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Sample records for autistic disorders review

  1. Autistic disorder and phospholipids: A review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christine M; Austin, David W

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated phospholipid metabolism has been proposed as an underlying biological component of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic disorder (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review provides an overview of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and evidence for phospholipid dysregulation with reference to the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia. While there is evidence that phospholipid metabolism is at least impaired in individuals with AD, it has not been established whether phospholipid metabolism is implicated in causal, mechanistic or epiphenomenological models. More research is needed to ascertain whether breastfeeding, and specifically, the administration of colostrum or an adequate substitute can play a preventative role by supplying the neonate with essential fatty acids (EFAs) at a critical juncture in their development. Regarding treatment, further clinical trials of EFA supplementation are essential to determine the efficacy of EFAs in reducing AD symptomatology and whether supplementation can serve as a cost-effective and readily available intervention.

  2. Gastrointestinal Factors in Autistic Disorder: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Corkins, Mark R.; Posey, David J.; Fitzgerald, Joseph F.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the gastrointestinal (GI) factors of autistic disorder (autism) has developed from descriptions of symptoms such as constipation and diarrhea in autistic children and advanced towards more detailed studies of GI histopathology and treatment modalities. This review attempts to critically and comprehensively analyze the literature as it…

  3. A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Singh, Tulika

    2004-01-01

    Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving…

  4. Neurochemical Correlates of Autistic Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Review of neurochemical investigations in autistic disorder revealed that a wide array of transmitter systems have been studied, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, oxytocin, endogenous opioids, cortisol, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very…

  5. Gastrointestinal factors in autistic disorder: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Corkins, Mark R; Posey, David J; Fitzgerald, Joseph F; McDougle, Christopher J

    2005-12-01

    Interest in the gastrointestinal (GI) factors of autistic disorder (autism) has developed from descriptions of symptoms such as constipation and diarrhea in autistic children and advanced towards more detailed studies of GI histopathology and treatment modalities. This review attempts to critically and comprehensively analyze the literature as it applies to all aspects of GI factors in autism, including discussion of symptoms, pathology, nutrition, and treatment. While much literature is available on this topic, a dearth of rigorous study was found to validate GI factors specific to children with autism.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  7. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R

    2007-09-01

    Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Research Review: Structural Language in Autistic Spectrum Disorder--Characteristics and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Structural language anomalies or impairments in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are theoretically and practically important, although underrecognised as such. This review aims to highlight the ubiquitousness of structural language anomalies and impairments in ASD, and to stimulate investigation of their immediate causes and…

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five studies were small (n = 30, 22, 19, 9, and 1) with four reporting improvements in a wide range of outcomes including language and learning skills, parental observations of general health and behavior, a clinician-administered symptom scale, and clinical observations of anxiety. Due to the limitations of evidence from uncontrolled studies and the presence of only one small randomized controlled trial, there is currently insufficient scientific evidence to determine if omega-3 fatty acids are safe or effective for ASD.

  10. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  11. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  12. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  13. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  14. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Karoly; Perman, Jay A

    2002-10-01

    Autistic disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder manifested in the first 3 years of life by dysfunction in social interaction and communication. Many efforts have been made to explore the biologic basis of this disorder, but the etiology remains unknown. Recent publications describing upper gastrointestinal abnormalities and ileocolitis have focused attention on gastrointestinal function and morphology in these children. High prevalence of histologic abnormalities in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, and dysfunction of liver conjugation capacity and intestinal permeability were reported. Three surveys conducted in the United States described high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic disorder. Treatment of the digestive problems may have positive effects on their behavior.

  15. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  16. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days. PMID:19881051

  17. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder patients aged 6-17.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Curran, Sarah; Bird, Victoria; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole was found to be more effective in reducing irritability compared with placebo at 8 weeks, SMD -0.64 [-0.90 to -0.39, P < 0.00001] as determined by the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist irritability subscale (ABC-I). Pooled data from two eight week trials show that sedation is the most commonly reported adverse event. Statistically significant weight gain was also associated with aripiprazole, but there was a decrease in serum prolactin. Most adverse effects were deemed to be mild to moderate in severity. Four open trials and three case series all show support for aripiprazole in reducing the behavioural symptoms of autism. Long-term studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in autistic disorder in children.

  18. Intersubjectivity, affective neuroscience, and the neurobiology of autistic spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of 'cognitive' abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.

  19. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  20. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs. PMID:25093654

  1. Technologies as support tools for persons with autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-08-04

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person's needs.

  2. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  3. Autistic disorder symptoms in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A; Scholte, Evert M

    2009-11-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same level of functioning. To investigate, parents of 52 females with classical and atypical Rett syndrome (2.4-49.3 years) completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) and the Dutch Vineland Screener 0-6 (VS 0-6). All participants had a severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) according to the VS 0-6. Behavior indicated an autistic disorder in 42 (DBC) to 58 percent (DISCO) of the Rett cases. Autistic behavior had decreased in 19 percent such that they no longer met the criteria for autistic disorder. Some participants were suspected of having a comorbid autistic disorder, though not more often than can be expected at their level of functioning. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of a comorbid autistic disorder as much as they should be in other people with this level of functioning.

  4. Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

    2007-01-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin (5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine])(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioral symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence, and hyperglycemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

  5. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  6. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  7. Do Social Stories help to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders? A review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-03-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of success was variable. Overall, Social Stories appear to be an acceptable intervention for use in the classroom, however unplanned verbal prompting by teachers, in some studies, reduced confidence in the effectiveness of Social Stories when used in isolation. An increasing body of literature has indicated that Social Stories are an effective intervention for children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders, however very few studies have addressed the efficacy of Social Stories when used with children with other disabilities.

  8. Novel Treatments for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    In no area of developmental pediatric practice is there more controversy regarding the choice of treatment than related to children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) are often elected because they are perceived as treating the cause of symptoms rather than the symptoms themselves. CAM…

  9. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Learning Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wire, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    The number of young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) coming into mainstream foreign languages classes is increasing, and this is causing some concern to teachers. Based on her extensive professional experience, Vivienne Wire here considers the implications for teaching and learning of the "triad of impairments" found in…

  10. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Asian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Paul; Hussain, Anwar; Hall, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the incidence of the diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) among White and Asian children with reference to data obtained from thirteen local education authorities (LEAs) in England. It begins by outlining some of the theoretical debates associated with the definition, diagnosis and prevalence of ASD. The empirical…

  11. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  12. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  13. Reports on dietary intervention in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Knivsber, A M; Reichelt, K L; Nødland, M

    2001-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder for which no cure currently exists. Gluten and/or casein free diet has been implemented to reduce autistic behaviour, in addition to special education, since early in the eighties. Over the last twelve years various studies on this dietary intervention have been published in addition to anecdotal, parental reports. The scientific studies include both groups of participants as well as single cases, and beneficial results are reported in all, but one study. While some studies are based on urinary peptide abnormalities, others are not. The reported results are, however, more or less identical; reduction of autistic behaviour, increased social and communicative skills, and reappearance of autistic traits after the diet has been broken.

  14. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with people who have autistic spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Lisa; Hodgekins, Joanne; Langdon, Peter E

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to undertake a meta-analytic and systematic appraisal of the literature investigating the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) when used with individuals who have autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) for either a) affective disorders, or b) the symptoms of ASDs. Following a systematic search, 48 studies were included. CBT, used for affective disorders, was associated with a non-significant small to medium effect size, g=0.24, for self-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.66, for informant-report measures, and a significant medium effect size, g=0.73, for clinician-report measures. CBT, used as a treatment for symptoms of ASDs, was associated with a small to medium non-significant effect size, g=0.25, for self-report measures, a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.48, for informant-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.65, for clinician-report measures, and a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.35, for task-based measures. Sensitivity analyses reduced effect size magnitude, with the exception of that based on informant-report measures for the symptoms of ASDs, which increased, g=0.52. Definitive trials are needed to demonstrate that CBT is an empirically validated treatment for use with people who have ASDs.

  16. [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Kelmanson, I A

    2015-01-01

    An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

  17. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  18. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075

  19. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  20. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  1. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  2. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  3. Autistic spectrum disorder: the challenge for dentists.

    PubMed

    Berman, Marvin H

    2010-10-01

    Those who actively work with children are, with increasing frequency, encountering patients who have been diagnosed with autistic disorders. Often, dentists may be the first healthcare providers to recognize that a 1- or 2-year-old child has some type of extraordinary pervasive behavioral disorder that a parent, fearing the worst, may have suspected instinctively and emotionally but never faced objectively. Currently, there are no empirical biological tests (eg, blood tests or brain scans) for ASD that are reliable. The definitive diagnosis of ASD is usually made by pediatricians, psychologists, or psychiatrists who institute a process of analysis which involves a developmental and clinical history, tests for cognitive function, and assessment of receptive and expressive language skills. The etiology of ASD is an enigma. Highly regarded researchers are of the opinion that there is probably more than one cause since the disorder can have such disparate manifestations. Genetics, environmental poisons, neurologic psychopathy, dietary deficiencies, and allergies have all been implicated. Pervasive developmental disorders, Asperger's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood degenerative disorders are all considered a part of the ASD group, but the distinction between the various entities is not always clear. Given the fact that the etiology and the increased incidence of the various ASDs are scientifically puzzling, treatment modalities tend to be wide ranging and very much trial and error, especially since there is no cure. Dental professionals who treat patients with ASDs should be knowledgeable about the special needs of not only these patients, but also of their parents.

  4. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  5. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard . E-mail: rlathe@pieta-research.org

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  6. Mirtazapine treatment in a subject with autistic disorder and fetishism.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Murat; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2008-04-01

    The presence of inappropriate sexual behaviors in individuals with autistic disorder is one of the important factors disturbing their social adaptation and distressing their families and environment. Therefore, appropriate management of these behaviors seems necessary. This case report describes a 13-year-old male with diagnosis of autistic disorder and fetishistic behavior. His fetishistic behavior was treated successfully using mirtazapine 15 mg/day. The clinical picture and efficacy of mirtazapine will be discussed.

  7. Hyperserotonemia in Adults with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 [plus or minus] 37.4 ng/[microliters])…

  8. Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael E; Paul, John F

    2010-03-15

    Autistic disorder (AD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically identified in early childhood. Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its etiology. The number of individuals identified as having autism has increased dramatically in recent years, but whether some proportion of this increase is real is unknown. If real, susceptible populations may have exposure to controllable exogenous stressors. Using literature AD data from long-term (approximately 10-year) studies, we determined cumulative incidence of AD for each cohort within each study. These data for each study were examined for a changepoint year in which the AD cumulative incidence first increased. We used data sets from Denmark, California, Japan, and a worldwide composite of studies. In the Danish, California, and worldwide data sets, we found that an increase in AD cumulative incidence began about 1988-1989. The Japanese study (1988-1996) had AD cumulative incidence increasing continuously, and no changepoint year could be calculated. Although the debate about the nature of increasing autism continues, the potential for this increase to be real and involve exogenous environmental stressors exists. The timing of an increase in autism incidence may help in screening for potential candidate environmental stressors.

  9. Hyperserotonemia in adults with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-11-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 +/- 37.4 ng/microL) was significantly higher than the control sample (59.2 +/- 16.2 ng/microL) due to a presence of hyperserotonemic subjects which comprised 32% of the patients. PSL of autistic subjects did not correlate with the severity of symptoms, as measured by total CARS score, or the degree of mental retardation. However, significant negative relationship was observed between PSL and speech development, indicating the relationship between the peripheral 5HT concentrations and verbal abilities in autistic subjects.

  10. Congenital rubella syndrome with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shyh-Jou; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2010-02-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) consists of a group of abnormalities that develop in children as a result of maternal infection with rubella virus. CRS may lead to new physical symptoms during adolescence or adulthood, referred to as "late manifestations". Psychiatric disorders are often seen among CRS patients, with an incidence of 4.12-7.3% for autism. We report a case of adolescent CRS with autism. A 20-year-old man had received treatment with antipsychotics and antidepressants since the age of 12 years because of unstable moods, violence, and stereotypic behavior. During follow-up, he developed some insidious-onset physical problems, including hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, constipation, torticollis and a tilted trunk. Under careful survey and evaluation, some physical problems were recognized as side effects of psychotropics, which gradually subsided after adjustment of the medications, and some of the problems were considered partially as manifestations of CRS, such as progressive pulmonary artery stenosis-related dyspnea. We managed some of the patient's physical problems and then he received catheterization for pulmonary artery stenosis. His general physical condition improved and some further improvement in psychiatric status was noted thereafter. Because of a high comorbidity rate for patients with autistic disorder, the clinician should be aware of the possibility of CRS if the patient has multiple congenital physical abnormalities with a history of maternal rubella infection. If patients develop physical symptoms in adolescence, awareness of late manifestations of CRS and differentiation from the adverse effects of psychotropic medications are essential. In addition to psychiatric treatment, management of physical problems associated with CRS would be beneficial for the patients' psychiatric condition.

  11. Aripiprazole for irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 6–17 years

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6–17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119

  12. The effectiveness of aripiprazole in the management of problem behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities and/or autistic spectrum disorder--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Shoumitro; Farmah, Baldeep K; Arshad, Ebrahim; Deb, Tanya; Roy, Meera; Unwin, Gemma L

    2014-03-01

    The management of problem behaviours (PB) in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), developmental disabilities (DD) and/or autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) can be challenging. Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed where other strategies have failed. A systematic review (SR) was conducted to establish the research evidence for the efficacy of aripiprazole in the management of PB in adults and children with ID, DD and/or ASD. Although included studies supported the efficacy of aripiprazole for this indication, the overall quality of studies was poor. Of the 20 studies included in this systematic review there were only two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on children with ASD and/or ID/DD, both of which were conducted by the pharmaceutical company that manufactures aripiprazole, and it is not clear whether a number of same participants were included in both RCTs. One of the RCTs was extended into an open label long term follow up, which showed that aripiprazole's efficacy lasted over 52 weeks and the adverse effects were tolerable. Four studies were open label prospective studies, 11 were retrospective case reports which included four single case reports, and two were prospective case series. Most studies reported adverse effects from aripiprazole in the form of weight gain, increased appetite, sedation, tiredness, drooling and tremor. However, aripiprazole improved serum prolactin level in some participants and overall did not show any adverse effect on QTc interval. There is a need for more carefully designed RCTs into the use of aripiprazole in the management of PB in people with ID/DD and/or ASD, which should be carried out independent of pharmaceutical companies.

  13. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  14. Neonatal Factors in Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Fukuda, Tokiko; Ito, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    The prenatal and neonatal factors of 225 children diagnosed with Autistic Disorder were compared with those of 1580 typically developing children. Each of the neonatal factors was compared between the Autistic Disorder and control groups, and between males and females. The results showed that males in the "Autistic Disorder" group had a…

  15. Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Child Population Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Daphne; Ward, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses the prevalence of ASD, comorbidity, educational provision and ability in autistic children in a single health district, born between 1983 and 1996. The number of recorded diagnoses doubled over a 4 year period. This appeared to be due to greater recognition of ASD in more able children, in children initially presenting with…

  16. Characteristics of fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Rasalam, A D; Hailey, H; Williams, J H G; Moore, S J; Turnpenny, P D; Lloyd, D J; Dean, J C S

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and frequency of autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome (AS; according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] criteria) in children exposed to anticonvulsant medication in utero. During a 20-year study period, 626 children were born in Aberdeen to mothers taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The study examined long-term effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs in 260 children (122 males, 138 females). Of these, 26 (16 males) were reported by parents to have social or behavioural difficulties. Eleven children (6 males, 5 females) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder and one (female) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for AS. These children comprised 4.6% of the exposed children studied, and 1.9% of all exposed children born during the study period. Mean age of these children at diagnosis was 5 years 4 months (SD 2y 11mo) and 9 years 10 months (SD 3y 10mo) at the time of this study. Other children from the group of 26 had difficulties in areas of speech and language development and social communication but did not meet the criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sodium valproate was the drug most commonly associated with autistic disorder, five of 56 (8.9%) of the study children exposed to sodium valproate alone had either autistic disorder or AS. It was concluded that prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant medication is a risk factor for the development of an ASD. Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder is characterized by an even sex ratio, absence of regression or skill loss, and language delay in the absence of global delay.

  17. Regression and Word Loss in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Catherine; Shulman, Cory; DiLavore, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Background: For many years, researchers and clinicians have described parent reports of an unusual developmental phenomenon in a substantial minority of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD), the acquisition and then loss of communication skills during the second year of life. Methods: As part of a longitudinal study of 110 children…

  18. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  19. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  20. Brief Report: Autistic Disorder in Three Children with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeten, Thayne L.; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has identified a relationship between autistic disorder (autism) and specific congenital infections. Three cases of congenital or perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurring in association with autism are described. Hypothetical mechanisms relating congenital infection, such as CMV, to the development of autism are…

  1. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations and autism: literature review and a case report of a patient with Cowden syndrome, autistic disorder, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Sara; Condò, Maria; Posar, Annio; Mari, Francesca; Resta, Nicoletta; Renieri, Alessandra; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa; Parmeggiani, Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations are associated with a spectrum of clinical disorders characterized by skin lesions, macrocephaly, hamartomatous overgrowth of tissues, and an increased risk of cancers. Autism has rarely been described in association with these variable clinical features. At present, 24 patients with phosphatase and tensin homolog gene mutation, autism, macrocephaly, and some clinical findings described in phosphatase and tensin homolog syndromes have been reported in the literature. We describe a 14-year-old boy with autistic disorder, focal epilepsy, severe and progressive macrocephaly, and multiple papular skin lesions and palmoplantar punctate keratoses, characteristic of Cowden syndrome. The boy has a de novo phosphatase and tensin homolog gene mutation. Our patient is the first case described to present a typical Cowden syndrome and autism associated with epilepsy.

  2. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    PubMed

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  3. St John's Wort treating patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2009-11-01

    Problems of eye contact and expressive language limit the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions in patients suffering from pervasive developmental disorders. For that reason, additive psychopharmacological interventions are sometimes needed to improve symptomatology. In our preliminary open trial, three male patients with autistic disorder, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria, completed an open trial of St John's Wort. Subjects were included in the study if their eye contact and expressive language was inadaequate for their developmental level and if they had not tolerated or responded to other psychopharmacologic treatments (methylphenidate, clonidine or desipramine). Parent and mentor ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, irritability, stereotypy, and inappropriate speech factors improved slightly during treatment with St John's Wort. Clinician ratings (Psychiatric Rating Scale Autism, Anger and Speech Deviance factors; Global Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impressions efficacy) did not improve significantly. St John's Wort was only modestly effective in the short-term treatment of irritability in some patients with autistic disorder.

  4. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  5. Hyperlexia III: separating 'autistic-like' behaviors from autistic disorder; assessing children who read early or speak late.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A

    2011-12-01

    Three conditions -- Hyperlexia (children who read early), Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), and "Blindisms" (in children with impaired vision) -- can present with "autistic-like" symptoms, traits, and behaviors that need to be differentiated from autistic disorder. Careful attention to that critical difference has important epidemiologic, etiologic, treatment, and outcome implications. This paper describes these conditions, makes suggestions for proper identification that can prevent unnecessary worry and distress for parents and other caregivers, and suggests appropriate management.

  6. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001), and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001). Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  7. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Millward, Claire; Ferriter, Michael; Calver, Sarah J; Connell-Jones, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of people with autism. Objectives To determine the efficacy of gluten and/or casein free diets as an intervention to improve behaviour, cognitive and social functioning in individuals with autism. Search methods The following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2007), PsycINFO (1971 to April 2007), EMBASE (1974 to April 2007), CINAHL (1982 to April 2007), ERIC (1965 to 2007), LILACS (1982 to April 2007), and the National Research register 2007 (Issue1). Review bibliographies were also examined to identify potential trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving programmes which eliminated gluten, casein or both gluten and casein from the diets of individuals diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Data collection and analysis Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were assessed to determine inclusion by two independent authors The included trials did not share common outcome measures and therefore no meta-analysis was possible. Data are presented in narrative form. Main results Two small RCTs were identified (n = 35). No meta-analysis was possible. There were only three significant treatment effects in favour of the diet intervention: overall autistic traits, mean difference (MD) = −5.60 (95% CI −9.02 to −2.18), z = 3.21, p=0.001 (Knivsberg 2002) ; social isolation, MD = −3.20 (95% CI −5.20 to 1.20), z = 3.14, p = 0.002) and overall ability to communicate and interact, MD = 1.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.90), z = 2.77, p = 0.006) (Knivsberg 2003). In addition three outcomes showed no significant difference between the

  8. Self, other and dialogical space in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vera Regina J R M; Bussab, Vera Silvia R

    2006-04-01

    The authors propose to re-evaluate Tustin's thesis using both the extensive clinical material of a child with an autistic disorder [PDD], and current research on infant development. Beebe's concept of 'interaction structure' that could be inferred from the fifth month of life using face-to-face research data is used for postulating a dialogic space that would be generated inside such structure, allowing for definition of self and other in a relationship. If such space is collapsed, the other would be a threat of annihilation for the self, thus it should be avoided or merged with, which could explain the systematic avoidance of the not-me in autistic states. The authors stress that these ideas are just one alternate model, among several, that seems to be able to explain the patient's deviant development.

  9. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  10. Using Contact Work in Interactions with Adults with Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…

  11. Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1996-03-01

    The neurological, neurochemical, and neurotransmitter level differences as well as genetic influences associated with autism have been studied extensively in the last two decades. The varied findings from research offer hope for better understanding, effective treatment, and, perhaps, cure of this pervasive developmental disorder.

  12. Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Zivoder, Ivana; Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Kosic, Ana Vodanovic; Bosak, Josipa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe neurofeedback (NFB) treatment in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children. There is no specific cure for autism and therapeutic guidelines are directed to improve the quality of life of people with autism by reducing the symptoms and by increasing their functioning. Neurofeedback is a computerized method based on tracking electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and giving a feedback about it. The method has been developed in neurophysiological labs of scientific institutes in USA and has been used very successfully for over last 20 years. It has proven its efficacy in practise, but also in scientific and clinical research. During 2010 and 2011 neurofeedback treatment was administered to 10 children (N=10, 7 males and 3 females) age range 4 to 7 years which have been diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (highly functional) with an unspecific impairment of speech development and trouble communicating. An evaluation of treatment was done according to estimation of changes in functioning (parents, teachers and therapists' ratings and all other experts that were monitoring the child before, during and after the treatment) and tracking of changes in electrophysiology. The results have shown most changes in behaviour (less aggressive, more cooperation, better communication), attention span and sensory motor skills. According to the assessment of parents, teachers, therapists and other experts all children have accomplished a certain degree of improvement in the level of daily functioning. Our experiences in usage of neurofeedback in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children confirmed previous data that this method can be applied to this category of patients.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  14. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it.

  15. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  16. Catatonia in a child with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2010-01-01

    Catatonia is a cluster of motor features that appears in many recognized psychiatric illnesses. It is being increasingly reported in individuals with autism, a disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interactions, aberrant language development and restricted behavioral repertoire. However, relatively little is known about the presentation and treatment of catatonia in children with autism. We describe herein an 11-year-old pediatric case with autism who developed catatonic symptoms and was treated effectively with lorazepam. The case reported here differs from previously reported cases in terms of age of onset and the display of all characteristics of catatonia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) (DSM-IV). In addition, although it was stated that catatonia in autism is commonly associated with impaired language and social passivity, our case is an active verbal individual.

  17. Autistic disorder in Nigeria: profile and challenges to management.

    PubMed

    Lagunju, I A; Bella-Awusah, T T; Omigbodun, O O

    2014-10-01

    Autism represents one of the most common developmental disorders affecting children, but there are few reports on autism in African children. Our study describes the profile of autistic disorder in a cohort of Nigerian children and appraises short-term outcomes. Children seen at the pediatric neurology and the child psychiatry clinic of the University College Hospital, Nigeria were screened for autistic disorder using the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Forty-five males and 9 females were identified with autism, and the disease accounted for 2.3% of 2320 new cases seen during the period. The mean age at which parents observed deviations in behavior was 22.5 (SD=6.6) months, while the mean age at diagnosis was 44.7 (SD=21.2) months. Twelve (22.6%) children had a positive family history of autism, and forty (75.5%) had associated neurological comorbidities. Diagnosis of autism is often delayed in Nigeria, and affected children have a high frequency of neurological comorbidities.

  18. Parental satisfaction of an assessment unit for autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Arwa; Halayem, Soumeyya; Touati, Maissa; Belhadj, Ahlem; Gouider, Riadh; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included.  Patients had received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger Syndrome in accordance with DSM IV criteria, and than that of Autism Spectrum Disorder after DSM 5 publication. The overall satisfaction rate was 63%. Most parents (84.6%) rated the Psycho Educative Profile examination positively, 75% appreciated the neurological examination and the final report steps, 55.8% appreciated step of the Autism Diagnostic Interview revised and 42.3% the genetic exploration. 67% of the parents reported an improvement of their child following the evaluation. This improvement was attributed to the unit in 57.7% of cases. Parents whose children did not have associated disorders such as intellectual disability (p = 0.02), aggressive behavior (p = 0.04), affective disorder (p = 0.01) and sleep-related disorders (p = 0.03) were the most satisfied. Parents of children with epilepsy comorbidity were the least satisfied (p <10-3). 96% of parents suggested repeating the assessment once a year. Conclusion - Assessment units are based on international recommendations. However, it would be interesting to adapt assessments and orientation to the parents' expectations.

  19. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H.

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  20. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  1. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  2. The importance of catatonia and stereotypies in autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Kakooza, Angelina

    2006-01-01

    Motor disturbances are often observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and recognized as diagnostic features of these disorders. The movement disorders characteristically associated with autism include stereotypies and self-injurious behavior. Yet, individuals with ASD may also be at the risk for catatonia. Although not as frequent as stereotypies, up to 17% of older adolescents and adults with autistic disorder may have severe catatonic-like symptoms. Catatonia may be a comorbid risk factor of autism that warrants further empirical and clinical evaluations. Clinicians may need to be attentive to more subtle signs of catatonic-like symptoms in individuals diagnosed with ASDs, especially as they enter adolescence and young adulthood. Stress has been implicated as a possible precursor for symptoms; however, its role has not been empirically proven as a potential risk factor. Clinicians might also need to assess for signs of significant declines in motor movements, as this appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator of catatonic-like symptoms. The literature on stereotypies and autism is more extensive than for catatonia and ASDs, probably because of the higher rate of stereotypies with autism. Explanations for the occurrence of stereotypies range from genetic to behavioral contingencies, with evidence for a multifactor explanation. Assessment measures often include items that assess for stereotypies to aid with diagnosing these symptoms in individuals with autism. Treatment for stereotypies is largely behavioral at the present time and requires consistent reinforcement of treatment gains to manage the symptoms successfully. An important area of future research in autism is the relation among different types of motor abnormalities, including stereotypies and catatonia.

  3. Brief Report: Assessment of Sensory Abnormalities in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, James; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2004-01-01

    Sensory functioning has long been considered crucial in the life of people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) (Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (1992). "The Biology of Autistic Syndromes" (2nd ed.). London: Mac Keith press.) However, much of the research is methodologically flawed and based on child populations and adults' retrospective accounts (O…

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  5. Mental Development and Autistic Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the features of mental development and autistic behavior in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from the viewpoint of remedial therapy. The Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), designed to be completed by children's caregivers, were used. A…

  6. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested.

  7. Counseling parents regarding prognosis in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Coplan, J

    2000-05-01

    A triaxial model for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is presented, incorporating age, degree of intelligence, and severity of autistic features. As the name implies, ASD can vary in degree of expression from minimal to profound. Furthermore, the symptoms of ASD change in predictable ways with the passage of time. For example, echolalia during early childhood may be replaced by verbal literalism and difficulty with verbal humor during later childhood or adolescence. The prognosis for children with ASD is governed by the joint impact of the degree of expression of ASD and the degree of developmental delay, if any. All combinations of ASD and intellect are possible (ie, severe ASD plus severe mental retardation, severe ASD plus normal general intelligence, and so forth). The relationship among these 3 parameters-severity of ASD, level of general intelligence, and change in symptom expression over time, is represented schematically as a 3-dimensional graph. The utility of this graph as a counseling tool, and as the basis for future research on the prognosis of ASD are discussed.

  8. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  9. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  10. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  11. The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome: differences in adaptive behaviour versus Down syndrome alone and autistic disorder alone.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.

  12. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  13. Prevalence of parasomnia in autistic children with sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ming, Xue; Sun, Ye-Ming; Nachajon, Roberto V; Brimacombe, Michael; Walters, Arthur S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG) and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights' PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  14. Childhood and current autistic features in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Trotman, Hanan D; Brasfield, Joy L; Compton, Michael T; Walker, Elaine F

    2008-09-01

    The diagnostic boundaries between autistic- and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have varied over the years, and some overlap in diagnostic criteria persists. The present study examined childhood and current signs of autistic disorder (AD) in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) or other personality disorders, as well as healthy controls. A structured interview was administered to rate participants' current symptoms. Participants' guardians were interviewed with the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R), a clinical assessment of childhood and current autistic signs. Compared to both the other personality-disordered and healthy groups, adolescents with SPD were rated as having significantly more impairment on childhood and current social functioning, and having more unusual interests and behaviors. For the entire sample, impaired childhood social functioning and unusual interests and behaviors were associated with higher negative symptom scores. Current impairments in social functioning, unusual interests and behaviors, and communication were also linked with greater negative symptoms. However, neither childhood nor current autistic features significantly predicted later conversion to an Axis I psychotic disorder over the course of three years of follow-up. The findings indicate that past and current autistic signs are more common in adolescents with SPD, but neither current nor childhood autistic features are linked with conversion to psychosis.

  15. Recognition of Biological Motion in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parron, Carole; Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Moore, David G.; Monfardini, Elisa; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autistic children experience difficulties in processing and recognizing emotions. Most relevant studies have explored the perception of faces. However, context and bodily gestures are also sources from which we derive emotional meanings. We tested 23 autistic children and 23 typically developing control children on their…

  16. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  17. Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  18. Sound before meaning: word learning in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2010-12-01

    Successful word learning depends on the integration of phonological and semantic information with social cues provided by interlocutors. How then, do children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) learn new words when social impairments pervade? We recorded the eye-movements of verbally-able children with ASD and their typical peers while completing a word learning task in a social context. We assessed learning of semantic and phonological features immediately after learning and again four weeks later. Eye-movement data revealed that both groups could follow social cues, but that typically developing children were more sensitive to the social informativeness of gaze cues. In contrast, children with ASD were more successful than peers at mapping phonological forms to novel referents; however, this advantage was not maintained over time. Typical children showed clear consolidation of learning both semantic and phonological information, children with ASD did not. These results provide unique evidence of qualitative differences in word learning and consolidation and elucidate the different mechanisms underlying the unusual nature of autistic language.

  19. Autistic disorder and 22q11.2 duplication.

    PubMed

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Herguner, Sabri

    2007-01-01

    Although several reports have described the co-occurrence of autism in subjects with chromosome 22 abnormalities including trisomy 22, translocation 20/22, 22q11.2 deletion, ring chromosome 22, and 22q13.3 deletion, there is no report with 22q11.2 duplication. We report a 9-year-old girl, referred to our department for her behavioural problems and language delay. She was diagnosed with autistic disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Because of her dysmorphic characteristics comprising narrow face, narrow forehead, mandibular prognathism, synophrys, and operated cleft palate and cardiac problems, she had gone under cytogenetic analysis. Although she was ascertained as suspected velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the duplication of 22q11.2 was detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Previous reports on the psychiatric aspects of 22q11.2 duplication have shown the existence of hyperactivity, learning disability, speech problems, and aggressive behaviours but not autism. Moreover, the lack of reports of co-occurrence of autism and 22q11.2 duplication may be related to paucity as a result of technical problems.

  20. Emotions mediate the relationship between autistic traits and disordered eating: A new autistic-emotional model for eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Salma; Rozenblat, Vanja; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Paganini, Chiara; Treasure, Janet; Krug, Isabel

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the study was to assess the extent of overlap between autistic traits, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and to explore the mediating effects of negative attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion dysregulation. The sample comprised 416 university students (82% females, 17-48 years [M=19.76, SD=3.85]), who completed an online questionnaire assessing eating attitudes and behaviours (including dieting, bulimia and oral control), body dissatisfaction, and autistic traits (including the Autism Quotient [AQ] and its related subscales as well as the Empathising Quotient). Attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion regulation were also assessed. Results revealed that eating pathology correlated highly with all AQ subscales, with the exception of the attention to detail subscale. However, there was no significant relationship between empathising and eating pathology. Path-analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation, but not negative attitudes towards emotional expression, was a significant mediator of the relationship between AQ, body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Direct relationships were also obtained for the AQ-bulimia and the AQ-oral control paths. Prevention and early intervention programs for eating pathology would likely benefit from addressing abnormalities in emotion processes in individuals who score highly on measures of autistic traits.

  1. Are Autistic Traits Measured Equivalently in Individuals with and without an Autism Spectrum Disorder? An Invariance Analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Aja L.; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across…

  2. Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder (AD) how to swallow pills.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa H; Cataldo, Marilyn; Slifer, Keith J; Pulbrook, Valerie; Guhman, Jaswinder K

    2005-01-01

    One barrier to medication adherence in pediatric populations is difficulty swallowing pills. Some children may not have prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from repeated negative experiences. Eight children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic disorder participated in behavioral training to increase cooperation with pill swallowing. A pill-swallowing protocol was utilized during practice sessions with placebo "pills" of increasing size to implement systematic desensitization. Seven of the 8 children swallowed medication with a therapist. Six of the 8 children maintained treatment gains over time. Interventions used to succeed with these children are presented along with methods to reduce conditioned behavioral distress.

  3. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of autistic disorder, with 15q11-13 markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, E H; Courchesne, R Y; Cox, N J; Lord, C; Gonen, D; Guter, S J; Lincoln, A; Nix, K; Haas, R; Leventhal, B L; Courchesne, E

    1998-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a complex genetic disease. Because of previous reports of individuals with autistic disorder with duplications of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region, we screened several markers across the 15q11-13 region, for linkage disequilibrium. One hundred forty families, consisting predominantly of a child with autistic disorder and both parents, were studied. Genotyping was performed by use of multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Two children were identified who had interstitial chromosome 15 duplications and were excluded from further linkage-disequilibrium analysis. Use of the multiallelic transmission-disequilibrium test (MTDT), for nine loci on 15q11-13, revealed linkage disequilibrium between autistic disorder and a marker in the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor subunit gene, GABRB3 155CA-2 (MTDT 28.63, 10 df, P=.0014). No evidence was found for parent-of-origin effects on allelic transmission. The convergence of GABRB3 as a positional and functional candidate along with the linkage-disequilibrium data suggests the need for further investigation of the role of GABRB3 or adjacent genes in autistic disorder. PMID:9545402

  4. Predictors of quality of life for fathers and mothers of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-06-01

    A constant challenge for Quality of Life (QoL) research is tapping the most predictive indicators for a specific population. This study has sought to examine predictors of QoL for fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. Two multiple regression analyses were performed for fathers (N=70) and mothers (N=114) of children with Autistic Disorder. Six predictors were entered into the regression equation: Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunction Interaction (PCDI), Difficult Child Characteristics (DC), Household income, and the child's with Autistic Disorder age and number of siblings. The analyses revealed that only PD was a significant predictor for both parent's QoL, whereas DC, household income, and number of siblings were able to predict only mothers' QoL. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on predictors of QoL among both fathers and mothers of children with Autistic Disorder. The results from the current study can have several implications for professionals and researchers targeting the primary force contributing to the wellbeing of children with Autistic Disorder, the parents.

  5. Asperger's disorder: a review of its diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul; El-Gabalawi, Fayez; Pirwani, Nabeel; Priest, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder that shares similar features of social impairment disorder, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors with autistic disorder. Although both Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder persist into adulthood, autistic disorder is usually apparent before the age of 3, while Asperger's disorder usually manifests itself at preschool age. Asperger's disorder in the majority of cases is not associated with delay in language development and there is an increased likelihood to seek social interactions and to engage in activities and friendship with others. In contrast to autistic disorder, most Asperger's disorder patients have normal intellectual functioning and some have motor clumsiness. Although the etiology of Asperger's disorder is still undetermined, this article will review the assessment and treatment interventions that could improve the prognosis of this illness. The historical background, epidemiology, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, and course and overall management/treatment of Asperger's disorder will be discussed. Despite the absence of a cure for Asperger's disorder, the awareness of its distinctive clinical features that differentiate it from autistic disorder could improve its prognosis and differentiate response to treatment and comorbid conditions.

  6. Serotonergic disturbances in autistic disorder: L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration to autistic youngsters increases the blood concentrations of serotonin in patients but not in controls.

    PubMed

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Verkerk, Robert; Scharpe, Simon; Deboutte, Dirk; Maes, Michael

    2005-03-25

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines the whole blood concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in baseline conditions and during a challenge with L-5-OH-tryptophane (5-HTP; 4 mg/kg in non enteric-coated tablets), the precursor of 5-HT, in a study group of 18 male, post-pubertal, Caucasian autistic patients (age 13-19 y.; I.Q.>55) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. In baseline conditions, no significant differences in 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels could be found between autistic youngsters and normal controls. 5-HTP administration significantly increased the levels of 5-HT in autistic youngsters but not in normal controls. Following 5-HTP challenge the 5-HT levels were significantly higher in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. After challenge with 5-HTP, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of 5-HIAA or the test substance between autistic youngsters and normal controls. Differences in the peripheral metabolism of 5-HT which may not be observed in baseline conditions but which became clear after loading with 5-HTP, suggest that an increased synthesis of 5-HT from its precursor 5-HTP might be a one factor responsible for differences in the serotonergic system between autistic post-pubertal youngsters and normal controls.

  7. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and…

  8. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  9. Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Young Seh

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…

  10. Comparison of Form and Motion Coherence Processing in Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsermentseli, Stella; O'Brien, Justin M.; Spencer, Janine V.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of research has reported visual perception deficits in both people with dyslexia and autistic spectrum disorders. In this study, we compared form and motion coherence detection between a group of adults with high-functioning autism, a group with Asperger's disorder, a group with dyslexia, and a matched control group. It was found that…

  11. Relationship between Executive Functions and Motor Stereotypies in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMonda, Brittany C.; Holtzer, Roee; Goldman, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only.…

  12. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  13. Emerging role of aripiprazole for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stachnik, Joan; Gabay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a largely misunderstood and difficult to treat neurodevelopmental disorder. Three core domains of functioning are affected by autistic disorder, ie, socialization, communication, and behavior. Signs of autistic disorder may be present early, but are frequently overlooked, resulting in a delay in its diagnosis and a subsequent delay in treatment. No one definitive therapy is available, and treatment consists of early educational and behavioral interventions, as well as drug therapy. Atypical antipsychotics have often been used in the treatment of autistic disorder to target irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, all of which can interfere with other aspects of treatment. One atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, has recently been approved for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. Based on the results from two randomized, controlled trials, with efficacy data from nearly 300 patients, treatment with aripiprazole was associated with reductions in irritability, global improvements in behavior, and improvements in quality of life from both the patient and caregiver perspectives. Dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 mg to 15 mg per day. Aripiprazole was well tolerated during clinical trials, with most adverse events considered mild or moderate. Clinically relevant weight gain occurred in about 30% of patients given aripiprazole, although when compared with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to have fewer metabolic effects and a lower risk of weight gain. However, pediatric patients taking any atypical antipsychotic should be carefully monitored for potential adverse events, because the long-term effects of antipsychotic therapy in this population are not well known. When used appropriately, aripiprazole has the potential to be an effective treatment for children with autistic disorder to improve irritability and aggressive behavior and improve quality of life.

  14. Level of Sense-Making in Children with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Patterns of Delay and Deviance in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined levels of sense-making in relation to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology in low-functioning children with autistic disorder. Thirty-six children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability were compared with 27 children with intellectual disability and 33 typically developing children with a comparable…

  15. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  16. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  17. Intervention pilot for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Souders, Margaret; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Bloch, Joan; Levy, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Parents of children who receive the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) experience a situational crisis related to receiving the diagnosis, which causes feelings of distress and urgency to access services for the affected child. This paper describes a randomized trial (n = 31) that was conducted at a regional diagnostic center of a large metropolitan children's hospital to (a) refine a nursing intervention designed for parents of children with ASD and (b) to identify methodological revisions for a larger study. A secondary purpose was to test the effects of a post-diagnosis nursing intervention on parents' reports of stress, impact of event (diagnosis), and use of services after a child is newly diagnosed with ASD. The intervention consisted of usual care plus 3 hours contact with a pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) for counseling, instruction, and assistance with implementation of the recommended treatment plan. The control group received only the usual care post-diagnosis, which consisted of a 1-hour consultation session to receive the results of diagnostic tests and a written copy of the recommended treatment plan provided by a developmental pediatrician and/or PNP. Between group differences in measures of "impact of event" and "perceived stress" were not statistically significant. This was attributed to a small sample size. A larger study is feasible and recommended with an expanded nursing intervention and a significantly larger sample recruited from an additional recruitment site. Nurses working with this special population must recognize that parents have information and counseling needs that begin after they receive the diagnosis of ASD for their child and can address these needs with a standardized nursing intervention.

  18. A Case of Carbonic Anhydrase Type 2 Deficiency Syndrome with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    KILIÇ, Birim Günay; UĞUR, Çağatay; SADAY DUMAN, Nagihan; AKÇAKIN, Melda

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic Anhydrase Type II Deficiency Syndrome (CADS) is a disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance that mainly includes characteristics of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Pathological fractures, poor vision due to cranial nerve pressure, wide forehead, disproportionate mouth and jaw, physical and mental developmental delay are other features. In this paper, we present the case of a patient who was referred to our department with a diagnosis of CADS and diagnosed with autistic disorder after a psychiatric evaluation. We performed a detailed literature search, however, we did not find any report of co-existence of CADS (osteopetrosis intermediate type) and autistic disorder.

  19. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    PubMed

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  20. Symptomatic nutritional rickets in a teenager with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C; Latif, A

    2008-03-01

    Selectivity with food and food related behavioural difficulties are relatively common in children on the Autistic Spectrum. This may result in an inadequate nutritional status. Integration of sensory signals in the brain associated with textures, tastes and smells has been postulated as a possible cause.

  1. Genetic correlation between autistic traits and IQ in a population-based sample of twins with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Taniai, Hiroko; Taniai, Hitomi; Miyachi, Taishi; Ozaki, Koken; Tomita, Makoto; Sumi, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence that intelligence quotient (IQ) indexes some aspects of the autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), the causal relationship between autistic traits and IQ remains controversial. We examined the sources of covariation between autistic traits and IQ. As males have a four times greater risk of ASDs than females, gender-specific effects were also explored. Autistic traits and IQ were assessed in 45 twin male-male, female-female and opposite-sex pairs ascertained by the regional screening system in Nagoya, Japan. Sex-limited Cholesky structural equation models were used to decompose the correlations between autistic traits and IQ into genetic and environmental components, including sex-specific factors. Genetic correlations between autistic traits and IQ were high and not significantly different between boys and girls (-0.94 and -0.95, respectively), but genetic factors underlying the autistic traits were not entirely shared with the IQ. The individual-specific environmental correlation between autistic traits and IQ was estimated at -0.29 for boys and -0.59 for girls. There is a substantial overlap between the genetic factors that influence individual variation in autistic traits and IQ, irrespective of gender. The individual life experiences that increase autistic traits, however, have a moderate overlap with those that contribute to individual IQs.

  2. Diagnostic Grouping among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Staffed Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Perry, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence to guide the commissioning of residential provision for adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the UK. We aim to explore the degree and impact of diagnostic congregation among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and ASD living in staffed housing. Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven adults with…

  3. Using Emergence Theory-Based Curriculum to Teach Compromise Skills to Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Lance; Jones, Don

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…

  4. Spontaneous Lexical Alignment in Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branigan, Holly P.; Tosi, Alessia; Gillespie-Smith, Karri

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that adults converge on common referring expressions in dialogue, and that such lexical alignment is important for successful and rewarding communication. The authors show that children with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children also show spontaneous…

  5. Metaphor Comprehension in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Case Studies of Two High-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; D'Ardia, Caterina; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies on metaphor comprehension in two boys with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder, aged 9;1 (9 years, 1 month) and 8;11. The participants were assessed twice, before and after an intervention program aimed at improving their social skills. The focus of the article is on the specific patterns exhibited by…

  6. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  7. Living with Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Parental and Professional Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenburger, Karola; Keenan, Mickey; Doherty, Alvin; Byrne, Tony; Gallagher, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is rising and is now thought to be as high as 1:100. While the debate about best treatment continues, the effects of having a child diagnosed with ASD on family life remain relatively unexplored. This article, by Karola Dillenburger of Queens University Belfast, Mickey…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  9. Characteristics of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Served in Comprehensive Community-Based Mental Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Walrath, Christine M.; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) receiving treatment in community mental health settings. Data from a national community mental health initiative was used to identify children who had received a primary diagnosis of ASD. These children were compared with children with other diagnoses on…

  10. Participation or Exclusion? Perspectives of Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders on Their Participation in Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Stephanie; Coleyshaw, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The importance of active participation in leisure activities for everybody is identified by Carr (2004) but issues around leisure in the lives of children with disabilities have received little recognition. The experience of children/young people (henceforth referred to simply as children, for brevity) with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in…

  11. Central Coherence Theory and the Interpretation of Picture Materials: Toward an Assessment of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This study compared responses of 16 pupils either with or without autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched for gender and verbal ability. Subjects' responses to various pictures were categorized. Results suggested errors made by the two groups differed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Errors made by pupils with ASD were largely…

  12. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  13. Brief Report: Incidence of and Risk Factors for Autistic Disorder in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)

  14. Do Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Adhere to Social Conventions in Virtual Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Leonard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The potential for using virtual environments (VEs) in educational contexts for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized. However, very little is known about how people with ASDs interpret and understand VEs. This study aimed to investigate this directly with a group of 12 adolescents with ASDs, each individually matched…

  15. Using Virtual Environments for Teaching Social Understanding to 6 Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter; Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Six teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experienced a Virtual Environment (VE) of a cafe. They also watched three sets of videos of real cafe and buses and judged where they would sit and explained why. Half of the participants received their VE experience between the first and second sets of videos, and half experienced it between…

  16. Virtual Environments for Social Skills Training: Comments from Two Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that computer-based tasks can motivate people with autism and encourage learning. As a computer-based medium, Virtual Environments (VEs) offer a potentially useful tool for social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, there are some concerns over whether people with ASDs can…

  17. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  18. Brief Report: On the Concordance Percentages for Autistic Spectrum Disorder of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Henry V.; Stewart, Melbourne G.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of genetic theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) various characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are often considered. This paper sets forth a possible refinement in the interpretation of the MZ twin concordance percentages for ASD underlying such genetic theories, and, drawing the consequences from…

  19. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  20. Motor Stereotypies and Volumetric Brain Alterations in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; O'Brien, Liam M.; Filipek, Pauline A.; Rapin, Isabelle; Herbert, Martha R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor stereotypies are defined as patterned, repetitive, purposeless movements. These stigmatizing motor behaviors represent one manifestation of the third core criterion for an Autistic Disorder (AD) diagnosis, and are becoming viewed as potential early markers of autism. Moreover, motor stereotypies might be a tangible expression of the…

  1. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  2. Event Narratives in 11-14 Year Olds with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Diane; Dockrell, Julie E.; Stuart, Morag

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulties in narrative language and especially with use of evaluative enrichment devices. However, little is known about their production of event narratives. Aims: To establish if children with ASD differ from typically developing peers in their production of general…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brian R.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

    2005-01-01

    The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were…

  4. Community Introduction of Practice Parameters for Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Advancing Early Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Mihailescu, Raluca; Rodrigues-Degaeff, Catherine; Junier, Laurent; Muller-Nix, Carole; Halfon, Oliver; Ansermet, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Within a strong interdisciplinary framework, improvement in the quality of care for children with autistic spectrum disorders through a 2 year implementation program of Practice Parameters, aimed principally at improving early detection and intervention. Method: We developed Practice Parameters (PPs) for Pervasive Developmental…

  5. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  6. Typical Emotion Processing for Cartoon but Not for Real Faces in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Delphine B.; Rondan, Cecilie; Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Assouline, Brigitte; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether atypical face processing in autism extends from human to cartoon faces for which they show a greater interest. Twenty children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared to two groups of typically developing children, matched on chronological and mental age. They processed the emotional expressions of real…

  7. Language Development among the Siblings of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2007-01-01

    Language development in 32 preschool siblings (aged 2-6 years) of children with diagnosed autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) was compared with that of a control group of 28 typical preschool children. Groups were matched by siblings' age, gender, maternal educational level and family income. The mean ages of the siblings group and the control group…

  8. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis.

  9. The Relationship between Carers' Report of Autistic Traits and Clinical Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W.; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of…

  10. Validity of childhood disintegrative disorder apart from autistic disorder with speech loss.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Setoya, Yutaro; Shimizu, Kaoru; Osada, Hirokazu

    2004-08-01

    In order to test clinical validity of DSM-IV childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), 10 CDD children (mean age = 8.2 years, SD = 3.8; 7 male and 3 female) and 30 age- and gender-matched children with DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) with speech loss (SL) (ADSL) were compared on 24 variables not directly related to CDD criteria. Compared with the ADSL children, the CDD children showed fearfulness significantly more frequently during the period of SL; displayed epilepsy significantly more frequently and stereotypy significantly more prominently at first visit on average about 6 years after SL; and had significantly less uneven intellectual profile at first visit to support the validity of CDD to a certain extent. No significant difference in the retardation level at first visit between the two groups suggested no worse short-term outcome in CDD than ADSL, although a long-term prospective study to compare them from infancy is needed.

  11. Autism spectrum disorder risk factors and autistic traits in gender dysphoric children.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Leef, Jonathan H; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age, maternal depression, general behavioral and emotional problems, and IQ. High birth weight was associated with both high gender nonconformity and autistic traits among GD children. Developmental processes associated with high birth weight are, therefore, likely to underlie the GD-ASD link either directly or indirectly. The present study is the first to provide quantitative data bearing on possible mechanisms that lead GD and ASD to co-occur.

  12. Four Case Histories and a Literature Review of Williams Syndrome and Autistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Rasmussen, Peder

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the case histories of four young children with concurrent autistic disorder and Williams syndrome. Williams syndrome comprises a peculiar facial appearance, learning disorder, and often hypercalcemia, mild microcephaly, large blood vessel stenosis, and a specific behavioral phenotype. Literature on Williams syndrome is…

  13. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  14. Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in Tripoli, Libya: the need for more research and planned services.

    PubMed

    Zeglam, A M; Maound, A J

    2012-02-01

    Data on autism are lacking for Libya. We conducted a hospital-based study in the Neurodevelopment Clinic of AI-Khadra Hospital in Tripoli to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children attending the clinic. All children referred to the clinic between 2005 and 2009 with a diagnosis of speech and language disorders or behavioural difficulties were assessed. There were 38 508 children in total seen during 2005-09,180 of whom had a history of delayed speech and language and/or behavioural difficulties. Of the 180, 128 children were diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder: 99 had classical autism, giving the prevalence of about 4 in 1000. The male:female ratio for autistic spectrum disorders was 4:1 and for autism was 4.5:1. The most common age at presentation was 2-5 years (58%) and 56% presented 6-18 months after the onset of symptoms. Physicians should consider autism in the differential diagnosis of any child presenting with a speech and language disorder and/or behavioural difficulties.

  15. Visual agnosia with bilateral temporo-occipital brain lesions in a child with autistic disorder: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Mineau, S; Décarie, J C; Jambaqué, I; Labrecque, R; Pépin, J P; Aroichane, M

    1997-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy meeting the criteria for autistic disorder was diagnosed 2 years later with a visual agnosia characterised by a combination of certain aspects of associative and apperceptive agnosia. MRI then revealed a severe encephalomalacia of the right temporal lobe and bilateral temporo-occipital areas. This association is discussed in terms of a clinical and aetiological relation between autistic disorder and visual agnosia.

  16. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  17. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Miodrag; Lakić, Aneta; Ilić, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child's socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today's prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  18. Catatonia in autistic spectrum disorders: a medical treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fink, Max; Taylor, Michael A; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a developmental syndrome with an unknown biology and inadequate therapeutics. Assessing the elements of the syndrome for the presence of depression, psychosis, mania, or catatonia, offers opportunities for systematic intervention. Since almost all descriptions of autism highlight the presence of motor symptoms that characterize catatonia, an assessment for this eminently treatable syndrome is recommended for all patients considered to be autistic. A minimum examination includes a catatonia rating scale and for those patients with defined catatonia, a lorazepam test. For those whose catatonia responds to lorazepam, high dose lorazepam therapy is recommended. If this fails, electroconvulsive therapy is recommended. The assessment and treatment of catatonia offers positive medical therapy for the victims of autism and their families.

  19. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schore, Allan N.

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the “emotional brain.” Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile–gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant–mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant–mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  20. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  1. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Magistris, Laura; Picardi, Annarita; Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Abbadessa, Salvatore; Medici, Nicola; Lammers, Karen M.; Schiraldi, Chiara; Iardino, Patrizia; Marotta, Rosa; Tolone, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; Pascotto, Antonio; Bravaccio, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA)-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE); specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG), deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG), total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω), β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function. PMID:23984403

  2. Parental identification of early behavioural abnormalities in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Pattison, Clare

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify early behavioural abnormalities in children later diagnosed with autistic disorder. Accurate identification of such deficits has implications for early diagnosis, intervention and prognosis. The parents of 153 children with autistic disorder completed a questionnaire asking them to describe early childhood behaviours of concern and to recall the age of onset. Core deficit-linked behaviours were then identified and the ontogeny of their development was noted. Behaviour categories were: (1) gross motor difficulties, (2) social awareness and play deficits, (3) language and communication difficulties, and (4) unusual preoccupations. The findings supported the notion that the nature and prevalence of these deficits depend on age. Consistent with past research, there was a significant interval between parents first noticing abnormalities and the making of a definitive diagnosis. The implications for this delay are discussed.

  3. Aripiprazole: in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P

    2011-06-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years. In two, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in pediatric patients aged 6-17 years with irritability associated with autistic disorder, 8 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole 2-15 mg/day, compared with placebo, resulted in significant improvements in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale score at endpoint (primary endpoint), and the mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated in this patient population in the two 8-week studies and a 52-week study, with most adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Aripiprazole was associated with weight gain in both the short- and long-term studies; data from the long-term study indicated that the increase in bodyweight reached a plateau at 3-6 months.

  4. First preliminary results of an observation of Panax ginseng treatment in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, with impairments in reciprocal social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. There is often the need of psychopharmacological intervention in addition to psychobehavioral therapies, but benefits are limited by adverse side effects. For that reason, Panax ginseng, which is comparable with Piracetam, a substance effective in the treatment of autism, was investigated for possible improvement of autistic symptoms. There was some improvement, which suggests some benefits of Panax ginseng, at least as an add-on therapy.

  5. Acquired epileptiform aphasia: a dimensional view of Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the relation to regressive autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefanatos, Gerry A; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Wasserstein, Jeanette

    2002-09-01

    Acquired epileptiform aphasia (AEA) is characterized by deterioration in language in childhood associated with seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic abnormalities. Despite an extensive literature, discrepancies and contradictions surround its definition and nosological boundaries. This paper reviews current conceptions of AEA and highlights variations in the aphasic disturbance, age of onset, epileptiform EEG abnormalities, temporal course, and long-term outcome. We suggest that AEA, rather than being a discrete entity, is comprised of multiple variants that have in common the features of language regression and epileptiform changes on EEG. Viewed this way, we argue that AEA can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other epileptiform neurocognitive disorders that may share pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed, with emphasis on parallels between the AEA variants and regressive autistic spectrum disorders.

  6. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and hyperserotonemia in autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Betancur, Catalina; Corbex, Marylis; Spielewoy, Cécile; Philippe, Anne; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gillberg, Christopher; Mouren-Simeoni, Marie-Christine; Hamon, Michel; Giros, Bruno; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Leboyer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with autism. Two polymorphisms have been identified in the human 5-HTT gene, a VNTR in intron 21 and a functional deletion/insertion in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) with short and long variants.2 Positive associations of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with autism have been reported by two family-based studies, but one found preferential transmission of the short allele3 and the other of the long allele.4 Two subsequent studies failed to find evidence of transmission disequilibrium at the 5-HTTLPR locus.5,6 These conflicting results could be due to heterogeneity of clinical samples with regard to serotonin (5-HT) blood levels, which have been found to be elevated in some autistic subjects.7–9 Thus, we examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR and VNTR polymorphisms of the 5-HTT gene with autism, and we investigated the relationship between 5-HTT variants and whole-blood 5-HT. The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) revealed no linkage disequilibrium at either loci in a sample of 96 families comprising 43 trios and 53 sib pairs. Furthermore, no significant relationship between 5-HT blood levels and 5-HTT gene polymorphisms was found. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is unlikely to play a major role as a susceptibility factor in autism. PMID:11803447

  7. Migration abnormality in the left cingulate gyrus presenting with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Bariş; Benbir, Gülçin; Demirbilek, Veysi

    2006-07-01

    Autism, characterized by an impairment in communication, including language, narrowly focused interests, and poor sociability, is a neurodevelopmental disorder of still largely unknown pathogenesis. In children with autistic symptomatology, the most consistent functional or anatomic abnormalities are found in the cingulate gyrus, particularly in the anterior regions. Neuronal migration malformations caused by incomplete neuronal migration and characterized by loss of the normal gyral patterns in the cerebral hemispheres and prominent disorganization of the cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture are generally associated with profound neurologic deficits, epilepsy, and autism. In this report, we present a case with an isolated migration abnormality located in the anterior part of the left cingulate gyrus who was admitted with the complaints of epileptic seizures and autism. In addition, the role of the localization of the migration abnormality in the appearance of autistic symptomatology is discussed.

  8. A MECP2 missense mutation within the MBD domain in a Brazilian male with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mário; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; dos Santos, Adriana Vaz; Ponchel, Frederique; Churchman, Sarah; Abdalla-Carvalho, Cláudia Bueno; dos Santos, Jussara Mendonça; dos Santos, Flavia Lima; Gikovate, Carla Gruber; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros; Pimentel, Márcia Mattos Gonçalves

    2011-11-01

    Point mutations and genomic rearrangements in the MECP2 gene are the major cause of Rett syndrome (RTT), a pervasive developmental disorder affecting almost exclusively females. MECP2 mutations were also identified in patients with autism without RTT. In this study, we present a mutational and gene dosage analysis of the MECP2 in a cohort of 60 Brazilian males with autistic features but not RTT. No duplication or deletion was identified. Sequencing analysis, however, revealed four MECP2 sequence variations. Three of them were previously discussed as non disease causing mutations and one mutation (p.T160S) was novel. It affects a highly conserved amino acid located within the MBD domain, a region of the protein involved in specific recognition and interaction with methylated CpG dinucleotides. The p.T160S variation was not found in the control sample. This mutation may represent a potential genetic factor for autistic phenotype and should be object of further studies.

  9. Investigation of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in an Adolescent Sample with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Valentina; Scahill, Lawrence; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura Maria; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Gillespie, Scott; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine the association between these conditions.

  10. Private Speech and executive functioning among high-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Abar, Beau; Feder, Michael A; Schunn, Christian D; Rubio, David Alarcón

    2007-10-01

    Private speech used by high-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 33) during two executive functioning tasks was compared to that of typically developing children (n = 28), and children with ADHD (n = 21). Children with ASD were as likely as others to talk to themselves and their speech was similarly relevant and likely to appear in moments of task difficulty. Unlike others, children with ASD were more likely to get items correct when they were talking than when they were silent. Group differences in performance were observed when children were silent but not when children were talking. Findings suggest that autistic children talk to themselves in relevant ways during problem-solving and that such speech is helpful in normalizing their executive performance relative to controls.

  11. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders.

  12. Screening for Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children Aged 14-15 Months. II: Population Screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and General Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Claudine; Swinkels, Sophie; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage protocol for screening for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in a random population of 31,724 children aged 14-15 months. Children were first pre-screened by physicians at well-baby clinics using a 4-item screening instrument. Infants that screened positive were then evaluated during a 1.5-h home visit by a trained…

  13. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  14. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barneveld, Petra S; Pieterse, Jolijn; de Sonneville, Leo; van Rijn, Sophie; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the unraveling of the relationship between autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum traits in a population of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Recent studies comparing isolated symptoms of both spectrum disorders as well as diagnostic criteria for each (DSM-IV-TR) suggest resemblances in the clinical phenotype. A group of 27 adolescents with ASD (11 to 18 years) and 30 typically developing adolescents, matched for age and gender, participated in this study. Within the ASD group 11 adolescents satisfied DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizotypal personality disorders. Autistic and schizotypal traits were identified by means of well validated questionnaires (Autism Questionnaire, AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised, SPQ). Significantly more schizotypal traits in adolescents with ASD were found than in typically developing controls. Besides high levels of negative symptoms, adolescents with ASD also displayed high levels of positive and disorganized symptoms. There appeared to be a relationship between the mean level of autistic symptoms and schizotypal traits, as well as specific associations between autistic symptoms and negative, disorganized and positive schizotypal symptoms within individuals. Schizotypal symptomatology in all sub dimensions that are reflected by the SPQ scores, was most prominently associated with attention switching problems of the autism symptoms from the AQ. These findings indicate that patients diagnosed with an ASD show schizophrenia spectrum traits in adolescence. Although other studies have provided empirical support for this overlap in diagnostic criteria between both spectrum disorders, the present findings add to the literature that behavioral overlap is not limited to negative schizotypal symptoms, but extends to disorganized and positive symptoms as well.

  15. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in autistic catatonia: a case series review.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Lee E; Hermida, Adriana; Dhossche, Dirk M

    2010-05-30

    The usage of electroconvulsive therapy for the acute resolution of catatonia in autistic children and adults is a novel area that has received increased attention over the past few years. Reported length of the acute ECT course varies among these patients, and there is no current literature on maintenance ECT in autism. The maintenance ECT courses of three patients with autism who developed catatonia are presented. Clinical, research, legal, and administrative implications for ECT treatment in this special population are discussed.

  17. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang, Bodi; Theoharides, Athanasios; Lykouras, Lefteris; Sideri, Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2010-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years) and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years). Only neurotensin (NT) was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP). NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  18. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Piracetam Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L.; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients…

  19. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  20. Memantine-induced speech problems in two patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2013-07-02

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. There are two forms of stuttering: developmental stuttering and acquired stuttering. Developmental stuttering is a disorder of early childhood but acquired stuttering can develop at any age. Some medications can induce or deteriorate stuttering as an adverse effect. There are several reports of stuttering due to psychotropic drugs. Memantine, a glutamate antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has also been studied for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This report presents deterioration of stuttering and speech problem in two children with autistic disorder who were receiving memantine. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time these adverse drug reactions have been attributed to memantine. In conclusion clinicians should consider that speech problems including stuttering may be due to the consumption of memantine, especially, in children may be a side effect of memantine especially in children.

  1. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  2. Putting theory of mind in its place: psychological explanations of the socio-emotional-communicative impairments in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-05-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory power, but that explorations of the psychological precursors of impaired ToM have been fruitful in increasing understanding of mindreading impairments in ASD (where 'mindreading' refers those abilities that underlie triadic interaction as well as ToM). It is argued that early explanations of impaired mindreading are untenable for various reasons, but that impairments of dyadic interaction in ASD that could lead to impaired ability to represent others' mental states may be the critical psychological cause, or causes, of impaired ToM. The complexity of causal routes to impaired ToM is emphasized.

  3. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented.

  4. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    PubMed

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  5. Association between the FOXP2 gene and autistic disorder in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaohong; Jia, Meixiang; Ruan, Yan; Shuang, Mei; Liu, Jing; Wu, Suping; Guo, Yanqing; Yang, Jianzhong; Ling, Yansu; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Dai

    2004-05-15

    Several genomewide screens indicated that chromosome 7q was linked to autistic disorder. FOXP2, located on 7q31, is a putative transcription factor containing a polyglutamine tract and a forkhead DNA binding domain. It is one member of the forkhead family who are known to be key regulators of embryogenesis. A point mutation at a highly conserved residue within the forkhead domain co-segregated with affected status in the KE family who was a unique three generation pedigree with a severe speech and language disorder and FOXP2 was directly disrupted by a translocation in an individual who had similar deficits as those of the KE family. Several studies have investigated the role of FOXP2 polymorphisms in autism and none of them found positive association. We performed a family-based association study of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FOXP2 in 181 Chinese Han trios using the analyses of transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype. We found a significant association between autistic disorder and one SNP, as well as with specific haplotypes formed by this SNP with two other SNPs we investigated. Our findings suggest that the FOXP2 gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism in Chinese population.

  6. Deletion 2q37.3 and autism: molecular cytogenetic mapping of the candidate region for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Lukusa, T; Vermeesch, J R; Holvoet, M; Fryns, J P; Devriendt, K

    2004-01-01

    Fine mapping of deletion regions in autistic patients represents a valuable screening tool for identifying candidate genes for autism. A number of studies have ascertained associations between autism and terminal 2q deletion with the breakpoint within 2q37. Here we describe a 12-year-old female patient with terminal 2q37.3 cryptic deletion and autistic behaviour. Her clinical features included hypotonia and feeding difficulties during infancy, coarse face with notably prominent forehead, prominent eyebrows, broad flat nasal bridge and round cheeks, small hands and feet with bilateral brachymetaphalangism, proximal implantation of the thumbs and short toenails, mild mental retardation and autistic behaviour. Recorded autistic features included early lack of eye contact and, during infancy, little social interactions, propensity to be stereotypically busy and to get anxious. In order to more closely delineate the linkage region for autism within 2q37, the findings in this patient were combined to those in 2 previously reported siblings with a well documented 2q37.3 deletion, but without autistic disorder. The exact size of the deleted segment was determined by mapping the deleted region in each group with a series of specific BAC clones linearly ordered on the 2q37 region. The deletion in the autistic patient appeared to be larger [breakpoint flanked by more centromeric clones RP11-680016 (236.9 Mb) and 201F21 (237.4 Mb)] than in the non autistic siblings [more telomeric clones RP11-205L13 (237.8 Mb) and 346114 (238.2 Mb)], revealing a distance of maximum 1.3 Mb between the breakpoints. Accordingly, the extent of the candidate region for susceptibility genes for autism on distal 2q is reduced to maximum 1.3 Mb. Comparison with another well documented autistic patient from the literature results in the same conclusion. These findings represent thus a further step towards identifying genes predisposing to autism.

  7. Differentiating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders by means of their motor behavior characteristics.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N=22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N=17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N=24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N=20). Physical education teachers used the MBC for children to rate their pupils based on their motor related behaviors. A multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups on different problem scales. The results indicated that the MBC for children may be effective in discriminating children with similar disruptive behaviors (e.g., ADHD, CD) and autistic disorders, based on their motor behavior characteristics, but not children with Learning Disabilities (LD), when used by physical education teachers in school settings.

  8. Challenges in evaluating psychosocial interventions for Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lord, Catherine; Wagner, Ann; Rogers, Sally; Szatmari, Peter; Aman, Michael; Charman, Tony; Dawson, Geraldine; Durand, V Mark; Grossman, Lee; Guthrie, Donald; Harris, Sandra; Kasari, Connie; Marcus, Lee; Murphy, Susan; Odom, Samuel; Pickles, Andrew; Scahill, Lawrence; Shaw, Evelyn; Siegel, Bryna; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Smith, Tristram; Yoder, Paul

    2005-12-01

    In 2002, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting concerning methodological challenges of research in psychosocial interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. This paper provides a summary of the presentations and the discussions that occurred during this meeting. Recommendations to federal and private agencies included the need for randomized clinical trials of comprehensive interventions for autism as the highest, but not the sole priority. Ongoing working groups were proposed to address psychosocial interventions with a focus on relevant statistics, standardized documentation and methods of diagnosis, development of outcome measures, establishment of standards in research; and the need for innovative treatment designs, including application of designs from other research areas to the study of interventions in ASD.

  9. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  10. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  11. Risperidone-associated urinary incontinence in patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imasaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We report several cases in which patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation who received risperidone experienced urinary incontinence. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients housed in facilities for patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation. Those who had undergone a medical examination at a hospital in Tokyo from April 1999 to March 2009 were included in the study.Retrospective data were gathered including age, sex, IQ, birth weight, dosage of risperidone, urinary density, as well as existence of urinary and fecal incontinence. We divided the participants into those who did and did not experience urinary incontinence after taking risperidone and compared the 2 groups. Risperidone had been prescribed to 35 patients. In spite of the fact that no patient had a history of urinary incontinence, 14 patients experienced urinary incontinence after receiving risperidone. Moreover, 4 of these 14 patients also had fecal incontinence. Among the variables we examined, the only significant difference between groups was in sex, with significantly more women experiencing incontinence compared with men. When the dose of risperidone was reduced or the patients switched to other drugs, urinary incontinence of the patients improved.Hence, risperidone may have a casual relationship with urinary incontinence. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of possible effect.

  12. On the Application of Quantitative EEG for Characterizing Autistic Brain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, Lucia; Sicca, Federico; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Narzisi, Antonio; Campatelli, Giulia; Calderoni, Sara; Pioggia, Giovanni; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Autism-Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormalities in neural connectivity at both the global and local levels. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a non-invasive technique that allows a highly precise measurement of brain function and connectivity. This review encompasses the key findings of QEEG application in subjects with ASD, in order to assess the relevance of this approach in characterizing brain function and clustering phenotypes. QEEG studies evaluating both the spontaneous brain activity and brain signals under controlled experimental stimuli were examined. Despite conflicting results, literature analysis suggests that QEEG features are sensitive to modification in neuronal regulation dysfunction which characterize autistic brain. QEEG may therefore help in detecting regions of altered brain function and connectivity abnormalities, in linking behavior with brain activity, and subgrouping affected individuals within the wide heterogeneity of ASD. The use of advanced techniques for the increase of the specificity and of spatial localization could allow finding distinctive patterns of QEEG abnormalities in ASD subjects, paving the way for the development of tailored intervention strategies. PMID:23935579

  13. Pharmacotherapy of target symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Santosh, P J; Baird, G

    2001-05-01

    There are no aetiologically-based treatments available to cure autism. Though psychotropics have a role in the management of some symptoms of autism, clinical trial evidence for the use of psychotropics is in its infancy and needs close monitoring. About half of the subjects with high functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are currently reported to be on psychotropics (anti-depressants, stimulants and antipsychotics), with many of them being on anti-epileptic medication simultaneously. Despite this high level of psychotropic use, few studies exist investigating the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics or side-effect profiles in this population. Multiprofessional and parent partnership is essential in managing autism and psychopharmacology should be used in conjunction with environmental manipulation, educational modification and/or behavioral management strategies. A symptomatic approach to managing the difficult behaviours associated with autism is recommended. Some symptoms of autism may be medication responsive (hyperactivity, obsessions, rituals, inattention, tics, etc), while other symptoms may be responsive to behavioural interventions, but may require medication (aggression, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, sleep difficulties, etc), and symptoms which need specific skill remediation are usually non-responsive to medication (deficits in academic, social or sport domains). The new atypical antipsychotics (such as risperidone, olanzapine, amisulpiride, quetiapine) and SSRIs are increasingly being used in autism, with encouraging results, but a risk-benefit ratio of pharmacotherapy is essential with due weight being given to the side-effects of medication. Despite symptomatic improvement with medication, one should remain cautious about long-term use of psychotropics. It is also important to recognize that psychotropics can sometimes worsen behaviour, and can produce iatrogenic symptoms. Certain anti-epileptic medication and psychotropic drugs are

  14. Computerized version of the Wisconsin card sorting test in children with high-functioning autistic disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Emi; Oki, Junichi; Yahara, Nozomi; Fujieda, Kenji

    2005-04-01

    To determine executive dysfunctions in children with autistic disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated high-functioning autistic (full scale IQ score >or==70), ADHD, and control children using the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Data were obtained from 17 autistic children (16 boys and 1 girl, mean age+/-SD: 12.5+/-4.3), 22 ADHD children (20 boys and 2 girls, mean age+/-SD 11.3+/-2.6), and 25 control children (13 boys and 12 girls, mean age+/-SD: 12.7+/-3.1). Performances, indicated by mean number of categories achieved (5.4 in autistic, 6.5 in ADHD, and 8.8 in control group), total errors (38.2, 38.4, and 25.6, respectively), perseverative errors (11.4, 13.5, and 5.7), nonperseverative errors (27.1, 25.0, and 19.9), and Nelson type perseverative errors (8.9, 8.4, and 2.3), were significantly poorer in both autistic and ADHD groups than control group (P<0.01). Comparing the autistic group to the ADHD group, there were no significant differences in age, gender, scores of full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ), verbal or performance IQ, number of categories achieved or errors. The ADHD group, however, showed more frequent Milner type perseverative errors than the autistic group (P<0.05). The present study suggests that some kinds of executive function are more impaired in children with ADHD than in those with high-functioning autism, and that Milner type perseverative errors is useful parameter to differentiate the executive dysfunctions between autistic and ADHD children.

  15. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  16. Association of Per1 and Npas2 with autistic disorder: support for the clock genes/social timing hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, B; Rudrasingham, V; Nash, S; Kirov, G; Owen, M J; Wimpory, D C

    2007-06-01

    Clock gene anomalies have been suggested as causative factors in autism. We screened eleven clock/clock-related genes in a predominantly high-functioning Autism Genetic Resource Exchange sample of strictly diagnosed autistic disorder progeny and their parents (110 trios) for association of clock gene variants with autistic disorder. We found significant association (P<0.05) for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in per1 and two in npas2. Analysis of all possible combinations of two-marker haplotypes for each gene showed that in npas2 40 out of the 136 possible two-marker combinations were significant at the P<0.05 level, with the best result between markers rs1811399 and rs2117714, P=0.001. Haplotype analysis within per1 gave a single significant result: a global P=0.027 for the markers rs2253820-rs885747. No two-marker haplotype was significant in any of the other genes, despite the large number of tests performed. Our findings support the hypothesis that these epistatic clock genes may be involved in the etiology of autistic disorder. Problems in sleep, memory and timing are all characteristics of autistic disorder and aspects of sleep, memory and timing are each clock-gene-regulated in other species. We identify how our findings may be relevant to theories of autism that focus on the amygdala, cerebellum, memory and temporal deficits. We outline possible implications of these findings for developmental models of autism involving temporal synchrony/social timing.

  17. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  18. Using Behaviour Contracts to Decrease Antisocial Behaviour in Four Boys with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Emma; Kingsdorf, Sheri; Charnock, Jackie; Szabo, Mariann; Middleton, Edi; Phillips, Jo; Gautreaux, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a behaviour contract has been implemented to achieve positive and enduring results for four boys with a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Four case studies are described which address reductions in behaviours such as assaultive and destructive behaviour, out-of-seat behaviour, inappropriate contact with…

  19. Using Multimedia to Reveal the Hidden Code of Everyday Behaviour to Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Theresa; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework which was developed for carers (teachers and parents) to help them create personalised social stories for children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). It explores the social challenges experienced by individuals with ASDs and outlines an intervention aimed at revealing the hidden code that underpins social…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and Early Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…

  1. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5-3.9 years. Overall,…

  2. Differential Amygdala Response to Lower Face in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitobi, Makoto; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Omori, Masao; Matsumura, Yukiko; Munesue, Toshio; Mizukami, Kimiko; Shimoyama, Tomohiro; Murata, Tetsuhito; Sadato, Norihiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Much functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate marked brain abnormalities in face processing. Most of these findings were obtained from studies using tasks related to whole faces. However, individuals with ASD tend to rely more on individual parts of the face for identification than on the…

  3. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…

  4. Objective Investigation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in circadian rhythm functioning, as manifest in abnormal sleep-wake cycles, have been postulated to be present in people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). To date, research into the sleep-wake cycle in people with ASDs has been primarily dependant on third-party data collection. Method: The utilization of…

  5. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  6. A Scheme to Promote Social Attention and Functional Language in Young Children with Communication Difficulties and Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn; Goddard, Sarah; Fluck, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to intervention that aims to foster the skill of young children with autistic spectrum disorder to share social attention and action to promote socially meaningful communication. It applies principles derived from research into pre-linguistic development. The efficacy of the approach was evaluated through both a…

  7. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and…

  8. Development of Symbolic Play through the Use of Virtual Reality Tools in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being…

  9. Inclusive Education for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Secondary Mainstream Schools: Teacher Attitudes, Experience and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the experience, attitudes and knowledge of school staff in relation to inclusive education for pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream secondary schools. Fifty-three participants from 11 secondary schools in the north-west of England completed a survey that covered socio-demographic…

  10. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  11. Different Responses to Trauma in Two Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Mouth as Crossroads for the Sense of Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting cases are discussed of boys with autistic spectrum disorder who had suffered cumulative trauma. Although their material was similar in many respects, the 9-year-old made excellent progress during therapy, while the 4-year-old developed much less in spite of being in intensive treatment. This contrast is discussed with regard to…

  12. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  13. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  14. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  15. Risk factors for self-injurious behaviours among 222 young children with autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Pascal, C; Grisi, S; Aussilloux, C

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for self-injurious behaviours (SIBs) in children with autistic disorders. The occurrence of SIB was examined in comparison with the following variables: chronological age, sex, adaptive skills, speech level, associated medical condition, degree of autism and parental social class. The subjects were 222 children aged under 7 years and all of them fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for infantile autism. Retrospective data were collected on demographic characteristics and medical condition. Children were assessed in terms of speech, degree of autism and adaptive skills in communication, socialization and daily living skills domains. Results indicated that 50% of the children experienced SIB and 14.6% had severe SIBs. Lower chronological age, associated perinatal condition, a higher degree of autism and a higher daily living skills delay were risk factors of SIBs but parental class, sex and epilepsy were not.

  16. Joint attention, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviours in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Delinicolas, Erin K; Young, Robyn L

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between abilities to initiate and respond to joint attention and symptoms of autism that have, and have not, been theoretically linked to joint attention. Participants were 51 boys and five girls with autistic disorder, aged between 2 years and 6 years 5 months. Measures of joint attention behaviours, language, social relating, and stereotypical behaviour were administered during a single assessment. As predicted, the correlations between joint attention and the two behaviours theoretically linked to joint attention (i.e. social relating and language) were significantly stronger than those between joint attention and the behaviour not theoretically linked (i.e. stereotypical behaviour). While causation cannot be inferred from this study, these results support the suggestion that difficulties with joint attention behaviours commonly found among children with autism are linked to language and social relating, beyond what might be expected simply due to their co-occurrence as symptoms.

  17. An open-label naturalistic pilot study of acamprosate in youth with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Early, Maureen; Stigler, Kimberly A; Wink, Logan K; Mullett, Jennifer E; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    To date, placebo-controlled drug trials targeting the core social impairment of autistic disorder (autism) have had uniformly negative results. Given this, the search for new potentially novel agents targeting the core social impairment of autism continues. Acamprosate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to treat alcohol dependence. The drug likely impacts both gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. This study describes our initial open-label experience with acamprosate targeting social impairment in youth with autism. In this naturalistic report, five of six youth (mean age, 9.5 years) were judged treatment responders to acamprosate (mean dose 1,110 mg/day) over 10 to 30 weeks (mean duration, 20 weeks) of treatment. Acamprosate was well tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse effects noted in three (50%) subjects.

  18. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand themselves (i.e., self-continuity function of autobiographical memory) and their clarity of self-concept. The results showed that individuals with high autistic traits (ATs) had a lower clarity of self-concept than control participants. Meaning making was also reduced in AT individuals and mediated the relation between AT and self-concept clarity. Our results suggest that the reduced clarity of self-concept in AT individuals is related to an impaired capacity to make meaning of important past life events.

  19. Effectiveness of a novel community-based early intervention model for children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Isabel M; Koegel, Robert L; Koegel, Lynn K; Openden, Daniel A; Fossum, Kristin L; Bryson, Susan E

    2010-11-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model -NS EIBI ( Bryson et al., 2007 ) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment - PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel, 2006 ). We followed 45 children (33 males, mean baseline age  =  50 months) for 12months. Mean gains of 14.9 and 19.5 months were observed on expressive and receptive language measures, respectively, for children with an IQ of 50 or more at baseline versus 6.1 and 8.4 months for children with IQs less than 50. Behavior problems decreased significantly over the 1-year treatment for both groups, but autism symptoms decreased only for those with an IQ of 50 or more.

  20. Children with autistic spectrum disorders and speech-generating devices: communication in different activities at home.

    PubMed

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-06-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and individual background factors for the activities were outlined, was used as a basis for the discussion of linguistic coding data derived from video-recordings made before and during SGD intervention. The coded communicative behaviours were engagement in activity, role in turn-taking, communicative form, function and effectiveness. An increase in communicative effectiveness was more noticeable when the SGDs could be used to fulfil goals and roles within the activity. The instruction to the parents to use the SGDs in their communication with the child had an important influence on the activities.

  1. Brief report: pilot investigation of service receipt by young children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    McLennan, John D; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-07-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment (94%), less than half had psychological (42%), or genetic (31%) testing. Speech and language (88%) and occupational (78%) therapies were the most frequently received treatments. Overall, certain findings did not correspond to recent recommended practice guidelines. Future studies should obtain more detailed information on assessments and treatments received from larger and more representative samples to better determine the quality of care received by families with children with ASD.

  2. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  3. Autistic empathy toward autistic others

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Daisuke N.; Mano, Yoko; Jung, Minyoung; Fujii, Takeshi; Yanaka, Hisakazu T.; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Sato, Makoto; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to lack self-awareness and to experience difficulty empathizing with others. Although these deficits have been demonstrated in previous studies, most of the target stimuli were constructed for typically developing (TD) individuals. We employed judgment tasks capable of indexing self-relevant processing in individuals with and without ASD. Fourteen Japanese men and 1 Japanese women with high-functioning ASD (17–41 years of age) and 13 Japanese men and 2 TD Japanese women (22–40 years of age), all of whom were matched for age and full and verbal intelligence quotient scores with the ASD participants, were enrolled in this study. The results demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated in individuals with ASD in response to autistic characters and in TD individuals in response to non-autistic characters. Although the frontal–posterior network between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus participated in the processing of non-autistic characters in TD individuals, an alternative network was involved when individuals with ASD processed autistic characters. This suggests an atypical form of empathy in individuals with ASD toward others with ASD. PMID:25332405

  4. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges' report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward.

  5. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges’ report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward. PMID:25722757

  6. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  7. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  8. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Tim; Sierksma, Martijn C.; Meredith, Rhiannon M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain function and behavior undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability (ID) neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioral phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioral development (referred to also as “neurotypical” development) and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated. This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and ID types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1) a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically) normal-developing brain; (2) investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions. This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention. PMID:24198768

  9. [Evaluation of the quality of life in people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Gómez, José L; Casado Muñoz, Raquel; Lezcano Barbero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The search for quality of life and the trend towards continual improvement has today become a true reference which guides most social organizations. The bodies which offer support to persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (referred to hereon as ASD) have not gone untouched by the influence of this concept of quality. The serious difficulties which are associated with this disorder affect the main areas of one ??s personal development: socialisation, communication, comprehension, and adaptation to ones environment, and they require that organizations promote integral networks of resources which guarantee a lifetime of quality services and support. The difficulties of assessing quality of life in persons with ASD from the subjective perspective, make it especially necessary to find valid indicators that help us to favour certain conditions in the ASD person ??s environment. This identified need is justification for the objective put forward: to design an instrument capable of being used to assess the quality of life of persons with ASD, made up of a Guide of Indicators, which organizations and programmes can then use to promote favourable conditions.

  10. Treatment of autistic spectrum disorder with insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili

    2016-11-01

    There are no treatments for the core symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), but there is now more knowledge on emerging mechanisms and on mechanism-based therapies. In autism there are altered synapses: genes affected are commonly related to synaptic and immune function. Dysregulation of activity-dependent signaling networks may have a key role the etiology of autism. There is an over-activation of IGF-AKT-mTor in autism spectrum disorders. Morphological and electro-physiological defects of the cerebellum are linked to system-wide ASD-like behavior defects. The molecular basis for a cerebellar contribution has been demonstrated in a mouse model. These have led to a potential mechanism-based use of drug targets and mouse models. Neurotrophic factors are potential candidates for the treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is altered in autism. It reduces neuro-inflammation: by causing changes of cytokines such as IL-6 and microglial function. IGF-1 reduces the defects in the synapse. It alleviates NMDA-induced neurotoxicity via the IGF-AKT-mTor pathway in microglia. IGF-1 may rescue function in Rett syndrome and ASD caused by changes of the SCHANK3 gene. There are recently pilot studies of the treatment of Rett syndrome and of SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndromes. The FDA has granted Orphan drug designations for Fragile X syndrome, SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndrome and Rett syndrome.

  11. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with parents of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children with typical development and parents of children with other disabilities. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the WHOQOL-BREF with a sample of 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The factor structure for the WHOQOL-BREF was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Our analyses provided no evidence of a better model than the original 4-domain model. Nevertheless, some items in the measure were re-distributed to different domains based on theoretical meanings and/or clean loading criteria. The new model structure gained the measure's required validity with parents of children with Autistic Disorder.

  12. Computers and Autistic Learners: An Evolving Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedbring, Charles

    1985-01-01

    A research and demonstration computer center for severely handicapped autistic children, STEPPE-Lab, which uses computers as an augmentative communication and instructional system, is described. The article first reviews the keyboard, joystick, mouse, and drawing tablet as augmentative devices for helping communication disordered children interact…

  13. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  14. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  15. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM SHOUSHTARI, Mitra; GHALEBANDI, Mirfarhad; TAVASOLI, Azita; POURSHAMS, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies. PMID:26664444

  16. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  17. Commentary: The Treatment of Seizure Disorders and EEG Abnormalities in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Are We Getting Ahead of Ourselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary reviews studies of children with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) and autistic regression (AR) and concludes that they are two distinct entities with different epileptic profiles and that the treatment modalities used in LKS cannot be expected to yield a therapeutic effect in AR. Multiple Subpial Transection is discussed. (Contains…

  18. Speech preference is associated with autistic-like behavior in 18-months-olds at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to nonspeech at 12 months. In both groups, relative preference for speech correlated positively with general cognitive ability at 12 months. However, in high-risk infants only, preference for speech was associated with autistic-like behavior at 18 months, while in low-risk infants, preference for speech correlated with language abilities. This suggests that in children at risk for ASD an atypical species-specific bias for speech may underlie atypical social development.

  19. Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brian R; Lincoln, Alan J; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

    2005-08-01

    The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were measured by a variety of instruments (i.e., the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist). The study replicated the executive function profile that has been reported in adults with AD. In addition to the replication findings, the study found several executive processes (i.e., cognitive flexibility, working memory, and response inhibition) were highly related to the restrictive, repetitive symptoms of AD; whereas, other executive process (i.e., planning and fluency) were not found to be significantly correlated with restricted, repetitive symptoms. Similarly, we found an executive function model consisting of relative strengths and deficits was the best predictor of restricted, repetitive symptoms of autism. The implications for the executive function theory and how the theory predicts core symptoms of autism are discussed.

  20. Interpersonal distance and social anxiety in autistic spectrum disorders: A behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    An inherent feature of social interactions is the use of social space or interpersonal distance-the space between one individual and another. Because social deficits are core symptoms of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we hypothesized that individuals on this spectrum will exhibit abnormal interpersonal distance preferences. The literature on interpersonal distance in ASD is not conclusive. While some studies show preferences for closer distances among this group, others show preferences for farther distances than controls. A common symptom of ASD that may explain the variance in responses to interpersonal distance in this population is social anxiety (SA), which has been shown to correlate with interpersonal distance preferences. In the current study, we investigated interpersonal distance preferences in a group of individuals with ASD using both behavioral and ERP measures. We found greater variance in interpersonal distance preferences in the ASD group than in the control group. Furthermore, we showed that this variance can be explained by differences in SA level and can be predicted by the N1 amplitude, an early ERP component related to attention and discrimination processes. These results hint at the early sensory and attentional processes that may be affecting higher social behaviors, both in subclinical and in clinical populations.

  1. Deletion 1q43 encompassing only CHRM3 in a patient with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrea Klunder; Ahmad, Ausaf; Shafiq, Mustafa; Brown-Kipphut, Brigette; Fong, Chin-To; Anwar Iqbal, M

    2013-02-01

    Deletions on the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 1 result in complex and highly variable clinical phenotypes which include intellectual disability, autism, seizures, microcephaly/craniofacial dysmorphology, corpus callosal agenesis/hypogenesis, cardiac and genital anomalies, hand and foot abnormalities and short stature. Genotype-phenotype correlation reported a minimum region of 2 Mb at 1q43-q44. We report on a 3 ½ year old male patient diagnosed with autistic disorder who has social withdrawal, eating problems, repetitive stereotypic behaviors including self-injurious head banging and hair pulling, and no seizures, anxiety, or mood swings. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed an interstitial deletion of 473 kb at 1q43 region (239,412,391-239,885,394; NCBI build37/hg19) harboring only CHRM3 (Acetylcholine Receptor, Muscarinic, 3; OMIM: 118494). Recently, another case with a de novo interstitial deletion of 911 kb at 1q43 encompassing three genes including CHRM3 was reported. The M3 muscarinic receptor influences a multitude of central and peripheral nervous system processes via its interaction with acetylcholine and may be an important modulator of behavior, learning and memory. We propose CHRM3 as a candidate gene responsible for our patient's specific phenotype as well as the overlapping phenotypic features of other patients with 1q43 or 1q43-q44 deletions.

  2. The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Coben, Robert; Myers, Thomas E

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication, social interaction, and a limited range of interests with repetitive stereotypical behavior. Various abnormalities have been documented in the brains of individuals with autism, both anatomically and functionally. The connectivity theory of autism is a recently developed theory of the neurobiological cause of autisic symptoms. Different patterns of hyper- and hypo-connectivity have been identified with the use of quantitative electroencephalogray (QEEG), which may be amenable to neurofeedback. In this study, we compared the results of two published controlled studies examining the efficacy of neurofeedback in the treatment of autism. Specifically, we examined whether a symptom based approach or an assessment/connectivity guided based approach was more effective. Although both methods demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms of autism, connectivity guided neurofeedback demonstrated greater reduction on various subscales of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Furthermore, when individuals were matched for severity of symptoms, the amount of change per session was significantly higher in the Coben and Padolsky (J Neurother 11:5-23, 2007) study for all five measures of the ATEC. Our findings suggest that an approach guided by QEEG based connectivity assessment may be more efficacious in the treatment of autism. This permits the targeting and amelioration of abnormal connectivity patterns in the brains of people who are autistic.

  3. A comparison of behavioral and emotional functioning in children and adolescents with Autistic Disorder and PDD-NOS.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lachar, David; Lane, David M; Reddoch, Stacy L; Mansour, Rosleen; Cleveland, Lynne A

    2006-08-01

    Behavioral symptomatology was compared in 26 children and adolescents with Autistic Disorder ("autism") and 25 children and adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified ("PDD-NOS"). Relative to individuals with PDD-NOS, those with autism had more symptoms of depression, social withdrawal, atypical behavior, and immature social skills--and fewer family problems. These differences remained even when group differences in intellectual ability were statistically controlled. No group differences emerged in somatization, anxiety, or hyperactivity. Findings suggest that although both groups demonstrate considerable evidence of behavioral and emotional problems, those with autism are at particularly high risk for comorbid behavioral and emotional disabilities.

  4. Childhood disintegrative disorder: distinction from autistic disorder and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Rosman, N Paul; Bergia, Berta M

    2013-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, a rare, relentlessly progressive neurologic disorder, first described by Heller in 1908, remains a condition of great interest. It has long been debated whether it is a discrete disorder or simply a late-onset variant of childhood autism. We have studied 6 cases of childhood disintegrative disorder, collected over 8 years, and followed for 2.5 to 22 years (mean 8.6 years). Childhood disintegrative disorder begins later in life than autism, and following a period of entirely normal development; the regression is more global and more severe than in autism; seizures are more frequent than in autism, yet demonstrable organicity in childhood disintegrative disorder is decidedly rare. Lastly, the prognosis is usually much worse than in autism, but in those cases with neither seizures nor epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG), the outcome may be more favorable. Childhood disintegrative disorder should be viewed as a condition distinct from childhood autism.

  5. Evaluation of planning dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorders using the zoo map task.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Marin, M D; Moreno-Granados, J M; Ruiz-Veguilla, M; Ferrin, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This study evaluates the planning function problems in 80 male children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and 23 male children and adolescents with ASD using the Zoo Map Task; both groups were comparable in terms of age and IQ. The relationship between planning function and other executive functions is also assessed. In comparison to the ADHD groups, ASD children presented more errors in the open-ended tasks; these planning function problems seem to be mediated by processing speed and motor coordination, however it does not seem to be mediated by other executive function problems, including attention, working memory or response inhibition. In the time for planning, an interaction between the specific subgroups and working memory components was observed. ADHD and ASD present with different patterns of planning function, even when other components of executive function are taken into account; clinical and educational implications are discussed.

  6. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  7. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48–3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98–15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81–5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63–30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  8. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  9. Advances in the Research of Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Literature Review and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Najjar, Imen; Bellissant, Eric; Anderson, George M.; Barburoth, Marianne; Cohen, David; Jaafari, Nemat; Schischmanoff, Olivier; Fagard, Rémi; Lagdas, Enas; Kermarrec, Solenn; Ribardiere, Sophie; Botbol, Michel; Fougerou, Claire; Bronsard, Guillaume; Vernay-Leconte, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in melatonin physiology may be involved or closely linked to the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, given its role in neurodevelopment and reports of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, decreased nocturnal melatonin production, and beneficial therapeutic effects of melatonin in individuals with autism. In addition, melatonin, as a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. More specifically, the role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators opens interesting perspectives to ascertain better the mechanisms underlying the significant relationship found between lower nocturnal melatonin excretion and increased severity of autistic social communication impairments, especially for verbal communication and social imitative play. In this article, first we review the studies on melatonin levels and the treatment studies of melatonin in autistic disorder. Then, we discuss the relationships between melatonin and autistic behavioral impairments with regard to social communication (verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction), and repetitive behaviors or interests with difficulties adapting to change. In conclusion, we emphasize that randomized clinical trials in autism spectrum disorders are warranted to establish potential therapeutic efficacy of melatonin for social communication impairments and stereotyped behaviors or interests. PMID:24129182

  10. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  11. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  12. Is long-term prognosis for pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified different from prognosis for autistic disorder? Findings from a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-06-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that differed significantly between the AD and PDD NOS groups (89% vs. 72%, p < 0.05). The lower rate of disability pension award in the PDD NOS group was predicted by better psychosocial functioning. The lack of substantial differences in prognosis between the groups supports a dimensional description of autism spectrum disorder, in line with proposed DSM-V revision.

  13. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys.

  14. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2016-04-14

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology.

  15. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  16. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  17. Early-onset Tourette syndrome with reversible autistic behaviour: a dysmaturational disorder.

    PubMed

    Zappella, M

    2002-02-01

    Early-onset Tourette syndrome comorbid with reversible autistic behaviour is described in twelve young males. After a normal gestation, delivery and first-year development, regression set in between the age of one and two with loss of various abilities and the emergence of autistic behaviour. At this time, or slightly later, they showed multiple motor and vocal tics, simple and complex: the latter could also be traced to most of their parents. Following an intervention based on intense cuddling, motor activation and paedagogic guidance, these children's abilities rapidly improved, reaching at follow-up a normal or borderline intellectual functioning and with the disappearance of their initial autistic behaviour. At follow-up tics were present in all, usually with the features of a full-blown Tourette syndrome, often comorbid with ADHD, and in some cases with OCD.

  18. Heterogeneity of subclinical autistic traits among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Identifying the broader autism phenotype with a data-driven method.

    PubMed

    Bora, Emre; Aydın, Aydan; Saraç, Tuğba; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Köse, Sezen

    2017-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be conceptualized as the extreme end of the distribution of subclinical autistic traits related to genetic susceptibility factors (broad autism phenotype (BAP)) in the general population. Subclinical autistic traits are significantly more common among unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with autism. However, there is a significant heterogeneity of autistic traits in family members of individuals with ASD and severity of autistic traits are not significantly different from controls in the majority of these relatives. The current study investigated the heterogeneity of autistic traits using latent class analysis (LCA) of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) ratings of 673 parents of children with ASD and 147 parents of typically developing children. Two distinct subgroups, including a "low-scoring" and a "high-scorer (BAP)" groups, were found. In comparison to control parents, a significantly larger proportion (21.1% vs. 7.5%) of parents of ASD were members of BAP group. Communication subscale made a distinctive contribution to the separation of high and low-scoring groups (d = 2.77). Further studies investigating neurobiological and genetic biomarkers and stability of these two subgroups over time are important for understanding the nature of autistic traits in the general population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 321-326. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism.

  20. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, Veema; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W; Hautus, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400). These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  1. "THOMAS" Training: An Early Years Intervention for Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Belinda; Beresford, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    The "THOMAS" course (The Hampshire Outline for Meeting the needs of under fives on the Autistic Spectrum) is a four-day training programme to enhance the learning of young children with impairments in social understanding, communication and play by increasing the use of appropriate interventions. It has been supporting families and…

  2. Anthropomorphic Bias Found in Typically Developing Children Is Not Found in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The anthropomorphic bias describes the finding that the perceived naturalness of a biological motion decreases as the human-likeness of a computer-animated agent increases. To investigate the anthropomorphic bias in autistic children, human or cartoon characters were presented with biological and artificial motions side by side on a touchscreen.…

  3. Brief Report: A Case-Control Study of Obstetric Complications and Later Autistic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryan, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contemporaneous birth records of 49 Dublin (Ireland) children with autism were compared to those of the previous same-sex live birth for maternal age, maternal parity, birth order, and birth weight. Autistic individuals did not differ from controls in terms of risk factors for autism associated with obstetric adversity, disputing the view that…

  4. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  5. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  6. Role of Genetics in the Etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Towards a Hierarchical Diagnostic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Cyrille; Pasquier, Laurent; Cohen, David; Fradin, Mélanie; Canitano, Roberto; Damaj, Léna; Odent, Sylvie; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy number variants, and other chromosomal disorders), and consequently to propose a hierarchical diagnostic strategy with a stepwise evaluation, helping general practitioners/pediatricians and child psychiatrists to collaborate with geneticists and neuropediatricians, in order to search for genetic disorders associated with ASD. The first step is a clinical investigation involving: (i) a child psychiatric and psychological evaluation confirming autism diagnosis from different observational sources and assessing autism severity; (ii) a neuropediatric evaluation examining neurological symptoms and developmental milestones; and (iii) a genetic evaluation searching for dysmorphic features and malformations. The second step involves laboratory and if necessary neuroimaging and EEG studies oriented by clinical results based on clinical genetic and neuropediatric examinations. The identification of genetic disorders associated with ASD has practical implications for diagnostic strategies, early detection or prevention of co-morbidity, specific treatment and follow up, and genetic counseling. PMID:28287497

  7. A Case Study of Parent-Child Interactions of a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (3-48 Months) and Comparison with Typically-Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedenbro, Monica; Tjus, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Early triadic interaction, the reciprocal action between mother-father-child, is described in the family of a girl diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (DSM 299.00) and learning difficulties at seven years. By chance, the family participated in a longitudinal study examining triadic interaction in 20 Swedish families using the Lausanne…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation into the Potential Role of Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) Preference within the Assortative Mating Hypothesis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Walker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Of particular interest to studying the etiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is the potential for multiple risk factors to combine through non-random mechanisms--assortative mating. Both genetic influences and a high-testosterone prenatal environment have been implicated in the etiology of ASDs, and given that waist-hip ratio (WHR) is…

  9. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  10. Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Branch, Corinne; March, Caty; Lerman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  11. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  12. Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli Causes Emergence of Under-Selected Cues in Higher-Functioning Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; McCausland, Aisling; Leader, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether over-selectivity is the product of a post-acquisition performance deficit, rather than an attention problem. In both experiments, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder were presented with a trial-and-error discrimination task using two, two-element stimuli and over-selected in both studies. After behavioral…

  13. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of DIR/Floortime[TM] Parent Training Intervention for Pre-School Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajareya, Kingkaew; Nopmaneejumruslers, Kaewta

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of adding home-based Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR)/Floortime[TM] intervention to the routine care of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder. Measures of functional emotional development and symptom severity were taken. It was found that after the…

  14. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  15. A Survey of Parents' Reactions to the Diagnosis of an Autistic Spectrum Disorder by a Local Service. Access to Information and Use of Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a…

  16. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  17. Evaluation of the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in differentiating high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder from schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kenichi; Matsui, Yusuke; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2010-09-30

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to differentiate high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) from schizophrenia (SCH). The AQ was developed by Baron-Cohen et al. to measure autistic traits. In addition to the original AQ items, we created self-administered questions about psychotic symptoms (S-scale). We administered the modified AQ to 51 ASD patients and 46 SCH patients, and we compared these two groups in terms of total AQ score, AQ subscale scores and S-scale score. We applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to examine the discriminating power of the AQ. The mean total AQ score of the ASD group (32.6; SD=6.8; range: 8-48) was significantly higher than that of the SCH group (21.8; SD=7.4; range: 10-39) (p<0.001). All AQ subscale scores of the ASD group were significantly higher than those of the SCH group. By using a cut-off score of 29 for the AQ total score, we were able to correctly classify 80% of the subjects. At this cut-off, the positive and negative predictive values were 0.83 and 0.78, respectively. Inclusion of additional questions of the S-scale did not increase the power of differentiation. These results indicate that the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating high-functioning ASD from SCH is limited.

  18. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P < .001). At follow-up at a mean age of 20.7 years (standard deviation = 3.9 years), 8 of the 11 (73%) were at least somewhat better. Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  19. Some aspects of treatment and habilitation of children and adolescents with autistic disorder in Northern-Finland.

    PubMed

    Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2002-01-01

    Hospital records and data on the treatment/habilitation status of 187 children with autism aged 3-18 years were gathered from Northern Finland. The treatment programs and therapies varied, depending on the trained staff available. One-hundred and fifty-two (82.9%) children and adolescents with autism received more than one therapeutic intervention or specific training program. The most common therapies were physiotherapy as well as speech, occupational and music therapy. 43.9% of the children and adolescents with autism received specific training according to TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-Handicapped Children), 10.2% according to Lovaas and 30.5% according to the Portage program. Antiepileptic medication had been prescribed to 23.9% and psychopharmacological interventions to 14.9% of the individuals with autistic disorder (AD). One hundred and seventy-eight subjects out of 187 showed some improvement on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), even if no statistically significant difference was found between the outcome of the available habilitation methods.

  20. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-09-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to piracetam + risperidone (Group A) or placebo + risperidone (Group B) for a 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of piracetam was titrated up to 800 mg/day. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks of starting medication. The measure of the outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale (total score). The ABC-C Rating Scale scores improved with piracetam. The difference between the two protocols was significant as indicated by the effect of group, the between subjects factor (F = 5.85, d.f. = 1, P = 0.02). The changes at the endpoint compared with baseline were: -11.90 +/- 3.79 (mean +/- SD) and -5.15 +/- 3.04 for group A and B respectively. A significant difference was observed on the change in scores in the ABC-C Rating Scale in week 10 compared with baseline in the two groups (t = 6.017, d.f. = 38, P < 0.0001). The results suggest that a combination of atypical antipsychotic medications and a glutamate agent such as piracetam, might have increase synergistic effects in the treatment of autism.

  1. The early development of joint attention in infants with autistic disorder using home video observations and parental interview.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally M; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    The aim in the current study was to investigate the early development of joint attention, eye contact and affect during the first 2 years of life, by using retrospective parental interviews and analyses of home videos of infants who were later diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). The 36 children with AD and the 27 matched control children were all aged between 3 and 5 years at recruitment. Reported anomalies in gaze and affect emerged in the children with AD as early as the first 6 months of life, generally becoming more severe just prior to the second birthday. Video data confirmed these anomalies from as early as the first year. Joint attention impairments were found throughout the second year of life. The results suggest that early dyadic behaviours-eye contact and affect-may play a role in the joint attention impairment in AD.

  2. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: an examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Sikora, Darryn M

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5-3.9 years. Overall, boys and girls evidenced a markedly similar pattern of developmental profiles, autism symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems, although subtle differences exist. Boys and girls evidenced a similar pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. Girls with ASD evidenced greater communication deficits than boys and boys evidenced more restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior than girls. Girls exhibited more sleep problems and anxious or depressed affect than boys.

  3. Development of symbolic play through the use of virtual reality tools in children with autistic spectrum disorders: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina

    2008-03-01

    Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being possible to show these imaginary transformations explicitly. This article reports two case studies of children with autism (aged 8:6 and 15:7, both male), examining the effectiveness of using a VR tool specifically designed to work on teaching understanding of pretend play. The results, confirmed by independent observers, showed a significant advance in pretend play abilities after the intervention period in both participants, and a high degree of generalization of the acquired teaching in one of them.

  4. Play behaviours and play object preferences of young children with autistic disorder in a clinical play environment.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Anna; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Play is the primary occupation of childhood and provides a potentially powerful means of assessing and treating children with autistic disorder. This study utilized a cross-sectional comparison design to investigate the nature of play engagement in children with AD (n = 24), relative to typically developing children (n = 34) matched for chronological age. Play behaviours were recorded in a clinical play environment. Videotapes comprising 15 minutes of the children's spontaneous play behaviour were analysed using time-interval analysis. The particular play behaviours observed and play objects used were coded. Differences in play behaviours (p < 0.0001) and play object preferences (p < 0.0001) were identified between the groups. Findings regarding play behaviour contribute to contention in the literature surrounding functional and symbolic play. Explanations for play object preferences are postulated. Recommendations are made regarding clinical application of findings in terms of enhancing assessment and intervention by augmenting motivation.

  5. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  6. [Two main mistakes in classificatory and clinical function of DSM-IV, in the case of differential diagnosis between Asperger and autistic disorder].

    PubMed

    Areta, Joaquín E

    2009-01-01

    Symptomatic description of what the DSM-IV understands for Asperger's and Autistic Disorder was analyzed. As a result of this revision there was found that a great amount of diagnostic criteria overlap, and lead to the impossibility to make a clear differential diagnosis. The classifying function is, thus, criticized. The clinical function of this diagnostic distinction is analyzed through a clinical case. It is shown it's lack of utility when a therapeutic method should be implemented in a case of Autistic Disorder. It is concluded that the statistical value of the results obtained by using this classificatory instrument should be examined due to this lack of distinction. Also, according to the therapeutic approach witch the author makes reference, it is shown that the diagnostic of any both disorders does not modify the general intervention strategy.

  7. Female patient with autistic disorder, intellectual disability, and co-morbid anxiety disorder: Expanding the phenotype associated with the recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 microdeletion.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Ines; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Resches, Mariela; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the advent of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and its use as a first genetic test for the diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental phenotypes has allowed the identification of novel submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities (namely, copy number variants or CNVs), imperceptible by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #615433) has been defined as a genomic disorder mainly characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males, and characteristic craniofacial features. Although the 3q13.31 CNVs are variable in size, a 3.4 Mb recurrently altered region at 3q13.2-q13.31 has been recently described and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by flanking human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements has been suggested as the mechanism of deletion formation. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with this recurrent deletion performing the clinical description of a 9-year-old female patient with autistic disorder, total absence of language, intellectual disability, anxiety disorder and disruptive, and compulsive eating behaviors. The array-based molecular karyotyping allowed the identification of a de novo recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 deletion encompassing 25 genes. In addition, we compare her clinical phenotype with previous reports of patients with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and proximal 3q microdeletions. Finally, we also review the candidate genes proposed so far for these phenotypes.

  8. Further evidence that the rs1858830 C variant in the promoter region of the MET gene is associated with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Pamela B; Boccuto, Luigi; Skinner, Cindy; Collins, Julianne S; Neri, Giovanni; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Schwartz, Charles E

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies in three independent cohorts have shown that the rs1858830 C allele variant in the promoter region of the MET gene on chromosome 7q31 is associated with autism. Another study has found correlations between other alterations in the MET gene and autism in two unrelated cohorts. This study screened two cohorts, an Autistic Disorder cohort from South Carolina and a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) cohort from Italy, for the presence of the C allele variant in rs1858830. A significant increase in the C allele variant frequency was found in the South Carolina Autistic Disorder patients as compared to South Carolina Controls (chi(2)=5.8, df=1, P=0.02). In the South Carolina cohort, a significant association with Autistic Disorder was found when comparing the CC and CG genotypes to the GG genotype (odds ratio (OR)=1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-2.40; chi(2)=6.5, df=1, P=0.01) in cases and controls. In the Italian cohort, no significant association with PDD was found when comparing the CC or CG genotype to the GG genotype (OR=1.20; 95% CI=0.56-2.56; chi(2)=0.2, df=1, P=0.64). This study is the third independent study to find the rs1858830 C variant in the MET gene promoter to be associated with autism.

  9. Anthropomorphic bias found in typically developing children is not found in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Hodgins, Jessica K; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The anthropomorphic bias describes the finding that the perceived naturalness of a biological motion decreases as the human-likeness of a computer-animated agent increases. To investigate the anthropomorphic bias in autistic children, human or cartoon characters were presented with biological and artificial motions side by side on a touchscreen. Children were required to touch one that would grow while the other would disappear, implicitly rewarding their choice. Only typically developing controls depicted the expected preference for biological motion when rendered with human, but not cartoon, characters. Despite performing the task to report a preference, children with autism depicted neither normal nor reversed anthropomorphic bias, suggesting that they are not sensitive to the congruence of form and motion information when observing computer-animated agents' actions.

  10. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  11. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Grant, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current review covers extant literature on pharmacotherapy for core symptoms of autism. The core symptoms of autism include impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. There are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. While studies of fenfluramine, secretin, opiates, and mood stabilizers generally find no effect, mixed results suggest more research is needed on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Newer lines of research, including cholinergic and glutamatergic agents and oxytocin, will be of considerable interest in the future. However, research on the treatment of core symptoms is plagued by limitations in study design, statistical power, and other issues inherent to the study of treatments for autism (e.g., heterogeneity of the disorder) that continue to prevent the elucidation of efficacious treatments.

  12. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported.

  13. Psychosocial interventions for reducing vocal challenging behavior in persons with autistic disorder: a multilevel meta-analysis of single-case experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanderkerken, Lien; Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Vocal challenging behavior (VCB) forms a common problem in individuals with autistic disorder. Since VCB is associated with negative outcomes for the individual and his or her environment, it is important to know how to manage this type of CB. To evaluate the effectiveness of several psychosocial interventions applied to decrease VCB in individuals with autistic disorder, we conducted a meta-analysis of single-case experiments (SCEs). Fifty-two SCEs, including 74 participants, were combined using a multilevel meta-analysis. The overall treatment effect was large and statistically significant. However, the effect varied significantly over the included studies and participants. Examining this variance, evidence was found for a moderator effect of VCB type and intervention type, with, on average, the largest effects for interventions used to reduce VCB including stereotypical VCB and for interventions containing both antecedent and consequence components. Age, gender, primary treatment setting, publication year, and study quality did not significantly moderate the intervention effect.

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the glutamatergic system in adolescent males with high-functioning autistic disorder: a pilot study at 4T.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gagan; Biederman, Joseph; Wozniak, Janet; Goldin, Rachel L; Crowley, Dave; Furtak, Stephannie; Lukas, Scott E; Gönenç, Atilla

    2013-08-01

    The pilot study aimed at examining the neural glutamatergic activity in autism. Seven adolescent males (mean age: 14 ± 1.8; age range: 12-17 years) with intact intellectual capacity (mean IQ: 108 ± 14.26; IQ range: 85-127) suffering from autistic disorder and an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan at 4T. Results indicated significantly high glutamate (Glu) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of autistic disorder versus control subjects (paired t test p = 0.01) and a trend for lower Glu in the right medial temporal lobe, which was not statistically different between the groups (paired t test p = 0.06). These preliminary findings support the glutamatergic dysregulation hypothesis in autism and need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  15. What Studies of Family Home Movies Can Teach Us about Autistic Infants: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Georges, Catherine; Cassel, Raquel S.; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    The current study reviewed all prior studies conducted on family home movies of infants who would be later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Out of 41 original reports found since 1975, we retained 18 studies (317 films, maximum), sorted according to their methodological design using a quality grid. In the first 2 years of life, signs…

  16. Narrative responses as an aid to understanding the presentation of maltreated children who meet criteria for autistic spectrum disorder and reactive attachment disorder: a case series study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Elaine; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi

    2014-07-01

    This paper offers research case studies of four severely maltreated children who had received a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder. A range of measures were employed to explore the children's psychological and emotional functioning, including Theory of Mind assessment (Sally-Anne Test), attachment measures (Story Stems Assessment Profile and Relationship Problems Questionnaire), along with measures to assess general psychological and emotional well-being. Contrary to the diagnosis, the children did not reveal a theory of mind deficit. However, they did indicate a profile of difficulties in mentalisation on the Story Stems. The findings are discussed in terms of the extent to which mentalisation and theory of mind are influenced by situational factors, especially the anxiety evoked by the Story Stem attachment scenarios. Clinical implications regarding mentalisation as a state vs. trait phenomenon are discussed.

  17. An Open-Label Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. Methods: In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5–17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to <45 kg, and 1.75 mg/day for those weighing ≥45 kg. The study primarily assessed risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Results: Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11–15%) and body mass index (5–10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. Conclusions: During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. Clinical Trials Registry: This phase-4

  18. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  19. Evaluating Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Available from: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Child Study Center, 1100 N.E. 13th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73117. The author reviews literature supporting the conclusion that IQ tests are of prognostic value with autistic children and recommends several behavioral techniques, such as positive reinforcement and ignoring interfering…

  20. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of inv dup(15) chromosomes observed in two patients with autistic disorder and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Flejter, W.L.; Bennett-Baker, P.E.; Gorski, J.L.

    1996-01-11

    A variety of distinct phenotypes has been associated with supernumerary inv dup(15) chromosomes. Although different cytogenetic rearrangements have been associated with distinguishable clinical syndromes, precise genotype-phenotype correlations have not been determined. However, the availability of chromosome 15 DNA markers provides a means to characterize inv dup(15) chromosomes in detail to facilitate the determination of specific genotype-phenotype associations. We describe 2 patients with an autistic disorder, mental retardation, developmental delay, seizures, and supernumerary inv dup(15) chromosomes. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies confirmed the chromosomal origin of the supernumerary chromosomes and showed that the duplicated region extended to at least band 15q13. An analysis of chromosome 15 microsatellite CA polymorphisms suggested a maternal origin of the inv dup(15) chromosomes and biparental inheritance of the two intact chromosome 15 homologs. The results of this study add to the existing literature which suggests that the clinical phenotype of patients with a supernumerary inv dup(15) chromosome is determined not only by the extent of the duplicated region, but by the dosage of genes located within band 15q13 and the origin of the normal chromosomes 15. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Can Neurotypical Individuals Read Autistic Facial Expressions? Atypical Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Biotti, Federica; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Happé, Francesca; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    The difficulties encountered by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when interacting with neurotypical (NT, i.e. nonautistic) individuals are usually attributed to failure to recognize the emotions and mental states of their NT interaction partner. It is also possible, however, that at least some of the difficulty is due to a failure of NT individuals to read the mental and emotional states of ASD interaction partners. Previous research has frequently observed deficits of typical facial emotion recognition in individuals with ASD, suggesting atypical representations of emotional expressions. Relatively little research, however, has investigated the ability of individuals with ASD to produce recognizable emotional expressions, and thus, whether NT individuals can recognize autistic emotional expressions. The few studies which have investigated this have used only NT observers, making it impossible to determine whether atypical representations are shared among individuals with ASD, or idiosyncratic. This study investigated NT and ASD participants' ability to recognize emotional expressions produced by NT and ASD posers. Three posing conditions were included, to determine whether potential group differences are due to atypical cognitive representations of emotion, impaired understanding of the communicative value of expressions, or poor proprioceptive feedback. Results indicated that ASD expressions were recognized less well than NT expressions, and that this is likely due to a genuine deficit in the representation of typical emotional expressions in this population. Further, ASD expressions were equally poorly recognized by NT individuals and those with ASD, implicating idiosyncratic, rather than common, atypical representations of emotional expressions in ASD.

  3. [Variations of heterochromatic chromosomal regions and chromosome abnormalities in children with autism: identification of genetic markers in autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Iu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Iurov, Iu B

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of 90 children with autism and their mothers (18 subjects) was carried out. Chromosome fragility and abnormalities were found in four cases: mos 47,XXX[98]/ 46,XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; 46Y,fra(X)(q27.3)16qh-. Using C-banding and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the significantly increased incidence of heterochromatic region variation was shown in autism as compared to the controls (48 and 16%, respectively). Pericentric 9phqh inversion was not characteristic of the patients with autism whereas heterochromatic variations 1phqh, 9qh+ and 16qh- were more frequent in autism (p<0,05). Basing on the data obtained, a possible role of position effect in autism pathogenesis as well as a potential of heterochromatic region variation analysis for the search of biological markers of autistic spectrum disorders are discussed.

  4. Applying the Hexagon-Spindle Model to the design of school environments for children with Autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Andrée; Woolner, Alex; Benedyk, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Schools and other educational environments beyond serving as the primary work places of children provide the backdrop against which formative emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development takes place. However, ergonomists have paid little attention to the design of these environments, the interactions within them or their organization from a child's perspective. Children with special education needs, such as those with hearing or visual difficulties, cognitive or social disabilities, or even those with different learning styles may be placed in mainstream schools ill-equipped to suit their needs. Rather than retrofitting classrooms as children with different requirements enter the school, a ground-up approach could be taken to create effective educational environments based on an understanding of the learning tasks to be supported, the learner characteristics and the facilities and interactions needed to effect task completion. The application of an holistic ergonomic model, such as the Hexagon-Spindle model provides a means of systematically considering the variables which need to be included in the design and evaluation of such environments. This paper presents a case study of the application of this model to the design of low sensory classrooms and interactive learning experiences for children with an autistic spectrum disorder.

  5. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  6. Functional Evaluation of Hidden Figures Object Analysis in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Foreman, Derek; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, K.; Summers, Randy; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a hidden figures task (HFT) was used to compare differences in brain function in children diagnosed with autism disorder (AD) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical controls (TC). Overall greater functional MRI activity was observed in…

  7. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  8. Social Competence Intervention in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDS) - A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Noor A.; Oweini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of a combined intervention in remediating the social skills in a first-grader with a disorder from the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The researcher also aimed to identify the changes observed during the intervention period. The combined intervention consisted of reading…

  9. An Autistic Dimension: A Proposed Subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerot, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive…

  10. Myotonic disorders: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Chris; Salajegheh, Mohammad Kian

    2016-01-01

    The myotonic disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined diseases that are unified by the presence of myotonia, which is defined as failure of muscle relaxation after activation. The presentation of these disorders can range from asymptomatic electrical myotonia, as seen in some forms of myotonia congenita (MC), to severe disability with muscle weakness, cardiac conduction defects, and other systemic features as in myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1). In this review, we describe the clinical features and pathophysiology of the different myotonic disorders, their laboratory and electrophysiologic findings and briefly review the currently available treatments. PMID:27141276

  11. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of facial information processing in children with autistic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typically developing controls.

    PubMed

    Malisza, Krisztina L; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, Kristjan; Yu, Dickie C T; Summers, Randy; Chudley, Albert E

    2011-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural activation patterns of children diagnosed with autistic disorder (AD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls (TCs) in response to a task involving evaluation of facial expressions. Substantially greater functional activity was noted in TCs compared to both subjects diagnosed with AD and ADHD. Consistent with previous studies, differences in functional activation of the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, cerebellum, mesolimbic, and temporal lobe cortical regions of the brain during a task evaluating facial expressions were noted in AD compared to TCs. Differences in the neural activity in these brain regions were also observed in children diagnosed with AD compared to those diagnosed with ADHD. Overall decreased neural activity was observed during the faces task performance in the AD group compared to the other two groups, a finding consistent with studies using adults. Both TC and ADHD control groups showed increased inferior frontal cortex activity compared to the AD group. Significant activity was present in both TC and ADHD control groups in the insula which was absent in the AD group; this is consistent with other studies showing dysfunction of the mesolimbic system in children with AD. Although frontostriatal and mesolimbic systems appear to be affected in AD, these deficits were not in the same attentional networks which are dysfunctional in children diagnosed with ADHD.

  13. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  14. Can Neurotypical Individuals Read Autistic Facial Expressions? Atypical Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Biotti, Federica; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Happé, Francesca; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties encountered by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when interacting with neurotypical (NT, i.e. nonautistic) individuals are usually attributed to failure to recognize the emotions and mental states of their NT interaction partner. It is also possible, however, that at least some of the difficulty is due to a failure of NT individuals to read the mental and emotional states of ASD interaction partners. Previous research has frequently observed deficits of typical facial emotion recognition in individuals with ASD, suggesting atypical representations of emotional expressions. Relatively little research, however, has investigated the ability of individuals with ASD to produce recognizable emotional expressions, and thus, whether NT individuals can recognize autistic emotional expressions. The few studies which have investigated this have used only NT observers, making it impossible to determine whether atypical representations are shared among individuals with ASD, or idiosyncratic. This study investigated NT and ASD participants’ ability to recognize emotional expressions produced by NT and ASD posers. Three posing conditions were included, to determine whether potential group differences are due to atypical cognitive representations of emotion, impaired understanding of the communicative value of expressions, or poor proprioceptive feedback. Results indicated that ASD expressions were recognized less well than NT expressions, and that this is likely due to a genuine deficit in the representation of typical emotional expressions in this population. Further, ASD expressions were equally poorly recognized by NT individuals and those with ASD, implicating idiosyncratic, rather than common, atypical representations of emotional expressions in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 262–271. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26053037

  15. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  16. A New Way with Autistic and Other Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arnold; Eller-Miller, Eileen

    This monograph describes the program of the Language and Cognitive Development Center (Massachusetts), which serves toddlers and school-aged children with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). An introduction presents incidence figures, the program's philosophy, the program's approach to assessment, intervention with children…

  17. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  18. Characteristics of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS, and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…

  19. Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

  20. The Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Adolescents with a History of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Simkin, Zoe; Botting, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, autism and specific language impairment (SLI) have been regarded as distinct disorders but, more recently, evidence has been put forward for a closer link between them: a common set of language problems, in particular receptive language difficulties and the existence of intermediate cases including pragmatic language…

  1. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  2. Access and Inclusion for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: "Let Me In."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesmondhalgh, Matthew; Breakey, Christine

    Based on pioneering work at a school in Sheffield, England, this book explores the universal issues of access and inclusion in employment and education for children and young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It describes the challenges educators faced in establishing and running an integrated resource room for children with ASD within…

  3. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  4. Parent-Child Gesture Use during Problem Solving in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the…

  5. Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Causal Mechanisms and Recent Findings on Attention and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Susan E.; Landry, Reginald; Czapinski, Patrycja; McConnell, Beth; Rombough, Vicki; Wainwright, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of selective research on autism. Autism forms part of a spectrum of related developmental disorders that vary in severity. Both their prevalence and severity argue for concerted efforts aimed at improving our understanding and treatment of the many individuals affected. We begin by outlining an important discovery…

  6. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood with acquired neurocognitive, lexical semantic, and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nicholas M; Conroy, Judith; Deonna, Thierry; McCreary, Dara; McGettigan, Paul; Madigan, Cathy; Carter, Imogen; Ennis, Sean; Lynch, Sally A; Shahwan, Amre; King, Mary D

    2016-01-01

    Atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE) of childhood or pseudo-Lennox syndrome is a form of idiopathic focal epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, focal and/or generalized epileptiform discharges, continuous spike-wave during sleep (CSWS), and sometimes reversible neurocognitive deficits. There are few reported cases of ABPE describing detailed correlative longitudinal follow-up of the various associated neurocognitive, language, social communicative, or motor deficits, in parallel with the epilepsy. Furthermore, the molecular inheritance pattern for ABPE and the wider spectrum of epilepsy aphasia disorders have yet to be fully elucidated. We describe the phenotype-genotype study of a boy with ABPE with follow-up from ages 5 to 13 years showing acquired oromotor and, later, a specific lexical semantic and pervasive developmental disorder. Exome sequencing identified variants in SCN9A, CPA6, and SCNM1. A direct role of the epilepsy in the pathogenesis of the oromotor and neurocognitive deficits is apparent.

  7. Functional evaluation of hidden figures object analysis in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Malisza, Krisztina L; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Foreman, Derek; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, K; Summers, Randy; Yu, C T; Chudley, Albert E

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a hidden figures task (HFT) was used to compare differences in brain function in children diagnosed with autism disorder (AD) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical controls (TC). Overall greater functional MRI activity was observed in the two control groups compared to children with AD. Laterality differences were also evident, with AD subjects preferentially showing activity in the right medial temporal region while controls tended to activate the left medial temporal cortex. Reduced fMRI activity was observed in the parietal, ventral-temporal and hippocampal regions in the AD group, suggesting differences in the way that children with AD process the HFT.

  8. Merging data from genetic and epigenetic approaches to better understand autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Dennis R; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a wide range of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. Genetic research has identified large numbers of genes that contribute to ASD phenotypes. There is compelling evidence that environmental factors contribute to ASD through influences that differentially impact the brain through epigenetic mechanisms. Both genetic mutations and epigenetic influences alter gene expression in different cell types of the brain. Mutations impact the expression of large numbers of genes and also have downstream consequences depending on specific pathways associated with the mutation. Environmental factors impact the expression of sets of genes by altering methylation/hydroxymethylation patterns, local histone modification patterns and chromatin remodeling. Herein, we discuss recent developments in the research of ASD with a focus on epigenetic pathways as a complement to current genetic screening. PMID:26551091

  9. Prediction of autistic disorder using neuro fuzzy system by applying ANN technique.

    PubMed

    Arthi, K; Tamilarasi, A

    2008-11-01

    The major challenge in medical field is to diagnose disorder rather than a disease. In this paper, a neuro fuzzy based model is designed for identification or diagnosis of autism. The problematic areas are gathered from every individual and the related linguistic inputs are converted into fuzzy input values which are in turn given as input to feed forward multilayer neural network. The network is trained using back propagation training algorithm and tested for its performance with the expertise.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Differences in Autistic Behaviour Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible differences between high-functioning males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding the core symptoms of autism and coexisting psychopathology. A total of 23 females and 23 males matched for age, IQ, and ASD diagnoses were recruited(mean age 11y 9mo [SD 4y 5mo], range 5y-20y…

  11. Individualized Instruction Strategies in Mainstream Classrooms: Including Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Stephanie R.

    2008-01-01

    This literature review describes research based teaching strategies for general education teachers to provide equal education for students diagnosed with autism. General education classrooms are often made up of students with a broad spectrum of abilities, and it is the teacher's job to meet the needs of those students. Strategies addressed in…

  12. Pain Sensitivity and Observer Perception of Pain in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Allely, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed literature investigating the relationship between pain expression and perception of pain in individuals with ASD is sparse. The aim of the present systematic PRIMSA review was twofold: first, to see what evidence there is for the widely held belief that individuals with ASD are insensitive to pain or have a high pain threshold in the peer-reviewed literature and, second, to examine whether individuals with ASD react or express pain differently. Fifteen studies investigating pain in individuals with ASD were identified. The case studies all reported pain insensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, the majority of the ten experimental studies reviewed indicate that the idea that individuals with ASD are pain insensitive needs to be challenged. The findings also highlight the strong possibility that not all children with ASD express their physical discomfort in the same way as a neurotypical child would (i.e., cry, moan, seek comfort, etc.) which may lead caregivers and the medical profession to interpret this as pain insensitivity or incorrectly lead them to believe that the child is in no pain. These results have important implications for the assessment and management of pain in children with ASD. PMID:23843740

  13. An Intervention Technique for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Joint Attentional Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Wambacq, Ilse; Dowell, Debbie; Mathews, Lauren; Reese, Pam Britton

    1998-01-01

    Because all children with autism are deficient in joint attentional skills (ability to direct and maintain shared attention with another individual), this article reviews the literature on joint attention, its relationship other language rule systems, and its development in typical children. A case study illustrates the developmental course of…

  14. System and cost research issues in treatments for people with autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J W; Mulick, J A

    2000-12-01

    Parents of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder and educational and clinical practitioners providing services to them regularly confront a wide range of service selection and financial decisions that are not as yet effectively addressed by applied research. Relevant systems issues span a very broad range of concerns: (a) systems delivery models and issues (e.g., costs of services, implementation of intensive intervention, and teacher or therapist training); (b) how best to integrate treatments; (c) providing treatment to those with limited monetary resources; (d) cost and cost/benefit analyses; (e) how to educate adult psychiatrists (as well as other practitioners and personnel) regarding autism; and (f) gaps between research and practice.

  15. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  16. Receptor Inhibition by Immunoglobulins: Specific Inhibition by Autistic Children, Their Relatives, and Control Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Forty-two parents of children with autistic disorder, 15 children with autistic disorder, 17 siblings of children with autistic disorder, and 12 unrelated normal controls were studied for binding characteristics of their immunoglobulins. Results did not support the hypothesis that two specific autoantibodies are characteristic of autism.…

  17. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  18. Abnormal patterns of cerebral lateralisation as revealed by the Universal Chimeric Faces Task in individuals with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandie; Workman, Lance; Yeomans, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A previous study by Workman, Chilvers, Yeomans, and Taylor (2006), using the "Universal" Chimeric Faces Task (UCFT) for six emotional expressions, demonstrated that an overall left hemispatial/right hemisphere (RH) advantage has begun to develop by the age of 7-8. Moreover, the development of this left hemispatial advantage was observed to correlate positively with the ability to read emotions in the faces of others. Adopting the UCFT, the current study compared autistic children (11-15) with unimpaired children of two age groups (5-6 and 7-8) from this previous study. The autistic children showed a left hemispatial/RH advantage only for the two emotional expressions of "happiness" and "anger". Results for the autistic children revealed a similar overall pattern of lateralisation to the 5-6-year-olds and one that is less lateralised than the pattern for the 7-8-year-olds. Autistic children appear to show a developmental deficit for left hemispatial/RH advantage for emotional expression with the exception of "happiness" and "anger." The findings are discussed in terms of role hemisphericity and an approach-avoidance model.

  19. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  20. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  1. Reducing Auditory Hypersensitivities in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Preliminary Findings Evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.; Bazhenova, Olga V.; Bal, Elgiz; Carlson, Nancy; Sorokin, Yevgeniya; Heilman, Keri J.; Cook, Edwin H.; Lewis, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the present study, the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the listening project protocol (LPP), was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical “neural exercise” model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication. PMID:25136545

  2. Autism spectrum disorders: sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin; Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible differences between high-functioning males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding the core symptoms of autism and coexisting psychopathology. A total of 23 females and 23 males matched for age, IQ, and ASD diagnoses were recruited(mean age 11y 9mo [SD 4y 5mo], range 5y-20y 2mo) with an IQ above the range of learning disability (mean IQ 88.8 [SD 18.5], range 70-128). They were compared using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. We did not identify striking differences between males and females for the triad of autism core dysfunctions (deficits in reciprocal social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours) as assessed by expert ratings. However, with regard to several domains of coexisting psychopathology, parent reports revealed significantly more symptoms in females than males, particularly social problems (t=4.47, p<0.01, d=1.20), attention problems (t=3.39, p<0.01, d=0.80), and thought problems (t=3.24, p<0.01, d=0.84). These results are discussed with possible interpreting bias by parents who may expect more socially desired behaviour from daughters than from sons. The severity of social and attention problems in high-functioning females with autism emphasizes the need for thorough assessments and interventions in these domains. Future research should compare the cognitive phenotype of autism between sexes.

  3. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory.

  4. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with…

  5. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the "Impulse Control Disorder" section to the newly expanded "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders" section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed.

  6. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047). Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001), DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001), n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001) and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01). TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001), EPA (r = .418, P<0.001) AA (r = .199, P<0.001), and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001) and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001). CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002), EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038) and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021). Conclusions Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these

  7. Two patients with balanced translocations and autistic disorder: CSMD3 as a candidate gene for autism found in their common 8q23 breakpoint area.

    PubMed

    Floris, Chiara; Rassu, Stefania; Boccone, Loredana; Gasperini, Daniela; Cao, Antonio; Crisponi, Laura

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies estimated a rate of 3-5% of cytogenetic abnormalities involving many different chromosomes in autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we report on two unrelated male patients with de novo translocations, autistic behaviour and psychomotor delay. These two patients carry a balanced chromosome translocation t(5;8)(q14.3;q23.3) and t(6;8)(q13;q23.2), respectively. A detailed physical map covering the regions involved in the translocations was constructed using BAC clones mapping on chromosomes 5q14.3, 6q13 and 8q23. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analyses were carried out using these genomic clones. We fine mapped the two translocation breakpoints on chromosomes 8 identifying their position within a short 5 Mb genomic region. Breakpoints on chromosomes 8 in both patients do not interrupt any known gene but both map in a region containing the CSMD3 gene, which thereby can be considered as a candidate for ASDs.

  8. Does gender matter? A one year follow-up of autistic, attention and anxiety symptoms in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged 7-12 years) and one-year later, collecting measures of autism, attention and anxiety symptoms, school placement and support information. Findings indicated no gender differences in autistic symptoms. Males were more hyperactive and received more integration-aide support in mainstream schools, and females were more socially anxious. Overall, similar gender profiles were present across two time points. Lower hyperactivity levels in females might contribute to their under-identification. Implications are discussed using a biopsychosocial model of gender difference.

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial of DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Pajareya, Kingkaew; Nopmaneejumruslers, Kaewta

    2011-09-01

    This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of adding home-based Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR)/Floortime™ intervention to the routine care of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder. Measures of functional emotional development and symptom severity were taken. It was found that after the parents added home-based DIR/Floortime™ intervention at an average of 15.2 hours/week for three months, the intervention group made significantly greater gains in all three measures employed in the study: Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) (F = 5.1, p = .031), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (F = 2.1, p = .002), and the Functional Emotional Questionnaires (F = 6.8, p = .006). This study confirms the positive results obtained by a previous DIR pilot study (Solomon et al., 2007).

  10. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  11. What is the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Debbie L; Doris, Michael; Shannon, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2017-01-07

    There is increasing evidence to suggest both a symptomatic overlap and a clinically significant degree of co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia but the nature of such relationships remain unclear. We reviewed the literature reporting prevalence rates of Autistic-like Traits (ALTs) and ASD in populations with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. A search of three large databases was conducted and from this seven studies met the criteria for inclusion. The point prevalence rates for ALTs ranged from 9.6% to 61%, whilst the prevalence rates for diagnosed ASD ranged from <1% to 52% across outpatient and inpatient populations. This suggests that prevalence rates of ALTs and ASD in psychosis populations are much higher than in the general population. This has important implications regarding future research, and clinical implications in terms of ensuring that patients receive the most appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p < 0.0001), diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain.

  13. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders reviewer acknowledgement 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contributing reviewers The editors of Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders would like to thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 4 (2012). High quality and timely reviews are critical to the overall quality of the journal. We are committed to providing a unique and important outlet for scholarship regarding neurodevelopmental disorders and are indebted to the outstanding reviewers who have contributed their time over the last year in helping us to reach this goal. PMID:23517765

  14. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  15. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (P<0.05) and have the autistic endophenotype of enhanced oligopeptiduria (P<0.05). Temporocortical PRKCB1 gene expression was reduced on average by 35 and 31% for the PRKCB1-1 and PRKCB1-2 isoforms (P<0.01 and <0.05, respectively) according to qPCR. Protein amounts measured for the PKCbetaII isoform were similarly decreased by 35% (P=0.05). Decreased gene expression characterized patients carrying the 'normal' PRKCB1 alleles, whereas patients homozygous for the autism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  16. A Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Clinical severity was determined using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A statistically significant decrease (19.3 %) was detected in the diagnostic ratio with DSM-5. Age and symptom severity differed significantly between those who were and were not diagnosed with PDD using DSM-5. B4 criteria in DSM-5 was most common criterion. Results indicate that individuals diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR criteria may not be diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria.

  17. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research.

  18. A 6q14.1-q15 microdeletion in a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features with concomitant presence of a maternally inherited Xp22.31 copy number gain.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Ines; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Resches, Mariela; Eiris, Jesus; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-06-01

    We report on a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features who carries a rare interstitial microdeletion of 4.96 Mb at chromosome 6q14.1-q15. The patient also harbors a maternally inherited copy number gain of 1.69 Mb at chromosome Xp22.31, whose pathogenicity is under debate.

  19. A 6q14.1-q15 microdeletion in a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features with concomitant presence of a maternally inherited Xp22.31 copy number gain

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, Ines; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Resches, Mariela; Eiris, Jesus; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report on a male patient with severe autistic disorder, lack of oral language, and dysmorphic features who carries a rare interstitial microdeletion of 4.96 Mb at chromosome 6q14.1-q15. The patient also harbors a maternally inherited copy number gain of 1.69 Mb at chromosome Xp22.31, whose pathogenicity is under debate. PMID:26185640

  20. Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level.

    PubMed

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hesse, Philipp; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Strauch, Konstantin; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2010-03-05

    An increasing number of animal studies advert to a substantial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the regulation of social attachment and affiliation. Furthermore, animal studies showed anxiety and stress-reduced effects of oxytocin. First human studies confirm these findings in animal studies and implicate a crucial role of oxytocin in human social attachment behavior and in social interactions. Thus, the oxytocin system might be involved in the impairment of social interaction and attachment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) represents a plausible candidate gene for the etiology of ASD. To analyze whether genetic variants in the OXTR gene are associated with ASD we performed family-based single-marker and haplotype association analyses with 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR and its 5' region in 100 families with autistic disorders on high-functioning level (Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and atypical autism (AA)). Single-marker and haplotype association analyses revealed nominally significant associations of one single SNP and one haplotype with autism, respectively. Furthermore, employing a "reverse phenotyping" approach, patients carrying the haplotype associated with autism showed nominally significant impairments in comparison to noncarriers of the haplotype in items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithm describing aspects of social interaction and communication. In conclusion, our results implicate that genetic variation in the OXTR gene might be relevant in the etiology of autism on high-functioning level.

  1. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Hu, Valerie W.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.—Nguyen, A., Rauch, T. A., Pfeifer, G. P., Hu, V. W. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain. PMID:20375269

  2. Speech Development of Autistic Children by Interactive Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Ferdous, S. M.; Ahmed, Syed Ishtiaque; Anwar, Anika

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Speech disorder is one of the most common problems found with autistic children. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the introduction of computer-based interactive games along with the traditional therapies in order to help improve the speech of autistic children. Design/methodology/approach: From analysis of the works of Ivar…

  3. The Autistic Dialogic Style: A Case of Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Vera Regina J. R. M.

    2009-01-01

    In a former study (Fonseca and Bussab, 2006, "Self, other and dialogical space in autistic states", "International Journal of Psycho-Analysis", 87:1-16), the author hypothesised that in autistic disorders there is a distortion in the construction of what she defined as dialogic space. Such a space, in which self and other define each other…

  4. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  5. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  6. The Genetic Overlap of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic-like Traits: an Investigation of Individual Symptom Scales and Cognitive markers.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ronald, Angelica; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) frequently co-occur. However, due to previous exclusionary diagnostic criteria, little is known about the underlying causes of this covariation. Twin studies assessing ADHD symptoms and autistic-like traits (ALTs) suggest substantial genetic overlap, but have largely failed to take into account the genetic heterogeneity of symptom subscales. This study aimed to clarify the phenotypic and genetic relations between ADHD and ASD by distinguishing between symptom subscales that characterise the two disorders. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether ADHD-related cognitive impairments show a relationship with ALT symptom subscales; and whether potential shared cognitive impairments underlie the genetic risk shared between the ADHD and ALT symptoms. Multivariate structural equation modelling was conducted on a population-based sample of 1312 twins aged 7-10. Social-communication ALTs correlated moderately with both ADHD symptom domains (phenotypic correlations around 0.30) and showed substantial genetic overlap with both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (genetic correlation = 0.52 and 0.44, respectively). In addition to previously reported associations with ADHD traits, reaction time variability (RTV) showed significant phenotypic (0.18) and genetic (0.32) association with social-communication ALTs. RTV captured a significant proportion (24 %) of the genetic influences shared between inattention and social-communication ALTs. Our findings suggest that social-communication ALTs underlie the previously observed phenotypic and genetic covariation between ALTs and ADHD symptoms. RTV is not specific to ADHD symptoms, but is also associated with social-communication ALTs and can, in part, contribute to an explanation of the co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD.

  7. Pharmacological Modulation of GABA Function in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Panisi, Cristina; Damiani, Stefano; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an emerging health problem worldwide, but little is known about their pathogenesis. It has been hypothesized that autism may result from an imbalance between excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic pathways. Commonly used medications such as valproate, acamprosate, and arbaclofen may act on the GABAergic system and be a potential treatment for people with ASD. The present systematic review aimed at evaluating the state-of-the-art of clinical trials of GABA modulators in autism. To date there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of these drugs in autistic subjects, even if data are promising. Of note, short-term use of all the reviewed medications appears to be safe. Future well designed trials are needed to elucidate these preliminary findings.

  8. "They Say Every Child Matters, but They Don't": An Investigation into Parental and Carer Perceptions of Access to Leisure Facilities and Respite Care for Children and Young People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit, Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David; Emira, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the experiences and perceptions of parents and carers with respect to children accessing a variety of leisure activities, as well as short breaks and respite care. The children in question have wide-ranging needs and, for example, will be across the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The findings are based upon focus group…

  9. Separating 'emotion' from 'the science': Exploring the perceived value of information for parents and families of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2015-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a life-long condition. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of children diagnosed with ASD and a greater recognition that parents need clear, accessible information communicated through different modalities. The objective of this research was to explore the views of stakeholders regarding their information needs, current information modalities and the perceived barriers and complexities of information. Three focus groups with the same stakeholders were conducted with a range of individuals from a variety of backgrounds, all of whom had a personal and/or professional interest in ASD. The same stakeholders were included in all three groups to promote depth of analysis and to facilitate rapport. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main issues were identified, including (1) the value of particular information sources; (2) the vulnerability of families and (3) the need for validated evidence. It was concluded, therefore, that information should be available through a multitude of modalities, accounting for the educational ability and economic status of families. The information should also be communicated in an accessible style, should be presented as trustworthy and clinical professionals may play a key role in translating information. Such information also needs to account for practical problems inherent to having a child with ASD, including time constraints and fatigue.

  10. A CGG-repeat expansion mutation in ZNF713 causes FRA7A: association with autistic spectrum disorder in two families.

    PubMed

    Metsu, Sofie; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Debacker, Kim; Bernhard, Birgitta; Rooms, Liesbeth; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fombonne, Eric; Taylor, Martin S; Scherer, Stephen W; Kooy, R Frank; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-11-01

    We report de novo occurrence of the 7p11.2 folate-sensitive fragile site FRA7A in a male with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation (∼450 repeats) in a 5' intron of ZNF713. This expanded allele showed hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island with reduced ZNF713 expression observed in a proband-derived lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). His unaffected mother carried an unmethylated premutation (85 repeats). This CGG-repeat showed length polymorphism in control samples (five to 22 repeats). In a second unrelated family, three siblings with ASD and their unaffected father were found to carry FRA7A premutations, which were partially or mosaically methylated. In one of the affected siblings, mitotic instability of the premutation was observed. ZNF713 expression in LCLs in this family was increased in three of these four premutation carriers. A firm link cannot yet be established between ASD and the repeat expansion mutation but plausible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A: responses to stress as predictors of health complaints reported by caregivers of offspring with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    De Andrés-García, S; Moya-Albiol, L; González-Bono, E

    2012-09-01

    In the caregiving model of chronic stress, few studies have been conducted with young middle-aged samples and no data exists about acute stress response in this population. To extend knowledge in this issue, health complaints and psychological, endocrine, and immunological responses to stress have been assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 41 parents of offspring with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison with 37 non-caregiver parents. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were measured before, during, and after a mental psychosocial stressor, while mood and state anxiety were evaluated before and after the stress. Health complaints, personality traits, socio-economic status, and characteristics of the care recipient were assessed. Caregivers reported more health complaints showing buffered cortisol and IgA responses and greater increases in fatigue to acute stress than the controls. In terms of predictive power of health complaints, IgA levels, care status, and severity of the care recipient are especially relevant for caregivers. Results strongly suggest a dysregulation in the immune and hormonal stress-induced responses in middle-aged caregivers, with immune component and care characteristics as the main modulators of health complaints. A deficit in the adaptive capability of stress response is plausible in this population, emphasizing the need to consider family approaches when planning protocols for assistance to ASD patients.

  12. Department for Education and Skills/Department of Health Good Practice Guidance on the education of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, G

    2006-09-01

    Currently, it is held by many that educational interventions are those most likely to make a significant difference to the prognosis and well-being of a child with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, decision making about educational interventions and provision in ASD is often based on beliefs, tradition and assumptions, rather than on empirical evidence. This can lead to inappropriate or ineffective provision and can cause confusion and conflict between and within professional groups and parents. Little rigorous research evidence exists to guide decisions for children with ASD. This is true for educational practice generally, and for children with other special educational needs. Practitioners and parents alike are keen for good information on how best to educate children with ASD. It was against this background that the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and Department of Health (DoH) convened a working group of experienced practitioners and parents to produce the 'Good Practice Guidance on ASDs'. This paper explores the need for the DfES/DoH Guidance, describes its structure and content and then suggests why research evidence is sparse and how future research might be enhanced to inform practice.

  13. Variability in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes and chromosomal anomalies in children with autism: identification of genetic markers of autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, I Yu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Yu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaya, N L; Yurov, Yu B

    2007-07-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of children with autism (90 subjects) and their mothers (18 subjects) is presented. Anomalies and fragility were found in chromosome X in four cases of autism: mos 47,XXX[98]/46, XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; and 46,Y,fra(X)(q27.3),16qh-. C staining and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to demonstrate a significant increase in the frequency of variations in the heterochromatin regions of chromosomes in children with autism as compared with a control group (48% and 16% respectively). Pericentric chromosome inversion 9phqh was not characteristic of patients with autism, while variation in heterochromatin regions 1phqh, 9qh+, and 16qh-were found significantly more frequently in children with autism. These data provide the basis for discussing the possible role of the gene position effect in the pathogenesis of autism and the possible search for biological markers of autistic disorders.

  14. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  15. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  16. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed.

  17. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma.

  18. Hard to “tune in”: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N.; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  19. A Review of Bipolar Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Martin H.; Lim, Russell F.; Kelly, Rosemary H.; Hales, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and management of bipolar disorder. Special attention is paid to factors that complicate treatment, including nonadherence, comorbid disorders, mixed mania, and depression. Methods: A Medline search was conducted from January of 1990 through December of 2005 using key terms of bipolar disorder, diagnosis, and treatment. Papers selected for further review included those published in English in peer-reviewed journals, with preference for articles based on randomized, controlled trials and consensus guidelines. Citations de-emphasized original mania trials as these are generally well known. Results: Bipolar disorder is a major public health problem, with diagnosis often occurring years after onset of the disorder. comorbid conditions are common and difficult to treat. Management includes a lifetime course of medication, usually more than one, and attention to psychosocial issues for patients and their families. Management of mania is well-established. Research is increasing regarding management of depressive, mixed and cycling episodes, as well as combination therapy. Conclusions: Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder to manage, even for psychiatrists, because of its many episodes and comorbid disorders and nonadherence to treatment. PMID:20975827

  20. Does the Autistic Brain Lack Core Modules?

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Frymiare, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that autistics are missing core modules of the brain, critical neural tissue necessary for accomplishing various processes. In this article, we critically review the evidence supporting two such hypothesized deficits. We ask whether autistic brains lack a module for understanding the behavior of others (i.e., theory of mind) and whether they lack a module for processing faces. We illustrate that successful performance on theory of mind tasks depends on linguistic ability; therefore, it is not surprising that autistics are more likely to fail theory of mind tasks because a qualitative impairment in communication is one of the primary diagnostic criteria for autism. Similarly, we illustrate that autistics are less likely to fixate the eye region of facial photographs and that the amount of time spent fixating the eye region correlates with activation in the face processing “module”; therefore, it is not surprising that autistics are less likely to activate the putative face processing area. These illustrations cast doubt on the arguments that the autistic brain is missing the core modules responsible for understanding theory of mind and for processing faces. PMID:25520587

  1. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    PubMed

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  2. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  3. Motivating Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandin, Temple

    1987-01-01

    A case study of an autistic child (now a successfully employed graduate student and author of the article) whose parents and teachers capitalized on her fixations and compulsions by using them in learning activities illustrates how the needs of drive of autistic children can be redirected to motivate successful academic achievement. (CB)

  4. Autistic children: diagnosis and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I

    1991-05-01

    Autism is one of the behaviorally defined developmental disorders of brain function. It has a variety of genetic and nongenetic etiologies, with etiology being unknown in the majority of children. Boys are more frequently affected than girls. Manifest in the preschool years, autism always affects sociability, communication, and the child's repertoire of activities and interests. Autism encompasses children with a broad range of severities and a variety of other signs of brain dysfunction. These include motor signs, notably stereotypies; abnormal responses to a variety of sensory stimuli; and disorders of affect and attention. A significant proportion of autistic children experience epileptic seizures and have abnormal EEGs. Neuroimaging, preferably magnetic resonance imaging, discloses abnormalities of brain development in a minority of autistic persons. The level of intelligence may range from profound mental deficiency to giftedness. The pattern of cognitive skills is likely to be uneven, typically with better nonverbal than verbal skills. In the preschool years, all autistic children have a developmental language disorder. Verbal expression may range from total lack of language to verbosity with echolalia; comprehension and language use are invariably impaired. While there is no specific pharmacologic agent to mitigate the fundamental disorder, children may benefit from drugs to treat specific symptoms such as attention disorder and seizures. Although autistic behaviors are the consequence of a static disorder of brain function, their character changes with maturation and appropriate intervention. Communication skills and sociability remain deficient but improve in all but the most severely affected children. Outcome is a function of both innate cognitive competence and the effectiveness of early intervention focused on the development of appropriate social skills and meaningful communication. Intelligent autistic adults may be educable, employable, and able to

  5. The autistic brain in the context of normal neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Ziats, Mark N.; Edmonson, Catherine; Rennert, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is complex and largely unclear. Among various lines of inquiry, many have suggested convergence onto disruptions in both neural circuitry and immune regulation/glial cell function pathways. However, the interpretation of the relationship between these two putative mechanisms has largely focused on the role of exogenous factors and insults, such as maternal infection, in activating immune pathways that in turn result in neural network abnormalities. Yet, given recent insights into our understanding of human neurodevelopment, and in particular the critical role of glia and the immune system in normal brain development, it is important to consider these putative pathological processes in their appropriate normal neurodevelopmental context. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that the autistic brain cellular phenotype likely represents intrinsic abnormalities of glial/immune processes constitutively operant in normal brain development that result in the observed neural network dysfunction. We review recent studies demonstrating the intercalated role of neural circuit development, the immune system, and glial cells in the normal developing brain, and integrate them with studies demonstrating pathological alterations in these processes in autism. By discussing known abnormalities in the autistic brain in the context of normal brain development, we explore the hypothesis that the glial/immune component of ASD may instead be related to intrinsic exaggerated/abnormal constitutive neurodevelopmental processes such as network pruning. Moreover, this hypothesis may be relevant to other neurodevelopmental disorders that share genetic, pathologic, and clinical features with autism. PMID:26379512

  6. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another.

  7. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  8. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  9. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  10. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  11. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  12. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  13. Screening of 50 cypriot patients with autism spectrum disorders or autistic features using 400K custom array-CGH.

    PubMed

    Kousoulidou, Ludmila; Moutafi, Maria; Nicolaides, Paola; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Christofi, Christos; Paradesiotou, Anna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Patsalis, Philippos C

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs), the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1), their parents (G2), 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3), and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4) were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  14. Memantine as adjunctive therapy in children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders: an observation of initial clinical response and maintenance tolerability.

    PubMed

    Chez, Michael G; Burton, Quinn; Dowling, Timothy; Chang, Mina; Khanna, Pavan; Kramer, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified are common developmental problems often seen by child neurologists. There are currently no cures for these lifelong and socially impairing conditions that affect core domains of human behavior such as language, social interaction, and social awareness. The etiology may be multifactorial and may include autoimmune, genetic, neuroanatomic, and possibly excessive glutaminergic mechanisms. Because memantine is a moderate affinity antagonist of the N-methylD-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor, this drug was hypothesized to potentially modulate learning, block excessive glutamate effects that can include neuroinflammatory activity, and influence neuroglial activity in autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Open-label add-on therapy was offered to 151 patients with prior diagnoses of autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified over a 21-month period. To generate a clinician-derived Clinical Global Impression Improvement score for language, behavior, and self-stimulatory behaviors, the primary author observed the subjects and questioned their caretakers within 4 to 8 weeks of the initiation of therapy. Chronic maintenance therapy with the drug was continued if there were no negative side effects. Results showed significant improvements in open-label use for language function, social behavior, and self-stimulatory behaviors, although self-stimulatory behaviors comparatively improved to a lesser degree. Chronic use so far appears to have no serious side effects.

  15. Dependent personality disorder: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Disney, Krystle L

    2013-12-01

    Dependent personality disorder (DPD) has evolved from an abstract idea rooted in a historic and psychoanalytic context to a codified diagnosis in the DSM-IV-TR. This comprehensive review paper chronicles the evolution of DPD through each version of the DSM. Major topics relevant to the disorder are also investigated, including gender and cultural considerations, stability and manifestations of DPD across different developmental stages, comorbidity issues, and others. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad yet comprehensive examination of the complex angles of maladaptive dependency and to identify essential next steps in furthering our knowledge of this disorder. The paper concludes with a discussion of shortcomings in the body of research relevant to DPD, along with specific suggestions for improvement in this field of study.

  16. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  17. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  18. Evidence for Overlapping Genetic Influences on Autistic and ADHD Behaviours in a Community Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Simonoff, Emily; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: High levels of clinical comorbidity have been reported between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study takes an individual differences approach to determine the degree of phenotypic and aetiological overlap between autistic traits and ADHD behaviours in the general population.…

  19. Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; West, Amy E.; Heil, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To review the diagnosis and the pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods A comprehensive literature review of studies discussing the diagnosis and treatment of PBD was conducted. Results A context for understanding controversies and difficulties in the diagnosis of PBD is provided. An evidence-based assessment protocol for PBD is reviewed. The evidence for the following three categories of pharmacologic interventions are reviewed: Lithium, antiepileptics, and second generation antipsychotics. Algorithms for medication decisions are briefly reviewed. Existing psychosocial treatments and the evidence for those treatments are also reviewed. Conclusion Despite recent developments in understanding the phenomenology of PBD and in identifying pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions, critical gaps remain. PMID:21822352

  20. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  1. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  2. Longitudinal Developmental Courses in Japanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osada, Hirokazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We followed up 67 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 31 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) for more than 10 years by reviewing medical records at a clinic for children with developmental disabilities. The participants' data were collected between their first visit to the clinic and the visit at…

  3. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  4. Determining Differences in Social Cognition between High-Functioning Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using New Advanced "Mind-Reading" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Miho; Wakabayashi, Akio; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in understanding the mental state of others ("mind-reading") have been well documented in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, it is unclear whether this deficit in social cognition differs between the subgroups of PDD defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text…

  5. Earlybird in South Staffordshire: Reflections on an Innovative Model of Interagency Working to Deliver an Intervention for Families of Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Julia; Pitt, Sally; Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    In this article three education and health services professionals, Julia Halpin, Sally Pitt and Emma Dodd, describe and reflect upon the way in which a small group of professionals from health and education services worked in collaboration to meet the need to inform and empower parents of preschool children with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum…

  6. Using the Social Communication Questionnaire to Identify "Autistic Spectrum" Disorders Associated with Other Genetic Conditions: Findings from a Study of Individuals with Cohen Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…

  7. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  8. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hu, Valerie W

    2010-08-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.

  9. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  10. Structural and functional deficits in a neuronal calcium sensor-1 mutant identified in a case of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Handley, Mark T W; Lian, Lu-Yun; Haynes, Lee P; Burgoyne, Robert D

    2010-05-07

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that has been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of neuronal development and neurotransmission. It exerts its effects through interactions with a range of target proteins one of which is interleukin receptor accessory protein like-1 (IL1RAPL1) protein. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders and a missense mutation (R102Q) on NCS-1 has been found in one individual with autism. We have examined the effect of this mutation on the structure and function of NCS-1. From use of NMR spectroscopy, it appeared that the R102Q affected the structure of the protein particularly with an increase in the extent of conformational exchange in the C-terminus of the protein. Despite this change NCS-1(R102Q) did not show changes in its affinity for Ca(2+) or binding to IL1RAPL1 and its intracellular localisation was unaffected. Assessment of NCS-1 dynamics indicated that it could rapidly cycle between cytosolic and membrane pools and that the cycling onto the plasma membrane was specifically changed in NCS-1(R102Q) with the loss of a Ca(2+) -dependent component. From these data we speculate that impairment of the normal cycling of NCS-1 by the R102Q mutation could have subtle effects on neuronal signalling and physiology in the developing and adult brain.

  11. Neurotoxic syndrome induced by clomipramine plus risperidone in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: serotonin or neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Kalliopi N; Gournellis, Rossetos; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Dervenoulas, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no case studies of serotonin syndrome (SS) in patients with autism spectrum disorder. We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented SS under the combined use of clomipramine and risperidone. More specifically, within 2 days after clomipramine (10 mg/BID-two times a day) was added to risperidone (4 mg/OD-once a day), mirtazapine 45 mg/OD and alprazolam (0,5 mg/TID-three times a day) he began to present mental, neurological and autonomic symptoms. All his psychopathological manifestations and laboratory findings normalized after the above-mentioned drugs' discontinuation, and the administration of supportive medical care and lorazepam 2,5 mg/TID. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was challenging due to the relatively low dose of clomipramine, an increase of risperidone which had taken place before clomipramine administration and clinical symptoms which could be attributed to both serotonin and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

  12. Memantine as adjunctive treatment to risperidone in children with autistic disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Asadabadi, Mahtab; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Shahei, Maryam; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2013-05-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes significant impairment in socialization and communication. It is also associated with ritualistic and stereotypical behaviour. Recent studies propose both hyper-and hypoglutamatergic ideologies for autism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of memantine plus risperidone in the treatment of children with autism. Children with autism were randomly allocated to risperidone plus memantine or placebo plus risperidone for a 10-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 3 mg/d and memantine was titrated to 20 mg/d. Children were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wk of starting medication protocol. The primary outcome measure was the irritability subscale of Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Difference between the two treatment arms was significant as the group that received memantine had greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behaviour and hyperactivity. Eight side-effects were observed over the trial, out of the 25 side-effects that the checklist included. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side-effects was not significant. The present study suggests that memantine may be a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for autism and it was generally well tolerated. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT1138901151556N10; www.irct.ir).

  13. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) augmentation for treating irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Forty children and adolescents met diagnostic criteria for ASD according to DSM-IV. They were randomly allocated into one of the two groups of NAC (1200 mg/day)+risperidone or placebo+risperidone. NAC and placebo were administered in the form of effervescent and in two divided doses for 8 weeks. Irritability subscale score of Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was considered as the main outcome measure. Adverse effects were also checked. Results The mean score of irritability in the NAC+risperidone and placebo+risperidone groups at baseline was 13.2(5.3) and 16.7(7.8), respectively. The scores after 8 weeks were 9.7(4.1) and 15.1(7.8), respectively. Repeated measures of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after 8 weeks. The most common adverse effects in the NAC+risperidone group were constipation (16.1%), increased appetite (16.1%), fatigue (12.9%), nervousness (12.9%), and daytime drowsiness (12.9%). There was no fatal adverse effect. Conclusions Risperidone plus NAC more than risperidone plus placebo decreased irritability in children and adolescents with ASD. Meanwhile, it did not change the core symptoms of autism. Adverse effects were not common and NAC was generally tolerated well. Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir. The registration number of this trial was IRCT201106103930N6 PMID:23886027

  14. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  15. Developmental heterochrony and the evolution of autistic perception, cognition and behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism is usually conceptualized as a disorder or disease that involves fundamentally abnormal neurodevelopment. In the present work, the hypothesis that a suite of core autism-related traits may commonly represent simple delays or non-completion of typical childhood developmental trajectories is evaluated. Discussion A comprehensive review of the literature indicates that, with regard to the four phenotypes of (1) restricted interests and repetitive behavior, (2) short-range and long-range structural and functional brain connectivity, (3) global and local visual perception and processing, and (4) the presence of absolute pitch, the differences between autistic individuals and typically developing individuals closely parallel the differences between younger and older children. Summary The results of this study are concordant with a model of ‘developmental heterochrony’, and suggest that evolutionary extension of child development along the human lineage has potentiated and structured genetic risk for autism and the expression of autistic perception, cognition and behavior. PMID:23639054

  16. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  17. A review of dissociative disorders treatment studies.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Classen, Catherine C; McNary, Scot W; Zaveri, Parin

    2009-09-01

    This review examines empirical reports of treatment for Dissociative Disorders (DD), including 16 DD treatment outcome studies and 4 case studies that used standardized measures. Collectively, these reports suggest that treatment for DD is associated with decreased symptoms of dissociation, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, distress, and suicidality. Effect sizes, based on pre/post measures, are in the medium to large range across studies. Patients with dissociative disorder who integrated their dissociated self states were found to have reduced symptomatology compared with those who did not integrate. The magnitude of pre/post effect sizes for these DD studies are comparable to pre/post effect sizes in treatment studies of complex PTSD. There are significant methodological limitations in the current DD treatment outcome literature that reduce internal and external validity including regression towards the mean, limited sample sizes, and nonrandomized research designs. Implications for future research and treatment planning for patients suffering from DD are discussed.

  18. Movement disorders in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Marcie L; Stevens-Haas, Claire; Havrilla, Emilyrose; Devi, Tanvi; Kurlan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The field of women's health developed based on the recognition that there are important sex-based differences regarding several aspects of medical illnesses. We performed a literature review to obtain information about differences between women and men for neurological movement disorders. We identified important differences in prevalence, genetics, clinical expression, course, and treatment responses. In addition, we found that female life events, including menstruation, pregnancy, breast feeding, menopause, and medications prescribed to women (such as oral contraceptives and hormone-replacement therapy), have significant implications for women with movement disorders. Understanding this biological sex-specific information can help improve the quality and individualization of care for women with movement disorders and may provide insights into neurobiological mechanisms.

  19. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  20. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not), the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game). Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity. PMID:28096672

  1. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not), the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game). Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity.

  2. Low-dose venlafaxine in three adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder improves self-injurious behavior and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Giuliana Galli; Deriaz, Nicolas; Bertschy, Gilles

    2006-03-01

    In our clinical practice, we have had good experiences with venlafaxine in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), and we report here three cases of possible therapeutic response: (A) a 17-year-old boy with autism and severe behavioral symptoms, including aggression toward self or property, SIB and hyperactivity, who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (B) a 23-year-old woman with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (C) a 17-year-old girl with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day). Follow-ups occurred respectively 18, 36 and 6 months after treatment initiation, making it possible to observe the stability of the clinical improvement in these cases.

  3. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Intervention for autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Filipek, Pauline A; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Book, Teri M

    2006-04-01

    A comprehensive approach to the assessment of any child with autism must be matched specifically to each individual child and family. This premise holds for medical therapies and special education services as well as psychopharmacologic interventions. Behavioral, as opposed to pharmacologic, treatment is the hallmark of effective intervention for autism. Physicians involved in the care of children with autism need to become familiar with educational law and intervention recommendations. Goals should include improved functional verbal and nonverbal communication and social skills, increased engagement in developmentally appropriate activities, improved fine and gross motor skills, and the development of independent academic and organizations skills, as well as replacement of problem behaviors with developmentally appropriate behaviors.. Medicating children with autism is difficult, but is often necessary for chronic behavioral difficulties. In the absence of clear and present guidelines, we have attempted to use evidence and clinical experience to suggest an algorithm based on symptom clusters. Although children with autism may be responsive to medications at lower doses and more susceptible to side effects than other children, medical intervention can produce a significant improvement in the quality of life for the child and family. Careful thought leading to correct identification of target behaviors can appropriately direct better alternatives for medication. Although these approaches are costly and time-consuming endeavors, the expenditure of such efforts is the only available pathway to improve the potential outcomes for individuals with autism as well as decrease the lifetime societal costs for each individual.

  5. Pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Nastassja; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials. On the positive side, a considerable database of studies shows efficacy and relative tolerability of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the major anxiety disorders, and secondary analyses of such datasets have informed questions such as optimal definition of response and remission, optimal dose and duration, and comparative efficacy of different agents. Significant challenges in the field include barriers to appropriate diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders, failure of a significant proportion of patients to respond to first-line pharmacotherapy agents, and a limited database of efficacy or effectiveness studies to guide treatment in such cases. PMID:22275848

  6. Delusional disorders in dermatology: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Robles, David T; Romm, Sharon; Combs, Heidi; Olson, Jonathan; Kirby, Phil

    2008-06-15

    There are several unique psychiatric disorders that are likely to present to a dermatologist because of their accompanying skin complaints. Delusions of parasitosis (DP) is a fixed, false belief of parasitic infestation that may lead patients to compulsively self-mutilate while attempting to remove the non-existent parasites. Morgellons disease is a controversial condition characterized by a fixed belief that fibers that are imbedded or extruding from the skin; this condition is likely in the spectrum of DP. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance that causes significant distress and is associated with time consuming rituals, isolation, depression, and increased risk of suicide. Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a preoccupation with body odor leading to the stigmata of shame, embarrassment, and social isolation. This brief review examines each of these conditions and their management because any one of them may present to a dermatologist.

  7. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  8. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  9. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  10. Autistic Traits in Couple Dyads as a Predictor of Anxiety Spectrum Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…

  11. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  13. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, William

    2017-01-01

    Context Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. Objective The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence. Design The author performed a case study with the cooperation of the parents and the attending physician. Setting The study took place at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc (Lenexa, KS, USA). Participants Participants were triplets, 2 male children and 1 female, and their parents. The 2 male children had autism, whereas the female had a possible seizure disorder. All 3 had elevated urinary glyphosate, and all of the triplets and their mother had elevated values of succinic acid or tiglylglycine, which are indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction. Intervention The participants received a diet of organic food only. Outcome Measures The study performed organic acids, glyphosate, toxic chemicals and tiglylglycine, and creatinine testing of the participants’ urine. Results The 2 male triplets with autism had abnormalities on at least 1 organic acids test, including elevated phenolic compounds such as 4-cresol, 3-[3-hydroxyphenyl]-3-hydroxypropionic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, which have been previously associated with Clostridia bacteria and autism. The female, who was suspected of having a seizure disorder but not autism, did not have elevated phenolic compounds but did have a significantly elevated value of the metabolite tiglylglycine, a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction and/or mutations. One

  14. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  15. Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Jocelyn V.; Jacokes, Zachary J.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing debate exists within the resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) literature over how intrinsic connectivity is altered in the autistic brain, with reports of general over-connectivity, under-connectivity, and/or a combination of both. Classifying autism using brain connectivity is complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the condition, allowing for the possibility of widely variable connectivity patterns among individuals with the disorder. Further differences in reported results may be attributable to the age and sex of participants included, designs of the resting-state scan, and to the analysis technique used to evaluate the data. This review systematically examines the resting-state fMRI autism literature to date and compares studies in an attempt to draw overall conclusions that are presently challenging. We also propose future direction for rs-fMRI use to categorize individuals with autism spectrum disorder, serve as a possible diagnostic tool, and best utilize data-sharing initiatives. PMID:28101064

  16. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  17. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  18. The Lived Experience of US Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systemic Review and Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report"…

  19. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  20. Outcome Studies in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Patricia M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews outcome studies in the treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia for adults. Presents evidence supporting the efficacy of psychopharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions. Addresses the need for standards of care in counseling persons with panic disorder. (RB)

  1. A review of eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ponton, L E

    1995-01-01

    Many review articles address the diverse and rapidly developing field of eating disorders, but there are far fewer articles addressing the specific population of adolescents. The social contributors (desire for thinness amplified by the media) to these illnesses are considerable and affect all adolescent and latency-age girls to some degree. Understanding the full range of behavior and those at high risk to develop pathology is important. Developing prevention programs that target adolescent girls and their families, schools, and the relevant media is also important. Prevention has been a much-neglected area within the field of eating disorders. The chronic nature of eating disorders characterized by remission and relapse bears further study. Attention to the factors that provoke a symptomatic period is crucial. Along with relapse and remission are shifts between diagnostic categories within the field of eating disorders and comorbid illnesses. A better understanding of the factors that cause these shifts to occur would be quite valuable. Outcome and prospective studies would provide valuable information about the course of the illnesses and further identify the individuals at high risk. Certain groups are known to be at high risk, such as girls involved in specific athletics (e.g., gymnastics) or career activities, but recent investigations have indicated that girls involved in what was previously believed to be a low risk activity, such as swimming, may also be at risk (Benson et al., 1990). Further investigation of these factors is crucial. Cultural factors play a role in these illnesses, and cross-cultural studies provide crucial information. We must also continue to explore the biological and psychological correlates of these illnesses and further define the complex and heterogeneous etiology of these illnesses. Their study still promises to yield exciting challenges. Increased public awareness regarding the need for treatment of these illnesses is a high

  2. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  3. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR.

  4. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed. PMID:24932108

  5. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  6. Hyperhomocysteinemia and neurologic disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ramin; Mahta, Ali; Mallack, Eric; Luo, Jin Jun

    2014-10-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is generated during methionine metabolism. It has a physiologic role in DNA metabolism via methylation, a process governed by the presentation of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12. Physiologic Hcy levels are determined primarily by dietary intake and vitamin status. Elevated plasma levels of Hcy (eHcy) can be caused by deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folate, or a combination thereof. Certain genetic factors also cause eHcy, such as C667T substitution of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. eHcy has been observed in several medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, minimal cognitive impairment, dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and eclampsia. There is evidence from laboratory and clinical studies that Hcy, and especially eHcy, exerts direct toxic effects on both the vascular and nervous systems. This article provides a review of the current literature on the possible roles of eHcy relevant to various neurologic disorders.

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Neurologic Disorders: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Ramin; Mallack, Eric; Luo, Jin Jun

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is generated during methionine metabolism. It has a physiologic role in DNA metabolism via methylation, a process governed by the presentation of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12. Physiologic Hcy levels are determined primarily by dietary intake and vitamin status. Elevated plasma levels of Hcy (eHcy) can be caused by deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folate, or a combination thereof. Certain genetic factors also cause eHcy, such as C667T substitution of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. eHcy has been observed in several medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, minimal cognitive impairment, dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and eclampsia. There is evidence from laboratory and clinical studies that Hcy, and especially eHcy, exerts direct toxic effects on both the vascular and nervous systems. This article provides a review of the current literature on the possible roles of eHcy relevant to various neurologic disorders. PMID:25324876

  8. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young Children: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; Cronin, Pegeen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews studies of early diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder. It discusses diagnostic criteria, reliability of early diagnosis, and the need for a comprehensive evaluation. Currently, there are no objective measures that can be used for accurate diagnosis, and the diagnosis remains clinical. Guidelines for evaluation are provided.…

  9. Reflections on 'autistic integrity'.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Autism, particularly its moderate to severe forms, has prompted considerable scientific study and clinical involvement because the associated behaviours imply disconnections with valued features of a 'good' life, such as close relationships, enjoyment, and adaptability. Proposed causes of autism involve potent philosophical concepts including consciousness, identity, mind, and relationality. The concept of autistic integrity is used by Barnbaum in The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, But Not of Them to help provide moral justification to stop efforts to cure adults with autism, especially if the cause is presumed to be a lack of a theory of mind.(1) This article has two goals: (1) to apply four familiar definitions or characterizations of integrity to the case of moderate to severe autism, and (2) to examine whether autistic integrity does provide the moral justification Barnbaum seeks.

  10. [Evaluation of an intensive therapy program for treatment of severe behavioral disorders in mentally handicapped patients with autistic or psychotic behavior].

    PubMed

    Elbing, U; Rohmann, U H

    1993-09-01

    The development of severely disturbed and socially accepted behavior in mentally handicapped persons with autistic or psychotic symptoms is documented before, during and after an intensive therapy program conducted in a residential institution for mentally handicapped persons. Seven single case studies were made as long term observation with a duration between 18 and 33 weeks, mostly with a multiple baseline design. One or two follow ups with at least four weeks length were conducted in six out of seven cases up to four years after the end of the intensive therapy. The main results show (1) the decrease of disturbed behavior and the increase of socially accepted behavior during the therapy program, and (2) the significant reduction of the disturbed behavior patterns taking place during the baseline phase before the beginning of the therapy in all cases but one. The results are discussed under the aspects of a possible explanation for the findings and their impact on the discussion about psychotherapy research.

  11. Modality Preferences in Autistic Children: Assessment and Relationship to Discrimination Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarbatany, Lynne; Feldman, Gary

    Following a review of the literature on responses of autistic persons to environmental stimulation, three experiments are detailed which examine the relationship between modality preference and rate of acquisition of a discrimination task. First, seven autistic children's preference for colored lights and/or simple tones was assessed in a sensory…

  12. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). These studies underline the importance of an accurate definition of disorders using unambiguous diagnostic and assessment criteria. The boundaries between anxiety disorders are often ill defined and cases may vary widely according to the definition applied. Simple phobia, agoraphobia, and GAD are more common in vmrnen, while there is no gender différence for SP, PD, and OCD, Anxiety disorders are more common in separated, divorced, and widowed subjects; their prevalence is highest in subjects aged 25 to 44 years and lowest in subjects aged >65 years. The age of onset of the different types of anxiety disorders varies widely: phobic disorders begin early in life, whereas PD occurs in young adulthood. Clinical - rather than epidemiological - studies have examined risk factors such as life events, childhood experiences, and familial factors. Anxiety disorders have a chronic and persistent course, and are frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and substance abuse. Anxiety disorders most frequently precede depressive disorders or substance abuse, Comorbid diagnoses may influence risk factors like functional impairment and quality of life. It remains unclear whether certain anxiety disorders (eg, PD) are risk factors for suicide. The comorbidity of anxiety disorders has important implications for assessment and treatment and the risk factors should be explored. The etiology, natural history, and outcome of these disorders need to be further addressed

  13. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  14. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  15. A Case for the Autistic Perspective in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hart, Rachel F.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses five novels with characters on the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and integrates her readings with her brothers' experiences with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Diverse in scope and approach, each of the books surveyed offers unique insights on facets of the autistic perspective. Lord's "Rules," Stork's "Marcelo in the Real…

  16. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  17. Autistic Traits in a Population-Based ADHD Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Volk, Heather E.; Todd, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general…

  18. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  19. Computerized lifelong mentoring support using robot for autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Shinji; Ijichi, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Developmental diversity in childhood is transformed into personality variation in adulthood. This view is now revalued through an ongoing paradigm shift in the field of developmental conditions, the transition from the qualitative dichotomy perspective to the quantitative concept. In the quantitative concept, autism is not a disease nor a developmental qualitative disorder, but a behavioral extreme in individual variation. Although the traditional qualitative view cannot interpret the recent worldwide prevalence of autism, the increase in the reported number of cases with autism and border cases can be easily explained by a dimensional exploration in which the primary autistic phenotype is regarded as an evolutional superiority. Therefore, the only suitable intervention is mentoring which provides a powerful lifelong support for higher social achievement in individuals with autism. Here, we hypothesize the coming mentoring circumstances for autistic individuals in the near future. Ongoing progress in robot and computer technology might allow the guardians to leave the major part of mentoring support to an individualized robot, and the 'folk physics' tendency in individuals with autism could facilitate the spread of the mentoring support system. The development of the robot mentor software may be simple because of the uniformity and stereotypy of the behavior patterns in individuals with autism. With the help of the robot mentor and under its guidance, autistic people might enjoy their social life and contribute to the prosperity of the human society to the maximum degree. Because the future population ratio of autistics/non-autistics might be reversed according to the current trend of the prevalence, mentoring robot programs for autistic individuals should be developed without delay as a novel preliminary activity in the Jiminy Cricket movement, which is a campaign to reverse the estrangement of the present majority from autism and to increase the number of mentors

  20. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  1. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD.

  2. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses’ Health Study II (N=1077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197

  3. Investigation of autistic features among individuals with mild to moderate Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mariko; Deardorff, Matthew A; Clark, Dinah; Levy, Susan E; Krantz, Ian; Pipan, Mary

    2012-08-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, growth retardation, limb abnormalities, intellectual disability, and behavioral problems. Autism has been reported to occur frequently in CdLS, but the frequency of autism in individuals with the milder CdLS phenotype is not well studied. We investigated autistic features by using a screening tool and a diagnostic interview in 49 individuals with the mild to moderate phenotype from a CdLS research database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), a screening instrument for autistic disorder, was completed for all individuals. For individuals who screened positive and a subset of those that screened negative, the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was administered. Autistic symptom severity was not significantly different by gender, age groups, and genotypes. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of adaptive functioning and lower scores of autistic symptoms. The estimated prevalence of significant autistic features by ADI-R criteria was 43% in our cohort of individuals with the mild to moderate CdLS phenotype, which suggests that prevalence of autistic disorder may be higher than previously described among individuals with mild to moderate phenotype of CdLS. Clinicians who take care of individuals with CdLS should have a high index of suspicion for autistic features, and refer for further evaluation when these features are present in order to expedite appropriate intervention.

  4. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care.

  5. 335.4 kb microduplication in chromosome band Xp11.2p11.3 associated with developmental delay, growth retardation, autistic disorder and dysmorphic features.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Viola; Bertoli, Marta; Barrano, Giuseppe; Torres, Barbara; Pusceddu, Silvia; Pastorino, Myriam; Perria, Chiara; Nardone, Anna Maria; Novelli, Antonio; Serra, Gigliola

    2012-09-01

    About 10% of causative mutations for mental retardation in male patients involve X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation, XLMR). We describe a case of a 3-year-old boy presenting with developmental delay, autistic features and growth and speech delay. Array-CGH analysis detected a microduplication on the X chromosome (Xp11.2p11.3), spanning 335.4 kb and including 3 known genes (ZNF81, ZNF182 and SPACA5). Genome-wide association studies show that approximately 30% of mutations causing XLMR are located in Xp11.2p11.3, where few pathogenic genes have been identified to date (such as ZNF41, PQB1 and ZNF81). ZNF81 codifies a zinc finger protein and mutations (non-sense mutations, deletions and structural rearrangements) involving this gene have already been described in association with mental retardation. Larger duplications in the same region have also been observed in association with mental retardation, and, in one case, the over-expression of ZNF81 has also been verified by mRNA quantification. No duplications of the single gene have been identified. To our knowledge, the microduplication found in our patient is the smallest ever described in Xp11.2p11.3. This suggests that the over-expression of ZNF81 could have pathological effects.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Brief Report: Examining the Link between Autistic Traits and Compulsive Internet Use in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Begeer, Sander; Kerkhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with a non-clinical community sample (n = 390). As…

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  9. Autistic Features in Girls from a Psychiatric Sample Are Strongly Associated with a Low 2D:4D Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, Esther I.; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Verhagen, Debora H.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable…

  10. A review of compulsive buying disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD.

  11. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2017-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and (1)H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children.

  12. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R.; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R.; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and 1H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children. PMID:27856622

  13. Contagious yawning in autistic and typical development.

    PubMed

    Helt, Molly S; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J; Fein, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 6-15 years. Children with ASD showed diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning compared with 2 control groups matched for mental and chronological age, respectively. In addition, children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) a milder variant of autism, were more susceptible to contagious yawning than were children diagnosed with full Autistic Disorder. The authors explore the implications of these findings for theories about the development of mimicry and emotional contagion.

  14. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of autistic traits. It is frequently cited in diverse fields and has been administered to adults of at least average intelligence with autism and to nonclinical controls, as well as to clinical control groups such as those with schizophrenia, prosopagnosia, anorexia, and depression. However, there has been no empirical systematic review of the AQ since its inception in 2001. The present study reports a comprehensive systematic review of the literature to estimate a reliable mean AQ score in individuals without a diagnosis of an autism spectrum condition (ASC), in order to establish a reference norm for future studies. A systematic search of computerized databases was performed to identify studies that administered the AQ to nonclinical participant samples representing the adult male and female general population. Inclusion was based on a set of formalized criteria that evaluated the quality of the study, the usage of the AQ, and the population being assessed. After selection, 73 articles, detailing 6,934 nonclinical participants, as well as 1,963 matched clinical cases of ASC (from available cohorts within each individual study), were analyzed. Mean AQ score for the nonclinical population was 16.94 (95% CI 11.6, 20.0), while mean AQ score for the clinical population with ASC was found to be 35.19 (95% CI 27.6, 41.1). In addition, in the nonclinical population, a sex difference in autistic traits was found, although no sex difference in AQ score was seen in the clinical ASC population. These findings have implications for the study of autistic traits in the general population. Here, we confirm previous norms with more rigorous data and for the first time establish average AQ scores based on a systematic review, for populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and

  15. Brief report: postural reactivity to fast visual motion differentiates autistic from children with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gepner, Bruno; Mestre, Daniel R

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for a sensorimotor marker (i.e., visuopostural tuning) that could be correlated with the severity of motor impairments in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Given that autistic children were previously reported to be posturally hyporeactive to visually perceived environmental motion in comparison with normal control children (Gepner et al., 1995), we sought to determine whether children with Asperger syndrome (AS) would share the same postural hyporeactivity to visual motion. Three autistic children with mild to severe motor impairments, three AS children with soft motor signs, and nine normal control children were tested for overall postural instability and postural reactivity to environmental motion. Results indicate, first, that overall postural instability is significantly reduced in autistic children compared with both AS and normal children. Second, although postural oscillations in the fore-aft axis become more attuned to the oscillation frequency of an immersive dynamic visual display as visual speed is increased, in both control and AS subjects, this is not the case in autistic children. Despite the small number of subjects tested in this study, our data confirm the existence of a visuopostural detuning in autistic children. Third, they argue for a correlation between visuopostural tuning and severity of motor signs in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Finally, they suggest a differentiation between children with autism and children with AS with regard to postural reactivity to fast visual motion. Neurophysiological implications of these results are discussed. In particular, a visuocerebellar pathway deficit hypothesis in autism is proposed.

  16. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  17. Book Review: ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews "ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management" by Steven R. Pliszka, Caryn L. Carlson, and James M. Swanson, a book that provides information on children displaying both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other comorbid psychiatric conditions, complex psychopharmacological interventions that may…

  18. Gabapentin Therapy in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Rachel K.; Butler, Paul M.; Perloff, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gabapentin is commonly used off-label in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with success, failure, and controversy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to elucidate the evidence for clinical benefit of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. Data sources: Bibliographic reference searches for gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were performed in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE search engines with no language restrictions from January 1, 1983, to October 1, 2014, excluding nonhuman studies. For psychiatric references, the keywords bipolar, depression, anxiety, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder and PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder and OCD), alcohol (abuse, dependence, withdraw), drug (abuse, dependence, withdraw), opioid (abuse, dependence, withdraw), cocaine (abuse, dependence, withdraw), and amphetamine (abuse, dependence, withdraw) were crossed with gabapentin OR neurontin. Study selection and data extraction: The resulting 988 abstracts were read by 2 reviewers; references were excluded if gabapentin was not a study compound or psychiatric symptoms were not studied. The resulting references were subsequently read, reviewed, and analyzed; 219 pertinent to gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were retained. Only 34 clinical trials investigating psychiatric disorders contained quality of evidence level II-2 or higher. Results: Gabapentin may have benefit for some anxiety disorders, although there are no studies for generalized anxiety disorder. Gabapentin has less likely benefit adjunctively for bipolar disorder. Gabapentin has clearer efficacy for alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and may have a role in adjunctive treatment of opioid dependence. There is no clear evidence for gabapentin therapy in depression, PTSD prevention, OCD, or other types of substance abuse. Limitations of available data include variation in dosing between studies, gabapentin as monotherapy or

  19. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Rengit, Ashy C; McKowen, James W; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to illustrate risk factors which predispose individuals with ASD to developing SUD and discuss the obstacles to and modifications of evidence-based treatments for SUD. A review of the therapeutic interventions implemented in the treatment of this young male are described to highlight potential recommendations for the general management of SUD in those with ASD.

  20. A Systematic Review of Personality Disorders and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Layden, Brianne K.; Chapman, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders have been associated with a wide swath of adverse health outcomes and correspondingly high costs to healthcare systems. To date, however, there has not been a systematic review of the literature on health conditions among individuals with personality disorders. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. A systematic review of the literature revealed 78 unique empirical English-language peer-reviewed articles examining the association of personality disorders and health outcomes over the past 15 years. Specifically, we reviewed research examining the association of personality disorders with sleep disturbance, obesity, pain conditions, and other chronic health conditions. In addition, we evaluated research on candidate mechanisms underlying health problems in personality disorders and potential treatments for such disorders. Results underscore numerous deleterious health outcomes associated with PD features and PD diagnoses, and suggest potential biological and behavioural factors that may account for these relations. Guidelines for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:26456998

  1. Topical review: cluster headache and sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Bender, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature of the common anatomic and physiologic aspects of cluster headache and sleep-related breathing disorders to point out evidence suggesting potential therapies beneficial for both maladies. A search of PubMed, as well as relevant textbooks, was conducted using the terms cluster, headache, sleep, apnea, pain, and chronobiology to find any previously published work that may connect the two disorders. Relevant references in the literature were also investigated. As a group, cluster headache patients tend to have a higher incidence of sleep-related breathing disorders as compared to the noncluster headache population. While commonalities in anatomy and physiology exist, robust evidence linking the two disorders is currently lacking. Many people are unaware that they suffer with a sleep-related breathing disorder. The high incidence of these two disorders occurring together should prompt the clinician who treats cluster headache patients to be acutely aware that a yet undiagnosed sleep disorder may also be present.

  2. Compulsive buying disorder: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.

  3. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  4. Participating, Navigating and Succeeding with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Ontario Postsecondary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luey, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the postsecondary education system are now beginning to surface. Through a review of the literature this paper will focus on the persistence, retention and successful completion of autistics in the postsecondary education (PSE) sector. The author found no concrete statistics for…

  5. Autism and 15q11-q13 Disorders: Behavioral, Genetic, and Pathophysiological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Levitt, Pat

    2004-01-01

    New insights into biological factors that underlie autism may be gained by comparing autism to other neurodevelopmental disorders that have autistic features and relatively well-delineated genetic etiologies or neurobiological findings. This review moves beyond global diagnoses of autism and instead uses an endophenotypic approach to compare…

  6. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  7. [Family dynamics of autistic children].

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, M H; Assumpção, F B

    2001-06-01

    We studied 15 families with autistics, 15 with Down's syndrome and 15 asymptomatic children. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 15 years-old. The parents of these three families' groups were appraised in regard to their family dynamics, to relate those symptoms to the functioning of an autistic family, in a comparative study. Details were provided of the families, the overall autistic features, the autistic's family, the family and the mental health, their limitations and difficulties throughout the vital cycle. An attempt was made to locate the factors that aid the family in hindering the healthy emotional development of its members. The field research was achieved by use of the instruments of the Family Dynamics Evaluation, (Carneiro, 1983). The data gathered were statistically compared. Considering the family population studied (n = 45), we found that the autistics' families and victims of Down's syndrome made it difficult to sustain the emotional health of group members. We conclude that the autistic's family dynamics caused difficulties to the emotional health of the group's members.

  8. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 × 10(-8)). However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 × 10(-5)) add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD etiology, PRKCB1, and CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second

  9. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  10. Brief Report: Immune Factors in Autism: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Ilan; He, Ziao-Song; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews studies linking autistic disorder with various immune factors. It concludes that although various immune system abnormalities have been reported in children with autism, previous studies are largely association based and it remains difficult to draw conclusions regarding the role of immune factors in the etiopathogenesis of…

  11. A Review of Indian Research on Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders and Alcohol use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27011396

  12. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  13. Bipolar disorders in the Arab world: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, Ziad; Zakaria Khalil, Mostafa; Kumar, Pankaj; Suhre, Karsten; Karam, Elie; McInnis, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    Bipolar disorders are common psychiatric disorders that affect 1-5% of the population worldwide. Major advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of the disorders have recently occurred. The majority of published reports, however, originate from the Western hemisphere, mostly Europe and the United States. There is a shortage of data from the Arab world on bipolar disorders. In an era of globalization and rapid communication, it is not clear to what extent research findings pertaining to one part of the world are by necessity applicable to other parts. Psychiatric disorders are known to be affected by the culture in which they occur, and knowledge of variations in illness presentation in different ethnic groups is also increasing. However, knowledge of variations affecting Arab populations remains quite limited. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on bipolar affective disorders in the Arab world, pointing to major gaps in knowledge and future opportunities to fill these gaps.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  16. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  17. Identification of Biomarkers of Impaired Sensory Profiles among Autistic Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Hassan, Wail M.; Qasem, Hanan; Das, Undurti N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that displays significant heterogeneity. Comparison of subgroups within autism, and analyses of selected biomarkers as measure of the variation of the severity of autistic features such as cognitive dysfunction, social interaction impairment, and sensory abnormalities might help in understanding the pathophysiology of autism. Methods and Participants In this study, two sets of biomarkers were selected. The first included 7, while the second included 6 biomarkers. For set 1, data were collected from 35 autistic and 38 healthy control participants, while for set 2, data were collected from 29 out of the same 35 autistic and 16 additional healthy subjects. These markers were subjected to a principal components analysis using either covariance or correlation matrices. Moreover, libraries composed of participants categorized into units were constructed. The biomarkers used include, PE (phosphatidyl ethanolamine), PS (phosphatidyl serine), PC (phosphatidyl choline), MAP2K1 (Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1), IL-10 (interleukin-10), IL-12, NFκB (nuclear factor-κappa B); PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), PGE2-EP2, mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin synthase E-1), cPLA2 (cytosolic phospholipase A2), 8-isoprostane, and COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2). Results While none of the studied markers correlated with CARS and SRS as measure of cognitive and social impairments, six markers significantly correlated with sensory profiles of autistic patients. Multiple regression analysis identifies a combination of PGES, mPGES-1, and PE as best predictors of the degree of sensory profile impairment. Library identification resulted in 100% correct assignments of both autistic and control participants based on either set 1 or 2 biomarkers together with a satisfactory rate of assignments in case of sensory profile impairment using different sets of biomarkers. Conclusion The two selected sets of biomarkers were effective to

  18. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Lucy; Bird, Geoffrey; Gökçen, Elif; McCrory, Eamon; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472) to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  19. A review of equine dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I

    2005-03-01

    Equine dentistry is a very important but until recently rather neglected area of equine practice, with many horses suffering from undiagnosed, painful dental disorders. A thorough clinical examination using a full mouth speculum is a pre-requisite to performing any equine dental procedure. Common incisor disorders include: prolonged retention of deciduous incisors, supernumerary incisors and overjet--the latter usually accompanied by cheek teeth (CT) overgrowths. Overjet can be surgically corrected, but perhaps should not be in breeding animals. In younger horses, traumatically fractured incisors with pulpar exposure may survive by laying down tertiary dentine. Loss or maleruption of incisors can cause uneven occlusal wear that can affect mastication. Idiopathic fractures and apical infection of incisors are rare. The main disorder of canine teeth is the development of calculus of the lower canines, and occasionally, developmental displacements and traumatic fractures. The main indications for extraction of "wolf teeth" (Triadan 05s) are the presence of displaced or enlarged wolf teeth, or their presence in the mandible. Developmental abnormalities of the CT include; rostral positioning of the upper CT rows in relation to the lower CT rows--with resultant development of focal overgrowths on the upper 06s and the lower 11s. Displaced CT develop overgrowths on unopposed aspects of the teeth and also develop periodontal disease in the inevitable abnormal spaces (diastemata) that are present between displaced and normal teeth. Diastemata of the CT due to excessive developmental spacing between the CT or to inadequate compression of the CT rows is a common but under diagnosed problem in many horses and causes very painful periodontal disease and quidding. Supernumerary CT mainly occur at the caudal aspect of the CT rows and periodontal disease commonly occurs around these teeth. Eruption disorders of CT include prolonged retention of remnants of deciduous CT ("caps

  20. Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders-a Review.

    PubMed

    Schain, Martin; Kreisl, William Charles

    2017-03-01

    The potential for positron emission tomography (PET) to detect neuroinflammation in vivo has sparked a remarkable interest in various disciplines of neuroscience. Early PET radioligands, such as [(11)C]PK(R)-11195 for the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and [(11)C]L-deprenyl for monoamine oxidase B, have been used in studies designed to clarify the role of neuroinflammation in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Recent years have witnessed the development of several second-generation PET radioligands for TSPO and radioligands to measure endogenous targets that are active in various stages of the inflammatory cascade, such as cyclooxygenase and arachidonic acid. Here, we discuss some of the biomarkers for neuroinflammation that are available for quantification with PET, as well as recent findings from studies where neuroinflammation has been assessed in neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, we highlight the challenges to accurate interpretation of PET studies of neuroinflammation.