared to those of the previous same-sex live birth for maternal age, maternal parity, birth order, and birth weight. Autistic individuals did not differ from controls in terms of risk factors for autism associated with obstetric adversity, disputing the view that…

  1. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  2. Do Apparent Overlaps between Schizophrenia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Reflect Superficial Similarities or Etiological Commonalities?

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Study Background Schizophrenia and autism are both neurodevelopmental disorders that were once considered to be the same disorder expressed in different developmental periods. Although they were separated diagnostically about 40 years ago, they share several clinical and possibly, etiological features. This paper reviews overlaps in four domains of function to consider the issue of whether these similarities are sporadic and likely to represent superficial similarities, or whether the disorders are more likely to share some features in common. Methods Representative areas of function were reviewed and compared for aspects of cognition (nonverbal reasoning, memory and language), social function (orienting/joint attention, eye contact and theory of mind), brain function (structural differences) and genetics. To facilitate comparisons with schizophrenia, a focus on high functioning autism/Asperger’s disorder was utilized, particularly in the sections on cognition and social function. Results Significant similarities (and differences) characterized comparisons in each domain. Conclusions Disturbed function in similar clinical (in cognition and social function), neurobiological (brain volumes) and genetic (e.g., involvement of the same genes or chromosomal locations) domains in autism and schizophrenia supports the hypothesis that while they are distinct disorders, they are not entirely unique. Additional studies of similarities and differences between them may thus shed light on common etiological mechanisms and hopefully, facilitate the development of novel treatment targets. PMID:22563520

  3. A Survey of Parents' Reactions to the Diagnosis of an Autistic Spectrum Disorder by a Local Service. Access to Information and Use of Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a…

  4. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  5. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  6. Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Branch, Corinne; March, Caty; Lerman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  7. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

  9. Peer-Group Indicators of Social Inclusion among Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Mainstream Secondary Schools: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The number of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) attending mainstream schools is increasing, but there is evidence that their needs may not be fully met. Previous research has suggested that such pupils are at an increased risk of social exclusion. In light of this, the aim of the current study was to examine the sociometric status,…

  10. Co-Operative Learning for Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Mainstream and Special Class Settings: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian M.; Bruton, Cora; Honan, Rita; McGuinness, Roisin; Daly, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a cooperative learning (CL) intervention on the levels of social and task engagement of a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) conducted in a mainstream class setting and a child with ASD implemented in a special needs class setting. The target children were two 8-year-old boys…

  11. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of DIR/Floortime[TM] Parent Training Intervention for Pre-School Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajareya, Kingkaew; Nopmaneejumruslers, Kaewta

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of adding home-based Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR)/Floortime[TM] intervention to the routine care of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder. Measures of functional emotional development and symptom severity were taken. It was found that after the…

  12. The Relationship between Vocabulary, Grammar, and False Belief Task Performance in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Naomi; Happe, Francesca; Dunn, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language and theory of mind in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD). Previous studies have found a strong association between language and theory of mind in a range of groups, but mostly have not included…

  13. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  14. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P < .001). At follow-up at a mean age of 20.7 years (standard deviation = 3.9 years), 8 of the 11 (73%) were at least somewhat better. Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  15. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-09-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to piracetam + risperidone (Group A) or placebo + risperidone (Group B) for a 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of piracetam was titrated up to 800 mg/day. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks of starting medication. The measure of the outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale (total score). The ABC-C Rating Scale scores improved with piracetam. The difference between the two protocols was significant as indicated by the effect of group, the between subjects factor (F = 5.85, d.f. = 1, P = 0.02). The changes at the endpoint compared with baseline were: -11.90 +/- 3.79 (mean +/- SD) and -5.15 +/- 3.04 for group A and B respectively. A significant difference was observed on the change in scores in the ABC-C Rating Scale in week 10 compared with baseline in the two groups (t = 6.017, d.f. = 38, P < 0.0001). The results suggest that a combination of atypical antipsychotic medications and a glutamate agent such as piracetam, might have increase synergistic effects in the treatment of autism.

  16. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Hair and Urine of a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; RABAH, Thanaa

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT General information: Autism is a severe developmental disorder which involves social withdrawal, communication deficits, and stereotypic/repetitive behavior. The pathophysiological etiologies which precipitate autism symptoms remain elusive and controversial in many cases, but both genetic and environmental factors (and their interactions) have been implicated. While autism is considered multicausal, environmental factors have received significant attention. International discussion has ocused on neurotoxins such as mercury and lead, suggesting that these and other toxic metals contribute to the development of the disorder. An epidemiological study released in 2006 (Palmer et al.) linking Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data on mercury to special education data in Texas reported a 61% increase in autism prevalence rates (or 17% adjusted) per 1000 pounds of mercury released into the environment (1). We attempted to further evaluate whether exposure to variable environmental contributes to the genesis of autistic spectrum disorder, and thus is a factor increasing the risk for developing autism symptoms in utero or in early childhood. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury and other heavy metals in children with autism spectrum disorder versus controls. Through laboratory diagnostics we are able to distinguish between present and past exposure (i.e. hair analysis measurements reflect past exposure), urinary excretion levels of unprovoked urine represent immediate exposure. By assessing a spectrum of trace elements and heavy metals in hair and urine of both autistic and control groups, we focused on the participants≈ past and present exposure. Methodology: The participants were 25 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children (22 boys and 3 girls) between the age of 3 and 9 years. They were either diagnosed previously by other psychiatrist, psychologist, and developmental pediatrician

  17. Preventing filicide in families with autistic children.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Mark T

    2003-02-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social behaviors and parent-child interaction. It has been associated with an increased risk of social victimization, and a recent rise in number of acts of filicide of developmentally disabled children has included several cases of autism. In this article, possible risk factors for filicidal behavior in families with autistic children and prevention strategies are reviewed. PMID:12613431

  18. Asperger's disorder and murder.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Watts, Donna M

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of violence and autistic spectrum disorders. This article reviews findings of current research on Asperger's disorder and violence. Criteria for diagnosing Asperger's disorder are given. Three cases are presented in which defendants with diagnosed Asperger's disorder were charged with murder. Specific symptoms in this disorder are discussed as they relate to issues of diminished capacity and criminal responsibility.

  19. The early development of joint attention in infants with autistic disorder using home video observations and parental interview.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally M; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    The aim in the current study was to investigate the early development of joint attention, eye contact and affect during the first 2 years of life, by using retrospective parental interviews and analyses of home videos of infants who were later diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). The 36 children with AD and the 27 matched control children were all aged between 3 and 5 years at recruitment. Reported anomalies in gaze and affect emerged in the children with AD as early as the first 6 months of life, generally becoming more severe just prior to the second birthday. Video data confirmed these anomalies from as early as the first year. Joint attention impairments were found throughout the second year of life. The results suggest that early dyadic behaviours-eye contact and affect-may play a role in the joint attention impairment in AD. PMID:17917803

  20. Dyadic and triadic behaviours in infancy as precursors to later social responsiveness in young children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental interviews and home videos from 0- to- 24-months of age. Concurrent measures (3-5 years) included social responsiveness to another's distress and need for help. Early dyadic behaviours observed in home videos, but not as reported by parents, were associated with later social responsiveness. Many triadic behaviours (from both parent-reports and home video) were also associated with social responsiveness at follow-up. The results are consistent with the view that early dyadic and triadic behaviours, particularly sharing attention, are important for the development of later social responsiveness. PMID:19475503

  1. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  2. Female patient with autistic disorder, intellectual disability, and co-morbid anxiety disorder: Expanding the phenotype associated with the recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 microdeletion.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Ines; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Resches, Mariela; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the advent of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and its use as a first genetic test for the diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental phenotypes has allowed the identification of novel submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities (namely, copy number variants or CNVs), imperceptible by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #615433) has been defined as a genomic disorder mainly characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males, and characteristic craniofacial features. Although the 3q13.31 CNVs are variable in size, a 3.4 Mb recurrently altered region at 3q13.2-q13.31 has been recently described and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by flanking human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements has been suggested as the mechanism of deletion formation. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with this recurrent deletion performing the clinical description of a 9-year-old female patient with autistic disorder, total absence of language, intellectual disability, anxiety disorder and disruptive, and compulsive eating behaviors. The array-based molecular karyotyping allowed the identification of a de novo recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 deletion encompassing 25 genes. In addition, we compare her clinical phenotype with previous reports of patients with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and proximal 3q microdeletions. Finally, we also review the candidate genes proposed so far for these phenotypes.

  3. Further evidence that the rs1858830 C variant in the promoter region of the MET gene is associated with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Pamela B; Boccuto, Luigi; Skinner, Cindy; Collins, Julianne S; Neri, Giovanni; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Schwartz, Charles E

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies in three independent cohorts have shown that the rs1858830 C allele variant in the promoter region of the MET gene on chromosome 7q31 is associated with autism. Another study has found correlations between other alterations in the MET gene and autism in two unrelated cohorts. This study screened two cohorts, an Autistic Disorder cohort from South Carolina and a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) cohort from Italy, for the presence of the C allele variant in rs1858830. A significant increase in the C allele variant frequency was found in the South Carolina Autistic Disorder patients as compared to South Carolina Controls (chi(2)=5.8, df=1, P=0.02). In the South Carolina cohort, a significant association with Autistic Disorder was found when comparing the CC and CG genotypes to the GG genotype (odds ratio (OR)=1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-2.40; chi(2)=6.5, df=1, P=0.01) in cases and controls. In the Italian cohort, no significant association with PDD was found when comparing the CC or CG genotype to the GG genotype (OR=1.20; 95% CI=0.56-2.56; chi(2)=0.2, df=1, P=0.64). This study is the third independent study to find the rs1858830 C variant in the MET gene promoter to be associated with autism.

  4. Anthropomorphic bias found in typically developing children is not found in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Hodgins, Jessica K; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The anthropomorphic bias describes the finding that the perceived naturalness of a biological motion decreases as the human-likeness of a computer-animated agent increases. To investigate the anthropomorphic bias in autistic children, human or cartoon characters were presented with biological and artificial motions side by side on a touchscreen. Children were required to touch one that would grow while the other would disappear, implicitly rewarding their choice. Only typically developing controls depicted the expected preference for biological motion when rendered with human, but not cartoon, characters. Despite performing the task to report a preference, children with autism depicted neither normal nor reversed anthropomorphic bias, suggesting that they are not sensitive to the congruence of form and motion information when observing computer-animated agents' actions.

  5. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  6. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported.

  7. A survey of parents' reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service: access to information and use of services.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-12-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a parents' support group, school teachers, speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, the Internet, books and academic journals. Special units and schools were rated as the most useful source of support and treatment, but many other interventions were rated highly. Parents reported a diverse range of both negative and positive consequences of diagnosis, and many reported a change in their attitudes to diagnosis over time. Many expressed frustration with trying to get an early diagnosis, with the social, educational and health services, and with the way that autistic spectrum disorders are regarded by lay people and other parents.

  8. Sedation using 5% lidocaine patches, midazolam and propofol in a combative, obese adolescent with severe autistic disorder undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kwon Hui; Jung, Hong Soo; Kang, Eu Gene; Kim, Change Jae; Rhee, Ho Young; Jeon, Yeon Soo

    2014-12-01

    We present a 17-year-old man who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory exams for uncontrolled seizure. Patients with an autistic disorder require deep sedation or, occasionally, general anesthesia even for radiologic exams or simple procedures. The anesthetic management of an obese, violent patient with a severe autistic disorder and mental retardation can be challenging to anesthesiologists and requires a more careful approach in selecting adequate anesthetics and doses. This case emphasizes the importance of having a detailed plan to ensure the smooth process of premedication, anesthetic induction, maintenance, emergence and safe discharge of incorporated patients in the event of unexpected situations. A 5% lidocaine patch to relieve the pain from the intramuscular injection and intravenous cannulation, intramuscular midazolam as premedication, and propofol for the maintenance of sedation can be a good sedation protocol in incorporated patients.

  9. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported. PMID:26043847

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the glutamatergic system in adolescent males with high-functioning autistic disorder: a pilot study at 4T.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gagan; Biederman, Joseph; Wozniak, Janet; Goldin, Rachel L; Crowley, Dave; Furtak, Stephannie; Lukas, Scott E; Gönenç, Atilla

    2013-08-01

    The pilot study aimed at examining the neural glutamatergic activity in autism. Seven adolescent males (mean age: 14 ± 1.8; age range: 12-17 years) with intact intellectual capacity (mean IQ: 108 ± 14.26; IQ range: 85-127) suffering from autistic disorder and an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan at 4T. Results indicated significantly high glutamate (Glu) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of autistic disorder versus control subjects (paired t test p = 0.01) and a trend for lower Glu in the right medial temporal lobe, which was not statistically different between the groups (paired t test p = 0.06). These preliminary findings support the glutamatergic dysregulation hypothesis in autism and need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  11. Psychosocial interventions for reducing vocal challenging behavior in persons with autistic disorder: a multilevel meta-analysis of single-case experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanderkerken, Lien; Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Vocal challenging behavior (VCB) forms a common problem in individuals with autistic disorder. Since VCB is associated with negative outcomes for the individual and his or her environment, it is important to know how to manage this type of CB. To evaluate the effectiveness of several psychosocial interventions applied to decrease VCB in individuals with autistic disorder, we conducted a meta-analysis of single-case experiments (SCEs). Fifty-two SCEs, including 74 participants, were combined using a multilevel meta-analysis. The overall treatment effect was large and statistically significant. However, the effect varied significantly over the included studies and participants. Examining this variance, evidence was found for a moderator effect of VCB type and intervention type, with, on average, the largest effects for interventions used to reduce VCB including stereotypical VCB and for interventions containing both antecedent and consequence components. Age, gender, primary treatment setting, publication year, and study quality did not significantly moderate the intervention effect.

  12. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  13. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and prosodic processing, perhaps because altered acoustic patterns of AD cries render them especially difficult to interpret, and increased activity in brain regions associated with emotional processing, indicating that AD cries also elicit more negative feelings and may be perceived as more aversive and/or arousing. Perceived distress engendered by AD cries related to increased activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing. This study supports the hypothesis that cry is an early and meaningful anomaly displayed by children with AD. It could be that cries associated with AD alter parent-child interactions much earlier than the time that reliable AD diagnosis normally occurs. PMID:22835685

  14. Can Neurotypical Individuals Read Autistic Facial Expressions? Atypical Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Biotti, Federica; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Happé, Francesca; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    The difficulties encountered by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when interacting with neurotypical (NT, i.e. nonautistic) individuals are usually attributed to failure to recognize the emotions and mental states of their NT interaction partner. It is also possible, however, that at least some of the difficulty is due to a failure of NT individuals to read the mental and emotional states of ASD interaction partners. Previous research has frequently observed deficits of typical facial emotion recognition in individuals with ASD, suggesting atypical representations of emotional expressions. Relatively little research, however, has investigated the ability of individuals with ASD to produce recognizable emotional expressions, and thus, whether NT individuals can recognize autistic emotional expressions. The few studies which have investigated this have used only NT observers, making it impossible to determine whether atypical representations are shared among individuals with ASD, or idiosyncratic. This study investigated NT and ASD participants' ability to recognize emotional expressions produced by NT and ASD posers. Three posing conditions were included, to determine whether potential group differences are due to atypical cognitive representations of emotion, impaired understanding of the communicative value of expressions, or poor proprioceptive feedback. Results indicated that ASD expressions were recognized less well than NT expressions, and that this is likely due to a genuine deficit in the representation of typical emotional expressions in this population. Further, ASD expressions were equally poorly recognized by NT individuals and those with ASD, implicating idiosyncratic, rather than common, atypical representations of emotional expressions in ASD.

  15. Applying the Hexagon-Spindle Model to the design of school environments for children with Autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Andrée; Woolner, Alex; Benedyk, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Schools and other educational environments beyond serving as the primary work places of children provide the backdrop against which formative emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development takes place. However, ergonomists have paid little attention to the design of these environments, the interactions within them or their organization from a child's perspective. Children with special education needs, such as those with hearing or visual difficulties, cognitive or social disabilities, or even those with different learning styles may be placed in mainstream schools ill-equipped to suit their needs. Rather than retrofitting classrooms as children with different requirements enter the school, a ground-up approach could be taken to create effective educational environments based on an understanding of the learning tasks to be supported, the learner characteristics and the facilities and interactions needed to effect task completion. The application of an holistic ergonomic model, such as the Hexagon-Spindle model provides a means of systematically considering the variables which need to be included in the design and evaluation of such environments. This paper presents a case study of the application of this model to the design of low sensory classrooms and interactive learning experiences for children with an autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:19369717

  16. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:26456415

  17. An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerot, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive…

  18. Social Competence Intervention in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDS) - A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Noor A.; Oweini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of a combined intervention in remediating the social skills in a first-grader with a disorder from the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The researcher also aimed to identify the changes observed during the intervention period. The combined intervention consisted of reading…

  19. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  20. Functional Evaluation of Hidden Figures Object Analysis in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Foreman, Derek; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, K.; Summers, Randy; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a hidden figures task (HFT) was used to compare differences in brain function in children diagnosed with autism disorder (AD) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical controls (TC). Overall greater functional MRI activity was observed in…

  1. Myotonic disorders: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Chris; Salajegheh, Mohammad Kian

    2016-01-01

    The myotonic disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined diseases that are unified by the presence of myotonia, which is defined as failure of muscle relaxation after activation. The presentation of these disorders can range from asymptomatic electrical myotonia, as seen in some forms of myotonia congenita (MC), to severe disability with muscle weakness, cardiac conduction defects, and other systemic features as in myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1). In this review, we describe the clinical features and pathophysiology of the different myotonic disorders, their laboratory and electrophysiologic findings and briefly review the currently available treatments. PMID:27141276

  2. Autistic Traits in Male and Female Students and Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Measured by the Polish Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient

    PubMed Central

    Pisula, Ewa; Kawa, Rafał; Szostakiewicz, Łukasz; Łucka, Izabela; Kawa, Magdalena; Rynkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    So far no standardized screening instrument for autism spectrum disorders for adults has been developed in Poland. The main aim of the study was to explore the properties of the Polish version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), especially its reliability and discriminating power. The second purpose was to establish whether the pattern of sex and area of study differences in the amount of autistic traits found in other countries also exist in Poland. The groups in the study included students (n = 2819), adults with ASD (n = 60) and a non-clinical sample (n = 60) matched with the ASD group for age, sex, education and place of residence. The Polish version of AQ proved to be reliable, although - as in studies conducted in other countries - the internal consistency coefficients for subscales (with exception for social skill) were low. ASD diagnosis was the most powerful determinant of AQ scores. Sex differences in autistic traits and a relationship between autistic traits and area of study were found. PMID:24086474

  3. Reaching and Teaching Autistic Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Autism is called a "spectrum" of disorders because a variety of symptoms and degrees of disability are involved, with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) defined by the severity of impairment. Since the 1940s, the incidence of autism has exploded exponentially. Researchers are scrambling to find effective strategies for helping autistic students and…

  4. The Factor Structure of Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Gruber, Christian P.; Davis, Sandra; Hayes, Stephanie; Passanante, Natalie; Przybeck, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although DSM-IV requires symptoms in three criterion domains for a diagnosis of autistic disorder, the extent to which those domains are phenotypically independent is an unanswered and important question. The identification of "endophenotypes" of the autistic syndrome may be very useful for genetic and neurobiologic studies of autism,…

  5. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  6. Spatial navigation in autism spectrum disorders: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alastair D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of relative strengths that have been attributed to the autistic cognitive profile, it has been suggested by a number of theorists that people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) excel at spatial navigational tasks. However, many of these claims have been made in the absence of a close inspection of extant data in the scientific literature, let alone anecdotal reports of daily navigational experiences. The present review gathers together published studies that have attempted to explicitly address functional components of navigation in ASD populations, including assays of wayfinding, large-scale search, and path integration. This inspection reveals a pattern of apparent strengths and weaknesses in navigational abilities, thus illustrating the necessity for a more measured and comprehensive approach to the understanding of spatial behavior in ASD. PMID:25667579

  7. Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

  8. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  9. Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Causal Mechanisms and Recent Findings on Attention and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Susan E.; Landry, Reginald; Czapinski, Patrycja; McConnell, Beth; Rombough, Vicki; Wainwright, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of selective research on autism. Autism forms part of a spectrum of related developmental disorders that vary in severity. Both their prevalence and severity argue for concerted efforts aimed at improving our understanding and treatment of the many individuals affected. We begin by outlining an important discovery…

  10. Medicaid Expenditures for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: 1994 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Cao, Jun; Ittenbach, Richard; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This study used data from 1994 to 1999 from one large county in Pennsylvania to estimate the Medicaid expenditures of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to compare these expenditures with those of other Medicaid-eligible children. On average, children diagnosed with ASD had expenditures 10 times those of other children.…

  11. Characteristics of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS, and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…

  12. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  13. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  14. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  15. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  16. Access and Inclusion for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: "Let Me In."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesmondhalgh, Matthew; Breakey, Christine

    Based on pioneering work at a school in Sheffield, England, this book explores the universal issues of access and inclusion in employment and education for children and young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It describes the challenges educators faced in establishing and running an integrated resource room for children with ASD within…

  17. Parent-Child Gesture Use during Problem Solving in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the…

  18. Diagnostic boundaries of autism disorder vs pervasive developmental disorder nos comparative observational study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Carigi, Tiziana; Muratori, Filippo; Termine, Cristiano; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Derhemi, Ledhina; Di Nardo, Roberta; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), and above all diagnosis of the different PDD subtypes, is an ongoing challenge in psychopathology. Application of categorical criteria is complex and problematic in the clinical field where the boundaries dividing some of the PDD entities are blurred, creating particular problems for the clinician. A dimensional clinical approach, considering autistic symptom severity, level of functioning, developmental characteristics and symptoms other than the ones typically observed in autism, may be a more suitable approach in the clinical field and could provide the clinician treating these disorders with empirical guidance. To identify the clinical features that might differentiate the PDD subtypes, we conducted a comparative study in a clinical sample of children affected by autism disorder (AD) or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and a mini critical review of the available literature addressing clinical and psychopathological differences between the two subtypes. The results of both our study and our literature review seem to show little support for the current PDD subtypes. In such a framework, the most significant element in clinical practice appears to be a deep knowledge of the characteristics of the individual in question. By adopting a broad and multi-faceted perspective, it becomes possible to define the most effective rehabilitation treatment. This applies particularly to the pharmacological treatment, since, to date, no specific therapies for PDDs are known and the choice of pharmacotherapy can be decided only on the basis of the patient's general profile and specific features.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Differences in Autistic Behaviour Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible differences between high-functioning males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding the core symptoms of autism and coexisting psychopathology. A total of 23 females and 23 males matched for age, IQ, and ASD diagnoses were recruited(mean age 11y 9mo [SD 4y 5mo], range 5y-20y…

  20. Pain Sensitivity and Observer Perception of Pain in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Allely, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed literature investigating the relationship between pain expression and perception of pain in individuals with ASD is sparse. The aim of the present systematic PRIMSA review was twofold: first, to see what evidence there is for the widely held belief that individuals with ASD are insensitive to pain or have a high pain threshold in the peer-reviewed literature and, second, to examine whether individuals with ASD react or express pain differently. Fifteen studies investigating pain in individuals with ASD were identified. The case studies all reported pain insensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, the majority of the ten experimental studies reviewed indicate that the idea that individuals with ASD are pain insensitive needs to be challenged. The findings also highlight the strong possibility that not all children with ASD express their physical discomfort in the same way as a neurotypical child would (i.e., cry, moan, seek comfort, etc.) which may lead caregivers and the medical profession to interpret this as pain insensitivity or incorrectly lead them to believe that the child is in no pain. These results have important implications for the assessment and management of pain in children with ASD. PMID:23843740

  1. Individualized Instruction Strategies in Mainstream Classrooms: Including Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Stephanie R.

    2008-01-01

    This literature review describes research based teaching strategies for general education teachers to provide equal education for students diagnosed with autism. General education classrooms are often made up of students with a broad spectrum of abilities, and it is the teacher's job to meet the needs of those students. Strategies addressed in…

  2. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  3. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  4. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  5. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  6. Reducing Auditory Hypersensitivities in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Preliminary Findings Evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.; Bazhenova, Olga V.; Bal, Elgiz; Carlson, Nancy; Sorokin, Yevgeniya; Heilman, Keri J.; Cook, Edwin H.; Lewis, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the present study, the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the listening project protocol (LPP), was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical “neural exercise” model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication. PMID:25136545

  7. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  8. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory.

  9. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory. PMID:23894016

  10. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  11. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047). Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001), DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001), n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001) and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01). TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001), EPA (r = .418, P<0.001) AA (r = .199, P<0.001), and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001) and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001). CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002), EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038) and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021). Conclusions Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these

  12. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the "Impulse Control Disorder" section to the newly expanded "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders" section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  13. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to ...

  14. Early-onset acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and regressive autistic disorders with epileptic EEG abnormalities: the continuing debate.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Thierry; Roulet-Perez, Eliane

    2010-10-01

    Early-onset acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome) may present as a developmental language disturbance and the affected child may also exhibit autistic features. Landau-Kleffner is now seen as the rare and severe end of a spectrum of cognitive-behavioural symptoms that can be seen in idiopathic (genetic) focal epilepsies of childhood, the benign end being the more frequent typical rolandic epilepsy. Several recent studies show that many children with rolandic epilepsy have minor developmental cognitive and behavioural problems and that some undergo a deterioration (usually temporary) in these domains, the so-called "atypical" forms of the syndrome. The severity and type of deterioration correlate with the site and spread of the epileptic spikes recorded on the electroencephalogram within the perisylvian region, and continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) frequently occur during this period of the epileptic disorder. Some of these children have more severe preexisting communicative and language developmental disorders. If early stagnation or regression occurs in these domains, it presumably reflects epileptic activity in networks outside the perisylvian area, i.e. those involved in social cognition and emotions. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to find out if and how much the bioelectrical abnormalities play a causal role in these subgroup of children with both various degrees of language and autistic regression and features of idiopathic focal epilepsy. One has to remember that it took nearly 40 years to fully acknowledge the epileptic origin of aphasia in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the milder acquired cognitive problems in rolandic epilepsies.

  15. Computer technology for autistic students.

    PubMed

    Panyan, M V

    1984-12-01

    The first purpose of this article is to review the literature related to the use of computers with autistic individuals. Although only a limited number of applications have been reported, the potential of the computer to facilitate the progress of autistic persons is promising. The second purpose is to identify specific learning problems or styles associated with autism from the research literature and link these with the unique aspects of computer-based instruction. For example, the computer's role in improving the motivation of autistic individuals is related to its capacity to analyze the reinforcing qualities of a particular event interactively and immediately for each user. Finally, recommendations that may enable computers to be maximally beneficial in assessing the learning process and remediating learning problems are offered. Two such recommendations are selecting appropriate software and integrating computer instruction within the classroom environment. PMID:6549182

  16. Computer technology for autistic students.

    PubMed

    Panyan, M V

    1984-12-01

    The first purpose of this article is to review the literature related to the use of computers with autistic individuals. Although only a limited number of applications have been reported, the potential of the computer to facilitate the progress of autistic persons is promising. The second purpose is to identify specific learning problems or styles associated with autism from the research literature and link these with the unique aspects of computer-based instruction. For example, the computer's role in improving the motivation of autistic individuals is related to its capacity to analyze the reinforcing qualities of a particular event interactively and immediately for each user. Finally, recommendations that may enable computers to be maximally beneficial in assessing the learning process and remediating learning problems are offered. Two such recommendations are selecting appropriate software and integrating computer instruction within the classroom environment.

  17. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  18. Longitudinal examination of the behavioral, language, and social changes in a population of adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ballaban-Gil, K; Rapin, I; Tuchman, R; Shinnar, S

    1996-10-01

    This follow-up study evaluates the behavioral, language, and social outcomes in a population of autistic patients initially examined in childhood. We evaluated 102 (63%) of the 163 eligible subjects, including 54 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 45 adults (> or = 18 years of age). Three patients had died in the interim. Behavior difficulties continued to be a problem in 69% of adolescents and adults. Thirty-five percent of adolescents and 49% of adults engaged in self-injurious behavior, and slightly more than 50% of adolescents and adults exhibited some stereotypic behaviors. Over 90% of both adolescents and adults had persisting social deficits. Language improved with age, although only 35% achieved normal or near-normal fluency. Comprehension also improved, although only 29% of subjects had achieved normal or near-normal comprehension of oral language. At the time of last follow-up, 28% of all patients and 53% of adults were living in residential placement. Only 11% of adults were employed on the open market, all in menial jobs; an additional 16% were employed in sheltered workshops. The social, behavioral, and language deficits identified in early life in autistic children tend to persist into adolescence and young adulthood.

  19. [Features of nursing of the autistic children].

    PubMed

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Pūras, Dainius; Kajokiene, Asta; Senina, Julija

    2002-01-01

    Due to the behavioral and communication difficulties autistic children need individualized approaches providing them medical help. Aspects of nursing of autistic children were not investigated in our country. Thirty seven mothers of autistic children and 74 mothers of children without developmental disorders (control group) were interviewed orally and filled the questionnaire. The age of children was 3-12 years old. The aim of the research was to analyze peculiarities of behavior, communication and social adaptation of children with autism disorder together with troubles they face in medical services (outpatient and inpatient), and prepare practical recommendations to the pediatric and mental health nurses. It appeared that families with autistic children come across the great difficulties in various areas of the daily life. Autistic children tended to have severe behavioral and emotional difficulties while being examined by the medical staff. Adaptation difficulties in medical services were very prominent, especially at the in-patient departments (unpredictable and impulsive behavior, anxiety, decrease of appetite, sleep disturbances). Possibilities of home visit of the nurses are underestimated and could provide more useful and constructive help to the families. The data showed existing difficulties for the pediatric nurses and medical staff to establish good contact with the autistic children and their parents and lack of knowledge about the children with pervasive developmental disorders and their needs. Practical recommendations are provided.

  20. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p < 0.0001), diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain.

  1. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  2. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  3. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (P<0.05) and have the autistic endophenotype of enhanced oligopeptiduria (P<0.05). Temporocortical PRKCB1 gene expression was reduced on average by 35 and 31% for the PRKCB1-1 and PRKCB1-2 isoforms (P<0.01 and <0.05, respectively) according to qPCR. Protein amounts measured for the PKCbetaII isoform were similarly decreased by 35% (P=0.05). Decreased gene expression characterized patients carrying the 'normal' PRKCB1 alleles, whereas patients homozygous for the autism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  4. A 6q14.1-q15 microdeletion in a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features with concomitant presence of a maternally inherited Xp22.31 copy number gain.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Ines; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Resches, Mariela; Eiris, Jesus; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-06-01

    We report on a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features who carries a rare interstitial microdeletion of 4.96 Mb at chromosome 6q14.1-q15. The patient also harbors a maternally inherited copy number gain of 1.69 Mb at chromosome Xp22.31, whose pathogenicity is under debate. PMID:26185640

  5. A 6q14.1-q15 microdeletion in a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features with concomitant presence of a maternally inherited Xp22.31 copy number gain

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, Ines; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Resches, Mariela; Eiris, Jesus; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report on a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features who carries a rare interstitial microdeletion of 4.96 Mb at chromosome 6q14.1-q15. The patient also harbors a maternally inherited copy number gain of 1.69 Mb at chromosome Xp22.31, whose pathogenicity is under debate. PMID:26185640

  6. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research. PMID:23124442

  7. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research.

  8. The Autistic Dialogic Style: A Case of Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Vera Regina J. R. M.

    2009-01-01

    In a former study (Fonseca and Bussab, 2006, "Self, other and dialogical space in autistic states", "International Journal of Psycho-Analysis", 87:1-16), the author hypothesised that in autistic disorders there is a distortion in the construction of what she defined as dialogic space. Such a space, in which self and other define each other…

  9. Speech Development of Autistic Children by Interactive Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Ferdous, S. M.; Ahmed, Syed Ishtiaque; Anwar, Anika

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Speech disorder is one of the most common problems found with autistic children. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the introduction of computer-based interactive games along with the traditional therapies in order to help improve the speech of autistic children. Design/methodology/approach: From analysis of the works of Ivar…

  10. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  11. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  12. [Personality disorders in smokers: a review].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Elena; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2010-01-01

    The association between psychopathology and nicotine dependence in smokers has been a relevant topic in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about personality disorders in smokers. The aim of this article is to review research published nationally and internationally which analyzes the relation between tobacco use and personality disorders. Our review permits us to affirm that research on the presence of Axis II disorders in smokers is rather scarce. Of 12 studies analyzed, it can be concluded that the prevalence of personality disorders in smokers is highly variable (between 9% and 45%), and that, in the majority of the studies, smoking is associated first with the presence of cluster C disorders (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive), and second, with cluster B disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial). Finally, we note the various limitations of previous studies and stress the need to better understand these disorders, given their relevance to the treatment of smokers.

  13. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved. PMID:26107996

  14. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  15. "They Say Every Child Matters, but They Don't": An Investigation into Parental and Carer Perceptions of Access to Leisure Facilities and Respite Care for Children and Young People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David; Emira, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the experiences and perceptions of parents and carers with respect to children accessing a variety of leisure activities, as well as short breaks and respite care. The children in question have wide-ranging needs and, for example, will be across the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The findings are based upon focus group…

  16. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem.

  17. Separating 'emotion' from 'the science': Exploring the perceived value of information for parents and families of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2015-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a life-long condition. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of children diagnosed with ASD and a greater recognition that parents need clear, accessible information communicated through different modalities. The objective of this research was to explore the views of stakeholders regarding their information needs, current information modalities and the perceived barriers and complexities of information. Three focus groups with the same stakeholders were conducted with a range of individuals from a variety of backgrounds, all of whom had a personal and/or professional interest in ASD. The same stakeholders were included in all three groups to promote depth of analysis and to facilitate rapport. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main issues were identified, including (1) the value of particular information sources; (2) the vulnerability of families and (3) the need for validated evidence. It was concluded, therefore, that information should be available through a multitude of modalities, accounting for the educational ability and economic status of families. The information should also be communicated in an accessible style, should be presented as trustworthy and clinical professionals may play a key role in translating information. Such information also needs to account for practical problems inherent to having a child with ASD, including time constraints and fatigue.

  18. A CGG-repeat expansion mutation in ZNF713 causes FRA7A: association with autistic spectrum disorder in two families.

    PubMed

    Metsu, Sofie; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Debacker, Kim; Bernhard, Birgitta; Rooms, Liesbeth; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fombonne, Eric; Taylor, Martin S; Scherer, Stephen W; Kooy, R Frank; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-11-01

    We report de novo occurrence of the 7p11.2 folate-sensitive fragile site FRA7A in a male with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation (∼450 repeats) in a 5' intron of ZNF713. This expanded allele showed hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island with reduced ZNF713 expression observed in a proband-derived lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). His unaffected mother carried an unmethylated premutation (85 repeats). This CGG-repeat showed length polymorphism in control samples (five to 22 repeats). In a second unrelated family, three siblings with ASD and their unaffected father were found to carry FRA7A premutations, which were partially or mosaically methylated. In one of the affected siblings, mitotic instability of the premutation was observed. ZNF713 expression in LCLs in this family was increased in three of these four premutation carriers. A firm link cannot yet be established between ASD and the repeat expansion mutation but plausible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Altered postnatal cell proliferation in brains of mouse pups prenatally exposed to IgG from mothers of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Shilpa D; French, Beth M; Kim, S-T; Morris-Berry, Christy M; Zimmerman, Andrew W; Blue, Mary E; Singer, Harvey S

    2013-01-01

    Auto antibodies found in the mothers of children with autistic disorder (MCAD) when passively transferred to pregnant mice cause behavioral alterations in juvenile and adult offspring. The goal of this study was to identify whether intraperitoneal injection of MCAD-IgG during gestation affected postnatal cell proliferation and survival in P7 offspring. Pooled MCAD-IgG or IgG from mothers of unaffected children (MUC) or phosphate-buffered saline was injected daily into C57BL/J6 pregnant dams (gestational days E13-E18). MCAD-IgG exposure significantly increased cell proliferation in the subventricular and subgranular zones. In contrast, BrdU-labeled cells on P1 and surviving until P7 (P1-generated cells) showed reduced cell densities in layers 2-4 of frontal and parietal cortices of MCAD mice compared to those in MUC and PBS-injected mice. In conclusion, significant increases in cell proliferation at P7 and reduced densities of P1-generated cells distinguish in utero exposure to MCAD compared to MUC and PBS.

  20. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  1. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs. PMID:17454560

  2. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

  3. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  4. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  5. Anxiety disorders: a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ellen J; Mathew, Sanjay J

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses of pharmacological treatments of the following anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is evidence from multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials to support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line pharmacotherapy in these disorders, and a number of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have received US Food and Drug Administration approval for these indications. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are now emerging as first-line treatments for these anxiety disorders alongside the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and have been US Food and Drug Administration-approved for some of these indications as well. Benzodiazepines are also effective treatments for anxiety disorders, and although this medication class has the advantage of a rapid onset of action, their use is limited by their potential for abuse and lack of antidepressant properties. In addition to reviewing the clinical trials that have investigated the anxiolytic effects of these commonly used medications, we review the evidence for novel uses of other agents, including anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics, in anxiety disorders.

  6. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma.

  7. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  8. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed.

  9. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    PubMed

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  10. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders reviewer acknowledgement 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contributing reviewers We thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 5 (2013). High quality and timely reviews are critical to the overall quality of the journal. We are committed to providing a unique and important outlet for scholarship regarding neurodevelopmental disorders and are indebted to the outstanding reviewers who have contributed their time over the last year in helping us to reach this goal. PMID:24472142

  11. Risk factors for autistic regression: results of an ambispective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Qiong; Liu, Jing; Li, She-chang; Xu, Xiu

    2012-08-01

    A subgroup of children diagnosed with autism experience developmental regression featured by a loss of previously acquired abilities. The pathogeny of autistic regression is unknown, although many risk factors likely exist. To better characterize autistic regression and investigate the association between autistic regression and potential influencing factors in Chinese autistic children, we conducted an ambispective study with a cohort of 170 autistic subjects. Analyses by multiple logistic regression showed significant correlations between autistic regression and febrile seizures (OR = 3.53, 95% CI = 1.17-10.65, P = .025), as well as with a family history of neuropsychiatric disorders (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.35-9.71, P = .011). This study suggests that febrile seizures and family history of neuropsychiatric disorders are correlated with autistic regression.

  12. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  13. Cognitive characteristics of parents of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M

    1977-09-01

    The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.

  14. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  15. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another.

  16. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  17. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  18. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  19. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  20. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  1. Neurosurgery for mental disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Heeramun-Aubeeluck, A; Lu, Z

    2013-05-01

    Neurosurgical interventions date back to ancient civilization, 5100 BC through a practice known as trephination. Due to past abuse and ethical considerations, neurosurgical interventions in psychiatry remain a controversial issue. This article aims to review the different surgical techniques and their current application in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave its approval for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the management of treatment-resistant depression in 2005 and deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in 2009. These invasive but non destructive techniques represent the future of neurosurgery for mental disorder. PMID:23739819

  2. Glycosaminoglycan Storage Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Lacerda, Lúcia; Alves, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Impaired degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with consequent intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded products causes a group of lysosomal storage disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). Characteristically, MPSs are recognized by increased excretion in urine of partially degraded GAGs which ultimately result in progressive cell, tissue, and organ dysfunction. There are eleven different enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of GAGs. Deficiencies in each of those enzymes result in seven different MPSs, all sharing a series of clinical features, though in variable degrees. Usually MPS are characterized by a chronic and progressive course, with different degrees of severity. Typical symptoms include organomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, and coarse facies. Central nervous system, hearing, vision, and cardiovascular function may also be affected. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular basis, enzymatic defects, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of each MPS, focusing also on the available animal models and describing potential perspectives of therapy for each one. PMID:22013531

  3. Evidence for Overlapping Genetic Influences on Autistic and ADHD Behaviours in a Community Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Simonoff, Emily; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: High levels of clinical comorbidity have been reported between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study takes an individual differences approach to determine the degree of phenotypic and aetiological overlap between autistic traits and ADHD behaviours in the general population.…

  4. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  5. A Comparison of PECS and iPad to Teach Requesting to Pre-schoolers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Agius, May M; Vance, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have compared the efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and iPads used as speech generating devices (SGDs), and none have targeted preschoolers. This study compares the relative efficacy of PECS and an iPad/SGD with three preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and limited functional speech who lived in Malta. The study utilized an adapted alternating treatment design embedded in a multiple baseline design, with requesting of reinforcers as the dependent variable. Visual analysis of the results indicated that all participants required more prompted trials and sessions for the iPad/SGD condition. All participants learned a three step navigational sequence on the iPad. Participant preference probes were inconclusive and were not linked to speed of acquisition of requesting skills. Results suggest that both PECS and an iPad could be appropriate for teaching requesting skills to beginning communicators.

  6. Determining Differences in Social Cognition between High-Functioning Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using New Advanced "Mind-Reading" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Miho; Wakabayashi, Akio; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in understanding the mental state of others ("mind-reading") have been well documented in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, it is unclear whether this deficit in social cognition differs between the subgroups of PDD defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text…

  7. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  8. Earlybird in South Staffordshire: Reflections on an Innovative Model of Interagency Working to Deliver an Intervention for Families of Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Julia; Pitt, Sally; Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    In this article three education and health services professionals, Julia Halpin, Sally Pitt and Emma Dodd, describe and reflect upon the way in which a small group of professionals from health and education services worked in collaboration to meet the need to inform and empower parents of preschool children with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum…

  9. Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify "Autistic Spectrum" Disorders Associated with Other Genetic Conditions: Findings from a Study of Individuals with Cohen Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…

  10. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  11. Using Experience Language (LEA Variation) to Teach an Autistic-Like Child with a Visual Disorder to Read (and Write and Talk).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Terry R.

    The author, a university professor, describes his experiences in teaching language to his autistic-like son who also has visual impairments. "Experience Language," an adaptation of Language Experience Approach (LEA) is described, and its contributions to the child's reading, writing, and talking are noted. Suggestions are made on the importance of…

  12. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  13. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  14. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  15. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  16. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH

  17. Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; West, Amy E.; Heil, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To review the diagnosis and the pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods A comprehensive literature review of studies discussing the diagnosis and treatment of PBD was conducted. Results A context for understanding controversies and difficulties in the diagnosis of PBD is provided. An evidence-based assessment protocol for PBD is reviewed. The evidence for the following three categories of pharmacologic interventions are reviewed: Lithium, antiepileptics, and second generation antipsychotics. Algorithms for medication decisions are briefly reviewed. Existing psychosocial treatments and the evidence for those treatments are also reviewed. Conclusion Despite recent developments in understanding the phenomenology of PBD and in identifying pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions, critical gaps remain. PMID:21822352

  18. Memantine as adjunctive treatment to risperidone in children with autistic disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Asadabadi, Mahtab; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Shahei, Maryam; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2013-05-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes significant impairment in socialization and communication. It is also associated with ritualistic and stereotypical behaviour. Recent studies propose both hyper-and hypoglutamatergic ideologies for autism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of memantine plus risperidone in the treatment of children with autism. Children with autism were randomly allocated to risperidone plus memantine or placebo plus risperidone for a 10-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 3 mg/d and memantine was titrated to 20 mg/d. Children were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wk of starting medication protocol. The primary outcome measure was the irritability subscale of Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Difference between the two treatment arms was significant as the group that received memantine had greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behaviour and hyperactivity. Eight side-effects were observed over the trial, out of the 25 side-effects that the checklist included. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side-effects was not significant. The present study suggests that memantine may be a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for autism and it was generally well tolerated. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT1138901151556N10; www.irct.ir).

  19. Zn/Cu Levels in the Field of Autism Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    SAYEHMIRI, Fatemeh; BABAKNEJAD, Nasim; BAHRAMI, Somayeh; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; DARABI, Mojtaba; REZAEI-TAVIRANI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is probably a relationship between zinc/cupper concentration in individuals with autism. The present review was written to estimate this probability by using meta-analysis method. Martials & Methods In this meta-analysis of Fixed Effect Model, by searching PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases, 11 articles were selected and verified published in 1978 to 2012. I² statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. The information was analyzed by R and STATA Ver. 11.2. Results Due to non-uniform measurement methods of Zn/Cu concentrations, the concentration of these elements was measured in various subgroups (plasma, hair and general) in both study cases and controls. There was a significant statistical difference between plasma OR=0.252 (95% CI: -0.001-0.504) and hair OR=0.27(95% CI: 0.059-0.481, P=0.01) concentrations of Zn/Cu statuses between controls and autistic patients. Using a Fixed Effects Model, the overall integration of data from the two groups was significant as risk factor OR=0.31(95% CI:0.16-0.46, P=0.001). Conclusion Significant correlation existed between Zn/Cu levels and the development of autistic disorders in general analysis. Therefore, Zn/Cu levels could be mentioned as a pathogenesis reason of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26664435

  20. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) augmentation for treating irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Forty children and adolescents met diagnostic criteria for ASD according to DSM-IV. They were randomly allocated into one of the two groups of NAC (1200 mg/day)+risperidone or placebo+risperidone. NAC and placebo were administered in the form of effervescent and in two divided doses for 8 weeks. Irritability subscale score of Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was considered as the main outcome measure. Adverse effects were also checked. Results The mean score of irritability in the NAC+risperidone and placebo+risperidone groups at baseline was 13.2(5.3) and 16.7(7.8), respectively. The scores after 8 weeks were 9.7(4.1) and 15.1(7.8), respectively. Repeated measures of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after 8 weeks. The most common adverse effects in the NAC+risperidone group were constipation (16.1%), increased appetite (16.1%), fatigue (12.9%), nervousness (12.9%), and daytime drowsiness (12.9%). There was no fatal adverse effect. Conclusions Risperidone plus NAC more than risperidone plus placebo decreased irritability in children and adolescents with ASD. Meanwhile, it did not change the core symptoms of autism. Adverse effects were not common and NAC was generally tolerated well. Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir. The registration number of this trial was IRCT201106103930N6 PMID:23886027

  1. Developmental heterochrony and the evolution of autistic perception, cognition and behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism is usually conceptualized as a disorder or disease that involves fundamentally abnormal neurodevelopment. In the present work, the hypothesis that a suite of core autism-related traits may commonly represent simple delays or non-completion of typical childhood developmental trajectories is evaluated. Discussion A comprehensive review of the literature indicates that, with regard to the four phenotypes of (1) restricted interests and repetitive behavior, (2) short-range and long-range structural and functional brain connectivity, (3) global and local visual perception and processing, and (4) the presence of absolute pitch, the differences between autistic individuals and typically developing individuals closely parallel the differences between younger and older children. Summary The results of this study are concordant with a model of ‘developmental heterochrony’, and suggest that evolutionary extension of child development along the human lineage has potentiated and structured genetic risk for autism and the expression of autistic perception, cognition and behavior. PMID:23639054

  2. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  3. Movement disorders in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Marcie L; Stevens-Haas, Claire; Havrilla, Emilyrose; Devi, Tanvi; Kurlan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The field of women's health developed based on the recognition that there are important sex-based differences regarding several aspects of medical illnesses. We performed a literature review to obtain information about differences between women and men for neurological movement disorders. We identified important differences in prevalence, genetics, clinical expression, course, and treatment responses. In addition, we found that female life events, including menstruation, pregnancy, breast feeding, menopause, and medications prescribed to women (such as oral contraceptives and hormone-replacement therapy), have significant implications for women with movement disorders. Understanding this biological sex-specific information can help improve the quality and individualization of care for women with movement disorders and may provide insights into neurobiological mechanisms.

  4. Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

  5. Reduced GABAergic Action in the Autistic Brain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Caroline E; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-01-11

    An imbalance between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission has been posited as a central characteristic of the neurobiology of autism [1], inspired in part by the striking prevalence of seizures among individuals with the disorder [2]. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has specifically implicated the signaling pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in this putative imbalance: GABA receptor genes have been associated with autism in linkage and copy number variation studies [3-7], fewer GABA receptor subunits have been observed in the post-mortem tissue of autistic individuals [8, 9], and GABAergic signaling is disrupted across heterogeneous mouse models of autism [10]. Yet, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, leaving a gulf between animal and human studies of the condition. Here, we present a direct link between GABA signaling and autistic perceptual symptomatology. We first demonstrate a robust, replicated autistic deficit in binocular rivalry [11], a basic visual function that is thought to rely on the balance of excitation/inhibition in visual cortex [12-15]. Then, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tight linkage between binocular rivalry dynamics in typical participants and both GABA and glutamate levels in the visual cortex. Finally, we show that the link between GABA and binocular rivalry dynamics is completely and specifically absent in autism. These results suggest a disruption in inhibitory signaling in the autistic brain and forge a translational path between animal and human models of the condition.

  6. Intervention for autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Filipek, Pauline A; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Book, Teri M

    2006-04-01

    A comprehensive approach to the assessment of any child with autism must be matched specifically to each individual child and family. This premise holds for medical therapies and special education services as well as psychopharmacologic interventions. Behavioral, as opposed to pharmacologic, treatment is the hallmark of effective intervention for autism. Physicians involved in the care of children with autism need to become familiar with educational law and intervention recommendations. Goals should include improved functional verbal and nonverbal communication and social skills, increased engagement in developmentally appropriate activities, improved fine and gross motor skills, and the development of independent academic and organizations skills, as well as replacement of problem behaviors with developmentally appropriate behaviors.. Medicating children with autism is difficult, but is often necessary for chronic behavioral difficulties. In the absence of clear and present guidelines, we have attempted to use evidence and clinical experience to suggest an algorithm based on symptom clusters. Although children with autism may be responsive to medications at lower doses and more susceptible to side effects than other children, medical intervention can produce a significant improvement in the quality of life for the child and family. Careful thought leading to correct identification of target behaviors can appropriately direct better alternatives for medication. Although these approaches are costly and time-consuming endeavors, the expenditure of such efforts is the only available pathway to improve the potential outcomes for individuals with autism as well as decrease the lifetime societal costs for each individual.

  7. Power and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  8. Power and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  9. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  10. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  11. Autistic-like behavior in CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Timothy S; Grialou, Tina L; Parker, Kellie R

    2005-03-15

    Children with CHARGE syndrome frequently exhibit moderate to severe behavior difficulties, and are often diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder, Tourette syndrome, and autism. Hartshorne and Cypher (2004) surveyed parents of 100 children with CHARGE worldwide and confirmed the prevalence of behaviors that are associated with these disorders. They also found behaviors that could be described as typical of persons who are deafblind. The present study examined whether the autistic-like behaviors of children with CHARGE are more similar to those of children who are deafblind, to those of children who are autistic or are unique to CHARGE. Surveys including the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were mailed to families of 204 children with CHARGE, and 160 usable surveys were returned (78%). Total scores on the ABC for children with CHARGE were significantly different from the norms for those with autism, and those who were deafblind. However, the variance for CHARGE was larger than for the normative groups, and 27.5% of those with CHARGE could be classified as autistic. The pattern of subscale scores for those with CHARGE differed from the other normative groups. PMID:15637726

  12. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  13. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  14. Temperament and Its Relationship to Autistic Symptoms in a High-Risk Infant Sib Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The present study prospectively investigated early temperamental profiles and their associations with autistic symptoms in high-risk infants (N = 138) with an older sibling with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and low-risk infants (N = 73) with no family history of ASD. Children who were diagnosed with ASD at 36 months were distinguished from…

  15. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  16. Autistic Traits in Couple Dyads as a Predictor of Anxiety Spectrum Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…

  17. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  18. Delusional disorders in dermatology: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Robles, David T; Romm, Sharon; Combs, Heidi; Olson, Jonathan; Kirby, Phil

    2008-01-01

    There are several unique psychiatric disorders that are likely to present to a dermatologist because of their accompanying skin complaints. Delusions of parasitosis (DP) is a fixed, false belief of parasitic infestation that may lead patients to compulsively self-mutilate while attempting to remove the non-existent parasites. Morgellons disease is a controversial condition characterized by a fixed belief that fibers that are imbedded or extruding from the skin; this condition is likely in the spectrum of DP. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance that causes significant distress and is associated with time consuming rituals, isolation, depression, and increased risk of suicide. Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a preoccupation with body odor leading to the stigmata of shame, embarrassment, and social isolation. This brief review examines each of these conditions and their management because any one of them may present to a dermatologist. PMID:18713583

  19. Delusional disorders in dermatology: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Robles, David T; Romm, Sharon; Combs, Heidi; Olson, Jonathan; Kirby, Phil

    2008-06-15

    There are several unique psychiatric disorders that are likely to present to a dermatologist because of their accompanying skin complaints. Delusions of parasitosis (DP) is a fixed, false belief of parasitic infestation that may lead patients to compulsively self-mutilate while attempting to remove the non-existent parasites. Morgellons disease is a controversial condition characterized by a fixed belief that fibers that are imbedded or extruding from the skin; this condition is likely in the spectrum of DP. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance that causes significant distress and is associated with time consuming rituals, isolation, depression, and increased risk of suicide. Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a preoccupation with body odor leading to the stigmata of shame, embarrassment, and social isolation. This brief review examines each of these conditions and their management because any one of them may present to a dermatologist.

  20. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  1. Pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, RW; Levitan, RD

    2000-01-01

    The study of the pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD, also known as winter depression) has historically been intimately linked to investigations into the mechanisms of action of light therapy. This paper reviews the studies on the pathophysiology of SAD with emphasis on circadian, neurotransmitter, and genetic hypotheses. There is substantial evidence for circadian phase shift and serotonergic hypotheses, but conflicting results may indicate that SAD is a biologically heterogeneous condition. Recent progress in defining the molecular mechanisms of the human circadian clock and retinal phototransduction of light will provide important new directions for future studies of the etiology and pathophysiology of SAD. PMID:11109298

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  3. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  4. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  5. CSWS-related autistic regression versus autistic regression without CSWS.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Roberto

    2009-08-01

    Continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) and Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) are two clinical epileptic syndromes that are associated with the electroencephalography (EEG) pattern of electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep (ESES). Autistic regression occurs in approximately 30% of children with autism and is associated with an epileptiform EEG in approximately 20%. The behavioral phenotypes of CSWS, LKS, and autistic regression overlap. However, the differences in age of regression, degree and type of regression, and frequency of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities suggest that these are distinct phenotypes. CSWS with autistic regression is rare, as is autistic regression associated with ESES. The pathophysiology and as such the treatment implications for children with CSWS and autistic regression are distinct from those with autistic regression without CSWS.

  6. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of irritability in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  8. Outcome Studies in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Patricia M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews outcome studies in the treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia for adults. Presents evidence supporting the efficacy of psychopharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions. Addresses the need for standards of care in counseling persons with panic disorder. (RB)

  9. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  11. Social attachments in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Sigman, M; Mundy, P

    1989-01-01

    Social responses of young autistic children to separation from and reunion with their caregivers did not differ from the social responses to similar situations of young mentally retarded nonautistic children. Most autistic children directed more social behaviors to their caregivers than to strangers and increased their preferential behavior after separation. Individual differences in social responses were not associated with the level of representational skills shown by the autistic children.

  12. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  13. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  14. Reflections on 'autistic integrity'.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Autism, particularly its moderate to severe forms, has prompted considerable scientific study and clinical involvement because the associated behaviours imply disconnections with valued features of a 'good' life, such as close relationships, enjoyment, and adaptability. Proposed causes of autism involve potent philosophical concepts including consciousness, identity, mind, and relationality. The concept of autistic integrity is used by Barnbaum in The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, But Not of Them to help provide moral justification to stop efforts to cure adults with autism, especially if the cause is presumed to be a lack of a theory of mind.(1) This article has two goals: (1) to apply four familiar definitions or characterizations of integrity to the case of moderate to severe autism, and (2) to examine whether autistic integrity does provide the moral justification Barnbaum seeks.

  15. Prevalence and Needs Assessment Study of Autistic Children in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1979-01-01

    Studies determining the prevalence of autistic children are reviewed. The findings of the survey, conducted in British Columbia in 1978 for the purpose of enumerating the children identified as autistic, psychotic, or schizophrenic, are presented. Among variables described are age, sex, school placement, manner of communication, and existence of…

  16. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  17. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  18. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders. PMID:23383369

  19. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  20. Cluster Analytic Identification of Autistic Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Cluster analysis on factor analytic symptom profiles obtained from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist for 204 three- to five-year-old boys including 79 autistic and autistic-like children identified an autistic group as soon as three clusters were formed. This autistic cluster was later subdivided according to presence/absence of anxiety and…

  1. A Case for the Autistic Perspective in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hart, Rachel F.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses five novels with characters on the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and integrates her readings with her brothers' experiences with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Diverse in scope and approach, each of the books surveyed offers unique insights on facets of the autistic perspective. Lord's "Rules," Stork's "Marcelo in the Real…

  2. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  3. Attachment behaviors in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Sigman, M; Ungerer, J A

    1984-09-01

    The social behaviors of 14 autistic children and 14 normal children of equivalent mental age were observed during a free-play situation as well as during separation from and reunion with their mothers and a stranger. As a group, the autistic children showed evidence of attachment to their mothers, directing more social behaviors and more physical contact to their caregivers than to the stranger during the reunion episodes. Within the autistic group, the children who showed an increase in attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those autistic children who showed no change in attachment behaviors. One possible explanation may be that autistic children require more advanced levels of symbolic ability to form attachments to others than is necessary for the development of attachments in normal children.

  4. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  5. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses’ Health Study II (N=1077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197

  6. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD.

  7. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26464122

  8. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  9. “I'm thrilled that you see that”: Guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes ‘good’ communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on ‘professional vision’, to show how the ability to see ‘success’ is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular ‘ways of seeing’ are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  11. Brief Report: Examining the Link between Autistic Traits and Compulsive Internet Use in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Begeer, Sander; Kerkhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with a non-clinical community sample (n = 390). As…

  12. Autistic Features in Girls from a Psychiatric Sample Are Strongly Associated with a Low 2D:4D Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, Esther I.; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Verhagen, Debora H.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable…

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Comorbidity psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Titlic, M; Basic, S; Hajnsek, S; Lusic, I

    2009-01-01

    While reviewing the available literature, we noticed comorbidity of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were observed more frequently in patients with high seizure frequency. There is significant prevalence of epilepsy comorbidity with depression, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent with bipolar disorders and other forms of psychosis. Suicidal risk factors, ideation and attempts in these patients as correlates of depression or as psychopathological features were associated to epileptic disease. This is confirmed by additional burden of epilepsy patients with psychic disorders (Ref. 70). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408842

  15. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  16. Dental care of autistic children within the non-specialized Public Dental Service.

    PubMed

    Fahlvik-Planefeldt, C; Herrström, P

    2001-01-01

    Children with an autistic disorder may need more dental care and may also be more difficult to treat than healthy children. This study compared oral health in autistic and healthy children. Also explored was the dental management of autistic children within the non-specialized Public Dental Service. The study was designed as a case-control study with all cases of autistic disorders aged 3-19 years identified within a primary care area in southwest Sweden. One dentist did a clinical investigation of cases and one control per case. The patients, or their parents, answered a questionnaire. 28 patients were identified and 20 (71%) agreed to participate in the study. Cases and controls had a similar prevalence of fillings, caries, gingivitis and degree of oral hygiene. However, the need of orthodontic treatment seemed to be greater among the autistic children. According to a standardised assessment, autistic children were less able to cooperate in the dental treatment. Approximately 30% of the cases had occasionally been subjected to specialized dental care. The results of this study indicate that the care provided to autistic children within the non-specialized Public Dental Service is satisfactory, provided that there is access to a paediatric dentist when necessary.

  17. A review of compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    BLACK, DONALD W

    2007-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD. PMID:17342214

  18. Participating, Navigating and Succeeding with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Ontario Postsecondary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luey, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the postsecondary education system are now beginning to surface. Through a review of the literature this paper will focus on the persistence, retention and successful completion of autistics in the postsecondary education (PSE) sector. The author found no concrete statistics for…

  19. Autism and 15q11-q13 Disorders: Behavioral, Genetic, and Pathophysiological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Levitt, Pat

    2004-01-01

    New insights into biological factors that underlie autism may be gained by comparing autism to other neurodevelopmental disorders that have autistic features and relatively well-delineated genetic etiologies or neurobiological findings. This review moves beyond global diagnoses of autism and instead uses an endophenotypic approach to compare…

  20. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  1. Gabapentin Therapy in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Rachel K.; Butler, Paul M.; Perloff, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gabapentin is commonly used off-label in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with success, failure, and controversy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to elucidate the evidence for clinical benefit of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. Data sources: Bibliographic reference searches for gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were performed in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE search engines with no language restrictions from January 1, 1983, to October 1, 2014, excluding nonhuman studies. For psychiatric references, the keywords bipolar, depression, anxiety, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder and PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder and OCD), alcohol (abuse, dependence, withdraw), drug (abuse, dependence, withdraw), opioid (abuse, dependence, withdraw), cocaine (abuse, dependence, withdraw), and amphetamine (abuse, dependence, withdraw) were crossed with gabapentin OR neurontin. Study selection and data extraction: The resulting 988 abstracts were read by 2 reviewers; references were excluded if gabapentin was not a study compound or psychiatric symptoms were not studied. The resulting references were subsequently read, reviewed, and analyzed; 219 pertinent to gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were retained. Only 34 clinical trials investigating psychiatric disorders contained quality of evidence level II-2 or higher. Results: Gabapentin may have benefit for some anxiety disorders, although there are no studies for generalized anxiety disorder. Gabapentin has less likely benefit adjunctively for bipolar disorder. Gabapentin has clearer efficacy for alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and may have a role in adjunctive treatment of opioid dependence. There is no clear evidence for gabapentin therapy in depression, PTSD prevention, OCD, or other types of substance abuse. Limitations of available data include variation in dosing between studies, gabapentin as monotherapy or

  2. Mild bleeding disorders: review of 120 patients.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, P; Wilkinson, L S

    1984-01-01

    Of 120 patients presenting with mild bleeding disorders, 63 were found to have a definite coagulopathy. The commonest disorders were haemophilia, Christmas disease and von Willebrand's disease (vWd), the latter being predominant. Diagnosis led to prophylactic treatment prior to surgery in 18 patients with prevention of excessive haemorrhage. Three patients who had received blood products developed hepatitis. DDAVP (desamino-cys-1-8-D-arginine vasopressin) is the treatment of choice in suitable mildly affected patients with haemophilia A and vWd. Examination of blood group distribution suggests an excess of group O among patients with bleeding disorders, especially those with vWd.

  3. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  4. A Systematic Review of Personality Disorders and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Layden, Brianne K.; Chapman, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders have been associated with a wide swath of adverse health outcomes and correspondingly high costs to healthcare systems. To date, however, there has not been a systematic review of the literature on health conditions among individuals with personality disorders. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. A systematic review of the literature revealed 78 unique empirical English-language peer-reviewed articles examining the association of personality disorders and health outcomes over the past 15 years. Specifically, we reviewed research examining the association of personality disorders with sleep disturbance, obesity, pain conditions, and other chronic health conditions. In addition, we evaluated research on candidate mechanisms underlying health problems in personality disorders and potential treatments for such disorders. Results underscore numerous deleterious health outcomes associated with PD features and PD diagnoses, and suggest potential biological and behavioural factors that may account for these relations. Guidelines for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:26456998

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study of Autistic-Like Traits in a General Population Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E.; Abraham, Lawrence J.; Whitehouse, Andrew J.; Moses, Eric K.

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 × 10−8). However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 × 10−5) add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD etiology, PRKCB1, and CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10−6), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10−6) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second

  6. Compulsive buying disorder: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.

  7. [Family dynamics of autistic children].

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, M H; Assumpção, F B

    2001-06-01

    We studied 15 families with autistics, 15 with Down's syndrome and 15 asymptomatic children. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 15 years-old. The parents of these three families' groups were appraised in regard to their family dynamics, to relate those symptoms to the functioning of an autistic family, in a comparative study. Details were provided of the families, the overall autistic features, the autistic's family, the family and the mental health, their limitations and difficulties throughout the vital cycle. An attempt was made to locate the factors that aid the family in hindering the healthy emotional development of its members. The field research was achieved by use of the instruments of the Family Dynamics Evaluation, (Carneiro, 1983). The data gathered were statistically compared. Considering the family population studied (n = 45), we found that the autistics' families and victims of Down's syndrome made it difficult to sustain the emotional health of group members. We conclude that the autistic's family dynamics caused difficulties to the emotional health of the group's members. PMID:11400032

  8. Brief Report: Immune Factors in Autism: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Ilan; He, Ziao-Song; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews studies linking autistic disorder with various immune factors. It concludes that although various immune system abnormalities have been reported in children with autism, previous studies are largely association based and it remains difficult to draw conclusions regarding the role of immune factors in the etiopathogenesis of…

  9. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  10. The cholecystokinin hypothesis of panic and anxiety disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Bradwejn, J; Koszycki, D; du Tertre, A C; Bourin, M; Palmour, R; Ervin, F

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholecystokinin, a neurotransmitter found in high density in mammalian brain, might be implicated in the neurobiology of panic and anxiety disorders. Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide induces panic attacks analogous to spontaneous panic attacks in patients suffering from panic disorder and to a much lesser degree in healthy volunteers, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity to cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide in panic disorder. In animal models of anxiety, pre-treatment with cholecystokinin antagonists significantly decreases the anxiogenic effects of cholecystokinin agonists. This paper reviews clinical and basic studies supporting an involvement for cholecystokinin in panic and anxiety disorders.

  11. A Review of Indian Research on Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders and Alcohol use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27011396

  12. A Review of MR Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, D.G.; Hellem, T.L.; Shi, X.-F.; Sung, Y.H.; Prescot, A.P.; Kim, T.S.; Huber, R.S.; Forrest, L.N.; Renshaw, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness whose pathophysiology is poorly understood and for which there is an urgent need for improved diagnosis and treatment. MR spectroscopy is a neuroimaging method capable of in vivo measurement of neurochemicals relevant to bipolar disorder neurobiology. MR spectroscopy studies of adult bipolar disorder provide consistent evidence for alterations in the glutamate system and mitochondrial function. In bipolar disorder, these 2 phenomena may be linked because 85% of glucose in the brain is consumed by glutamatergic neurotransmission and the conversion of glutamate to glutamine. The purpose of this article is to review the MR spectroscopic imaging literature in pediatric bipolar disorder, at-risk samples, and severe mood dysregulation, with a focus on the published findings that are relevant to glutamatergic and mitochondrial functioning. Potential directions for future MR spectroscopy studies of the glutamate system and mitochondrial dysfunction in pediatric bipolar disorder are discussed. PMID:24557702

  13. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  14. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  15. The Autistic Society and Its Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul A.; Benavente-McEnery, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Autistic means a subject has limited affect or may be without affect altogether. Though traditionally individuals are described as autistic, the authors find it increasingly apparent that American society is becoming autistic as a whole, as citizens are desensitized to needs of neighbors near and far, losing the commensurate loyalty of being in…

  16. Neologisms and Idiosyncratic Language in Autistic Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volden, Joanne; Lord, Catherine

    1991-01-01

    This study of 80 autistic (ages 6-18), mentally handicapped, and normal children found that more autistic subjects used neologisms and idiosyncratic language than age- and language-skill-matched control groups. More autistic children used words inappropriately that were neither phonologically nor conceptually related to intended English words than…

  17. Mothers' Attributions Following Their Child's Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Links with Maternal Levels of Stress, Depression and Expectations about Their Child's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Emily; Jahoda, Andrew; Knott, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    Although the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on the family is well recognized, the way mothers attempt to make sense of the diagnosis is largely unexplored. However, in other disabilities, attributions have been shown to predict a variety of outcomes including maternal wellbeing and engagement in treatment. Using Weiner's (1985)…

  18. A Pilot Study to Determine the Efficacy of a Social Story [TM] Intervention for a Child with Autistic Disorder, Intellectual Disability and Limited Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynhout, Georgina; Carter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] have gained wide acceptance as an intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) yet extant research provides only circumscribed empirical evidence in support of their efficacy. While it is claimed that Social Stories may be appropriate to children with significant levels of intellectual disability and basic…

  19. A National Study of Autistic Symptoms in the General Population of School-Age Children and Those Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.; Rzepa, Sara; Williams, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interrelationships among symptoms related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a large representative sample and clinical groups of children aged 6 to 11 and youth aged 12 to 18 years rated by parents (N = 1,881) or teachers (N = 2,171). The samples included individuals from the United States and Canada from the standardization…

  20. Does Gender Matter? A One Year Follow-Up of Autistic, Attention and Anxiety Symptoms in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged…

  1. Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Geisa Maria Campos; Nunes, Samanta; Barreto, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)-e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end products. Although diabetic's skin disorders are consistent in the literature, there is limited data regarding early-stage skin disorders in DM patients. Disease control, early-stage treatment (e.g. skin hydration, orthotic devices) and awareness can reduce morbidity of DM patients. Thus, better understanding of the burden of skin disorders in DM patients may raise awareness on prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of this study is to perform a literature review to evaluate the main clinical characteristics and complications of skin disorders in diabetic's patients. Additionally, physiopathology early-stage skin disorders and dermocosmetic management were also reviewed. PMID:27583022

  2. Psychopharmacology of autism spectrum disorders: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Sarah; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, psychopharmacologic agents are often used with behavioral and educational approaches to treat its comorbid symptoms of hyperactivity, irritability, and aggression. Studies suggest that at least 50% of persons with autism spectrum disorder receive psychotropic medications during their life span. This selective review examines recent studies about the use of psychotropic medications in persons with autism spectrum disorder. The aim was to focus on randomized controlled trials conducted from 1990 to 2010 on this topic. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Out of 105 studies identified for the review, only 24 were randomized controlled trials. Thus, despite the common use of these medications in autism spectrum disorder, more controlled studies are needed to determine their long-term efficacy and safety.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Disorders in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder:A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenin, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: International and societal conflicts and natural disasters can leave physical and mental scars in people who are directly affected by these traumatic experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the clinical manifestation of these experiences in the form of re-experiencing the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, and persistent symptoms of hyperarousal. There is growing evidence that sleep disruption that occurs following trauma exposure may in fact contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of recognition and management of sleep disorders in patients with PTSD. Data Sources: English-language, adult research studies published between 1985 and April 2014 were identified via the PubMed database. The search terms used were PTSD AND sleep disorders. Study Selection: The search identified 792 original and review articles. Of these, 53 articles that discussed or researched sleep disorders in PTSD were selected. Fourteen randomized controlled trials of therapy for PTSD are included in this review. Results: Impaired sleep is a common complaint mainly in the form of nightmares and insomnia among people with PTSD. Sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder are particularly prevalent in patients with PTSD and, yet, remain unrecognized. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in improving PTSD global symptoms, they have a variable and modest effect on sleep disorder symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral treatment targeted to sleep and/or the use of the centrally acting selective α1 antagonist prazosin have been more successful in treating insomnia and nightmares in PTSD than other classes of medications. In view of the high occurrence of sleep apnea and periodic leg movement disorder, a thorough sleep evaluation and treatment are warranted. Conclusions: Patients with PTSD have a high prevalence of sleep disorders and should be queried for

  4. Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

    2014-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. PMID:24657283

  5. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  6. Diagnosis and management of post-partum disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the psychiatry of the puerperium, in the light of work published during the last eight years. Many distinct disorders are seen. In addition to various psychoses and a heterogeneous group of depressions, there are specific anxiety, obsessional and stress-related disorders. It is important to identify severe disorders of the mother-infant relationship, which usually respond to treatment, but have pernicious effects if untreated. The complexity of post-partum psychiatry requires the deployment of multidisciplinary specialist teams, which can handle the challenges of therapy, prevention, training, research and service development. PMID:16633463

  7. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting: Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon the existing body of evidence. Material and Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms ‘Autistic Disorder’, ‘Behaviour Control/methods’, ‘Child’, ‘Dental care for disabled’, ‘Education’, ‘Oral Health’, and ‘Pediatric Dentistry’ to locate related articles published up to January 2013. Results: Most of the relevant studies indicate poor oral hygiene whereas they are inconclusive regarding the caries incidence in autistic individuals. Undergraduate dental education appears to determine the competence of dental professionals to treat developmentally disabled children and account partly for compromised access to dental care. Dental management of an autistic child requires in-depth understanding of the background of the autism and available behavioural guidance theories. The dental professional should be flexible to modify the treatment approach according to the individual patient needs. Key words:Autism spectrum disorder, dental management, children. PMID:23986012

  8. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  9. Ear infections in autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Konstantareas, M M; Homatidis, S

    1987-12-01

    The frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness was examined through parental reports in autistic and yoke-matched, normal children. For the autistic group these difficulties were additionally examined as a function of the children's cognitive and communication abilities, verbal versus nonverbal status, sex, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers. Lower-functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than their higher-functioning autistic peers. Ear infections coexisted with low-set ears, and with a higher autistic symptomatology score. The findings are discussed in terms of greater CNS vulnerability in the autistic children, which is likely present since embryogenesis. The possible adverse consequences of intermittent hearing loss on language, cognitive, and socioaffective development are considered.

  10. L-tryptophan in neuropsychiatric disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1992-01-01

    Animal data indicate that serotonin (5-HT) is a major neurotransmitter involved in the control of numerous central nervous system functions including mood, aggression, pain, anxiety, sleep, memory, eating behavior, addictive behavior, temperature control, endocrine regulation, and motor behavior. Moreover, there is evidence that abnormalities of 5-HT functions are related to the pathophysiology of diverse neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, dystonia, Huntington's disease, familial tremor, restless legs syndrome, myoclonus, Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders, and dementia. The psychiatric disorders of schizophrenia, mania, depression, aggressive and self-injurious behavior, obsessive compulsive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, substance abuse, hypersexuality, anxiety disorders, bulimia, childhood hyperactivity, and behavioral disorders in geriatric patients have been linked to impaired central 5-HT functions. Tryptophan, the natural amino acid precursor in 5-HT biosynthesis, increases 5-HT synthesis in the brain and, therefore, may stimulate 5-HT release and function. Since it is a natural constituent of the diet, tryptophan should have low toxicity and produce few side effects. Based on these advantages, dietary tryptophan supplementation has been used in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders with variable success. This review summarizes current clinical use of tryptophan supplementation in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  12. Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition.

  13. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  14. Mothers' attributions following their child's diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder: exploring links with maternal levels of stress,depression and expectations about their child's future.

    PubMed

    Dale, Emily; Jahoda, Andrew; Knott, Fiona

    2006-09-01

    Although the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on the family is well recognized, the way mothers attempt to make sense of the diagnosis is largely unexplored. However, in other disabilities, attributions have been shown to predict a variety of outcomes including maternal wellbeing and engagement in treatment. Using Weiner's (1985) three-dimensional model, 16 mothers were interviewed to examine the nature and impact of their beliefs about their child's ASD using semi-structured interviews and measures of depression, parenting stress and expectations for their child's future. The findings suggested that mothers made a diverse and complex range of attributions that were consistent with Weiner's dimensions of locus of cause, stability and controllability. The nature of their attributions reflected particular difficulties associated with ASDs, such as uncertainties regarding cause and prognosis. Taking account of mothers' search for meaning will better enable professionals to support families following diagnosis.

  15. Citicoline in Addictive Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Nicholas D.; Brown, E. Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Background Citicoline is a dietary supplement that has been used as a neuroprotective agent for neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia. Citicoline influences acetylcholine, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmitter systems; serves as an intermediate in phospholipid metabolism; and enhances the integrity of neuronal membranes. Interest has grown in citicoline as a treatment for addiction since it may have beneficial effects on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and cognitive functioning, as well as the ability to attenuate the neurotoxic effects of drugs of abuse. Objectives To review the literature on citicoline’s use in addictive disorders. Methods Using PubMed we conducted a narrative review of the clinical literature on citicoline related to addictive disorders from the years 1900 to 2013 using the following keywords: citicoline, CDP-choline, addiction, cocaine, alcohol, substance abuse, and substance dependence. Out of approximately 900 first hits, nine clinical studies have been included in this review. Results Most addiction research investigated citicoline for cocaine use. The findings suggest that it is safe and well tolerated. Furthermore, citicoline appears to decrease craving and is associated with a reduction in cocaine use, at least at high doses in patients with both bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence. Limited data suggest citicoline may also hold promise for alcohol and cannabis dependence and in reducing food consumption. Conclusions Currently, there is limited research on the efficacy of citicoline for addictive disorders, but the available literature suggests promising results. Future research should employ larger sample sizes, increased dosing, and more complex study designs. PMID:24950234

  16. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  17. Factitious Disorder by Proxy in Educational Settings: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Ellen M.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Factitious disorder by proxy (FDP), historically known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, is a diagnosis applied to parents and other caregivers who intentionally feign, exaggerate, and/or induce illness or injury in a child to get attention from health professionals and others. A review of the recent literature and our experience as consultants…

  18. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  19. CBT and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Sharon R.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The overall intention of this project was to enhance awareness, for those involved with persons on the autism spectrum, of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) strategies for treating persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The project involved a literature review on autism and the use of CBT strategies for people with autism spectrum disorders…

  20. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  1. Childhood Bereavement and Behavior Disorders: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markusen, Eric; Fulton, Robert

    This paper addresses itself to whether a causal relationship exists between childhood bereavement and later behavior disorders. The literature on the subject is reviewed, and the substantive findings and methodological problems of previous research are reported. In addition, the preliminary findings of an exploratory study conducted at the…

  2. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  3. Perceptual Inference and Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Joshua C; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit neural inference, combining sensory evidence with…

  4. Autistic Children in Public School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schopler, Eric; Bristol, Marie

    Intended for public school administrators and regular classroom teachers, the report discusses the nature of autistic children and examines aspects of successful educational programs for them. The historical background is traced down from Itard's wild boy through theories of faulty parental conditioning, to current thought on the causes of autism.…

  5. Autistic disorder associated with a paternally derived unbalanced translocation leading to duplication of chromosome 15pter-q13.2: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders have been associated with maternally derived duplications that involve the imprinted region on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15. Here we describe a boy with a chromosome 15 duplication arising from a 3:1 segregation error of a paternally derived translocation between chromosome 15q13.2 and chromosome 9q34.12, which led to trisomy of chromosome 15pter-q13.2 and 9q34.12-qter. Using array comparative genome hybridization, we localized the breakpoints on both chromosomes and sequence homology suggests that the translocation arose from non-allelic homologous recombination involving the low copy repeats on chromosome 15. The child manifests many characteristics of the maternally-derived duplication chromosome 15 phenotype including developmental delays with cognitive impairment, autism, hypotonia and facial dysmorphisms with nominal overlap of the most general symptoms found in duplications of chromosome 9q34. This case suggests that biallelically expressed genes on proximal 15q contribute to the idic(15) autism phenotype. PMID:20021661

  6. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cañigral, Aránzazu; López-Caballo, José L.; Brizuela, Aritza; Moreno-Hay, Isabel; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Vega, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Results The search strategy resulted in 61 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria 9 articles qualified for the final analysis. The articles which linked orthodontics and development of temporomandibular disorders showed very discrepant results. Some indicated that orthodontic treatment could improve signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, but none of them obtained statistically significant differences. Conclusions According to the authors examined, there is no evidence for a cause-effect relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders, or that such treatment might improve or prevent them. More longitudinal studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship. Key words:Malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, orthodontics and facial pain, orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular dysfunction. PMID:26155354

  7. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  8. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdale, Derrick; Shamberger, Raymond J.; Obrenovich, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:22937241

  9. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Park, Jin Gyoon; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Wallstrom, Garrick; Labaer, Joshua; Adams, James B; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  10. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Park, Jin Gyoon; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Wallstrom, Garrick; Labaer, Joshua; Adams, James B; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae. PMID:23844187

  11. Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Wallstrom, Garrick; LaBaer, Joshua; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae. PMID:23844187

  12. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5(th) ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  13. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Oren M; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias). Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria) and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3) suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed. PMID:27034850

  14. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Oren M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias). Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria) and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3) suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed. PMID:27034850

  15. Management of Sleep Disorders in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Blackmer, Allison Beck; Feinstein, James A

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with NDDs is largely heterogeneous and disease specific. The diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in this population are complex, and little high-quality data exist to guide a consistent approach to therapy. Managing sleep disorders in children with NDDs is critical both for the child and for the family but is often frustrating due to the refractory nature of the problem. Sleep hygiene must be implemented as first-line therapy; if sleep hygiene alone fails, it should be combined with pharmacologic management. The available evidence for the use of common pharmacologic interventions, such as iron supplementation and melatonin, as well as less common interventions, such as melatonin receptor agonists, clonidine, gabapentin, hypnotics, trazodone, and atypical antipsychotics is reviewed. Further, parents and caregivers should be provided with appropriate education on the nature of the sleep disorders and the expectation for modest pharmacologic benefit, at best. Additional data from well-designed trials in children with NDDs are desperately needed to gain a better understanding of sleep pharmacotherapy including efficacy and safety implications. Until then, clinicians must rely on the limited available data, as well as clinical expertise, when managing sleep disorders in the

  16. Management of Sleep Disorders in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Blackmer, Allison Beck; Feinstein, James A

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with NDDs is largely heterogeneous and disease specific. The diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in this population are complex, and little high-quality data exist to guide a consistent approach to therapy. Managing sleep disorders in children with NDDs is critical both for the child and for the family but is often frustrating due to the refractory nature of the problem. Sleep hygiene must be implemented as first-line therapy; if sleep hygiene alone fails, it should be combined with pharmacologic management. The available evidence for the use of common pharmacologic interventions, such as iron supplementation and melatonin, as well as less common interventions, such as melatonin receptor agonists, clonidine, gabapentin, hypnotics, trazodone, and atypical antipsychotics is reviewed. Further, parents and caregivers should be provided with appropriate education on the nature of the sleep disorders and the expectation for modest pharmacologic benefit, at best. Additional data from well-designed trials in children with NDDs are desperately needed to gain a better understanding of sleep pharmacotherapy including efficacy and safety implications. Until then, clinicians must rely on the limited available data, as well as clinical expertise, when managing sleep disorders in the

  17. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, S; Pai, VK; Dhar, M; Kumar, AA

    2016-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint. PMID:27375393

  18. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: an unusual cause of autistic regression in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ori; Richer, Lawrence; Forbes, Karen; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Currie, Angela; Eliyashevska, Myroslava; Goez, Helly R

    2014-05-01

    Anti N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in children is associated with psychiatric changes, seizures, and dyskinesias. We present the first report of autistic regression in a toddler caused by this entity. A 33-month-old boy presented with decreased appetite, irritability, and insomnia following an upper respiratory tract infection. Over the next few weeks he lost language and social skills, and abnormal movements of his hand developed. Within a month, this patient came to fit the diagnostic criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Upon investigation, anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were found in the boy's cerebrospinal fluid. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids, resulting in reacquisition of language and social skills and resolution of movements. Our case emphasizes the significance of suspecting anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis as the cause of autistic regression, even in an age group where the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder is typically made, and especially when presentation follows a febrile illness.

  19. Redox Regulation and the Autistic Spectrum: Role of Tryptophan Catabolites, Immuno-inflammation, Autoimmunity and the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) form a set of multi-faceted disorders with significant genetic, epigenetic and environmental determinants. Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), immuno-inflammatory pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCATs) pathway play significant interactive roles in driving the early developmental etiology and course of ASD. O&NS interactions with immuno-inflammatory pathways mediate their effects centrally via the regulation of astrocyte and microglia responses, including regional variations in TRYCATs produced. Here we review the nature of these interactions and propose an early developmental model whereby different ASD genetic susceptibilities interact with environmental and epigenetic processes, resulting in glia biasing the patterning of central interarea interactions. A role for decreased local melatonin and N-acetylserotonin production by immune and glia cells may be a significant treatment target. PMID:24669209

  20. Autism Disorder (AD): An Updated Review for Paediatric Dentists

    PubMed Central

    J., Udhya; M.M, Varadharaja; J., Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion of interest in Autism Disorder (AD). Knowledge and awareness on the condition has grown exponentially at all levels among the general public, parents, health professionals, the research community and more recently, at parliamentary level. The world has begun to recognize the scope of this problem and act internationally and locally to improve the lives of the growing number of individuals and families affected by this devastating disorder. This article reviews the dental literature since 1969 and it summarizes characteristics of patients with AD, oral health status and dental management of patients with AD. PMID:24701555