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Sample records for autoimmune encephalomyelitis mediated

  1. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  2. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  3. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  4. Carbon nanospheres mediated delivery of nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 to direct experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chemmannur, Sijo V; Bhagat, Prasad; Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Paknikar, Kishore M; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the suppression of immune responses and associated side effects, steroid based treatments for inflammatory encephalitis disease can be detrimental. Here, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanosphere (CNP) based treatment regime for encephalomyelitis in mice by exploiting the functional property of the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1. A truncated part of SMAR1 ie, the DNA binding domain was conjugated with hydrothermally synthesized CNPs. When administered intravenously, the conjugate suppressed experimental animal encephalomyelitis in T cell specific conditional SMAR1 knockout mice (SMAR−/−). Further, CNP-SMAR1 conjugate delayed the onset of the disease and reduced the demyelination significantly. There was a significant decrease in the production of IL-17 after re-stimulation with MOG. Altogether, our findings suggest a potential carbon nanomaterial based therapeutic intervention to combat Th17 mediated autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PMID:27274234

  5. A pain-mediated neural signal induces relapse in murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a multiple sclerosis model

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Yasunobu; Kamimura, Daisuke; Atsumi, Toru; Harada, Masaya; Kawamoto, Tadafumi; Nishikawa, Naoki; Stofkova, Andrea; Ohki, Takuto; Higuchi, Kotaro; Morimoto, Yuji; Wieghofer, Peter; Okada, Yuka; Mori, Yuki; Sakoda, Saburo; Saika, Shizuya; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Komuro, Issei; Yamashita, Toshihide; Hirano, Toshio; Prinz, Marco; Murakami, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Although pain is a common symptom of various diseases and disorders, its contribution to disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Here we show using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), that pain induces EAE relapse. Mechanistic analysis showed that pain induction activates a sensory-sympathetic signal followed by a chemokine-mediated accumulation of MHC class II+CD11b+ cells that showed antigen-presentation activity at specific ventral vessels in the fifth lumbar cord of EAE-recovered mice. Following this accumulation, various immune cells including pathogenic CD4+ T cells recruited in the spinal cord in a manner dependent on a local chemokine inducer in endothelial cells, resulting in EAE relapse. Our results demonstrate that a pain-mediated neural signal can be transformed into an inflammation reaction at specific vessels to induce disease relapse, thus making this signal a potential therapeutic target. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08733.001 PMID:26193120

  6. Platelet-Activating Factor Receptors Mediate Excitatory Postsynaptic Hippocampal Injury in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Geathers, Jasmine S.; Allan, Kevin C.; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter degeneration contributes to progressive disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can occur out of proportion to measures of white matter disease. Although white matter pathology, including demyelination and axon injury, can lead to secondary gray matter changes, we hypothesized that neurons can undergo direct excitatory injury within the gray matter independent of these. We tested this using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with hippocampal degeneration in C57BL/6 mice, in which immunofluorescent staining showed a 28% loss of PSD95-positive excitatory postsynaptic puncta in hippocampal area CA1 compared with sham-immunized controls, despite preservation of myelin and VGLUT1-positive excitatory axon terminals. Loss of postsynaptic structures was accompanied by appearance of PSD95-positive debris that colocalized with the processes of activated microglia at 25 d after immunization, and clearance of debris was followed by persistently reduced synaptic density at 55 d. In vitro, addition of activated BV2 microglial cells to hippocampal cultures increased neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic dendritic damage following a burst of synaptic activity in a manner dependent on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signaling. In vivo treatment with PAFR antagonist BN52021 prevented PSD95-positive synapse loss in hippocampi of mice with EAE but did not affect development of EAE or local microglial activation. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic structures can be a primary target of injury within the gray matter in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, and suggest that this may occur via PAFR-mediated modulation of activity-dependent synaptic physiology downstream of microglial activation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Unraveling gray matter degeneration is critical for developing treatments for progressive disability and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). In a mouse model of MS, we show that neurons can undergo injury

  7. Therapeutic effect of baicalin on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is mediated by SOCS3 regulatory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xing; Ciric, Bogoljub; Ma, Cun-Gen; Gran, Bruno; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have long been considered a rich source of novel therapeutic agents. Baicalin (Ba) is a bioactive flavonoid compound derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, an herb widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate the effects and mechanism of action of Ba in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Ba treatment effectively ameliorated clinical disease severity in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55 peptide-induced EAE, and reduced inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). Ba reduced infiltration of immune cells into the CNS, inhibited expression of proinflammatory molecules and chemokines, and prevented Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation via STAT/NFκB signaling pathways. Further, we showed that SOCS3 induction is essential to the effects of Ba, given that the inhibitory effect of Ba on pathogenic Th17 responses was largely abolished when SOCS3 signaling was knocked down. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Ba has significant potential as a novel anti-inflammatory agent for therapy of autoimmune diseases such as MS. PMID:26616302

  8. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by probiotic mixture is mediated by a shift in T helper cell immune response.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Gi-Cheon; Kim, Young; Hwang, Won; Jash, Arijita; Sahoo, Anupama; Kim, Jung-Eun; Nam, Jong Hee; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2013-03-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of probiotics has been shown mainly in gastro-intestinal immune disorders and little information is available on the inflammation of central nervous system. Recently we reported that IRT5 probiotics, a mixture of 5 probiotics, could suppress diverse experimental inflammatory disorders. In this study, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of IRT5 probiotics in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T cell mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Pretreatment of IRT5 probiotics before disease induction significantly suppressed EAE development. In addition, treatment with IRT5 probiotics to the ongoing EAE delayed the disease onset. Administration of IRT5 probiotics inhibited the pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 polarization, while inducing IL10(+) producing or/and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, both in the peripheral immune system and at the site of inflammation. Collectively, our data suggest that IRT5 probiotics could be applicable to modulate T cell mediated neuronal autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis.

  9. Unimpaired Autoreactive T-Cell Traffic Within the Central Nervous System During Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Mediated inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korner, Heinrich; Goodsall, Anna L.; Lemckert, Frances A.; Scallon, Bernard J.; Ghrayeb, John; Ford, Andrew L.; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.

    1995-11-01

    The critical role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator in autoimmune inflammatory processes is evident from in vivo studies with TNF-blocking agents. However, the mechanisms by which TNF, and possibly also its homologue lymphotoxin α, contributes to development of pathology in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease and in animal models like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is unclear. Possibilities include regulation of vascular adhesion molecules enabling leukocyte movement into tissues or direct cytokine-mediated effector functions such as mediation of tissue damage. Here we show that administration of a TNF receptor (55 kDa)-IgG fusion protein prevented clinical signs of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Significantly, the total number of CD4^+ T lymphocytes isolated from the central nervous system of clinically healthy treated versus diseased control animals was comparable. By using a CD45 congenic model of passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to enable tracking of myelin basic protein-specific effector T lymphocytes, prevention of clinical signs of disease was again demonstrated in treated animals but without quantitative or qualitative impediment to the movement of autoreactive T lymphocytes to and within the central nervous system. Thus, despite the uninterrupted movement of specific T lymphocytes into the target tissue, subsequent disease development was blocked. This provides compelling evidence for a direct effector role of TNF/lymphotoxin α in autoimmune tissue damage.

  10. A Case for Regulatory B Cells in Controlling the Severity of Autoimmune-Mediated Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Avijit; Mann, Monica K.; Basu, Sreemanti; Dittel, Bonnie N.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that results in the presence of inflammatory lesions/plaques associated with mononuclear cell infiltrates, demyelination and axonal damage within the central nervous system (CNS). To date, FDA approved therapies in MS are thought to largely function by modulation of the immune response. Since autoimmune responses require many arms of the immune system, the direct cellular mechanisms of action of MS therapeutics are not definitively known. The mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in deciphering the mechanism of action of MS drugs. In addition, EAE has been widely used to study the contribution of individual components of the immune system in CNS autoimmunity. In this regard, the role of B cells in EAE has been studied in mice deficient in B cells due to genetic ablation and following depletion with a B cell-targeted monoclonal antibody (mAb) (anti-CD20). Both strategies have indicated that B cells regulate the extent of EAE clinical disease and in their absence disease is exacerbated. Thus a new population of “regulatory B cells” has emerged. One reoccurring component of regulatory B cell function is the production of IL-10, a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties. B cell depletion has also indicated that B cells, in particular antibody production, play a pathogenic role in EAE. B cell depletion in MS using a mAb to CD20 (rituximab) has shown promising results. In this review, we will discuss the current thinking on the role of B cells in MS drawing from knowledge gained in EAE studies and clinical trials using therapeutics that target B cells. PMID:21145597

  11. Secondary B Cell Receptor Diversification Is Necessary for T Cell Mediated Neuro-Inflammation during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Galicia, Georgina; Boulianne, Bryant; Pikor, Natalia; Martin, Alberto; Gommerman, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies of B cell depletion in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have revealed that B Lymphocytes are involved in the neuro-inflammatory process, yet it remains unclear how B cells can exert pro- and anti-inflammatory functions during MS. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS whereby myelin-specific T cells become activated and subsequently migrate to the Central Nervous System (CNS) where they perform pro-inflammatory functions such as cytokine secretion. Typically EAE is induced by immunization of mice of a susceptible genetic background with peptide antigen emulsified in Complete Freund's Adjuvant. However, novel roles for B-lymphocytes in EAE may also be explored by immunization with full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that contains the B cell conformational epitope. Here we show that full length MOG immunization promotes a chronic disease in mice that depends on antigen-driven secondary diversification of the B cell receptor. Methods Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) is an enzyme that is essential for antigen-driven secondary diversification of the B cell receptor. We immunized AID−/− mice with the extracellular domain (amino acids 1–120) of recombinant human MOG protein (rhMOG) and examined the incidence and severity of disease in AID−/− versus wild type mice. Corresponding with these clinical measurements, we also evaluated parameters of T cell activation in the periphery and the CNS as well as the generation of anti-MOG antibodies (Ab). Conclusions AID−/− mice exhibit reduced severity and incidence of EAE. This suggests that the secondary diversification of the B cell receptor is required for B cells to exert their full encephalogenic potential during rhMOG-induced EAE, and possibly also during MS. PMID:23613859

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Mediates In Vivo Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Modulates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Piermattei, Alessia; Migliara, Giuseppe; Di Sante, Gabriele; Foti, Maria; Hayrabedyan, Soren Bohos; Papagna, Angela; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Corbi, Maddalena; Valentini, Mariagrazia; Sgambato, Alessandro; Delogu, Giovanni; Constantin, Gabriela; Ria, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile). Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific proinflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participated directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted severity, extent of remission, and distribution of the lesions within the central nervous system of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. PMID:27252700

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Mediates In Vivo Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Modulates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, Alessia; Migliara, Giuseppe; Di Sante, Gabriele; Foti, Maria; Hayrabedyan, Soren Bohos; Papagna, Angela; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Corbi, Maddalena; Valentini, Mariagrazia; Sgambato, Alessandro; Delogu, Giovanni; Constantin, Gabriela; Ria, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile). Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific proinflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participated directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted severity, extent of remission, and distribution of the lesions within the central nervous system of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. PMID:27252700

  14. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Immune-Mediated Killing of Neurons in Culture and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sloka, Scott; Zhornitsky, Simon; Silva, Claudia; Metz, Luanne M; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). As MS is an inflammatory disorder with degeneration of axons and neurons, we examined whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), could protect against the T cell-mediated killing of human neurons in culture, and the axonal loss seen in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Human neurons were exposed to activated human T lymphocytes and the loss of neurons was documented 24 hours later by counting the number of microtubule-associated protein-2 positive cells. Mice with EAE were harvested for counts of axonal profiles in the spinal cord. 1,25D3 was exposed to T cells in culture or administered to mice from peak EAE clinical severity when axonal loss was already evolving. Activated T lymphocytes killed human neurons prominently within 24 hours but toxicity was significantly attenuated when T cells were exposed to 1,25D3 prior to the co-culture. In EAE, 1,25D3 treatment initiated from peak clinical severity reduced the extent of clinical disability and mitigated the progressive loss of axons. The reduction of axonal and neuronal loss by 1,25D3 in the context of an inflammatory assault to the central nervous system is a potential contributor to the putative benefits of vitamin D in MS.

  15. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Immune-Mediated Killing of Neurons in Culture and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sloka, Scott; Zhornitsky, Simon; Silva, Claudia; Metz, Luanne M; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). As MS is an inflammatory disorder with degeneration of axons and neurons, we examined whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), could protect against the T cell-mediated killing of human neurons in culture, and the axonal loss seen in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Human neurons were exposed to activated human T lymphocytes and the loss of neurons was documented 24 hours later by counting the number of microtubule-associated protein-2 positive cells. Mice with EAE were harvested for counts of axonal profiles in the spinal cord. 1,25D3 was exposed to T cells in culture or administered to mice from peak EAE clinical severity when axonal loss was already evolving. Activated T lymphocytes killed human neurons prominently within 24 hours but toxicity was significantly attenuated when T cells were exposed to 1,25D3 prior to the co-culture. In EAE, 1,25D3 treatment initiated from peak clinical severity reduced the extent of clinical disability and mitigated the progressive loss of axons. The reduction of axonal and neuronal loss by 1,25D3 in the context of an inflammatory assault to the central nervous system is a potential contributor to the putative benefits of vitamin D in MS. PMID:26679341

  16. Tuftsin-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis recovery requires neuropilin-1.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jillian C; Tsirka, Stella E

    2016-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of demyelinating autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by central nervous system white matter lesions, microglial activation, and peripheral T-cell infiltration secondary to blood-brain barrier disruption. We have previously shown that treatment with tuftsin, a tetrapeptide generated from IgG proteolysis, dramatically improves disease symptoms in EAE. Here, we report that microglial expression of Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is required for tuftsin-driven amelioration of EAE symptoms. Nrp1 ablation in microglia blocks microglial signaling and polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, and ablation in either the microglia or immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduces extended functional contacts between them and Treg activation, implicating a role for microglia in the activation process, and more generally, how immune surveillance is conducted in the CNS. Taken together, our findings delineate the mechanistic action of tuftsin as a candidate therapeutic against immune-mediated demyelinating lesions. PMID:26880314

  17. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by intravenously administered polyclonal immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Mor, F; Margalit, R; Cohen, I R; Lider, O; Miron, S

    2000-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats either by active immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) or by adoptive transfer using anti-MBP specific CD4(+)T cells. Treatment with human polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) effectively suppressed active EAE. Time-dependent experiments demonstrated that the effect of IgG was manifested only when treatment was given immediately after immunization; administration from day 7 after disease induction did not suppress the disease. In the adoptive transfer model of EAE, IgG had no effect in vivo. However, pretreatment in vitro of the antigen-specific T-cells with IgG inhibited their ability to mediate adoptive EAE, as it did in active EAE. Similarly, in vitro IgG pretreatment of the antigen-specific T-cells suppressed the proliferative response to MBP. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated the binding of IgG to activated T-cell lines that was inhibited by soluble Fc molecules. The differential effects of IgG on active EAE and on the adoptive transfer of EAE suggest that IgG in vivo can suppress disease by acting during the early phase of the immune response which involves naive T cells. The inhibition of T-cell proliferation and adoptive transfer of EAE by incubation of T cells in vitro appears to require higher concentrations of IgG than those obtained in vivo. PMID:11040073

  18. Augmenting DAF levels in vivo ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Huang, Danping; Nacion, Kristine; Bu, Hong; Lin, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have found that CNS injury in Daf1(-/-) mice is much greater than in wild types (WTs), suggesting that upregulating DAF levels in vivo might ameliorate disease. To test this, we generated a Daf1 transgenic (Tg) mouse which had elevated DAF levels on its cell surfaces. In by-stand C3b uptake assays, Daf1 Tg mouse erythrocytes took up less C3b on their surfaces than WT erythrocytes. When co-cultured with OT-II CD4(+) T cells together with OVA(323-339) peptide, Daf1 Tg mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) produced less C5a and C3a than WT BM-DCs and stimulated a lesser T cell response. In MOG(35-55) immunization induced EAE model, Daf1 Tg mice exhibited delayed disease onset and decreased clinical scores compared to WTs. Histological analyses showed that there were less inflammation and demyelination in spinal cords in Daf1 Tg mice than those in WTs. In accordance with these results, Daf1 Tg mice had decreased MOG(35-55) specific Th1 and Th17 responses. These data provide further evidence that DAF suppresses autoreactive T cell responses in EAE, and indicate that augmenting its expression levels could be effective therapeutically in treating multiple sclerosis as well as other T cell mediated diseases. PMID:19660813

  19. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  20. Chronic exercise confers neuroprotection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, William M; Freeman, Kimberly G; Larson, Rebecca D; Edwards, Gaylen L; White, Lesley J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS, resulting in accumulated loss of cognitive, sensory, and motor function. This study evaluates the neuropathological effects of voluntary exercise in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were injected with an emulsion containing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and then randomized to housing with a running wheel or a locked wheel. Exercising EAE mice exhibited a less severe neurological disease score and later onset of disease compared with sedentary EAE animals. Immune cell infiltration and demyelination in the ventral white matter tracts of the lumbar spinal cord were significantly reduced in the EAE exercise group compared with sedentary EAE animals. Neurofilament immunolabeling in the ventral pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor tracts displayed a more random distribution of axons and an apparent loss of smaller diameter axons, with a greater loss of fluorescence immunolabeling in the sedentary EAE animals. In lamina IX gray matter regions of the lumbar spinal cord, sedentary animals with EAE displayed a greater loss of α-motor neurons compared with EAE animals exposed to exercise. These findings provide evidence that voluntary exercise results in reduced and attenuated disability, reductions in autoimmune cell infiltration, and preservation of axons and motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of mice with EAE.

  1. Tanshinone IIA attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yang, Xue; Han, Dong; Feng, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune neurodegenerative disease, which features focal demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration of the brain and the spinal cord. Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major fat-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activity; however, its efficacy in MS remains unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the potential therapeutic function of TSIIA on MS in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. In comparison to the vehicle control group, the TSIIA-treated groups showed notably improved clinical symptoms and pathological changes, including central nervous system inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. Following administration of TSIIA, the quantity of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and macrophages/microglia in the spinal cord were reduced to different extents. Furthermore, TSIIA was also shown to downregulate interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 levels in the brain and serum of EAE rats. The results collectively provide evidence that TSIIA alleviates EAE and support its utility as a novel therapy for MS. PMID:27357729

  2. Translational utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Laaksonen, Hannes; Flytzani, Sevasti; N’diaye, Marie; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune condition with firmly established genetic and environmental components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of genetic polymorphisms in the vicinity of, and within, genes that associate to disease. However, the significance of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease and possible mechanisms of action remain, with a few exceptions, to be established. While the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in understanding immunity in general and mechanisms of MS disease in particular, much of the translational information gathered from the model in terms of treatment development (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) has been extensively summarized. In this review, we would thus like to cover the work done in EAE from a GWAS perspective, highlighting the research that has addressed the role of different GWAS genes and their pathways in EAE pathogenesis. Understanding the contribution of these pathways to disease might allow for the stratification of disease subphenotypes in patients and in turn open the possibility for new and individualized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26622189

  3. Beneficial effects of blueberries in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Junping; Feinstein, Douglas L; Hejna, Matthew J; Lorens, Stanley A; McGuire, Susan O

    2012-06-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of autoimmune disease that presents with pathological and clinical features similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS) including inflammation and neurodegeneration. This study investigated whether blueberries, which possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, could provide protection in EAE. Dietary supplementation with 1% whole, freeze-dried blueberries reduced disease incidence by >50% in a chronic EAE model (p < 0.01). When blueberry-fed mice with EAE were compared with control-fed mice with EAE, blueberry-fed mice had significantly lower motor disability scores (p = 0.03) as well as significantly greater myelin preservation in the lumbar spinal cord (p = 0.04). In a relapsing-remitting EAE model, blueberry-supplemented mice showed improved cumulative and final motor scores compared to control diet-fed mice (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). These data demonstrate that blueberry supplementation is beneficial in multiple EAE models, suggesting that blueberries, which are easily administered orally and well-tolerated, may provide benefit to MS patients. PMID:22243431

  4. Metformin ameliorates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by regulating T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yafei; Tian, Tian; Gao, Juan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Hou, Huiqing; Cao, Runjing; Li, Bin; Quan, Moyuan; Guo, Li

    2016-03-15

    Immoderate immunoreaction of antigen-specific Th17 and Treg cell dysfunction play critical roles in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. We examined Th17/Treg immune responses and the underlying mechanisms in response to metformin in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Metformin reduced Th17 and increased Treg cell percentages along with the levels of associated cytokines. Molecules involved in cellular metabolism were altered in mice with EAE. Suppressed activation of mTOR and its downstream target, HIF-1α, likely mediated the protective effects of metformin. Our findings demonstrate that regulation of T cell metabolism represents a new therapeutic target for CNS autoimmune disorders.

  5. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, CTLA4+ inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial. PMID:25269445

  6. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-11-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CTLA4(+) inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial.

  7. Dendritic and Synaptic Pathology in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Luo, Liqing; Moore, G. R. Wayne; Paty, Donald W.; Cynader, Max S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence has shown that excitotoxicity may contribute to the loss of central nervous system axons and oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Because dendrites and synapses are vulnerable to excitotoxicity, we examined these structures in acute and chronic models of EAE. Immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein-2 showed that extensive dendritic beading occurred in the white matter of the lumbosacral spinal cord (LSSC) during acute EAE episodes and EAE relapses. Retrograde labeling confirmed that most motoneuron dendrites were beaded in the white matter of the LSSC in acute EAE. In contrast, only mild swelling was observed in the gray matter of the LSSC. Dendritic beading showed marked recovery during EAE remission and after EAE recovery. In addition, synaptophysin, synapsin I, and PSD-95 immunoreactivities were significantly reduced in both the gray and white matter of the LSSC during acute EAE episodes and EAE relapses, but showed partial recovery during EAE remission and after EAE recovery. Pathologically, both dendritic beading and the reduction in synaptic protein immunoreactivity were well correlated with inflammatory cell infiltration in the LSSC at different EAE stages. We propose that dendritic and synaptic damage in the spinal cord may contribute to the neurological deficits in EAE. PMID:12707048

  8. Bladder Dysfunction in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Fabiyi, Adebola; Kavran, Michael; Johnson, Justin M.; Gulen, M. Fatih; Jaini, Ritika; Li, Xiaoxia; Frenkl, Tara L.; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop bladder control problems including urgency to urinate, urinary incontinence, frequency of urination, and retention of urine. Over 60% of MS patients show detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, an abnormality characterized by obstruction of urinary outflow as a result of discoordinated contraction of the urethral sphincter muscle and the bladder detrusor muscle. In the current study we examined bladder function in female SWXJ mice with different defined levels of neurological impairment following induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of central nervous system inflammation widely used in MS research. We found that EAE mice develop profound bladder dysfunction characterized by significantly increased micturition frequencies and significantly decreased urine output per micturition. Moreover, we found that the severity of bladder abnormalities in EAE mice was directly related to the severity of clinical EAE and neurologic disability. Our study is the first to show and characterize micturition abnormalities in EAE mice thereby providing a most useful model system for understanding and treating neurogenic bladder. PMID:18703233

  9. Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors reduces hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weisi; Taylor, Bradley K

    2015-05-19

    Clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis have yielded mixed results, possibly due to psychotropic side effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that, a CB2-specific agonist (JWH-133) would decrease hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Four weeks after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we found that intrathecal administration of JWH-133 (10-100μg) dose-dependently reduced both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity without producing signs of sedation or ataxia. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of JWH-133 could be dose-dependently prevented by intrathecal co-administration of the CB2 antagonist, AM-630 (1-3μg). Our results suggest that JWH-133 acts at CB2 receptors, most likely within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress the hypersensitivity associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These are the first pre-clinical studies to directly promote CB2 as a promising target for the treatment of central pain in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

  10. Activation of Cannabinoid CB2 receptors Reduces Hyperalgesia in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weisi; Taylor, Bradley K.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis have yielded mixed results, possibly due to psychotropic side effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that a CB2-specific agonist (JWH-133) would decrease hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. 4 weeks after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we found that intrathecal administration of JWH-133 (10–100 μg) dose-dependently reduced both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity without producing signs of sedation or ataxia. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of JWH-133 could be dose-dependently prevented by intrathecal co-administration of the CB2 antagonist, AM-630 (1–3 μg). Our results suggest that JWH-133 acts at CB2 receptors, most likely within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress the hypersensitivity associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These are the first pre-clinical studies to directly promote CB2 as a promising target for the treatment of central pain in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25849525

  11. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Roshantha As; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4(+) T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4(+) T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  12. Probenecid Application Prevents Clinical Symptoms and Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hainz, Nadine; Wolf, Sandra; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Neurological impairments are caused by axonal damage due to demyelination and neuroinflammation within the central nervous system. T cells mediate the neuroinflammation. The activation of T cells is induced by the release of adenosine triphosphate and involves purinergic receptors as well as pannexin (Panx) proteins. As Panx1 is expressed on T cells, we here propose that application of probenecid, a known Panx inhibitor, will prevent the onset of clinical symptoms in a mouse model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. EAE-induced mice received daily injections of probenecid. Disease scores, T cell numbers, and microglia activation were compared between experimental groups. Probenecid treatment resulted in lower disease scores as compared to EAE animals. Probenecid-treated animals also displayed fewer inflammatory lesions. Microglia activation was not altered by treatment. In conclusion, probenecid prevented the onset of EAE. PMID:26276126

  13. CD20 therapies in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - Targeting T or B cells?

    PubMed

    Agahozo, Marie Colombe; Peferoen, Laura; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells. However, emerging evidence reveal that B cells also act as antigen presenting cells, T cell activators and cytokine producers suggesting that the strong efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody therapy observed in people with MS may reduce disease progression by several different mechanisms. Here we review the evidence and mechanisms by which B cells contribute to disease in MS compared to findings in the EAE model. PMID:27645355

  14. CD20 therapies in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - Targeting T or B cells?

    PubMed

    Agahozo, Marie Colombe; Peferoen, Laura; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells. However, emerging evidence reveal that B cells also act as antigen presenting cells, T cell activators and cytokine producers suggesting that the strong efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody therapy observed in people with MS may reduce disease progression by several different mechanisms. Here we review the evidence and mechanisms by which B cells contribute to disease in MS compared to findings in the EAE model.

  15. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Chandraratna, Roshantha AS; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4+ T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  16. CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate experimentally-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianhong; Zhu, Jinying; Luo, Sheng; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Saijun

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), widely used as an animal model of MS, classically manifests as an ascending paralysis that is characterized by extensive infiltration of the CNS by inflammatory cells. Although several studies uncover the significant role of microglia in the development of EAE, the cellular mechanisms of microglia that govern EAE pathogenesis remain unknown. In the current study, we report that CXCR7 expression is dynamic regulated in activated microglia during CNS autoimmunity and positively correlates with the clinical severity of EAE. In addition, microglial chemotaxis is mediated by CXCR7 during CNS autoimmunity, signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) JNK are not involved. Most importantly, CXCR7 neutralizing treatment ameliorates the clinical severity of EAE along with ERK1/2 phosphorylation reduction. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate EAE.

  17. Targeting Non-classical Myelin Epitopes to Treat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J.; Li, Chih-Huang; Watts, Douglas M.; Xu, Yi; Qin, Xuezhong; Walter, Michael H.; Tang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Qa-1 epitopes, the peptides that bind to non-classical major histocompatibility complex Ib Qa-1 molecules and are recognized by Qa-1-restricted CD8+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, have been identified in pathogenic autoimmune cells that attack myelin sheath in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis [MS]). Additionally, immunization with such epitopes ameliorates the EAE. However, identification of such epitopes requires knowledge of the pathogenic autoimmune cells which are largely unknown in MS patients. Hence, we asked whether the CD8+ Treg cells could directly target the myelin sheath to ameliorate EAE. To address this question, we analyzed Qa-1 epitopes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG that is a protein in myelin sheath). Here, we report identification of a MOG-specific Qa-1 epitope. Immunization with this epitope suppressed ongoing EAE, which was abrogated by CD8+ T cell depletion. Additionally, the epitope immunization activated the epitope-specific CD8+ T cells which specifically accumulated in the CNS-draining cervical lymph nodes. Finally, CD8+ T cells primed by the epitope immunization transferred EAE suppression. Hence, this study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism mediated by the CD8+ Treg cells. We propose that immunization with myelin-specific HLA-E epitopes (human homologues of Qa-1 epitopes) is a promising therapy for MS. PMID:27796368

  18. Differing roles for members of the phospholipase A2 superfamily in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kalyvas, Athena; Baskakis, Constantinos; Magrioti, Victoria; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta; Stephens, Daren; López-Vales, Rubèn; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Yong, V. Wee; Dennis, Edward A.; Kokotos, George

    2009-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily hydrolyzes phospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, some of which can mediate inflammation and demyelination, hallmarks of the CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. The expression of two of the intracellular PLA2s (cPLA2 GIVA and iPLA2 GVIA) and two of the secreted PLA2s (sPLA2 GIIA and sPLA2 GV) are increased in different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. We show using small molecule inhibitors, that cPLA2 GIVA plays a role in the onset, and iPLA2 GVIA in the onset and progression of EAE. We also show a potential role for sPLA2 in the later remission phase. These studies demonstrate that selective inhibition of iPLA2 can ameliorate disease progression when treatment is started before or after the onset of symptoms. The effects of these inhibitors on lesion burden, chemokine and cytokine expression as well as on the lipid profile provide insights into their potential modes of action. iPLA2 is also expressed by macrophages and other immune cells in multiple sclerosis lesions. Our results therefore suggest that iPLA2 might be an excellent target to block for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:19218359

  19. IL-21R signaling is critical for induction of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youjin; Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Xiao, Sheng; Gu, Guangxiang; Sobel, Raymond A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) have well-described pathogenic roles in tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the involvement of IL-21 in these processes has remained controversial. While IL-21 is an essential autocrine amplification factor for differentiation of Th17 cells, the loss of IL-21 or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) does not protect mice from actively induced EAE. Here, we utilized a transgenic EAE mouse model, in which T and B cells overexpress receptors for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (referred to as 2D2xTH mice), and demonstrated that IL-21 is critical for the development of a variant form of spontaneous EAE in these animals. Il21r deletion in 2D2xTH mice reduced the incidence and severity of spontaneous EAE, which was associated with a defect in Th17 cell generation. Moreover, IL-21R deficiency limited IL-23R expression on Th17 cells and inhibited expression of key molecules involved in the generation of pathogenic Th17 cells. Conversely, loss of IL-23R in 2D2xTH mice resulted in complete resistance to the development of spontaneous EAE. Our data identify a previously unappreciated role for IL-21 in EAE and reveal that IL-21–mediated signaling supports generation and stabilization of pathogenic Th17 cells and development of spontaneous autoimmunity. PMID:26413871

  20. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

  1. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  2. CD44 Deficiency Contributes to Enhanced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kelly M.; Michaud, Michael; Madri, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecule CD44 is expressed by multiple cell types and is implicated in various cellular and immunological processes. In this study, we examined the effect of global CD44 deficiency on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice, CD44-deficient mice presented with greater disease severity, increased immune cell numbers in the central nervous system, and increased anti-MOG antibody and proinflammatory cytokine production, especially those associated with T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Further, decreased numbers of peripheral CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were observed in CD44-knockout mice throughout the disease course. CD44-knockout CD4 T cells exhibited reduced transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TGF-β RI) expression that did not impart a defect in Treg polarization in vitro, but did correlate with enhanced Th17 polarization in vitro. Further, EAE in bone marrow–chimeric animals suggested CD44 expression on both circulating and noncirculating cells limited disease severity. Endothelial expression of CD44 limited T-cell adhesion to and transmigration through murine endothelial monolayers in vitro. Importantly, we also identified increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier in vivo in CD44-deficient mice before and following immunization. These data suggest that CD44 has multiple protective roles in EAE, with effects on cytokine production, T-cell differentiation, T-cell–endothelial cell interactions, and blood–brain barrier integrity. PMID:23416161

  3. Chondroitin 6-O-sulfate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Moriguchi, Kota; Ueno, Rino; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main component of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system (CNS) and influence neuroplasticity. Although CSPG is considered an inhibitory factor for nerve repair in spinal cord injury, it is unclear whether CSPG influences the pathogenetic mechanisms of neuroimmunological diseases. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in chondroitin 6-O-sulfate transferase 1-deficient (C6st1(-/-)) mice. C6ST1 is the enzyme that transfers sulfate residues to position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the sugar chain of CSPG. The phenotypes of EAE in C6st1(-/-) mice were more severe than those in wild-type (WT) mice were. In adoptive-transfer EAE, in which antigen-reactive T cells from WT mice were transferred to C6st1(-/-) and WT mice, phenotypes were significantly more severe in C6st1(-/-) than in WT mice. The recall response of antigen-reactive T cells was not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, the number of pathogenic T cells within the CNS was also not considerably different. When EAE was induced in C6ST1 transgenic mice with C6ST1 overexpression, the mice showed considerably milder symptoms compared with those in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of sulfate at position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine of CSPG may influence the effecter phase of EAE to prevent the progression of pathogenesis. Thus, modification of the carbohydrate residue of CSPG may be a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroimmunological diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  4. Role of orexin-A in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Iman; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orexin-A (OX-A) on behavioral and pathological parameters and on gene expression of some multiple sclerosis-related peptides in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by subcutaneous administration of MOG 35-55. Following immunization, the treatment was initiated by using SB.334867 (orexin-1 receptor antagonist) and/or OX-A. Locomotor activity and exploratory behaviors were monitored using open field and T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) respectively. Pain sensitivity was assessed by hot-plate test. Histopathological assessments were performed by H&E staining. The expression of TGF-β, MBP, MMP-9, IL-12, iNOS and MCP-1 were measured using real-time PCR method in lumbar spinal cord. OX-A administration in EAE mice remarkably attenuated the clinical symptoms, increased latency response in hot plate test, inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β as well as MBP and down-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and IL-12. In contrast SB.334867 administration in EAE mice deteriorated the clinical symptoms, decreased the alternation in T-CAT, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β and MBP and up-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS. Results of this study suggest that the orexinergic system might be involved in pathological development of EAE. These findings suggest orexinergic system as a potential target for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  5. Role of orexin-A in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Iman; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orexin-A (OX-A) on behavioral and pathological parameters and on gene expression of some multiple sclerosis-related peptides in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by subcutaneous administration of MOG 35-55. Following immunization, the treatment was initiated by using SB.334867 (orexin-1 receptor antagonist) and/or OX-A. Locomotor activity and exploratory behaviors were monitored using open field and T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) respectively. Pain sensitivity was assessed by hot-plate test. Histopathological assessments were performed by H&E staining. The expression of TGF-β, MBP, MMP-9, IL-12, iNOS and MCP-1 were measured using real-time PCR method in lumbar spinal cord. OX-A administration in EAE mice remarkably attenuated the clinical symptoms, increased latency response in hot plate test, inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β as well as MBP and down-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and IL-12. In contrast SB.334867 administration in EAE mice deteriorated the clinical symptoms, decreased the alternation in T-CAT, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β and MBP and up-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS. Results of this study suggest that the orexinergic system might be involved in pathological development of EAE. These findings suggest orexinergic system as a potential target for treatment of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857503

  6. Identification of gene expression patterns crucially involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Martin M.; Barth, Silvia; Greve, Bernhard; Schumann, Kathrin M.; Bartels, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT After encounter with a central nervous system (CNS)-derived autoantigen, lymphocytes leave the lymph nodes and enter the CNS. This event leads only rarely to subsequent tissue damage. Genes relevant to CNS pathology after cell infiltration are largely undefined. Myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS that results in disability. To assess genes that are involved in encephalitogenicity and subsequent tissue damage mediated by CNS-infiltrating cells, we performed a DNA microarray analysis from cells derived from lymph nodes and eluted from CNS in LEW.1AV1 (RT1av1) rats immunized with MOG 91-108. The data was compared to immunizations with adjuvant alone or naive rats and to immunizations with the immunogenic but not encephalitogenic MOG 73-90 peptide. Here, we show involvement of Cd38, Cxcr4 and Akt and confirm these findings by the use of Cd38-knockout (B6.129P2-Cd38tm1Lnd/J) mice, S1P-receptor modulation during EAE and quantitative expression analysis in individuals with MS. The hereby-defined underlying pathways indicate cellular activation and migration pathways mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors as crucial events in CNS tissue damage. These pathways can be further explored for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:27519689

  7. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  8. Natural Killer T Cell Activation Protects Mice Against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Avneesh K.; Wilson, Michael T.; Hong, Seokmann; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Du, Caigan; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Joyce, Sebastian; Sriram, Subramaniam; Koezuka, Yasuhiko; Van Kaer, Luc

    2001-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) serves as a prototypic model for T cell–mediated autoimmunity. Vα14 natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I–like protein CD1d. Here, we show that activation of Vα14 NKT cells by the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) protects susceptible mice against EAE. β-GalCer, which binds CD1d but is not recognized by NKT cells, failed to protect mice against EAE. Furthermore, α-GalCer was unable to protect CD1d knockout (KO) mice against EAE, indicating the requirement for an intact CD1d antigen presentation pathway. Protection of disease conferred by α-GalCer correlated with its ability to suppress myelin antigen-specific Th1 responses and/or to promote myelin antigen-specific Th2 cell responses. α-GalCer was unable to protect IL-4 KO and IL-10 KO mice against EAE, indicating a critical role for both of these cytokines. Because recognition of α-GalCer by NKT cells is phylogenetically conserved, our findings have identified NKT cells as novel target cells for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:11748281

  9. B cells promote induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by facilitating reactivation of T cells in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Emily R; Stromnes, Ingunn M; Goverman, Joan M

    2014-02-01

    The efficacy of rituximab treatment in multiple sclerosis has renewed interest in the role of B cells in CNS autoimmunity. In this study, we show that B cells are the predominant MHC class II(+) subset in the naive CNS in mice, and they constitutively express proinflammatory cytokines. Incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by adoptive transfer was significantly reduced in C3HeB/Fej μMT (B cell-deficient) mice, suggesting an important role for CNS B cells in initiating inflammatory responses. Initial T cell infiltration of the CNS occurred normally in μMT mice; however, lack of production of T cell cytokines and other immune mediators indicated impaired T cell reactivation. Subsequent recruitment of immune cells from the periphery driven by this initial T cell reactivation did not occur in μMT mice. B cells required exogenous IL-1β to reactivate Th17 but not Th1 cells in vitro. Similarly, reactivation of Th1 cells infiltrating the CNS was selectively impaired compared with Th17 cells in μMT mice, causing an increased Th17/Th1 ratio in the CNS at experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset and enhanced brain inflammation. These studies reveal an important role for B cells within the CNS in reactivating T cells and influencing the clinical manifestation of disease.

  10. Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Gareth; Riddall, Dieter R; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major immune-mediated, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Compounds within cannabis, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) can limit the inappropriate neurotransmissions that cause MS-related problems and medicinal cannabis is now licenced for the treatment of MS symptoms. However, the biology indicates that the endocannabinoid system may offer the potential to control other aspects of disease. Although there is limited evidence that the cannabinoids from cannabis are having significant immunosuppressive activities that will influence relapsing autoimmunity, we and others can experimentally demonstrate that they may limit neurodegeneration that drives progressive disability. Here we show that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, whilst non-sedating doses of Δ9-THC do not inhibit relapsing autoimmunity, they dose-dependently inhibit the accumulation of disability during EAE. They also appear to slow down clinical progression during MS in humans. Although a 3 year, phase III clinical trial did not detect a beneficial effect of oral Δ9-THC in progressive MS, a planned subgroup analysis of people with less disability who progressed more rapidly, demonstrated a significant slowing of progression by oral Δ9-THC compared to placebo. Whilst this may support the experimental and biological evidence for a neuroprotective effect by the endocannabinoid system in MS, it remains to be established whether this will be formally demonstrated in further trials of Δ9-THC/cannabis in progressive MS.

  11. Differential effects of polysulfated polysaccharide on experimental encephalomyelitis, proliferation of autoimmune T cells, and inhibition of heparanase activity.

    PubMed

    Hershkoviz, R; Mor, F; Miao, H Q; Vlodavsky, I; Lider, O

    1995-10-01

    The extravasation of activated T lymphocytes through blood vessel walls and their migration to inflammatory loci are associated with secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which degrades heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of the ECM. The HS-degrading activity of heparanase was found to be inhibited by HS and heparin. Since induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires extravasation and migration of autoimmune T cells, degradation of ECM by heparanase is expected to be involved in induction of the disease. Herein, we examined whether laminarin sulfate, a polysulfated polysaccharide (PSS) isolated from the cell walls of seaweeds and subjected to chemical sulfation, could inhibit ECM degradation by mammalian heparanase, and could prevent EAE. PSS was a more potent inhibitor of heparanase-mediated degradation of ECM than heparin. In-vivo, PSS, injected once a week, inhibited the severity of actively-induced EAE in rats. However, inhibition of EAE was not due to an overall suppression of autoimmune T cells, since PSS enhanced the proliferation of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific, encephalitogenic T cells. PSS-activated autoimmune T cells, but not MBP-activated cells, failed to induce EAE in recipient rats. Moreover, rats injected with PSS-activated T cells were resistant to induction of EAE by anti-MBP CD4+ T cells. Thus, PSS may have potential clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8579728

  12. SAP suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report that SAP-transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant, SAP-transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However, in SAP-Knockout mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild type to SAP-transgenic mice, or transfer of SAP-transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice, induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP-transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP-transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of interleukin-2 stimulated by P-selectin and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin.

  13. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats ("EAE" group). 2- "N. sativa + EAE" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- "EAE + N. sativa" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE.

  14. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats (“EAE” group). 2- “N. sativa + EAE” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- “EAE + N. sativa” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE. PMID:26261504

  15. Autophagy regulates the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Shipeng; Xu, Huanbai; Xu, Congfeng; Cai, Wei; Li, Qian; Cheng, Yiji; Jin, Min; Wang, Ru-Xing; Peng, Yongde; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Changping; He, Xiaozhou; Wan, Bing; Zhang, Yanyun

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising approach to treat various inflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis. However, the fate of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment is largely unknown. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied animal model of multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that autophagy occurred in MSCs during their application for EAE treatment. Inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor, induced autophagy in MSCs synergistically by inducing expression of BECN1/Beclin 1. Inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of Becn1 significantly improved the therapeutic effects of MSCs on EAE, which was mainly attributable to enhanced suppression upon activation and expansion of CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of autophagy increased reactive oxygen species generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 activation in MSCs, which were essential for PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase]) and downstream prostaglandin E2 expression to exert immunoregulatory function. Furthermore, pharmacological treatment of MSCs to inhibit autophagy increased their immunosuppressive effects on T cell-mediated EAE. Our findings indicate that inflammatory microenvironment-induced autophagy downregulates the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Therefore, modulation of autophagy in MSCs would provide a novel strategy to improve MSC-based immunotherapy.

  16. Prostaglandin I2 Signaling Drives Th17 Differentiation and Exacerbates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weisong; Dowell, Dustin R.; Huckabee, Matthew M.; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Boswell, Madison G.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Lotz, Matthew T.; Toki, Shinji; Yin, Huiyong; Yao, Songyi; Natarajan, Chandramohan; Wu, Pingsheng; Sriram, Subramaniam; Breyer, Richard M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a lipid mediator currently used in treatment of human disease, is a critical regulator of adaptive immune responses. Although PGI2 signaling suppressed Th1 and Th2 immune responses, the role of PGI2 in Th17 differentiation is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In mouse CD4+CD62L+ naïve T cell culture, the PGI2 analogs iloprost and cicaprost increased IL-17A and IL-22 protein production and Th17 differentiation in vitro. This effect was augmented by IL-23 and was dependent on PGI2 receptor IP signaling. In mouse bone marrow-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells (BMDCs), PGI2 analogs increased the ratio of IL-23/IL-12, which is correlated with increased ability of BMDCs to stimulate naïve T cells for IL-17A production. Moreover, IP knockout mice had delayed onset of a Th17-associated neurological disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and reduced infiltration of IL-17A-expressing mononuclear cells in the spinal cords compared to wild type mice. These results suggest that PGI2 promotes in vivo Th17 responses. Conclusion The preferential stimulation of Th17 differentiation by IP signaling may have important clinical implications as PGI2 and its analogs are commonly used to treat human pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22590492

  17. γδ T cell subsets play opposing roles in regulating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Blink, Sarah E; Caldis, Matthew W; Goings, Gwendolyn E; Harp, Christopher T; Malissen, Bernard; Prinz, Immo; Xu, Dan; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-07-01

    γδ T cells are resident in cerebrospinal fluid and central nervous system (CNS) lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but as multifaceted cells exhibiting innate and adaptive characteristics, their function remains unknown. Previous studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are contradictory and identified these cells as either promoting or suppressing disease pathogenesis. This study examines distinct γδ T cell subsets during EAE and indicates they mediate differential functions in CNS inflammation and demyelination resulting in pathogenesis or protection. We identified two γδ subsets in the CNS, Vγ1(+) and Vγ4(+), with distinct cytokine profiles and tissue specificity. Anti-γδ T cell receptor (TCR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration results in activation and downregulation of surface TCR, rendering the cells undetectable, but with opposing effects: anti-Vγ4 treatment exacerbates disease whereas anti-Vγ1 treatment is protective. The Vγ4(+) subset produces multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including high levels of IL-17, and accounts for 15-20% of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing cells in the CNS, but utilize a variant transcriptional program than CD4(+) Th17 cells. In contrast, the Vγ1 subset produces CCR5 ligands, which may promote regulatory T cell differentiation. γδ T cell subsets thus play distinct and opposing roles during EAE, providing an explanation for previous reports and suggesting selective targeting to optimize regulation as a potential therapy for MS.

  18. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4βl integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yednock, Ted A.; Cannon, Catherine; Fritz, Lawrence C.; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Steinman, Lawrence; Karin, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    EXPERIMENTAL autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with similarities to multiple sclerosis1,2. In both diseases, circulating leukocytes penetrate the blood-brain barrier and damage myelin, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and paralysis3-5. We sought to identify the adhesion receptors that mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to inflamed brain endothelium in EAE, because this interaction is the first step in leukocyte entry into the central nervous system. Using an in vitro adhesion assay on tissue sections, we found that lymphocytes and monocytes bound selectively to inflamed EAE brain vessels. Binding was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin molecule α4βl, but not by antibodies against numerous other adhesion receptors. When tested in vivo, anti-α4 integrin effectively prevented the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system and the development of EAE. Thus, therapies designed to interfere with α4βl integrin may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.

  19. High salt drives Th17 responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis without impacting myeloid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Stefanie; Kissel, Jan; Manzel, Arndt; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt intake aggravates T helper cell (Th) 17 responses and neuroinflammation. Here, we employed in vitro assays for myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) maturation, DC cytokine production, T cell activation and ex vivo analyses in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate whether the salt effect on Th17 cells is further mediated through DCs in vivo. In cell culture, an excess of 40mM sodium chloride did neither affect the generation, maturation nor the function of DCs, but, in different assays, significantly increased Th17 differentiation. During the initiation phase of MOG35-55 EAE, we did not observe altered DC frequencies or co-stimulatory capacities in lymphoid organs, while IL-17A production and Th17 cells in the spleen were significantly increased. Complementary ex vivo analyses of the spinal cord during the effector phase of EAE showed increased frequencies of Th17 cells, but did not reveal differences in phenotypes of CNS invading DCs. Finally, adaption of transgenic mice harboring a MOG specific T cell receptor to a high-salt diet led to aggravated clinical disease only after active immunization. Wild-type mice adapted to a high-salt diet in the effector phase of EAE, bypassing the priming phase of T cells, only displayed mildly aggravated disease. In summary, our data argue for a direct effect of NaCl on Th17 cells in neuroinflammation rather than an effect primarily exerted via DCs. These data may further fuel our understanding on the dietary impact on different immune cell subsets in autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

  20. Regulation of Th1 cells and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by glycogen synthase kinase-3

    PubMed Central

    Beurel, Eléonore; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Yeh, Wen-I; Song, Ling; Palomo, Valle; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Woodgett, James R.; Harrington, Laurie E.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Martinez, Ana; Jope, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, for which only limited therapeutic interventions are available. Since MS is mediated in part by autoreactive T cells, particularly Th17 and Th1 cells, in the present study, we tested if inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), previously reported to reduce Th17 cell generation, also alter Th1 cell production or ameliorate EAE. GSK3 inhibitors were found to impede the production of Th1 cells by reducing STAT1 activation. Molecularly reducing the expression of either of the two GSK3 isoforms demonstrated that Th17 cell production was sensitive to reduced levels of GSK3β, and Th1 cell production was inhibited in GSK3α-deficient cells. Administration of the selective GSK3 inhibitors TDZD-8, VP2.51, VP0.7, or L803-mts, significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of MOG35-55-induced EAE in mice, nearly eliminating the chronic progressive phase, and reduced the number of Th17 and Th1 cells in the spinal cord. Administration of TDZD-8 or L803-mts after the initial disease episode ameliorated clinical symptoms in a relapsing/remitting model of PLP139-151-induced EAE. Furthermore, deletion of GSK3β specifically in T cells was sufficient to ameliorate MOG35-55-induced EAE. These results demonstrate isoform-selective effects of GSK3 on T cell generation, therapeutic effects of GSK3 inhibitors in EAE, and that GSK3 inhibition in T cells is sufficient to reduce the severity of EAE, suggesting that GSK3 may be a feasible target for developing new therapeutic interventions for MS. PMID:23606540

  1. Functional and Pathogenic Differences of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Helena S.; Mues, Marsilius; Lassmann, Hans; Wekerle, Hartmut; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Background There is consensus that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be mediated by myelin specific T cells of Th1 as well as of Th17 phenotype, but the contribution of either subset to the pathogenic process has remained controversial. In this report, we compare functional differences and pathogenic potential of “monoclonal” T cell lines that recognize myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with the same transgenic TCR but are distinguished by an IFN-γ producing Th1-like and IL-17 producing Th17-like cytokine signature. Methods and Findings CD4+ T cell lines were derived from the transgenic mouse strain 2D2, which expresses a TCR recognizing MOG peptide 35–55 in the context of I-Ab. Adoptive transfer of Th1 cells into lymphopenic (Rag2−/−) recipients, predominantly induced “classic” paralytic EAE, whereas Th17 cells mediated “atypical” ataxic EAE in approximately 50% of the recipient animals. Combination of Th1 and Th17 cells potentiated the encephalitogenicity inducing classical EAE exclusively. Th1 and Th17 mediated EAE lesions differed in their composition but not in their localization within the CNS. While Th1 lesions contained IFN-γ, but no IL-17 producing T cells, the T cells in Th17 lesions showed plasticity, substantially converting to IFN-γ producing Th1-like cells. Th1 and Th17 cells differed drastically by their lytic potential. Th1 but not Th17 cells lysed autoantigen presenting astrocytes and fibroblasts in vitro in a contact-dependent manner. In contrast, Th17 cells acquired cytotoxic potential only after antigenic stimulation and conversion to IFN-γ producing Th1 phenotype. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that both Th1 and Th17 lineages possess the ability to induce CNS autoimmunity but can function with complementary as well as differential pathogenic mechanisms. We propose that Th17-like cells producing IL-17 are required for the generation of atypical EAE whereas IFN-γ producing Th1 cells induce

  2. The tick saliva immunosuppressor, Salp15, contributes to Th17-induced pathology during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Juncadella, Ignacio J.; Bates, Tonya C.; Suleiman, Reem; Monteagudo-Mera, Andrea; Olson, Chris M.; Navasa, Nicolás; Olivera, Elias R.; Osborne, Barbara A.; Anguita, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Salp15 is a tick saliva protein that inhibits CD4+ T cell differentiation through its interaction with CD4. The protein inhibits early signaling events during T cell activation and IL-2 production. Because murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development is mediated by central nervous system-infiltrating CD4+ T cells that are specific for myelin-associated proteins, we sought to determine whether the treatment of mice with Salp15 during EAE induction would prevent the generation of proinflammatory T cell responses and the development of the disease. Surprisingly, Salp15-treated mice developed more severe EAE than control animals. The treatment of EAE-induced mice with the tick saliva protein did not result in increased infiltration of T cells to the central nervous system, indicating that Salp15 had not affected the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Salp15 treatment did not affect the development of antibody responses against the eliciting peptide or the presence of IFNγ in the sera. The treatment with Salp15 resulted, however, in the increased differentiation of Th17 cells in vivo, as evidenced by higher IL-17 production from PLP139-151-specific CD4+ T cells isolated from the central nervous system and the periphery. In vitro, Salp15 was able to induce the differentiation of Th17 cells in the presence of IL-6 and the absence of TGFβ These results suggest that a conductive milieu for the differentiation of Th17 cells can be achieved by restriction of the production of IL-2 during T cell differentiation, a role that may be performed by TGFβ and other immunosuppressive agents. PMID:20920474

  3. Immunomodulation of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Oral Administration of Copolymer 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelbaum, Dvora; Arnon, Ruth; Sela, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The activity of copolymer 1 (Cop 1, Copax-one, glatiramer acetate) in suppressing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients when injected parenterally has been extensively demonstrated. In the present study we addressed the question of whether Cop 1 can induce oral tolerance to EAE similar to myelin basic protein (MBP). We now have demonstrated that oral Cop 1 inhibited EAE induction in both rats and mice. Furthermore, oral Cop 1 was more effective than oral MBP in suppressing EAE in rats. The beneficial effect of oral Cop 1 was found to be associated with specific inhibition of the proliferative and Th1 cytokine secretion responses to MBP of spleen cells from Cop 1-fed mice and rats. In all of these assays, oral Cop 1 was more effective than oral MBP. The tolerance induced by Cop 1 could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Cop 1-fed animals. Furthermore, Cop 1-specific T cell lines, which inhibit EAE induction in vivo, could be isolated from the above spleen cells. These T cell lines secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor type β , but not IL-4, in response to both Cop 1 and MBP. In conclusion, oral Cop 1 has a beneficial effect on the development of EAE that is associated with down-regulation of T cell immune responses to MBP and is mediated by Th2/3 type regulatory cells. These results suggest that oral administration of Cop 1 may modulate multiple sclerosis as well.

  4. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Massa, P T; ter Meulen, V; Fontana, A

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain--in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)--we have compared the gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. We focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggests that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain. Images PMID:3495802

  5. Melatonin controls experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by altering the T effector/regulatory balance.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Cruz-Chamorro, Ivan; López-González, Antonio; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Martínez-López, Alicia; Lardone, Patricia J; Guerrero, Juan M; Carrillo-Vico, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the experimental model for multiple sclerosis (MS), is triggered by myelin-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. The immunomodulatory activities of melatonin have been shown to be beneficial under several conditions in which the immune system is exacerbated. Here, we sought to elucidate the basis of the melatonin protective effect on EAE by characterizing the T effector/regulatory responses, particularly those of the memory cell subsets. Melatonin was tested for its effect on Th1, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells in the lymph nodes and CNS of immunodominant peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (pMOG)-immunized and EAE mice, respectively. The capacity of melatonin to ameliorate EAE as well as modifying both T cell response and effector/regulatory balance was surveyed. T cell memory subsets and CD44, a key activation marker involved in the EAE pathogenesis, were also examined. Melatonin protected from EAE by decreasing peripheral and central Th1/Th17 responses and enhancing both the Treg frequency and IL-10 synthesis in the CNS. Melatonin reduced the T effector memory population and its pro-inflammatory response and regulated CD44 expression, which was decreased in T effector cells and increased in Tregs. The alterations in the T cell subpopulations were associated with a reduced mononuclear infiltration (CD4 and CD11b cells) of the melatonin-treated mice CNS. For the first time, we report that melatonin protects against EAE by controlling peripheral and central T effector/regulatory responses, effects that might be partially mediated by CD44. This immunomodulatory effect on EAE suggests that melatonin may represent an effective treatment option for MS.

  6. Spatial reference memory deficits precede motor dysfunction in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model: the role of kallikrein-kinin system.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Rafael C; Moreira, Eduardo L G; Alberti, Thaís B; Marcon, Rodrigo; Prediger, Rui D; Calixto, João B

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive T cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although it is recognized that cognitive deficits represent a manifestation of the disease, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Here we provide evidence of spatial reference memory impairments during the pre-motor phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Specifically, these cognitive deficits were accompanied by down-regulation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA expression on day 5 and 11 post-immunization, and up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a marked increase in B1R mRNA expression occurred selectively in the hippocampus, whereas protein level was up-regulated in both brain areas. Genetic deletion of kinin B1R attenuated cognitive deficits and cholinergic dysfunction, and blocked mRNA expression of both IL-17 and IFN-γ in the prefrontal cortex, lymph node and spleen of mice subjected to EAE. The discovery of kinin receptors, mainly B1R, as a target for controlling neuroinflammatory response, as well as the cognitive deficits induced by EAE may foster the therapeutic exploitation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), in particular for the treatment of autoimmune disorders, such as MS, mainly during pre-symptomatic phase. PMID:23777652

  7. The complement inhibitor FUT-175 suppresses T cell autoreactivity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Nacion, Kristine; Bu, Hong; Lin, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Several recent studies have shown that interacting antigen presenting cells and/or T cells produced complement activation products C5a and C3a, are integrally involved in T-cell activation, and promote the generation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55))-specific interferon-gamma and interleukin-17-producing T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we tested whether FUT-175, a clinical pharmaceutical that has been shown to inhibit the formation of C3/C5 convertases, can attenuate myelin-specific T-cell responses, as well as disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In vitro, FUT-175 inhibited local C5a/C3a production by antigen presenting cell-T-cell complexes and attenuated MOG(35-55)-specific Th1 and Th17 responses with little nonspecific cytotoxicity. In vivo administration of FUT-175 delayed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease onset, lowered clinical scores, decreased central nervous system inflammation, and reduced demyelination. The FUT-175-treated mice exhibited decreased numbers of MOG(35-55)-specific interferon-gamma- and interleukin-17-producing T cells. In addition, results from the FUT-175 treatment of naive recipients of adoptively transferred splenocytes from MOG(35-55)-immunized mice suggested that the effect of FUT-175 was on MOG-specific cellular responses and not on anti-MOG antibodies. These results argue that complement regulators, which inhibit C5a/C3a production, may have therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis and in other clinical conditions in which T cells drive disease pathogenesis. PMID:19608865

  8. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.

  9. Teriflunomide attenuates immunopathological changes in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Garth E; Lee, Lan; Laws-Ricker, Lynn; Delohery, Tomas; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; Colletti, Nicholas; Soos, Timothy J; Schroeder, Kendra; Fanelli, Barbara; Tian, Nian; Arendt, Christopher W; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Petty, Margaret; Ji, Zhongqi; Qian, George; Gaur, Rajula; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean; Telsinskas, Juventas; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses. PMID:24198809

  10. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. PMID:26025060

  11. XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Du, Sienmi; Itoh, Noriko; Askarinam, Sahar; Hill, Haley; Arnold, Arthur P; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2014-02-18

    Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) and have more robust immune responses than men. However, men with MS tend to demonstrate a more progressive disease course than women, suggesting a disconnect between the severity of an immune attack and the CNS response to a given immune attack. We have previously shown in an MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that autoantigen-sensitized XX lymph node cells, compared with XY, are more encephalitogenic. These studies demonstrated an effect of sex chromosomes in the induction of immune responses, but did not address a potential role of sex chromosomes in the CNS response to immune-mediated injury. Here, we examined this possibility using XX versus XY bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with a common immune system of one sex chromosomal type. We found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice with an XY sex chromosome complement in the CNS, compared with XX, demonstrated greater clinical disease severity with more neuropathology in the spinal cord, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. A candidate gene on the X chromosome, toll-like receptor 7, was then examined. Toll-like receptor 7 expression in cortical neurons was higher in mice with XY compared with mice with XX CNS, consistent with the known neurodegenerative role for toll-like receptor 7 in neurons. These results suggest that sex chromosome effects on neurodegeneration in the CNS run counter to effects on immune responses, and may bear relevance to the clinical enigma of greater MS susceptibility in women but faster disability progression in men. This is a demonstration of a direct effect of sex chromosome complement on neurodegeneration in a neurological disease.

  12. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Scott C; Daniels, Crystal; Bourdette, Dennis N; Bebo, Bruce F

    2003-07-01

    The ability of sex hormones to regulate cytokine production is well established, but the ability of cytokines to regulate sex hormone production has only begun to be investigated. We measured sex hormones in mice with passive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with sexual dysfunction. Abnormally low serum testosterone levels were found in male mice with EAE and in male MS patients, while serum estrogen levels in female mice with EAE were normal. An inverse relationship between cytokine and testosterone levels in male mice with EAE, coupled with an increase in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, suggests that inflammatory cytokines suppress testosterone production by a direct effect on testicular Leydig cells. Gender differences in the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to inflammation may be an important factor regulating the duration and severity of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity.

  13. A synthetic peptide from the third hypervariable region of major histocompatibility complex class II beta chain as a vaccine for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Topham, D J; Nag, B; Arimilli, S; Sriram, S

    1994-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted, T-cell-mediated, demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system and represents a model for human multiple sclerosis. The present study demonstrates that vaccination of SJL/J mice with an 18-amino acid synthetic peptide from the third hypervariable region of the murine class II MHC IAs beta chain (IAs beta 58-75; 18-mer peptide) is capable of eliciting auto-anti-IAs antibodies specific for the IAs beta chain and preventing and treating EAE. A similar approach may be useful in the treatment of human autoimmune diseases in which susceptibility is linked to class II MHC genes. Images PMID:8058747

  14. Galectin isolated from parasite inhibits remission of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by up-regulating autoantibody

    PubMed Central

    Bing, S J; Ha, D; Ahn, G; Cho, J; Kim, A; Park, S K; Yu, H S; Jee, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recently, parasite infections or parasite-derived products have been suggested as a therapeutic strategy with suppression of immunopathology, which involves the induction of regulatory T cells or/and T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. In a recent study, researchers reported that constructed recombinant galectin (rTl-gal) isolated from an adult worm of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Toxascaris leonina attenuated clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in mice treated with dextran sulphate sodium. Noting the role of rTl-gal in inflammatory disease, we attempted to investigate the effect of the parasite via its rTl-gal on neuronal autoimmune disease using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse inflammatory and demyelinating autoimmune disease model of human multiple sclerosis. In this model, rTl-gal-treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice failed to recover after the peak of the disease, leading to persistent central nervous system (CNS) damage, such as demyelination, gliosis and axonal damage. Further, rTl-gal-treated EAE mice markedly increased the number of CD45R/B220+ B cells in both infiltrated inflammation and the periphery, along with the increased production of autoantibody [anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55] in serum at chronic stage. Upon antigen restimulation, rTl-gal treatment affected the release of overall cytokines, especially interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Our results suggest that galectin isolated from a gastrointestinal parasite can deliver a harmful effect to EAE contrary to its beneficial effect on inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25619397

  15. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) modulates the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghun; Choi, Jinyong; Lee, Wonwoo; Ko, Kyeongryang; Kim, Sunyoung

    2015-12-01

    Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), originally isolated from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) (Lee et al., 2012). Here, we investigated whether synthetic DHCA could suppress the CD4 T helper 17 (Th17)-mediated production of the interleukin (IL)-17 protein. The results from RT-qPCR suggest that DHCA-mediated down-regulation of IL-17 occurred at the transcriptional level by suppressing the expression of RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt, the master transcription factor involved in the differentiation of Th17 cells. Furthermore, such inhibition was mediated by the suppression of NF-κB activity. DHCA also inhibited the Th1-mediated production of interferon (IFN) γ by controlling the expression of a key transcription factor known to regulate the production of this cytokine, T-bet. In the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, DHCA showed significant therapeutic effects by inhibiting the infiltration of immune cells into the spinal cords, decreasing the differentiation of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells, suppressing the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, and eventually ameliorating the clinical symptoms of EAE mice. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may be a potential candidate as an agent for the control of Th17 and Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  16. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease.

  17. Combining genetic mapping with genome-wide expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis highlights a gene network enriched for T cell functions and candidate genes regulating autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Thessen Hedreul, Melanie; Möller, Steffen; Stridh, Pernilla; Gupta, Yask; Gillett, Alan; Daniel Beyeen, Amennai; Öckinger, Johan; Flytzani, Sevasti; Diez, Margarita; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system commonly used to study multiple sclerosis (MS). We combined clinical EAE phenotypes with genome-wide expression profiling in spleens from 150 backcross rats between susceptible DA and resistant PVG rat strains during the chronic EAE phase. This enabled correlation of transcripts with genotypes, other transcripts and clinical EAE phenotypes and implicated potential genetic causes and pathways in EAE. We detected 2285 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Sixty out of 599 cis-eQTLs overlapped well-known EAE QTLs and constitute positional candidate genes, including Ifit1 (Eae7), Atg7 (Eae20-22), Klrc3 (eEae22) and Mfsd4 (Eae17). A trans-eQTL that overlaps Eae23a regulated a large number of small RNAs and implicates a master regulator of transcription. We defined several disease-correlated networks enriched for pathways involved in cell-mediated immunity. They include C-type lectins, G protein coupled receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, transmembrane proteins, suppressors of transcription (Jundp2 and Nr1d1) and STAT transcription factors (Stat4) involved in interferon signaling. The most significant network was enriched for T cell functions, similar to genetic findings in MS, and revealed both established and novel gene interactions. Transcripts in the network have been associated with T cell proliferation and differentiation, the TCR signaling and regulation of regulatory T cells. A number of network genes and their family members have been associated with MS and/or other autoimmune diseases. Combining disease and genome-wide expression phenotypes provides a link between disease risk genes and distinct molecular pathways that are dysregulated during chronic autoimmune inflammation. PMID:23900079

  18. The Brain Proteome of the Ubiquitin Ligase Peli1 Knock-Out Mouse during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lereim, Ragnhild Reehorst; Oveland, Eystein; Xiao, Yichuan; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Sun, Shao-Cong; Berven, Frode S

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Peli1 has previously been suggested as a potential treatment target in multiple sclerosis. In the multiple sclerosis disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Peli1 knock-out led to less activated microglia and less inflammation in the central nervous system. Despite being important in microglia, Peli1 expression has also been detected in glial and neuronal cells. In the present study the overall brain proteomes of Peli1 knock-out mice and wild-type mice were compared prior to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction, at onset of the disease and at disease peak. Brain samples from the frontal hemisphere, peripheral from the extensive inflammatory foci, were analyzed using TMT-labeling of sample pools, and the discovered proteins were verified in individual mice using label-free proteomics. The greatest proteomic differences between Peli1 knock-out and wild-type mice were observed at the disease peak. In Peli1 knock-out a higher degree of antigen presentation, increased activity of adaptive and innate immune cells and alterations to proteins involved in iron metabolism were observed during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These results unravel global effects to the brain proteome when abrogating Peli1 expression, underlining the importance of Peli1 as a regulator of the immune response also peripheral to inflammatory foci during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The proteomics data is available in PRIDE with accession PXD003710. PMID:27746629

  19. Oral flavonoids delay recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Richard; van Tol, Eric A F; van Noort, Johannes M

    2005-07-15

    Flavonoids are food components that appear to have potential beneficial health effects. There is a range of in vitro studies supporting the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoids. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro flavonoids, including luteolin and apigenin, inhibit proliferation and IFN-gamma production by murine and human autoimmune T cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of oral flavonoids as well as of curcumin on autoimmune T cell reactivity in mice and on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. Continuous oral administration of flavonoids significantly affected antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma production by lymph node-derived T cells following immunization with an EAE-inducing peptide. Both luteolin and apigenin suppress proliferative responses as they did in vitro, whereas IFN-gamma production on the other hand was enhanced. Other flavonoids exerted differential effects on proliferation and IFN-gamma production. The effects of flavonoids and curcumin on EAE were assessed using either passive transfer of autoimmune T cells or active disease induction. In passive EAE, flavonoids led to delayed recovery of clinical symptoms rather than to any reduction in disease. In active EAE, the effects were less pronounced but also, in this case, the flavonoid hesperitin delayed recovery. Oral curcumin had overall mild but beneficial effects. Our results indicate that oral flavonoids fail to beneficially influence the course of EAE in mice but, instead, suppress recovery from acute inflammatory damage.

  20. Overexpression of the Dominant-Negative Form of Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 in Oligodendrocytes Protects against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yan; Tao, Duan; Liebenson, David; Liggett, Thomas; Goswami, Rajendra; Clarke, Robert; Stefoski, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the human autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The goal of the present study was to directly examine the role of IRF-1 in oligodendrocyte injury and inflammatory demyelination. For the purpose of this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line (CNP/dnIRF-1) that overexpresses the dominant-negative form of IRF-1 (dnIRF1) specifically in oligodendrocytes. CNP/dnIRF-1 mice exhibited no phenotypic abnormalities but displayed suppressed IRF-1 signaling in oligodendrocytes. The major finding of our study was that the CNP/dnIRF-1 mice, compared with the wild-type mice, were protected against EAE, a phenomenon associated with significant reduction of inflammatory demyelination and with oligodendrocyte and axonal preservation. The observed protection was related to suppressed IRF-1 signaling and impaired expression of immune and proapoptotic genes in oligodendrocytes. No significant differences in the peripheral immune responses between the wild-type and the CNP/dnIRF-1 mice were identified throughout the experiments. This study indicates that IRF-1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of EAE by mediating oligodendrocyte response to inflammation and injury. It also suggests that oligodendrocytes are actively involved in the neuroimmune network, and that exploring oligodendrocyte-related pathogenic mechanisms, in addition to the conventional immune-based ones, may have important therapeutic implications in MS. PMID:21653838

  1. Anti-myelin antibodies play an important role in the susceptibility to develop proteolipid protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Marín, N; Eixarch, H; Mansilla, M J; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Mecha, M; Guaza, C; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C; Montalban, X; Villar, L M; Espejo, C

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is an autoimmune disorder in which activated T cells cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to initiate an inflammatory response that leads to demyelination and axonal damage. The key mechanisms responsible for disease initiation are still unknown. We addressed this issue in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. It is widely known that EAE manifests only in certain strains when immunized with myelin proteins or peptides. We studied the differential immune responses induced in two mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to EAE induction when they are immunized with the 139–151 peptide of proteolipid protein, an encephalitogenic peptide capable of inducing EAE in the susceptible strain. The adequate combination of major histocompatibility complex alleles and myelin peptides triggered in susceptible mice a T helper type 17 (Th17) response capable of inducing the production of high-affinity anti-myelin immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. These were not detected in resistant mice, despite immunization with the encephalitogenic peptide in junction with complete Freund's adjuvant and pertussis toxin, which mediate BBB disruption. These data show the pivotal role of Th17 responses and of high-affinity anti-myelin antibodies in EAE induction and that mechanisms that prevent their appearance can contribute to resistance to EAE. PMID:24188195

  2. Preventive and therapeutic effects of adenanthin on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qian-Qian; Liu, Chuan-Xu; Wu, Ying-Li; Wu, Shao-Fang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Pu, Jian-Xin; Lu, Ying; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Wang, Hong-Lin; Nie, Hong; Sun, Han-Dong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Adenanthin, a diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has been reported to possess antileukemic activity through targeting peroxiredoxin I/II. However, its other potential activities remain to be explored. Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, we report in this study that adenanthin exerts efficaciously preventive and therapeutic effects on EAE accompanied by significant restriction of infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination in CNS. Adenanthin-presented immunomodulatory effects on EAE are correlated with suppressed proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells, decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, increased regulatory T cell populations, decreased production of serum proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced stimulatory capacity of APCs, which might be mediated by its inhibitory action on NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results propose that, as a novel NF-κB inhibitor, adenanthin has potent immunomodulatory activity for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and possibly other autoimmune disorders. PMID:23964105

  3. Anti-myelin antibodies play an important role in the susceptibility to develop proteolipid protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Marín, N; Eixarch, H; Mansilla, M J; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Mecha, M; Guaza, C; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C; Montalban, X; Villar, L M; Espejo, C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is an autoimmune disorder in which activated T cells cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to initiate an inflammatory response that leads to demyelination and axonal damage. The key mechanisms responsible for disease initiation are still unknown. We addressed this issue in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. It is widely known that EAE manifests only in certain strains when immunized with myelin proteins or peptides. We studied the differential immune responses induced in two mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to EAE induction when they are immunized with the 139-151 peptide of proteolipid protein, an encephalitogenic peptide capable of inducing EAE in the susceptible strain. The adequate combination of major histocompatibility complex alleles and myelin peptides triggered in susceptible mice a T helper type 17 (Th17) response capable of inducing the production of high-affinity anti-myelin immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. These were not detected in resistant mice, despite immunization with the encephalitogenic peptide in junction with complete Freund's adjuvant and pertussis toxin, which mediate BBB disruption. These data show the pivotal role of Th17 responses and of high-affinity anti-myelin antibodies in EAE induction and that mechanisms that prevent their appearance can contribute to resistance to EAE. PMID:24188195

  4. Genetic resistance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. I. Analysis of the mechanism of LeR resistance using radiation chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Pelfrey, C.M.; Waxman, F.J.; Whitacre, C.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that has been extensively studied in the rat. The Lewis rat is highly susceptible to the induction of EAE, while the Lewis resistant (LeR) rat is known to be resistant. In this paper, we demonstrate that the LeR rat, which was derived from the Lewis strain by inbreeding of fully resistant animals, is histocompatible with the Lewis strain. Radiation chimeras, a tool for distinguishing between immunologic and nonimmunologic resistance mechanisms, were utilized to analyze the cellular mechanisms involved in genetic resistance to EAE. By transplanting bone marrow cells from LeR rats into irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to EAE induction. Likewise, transplanting Lewis bone marrow cells into irradiated LeR recipients rendered LeR rats susceptible. Mixed lymphoid cell chimeras using bone marrow, spleen, and thymus cells in Lewis recipient rats revealed individual lymphoid cell types and cell interactions that significantly affected the incidence and severity of EAE. Our results suggest that LeR resistance is mediated by hematopoietic/immune cells, and that cells located in the spleen appear to play a critical role in the resistance/susceptibility to EAE induction. Depletion of splenic adherent cells did not change the patterns of EAE resistance. In vivo cell mixing studies suggested the presence of a suppressor cell population in the LeR spleen preparations which exerted an inhibitory effect on Lewis autoimmune responses. Thus, the mechanism of LeR resistance appears to be different from that in other EAE-resistant animals.

  5. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) neutralization ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Caldis, Matthew W; Harp, Christopher T; Goings, Gwendolyn E; Miller, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease and as such, the gold standard of treatment is to selectively suppress the pathogenic autoimmune response without compromising the entire arm of the adaptive immune response. One target of this strategy lying upstream of the pathologic adaptive immune response is the local, innate immune signaling that initiates and drives autoimmunity and sterile injury. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that when released from necrotic cells, such as damaged oligodendrocytes in MS lesions, drives pro-inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate that HMGB1 drives neuroinflammatory responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model for MS, and that inhibition of HMGB1 signaling ameliorates disease. Specifically i.v. injection of an HMGB1 neutralizing antibody in the C57BL/6 model of chronic EAE or SJL/J model of relapsing-remitting EAE ameliorated clinical disease prophylactically or during ongoing disease, blocked T cell infiltration of the central nervous system, and inhibited systemic CD4(+) T cell responses to myelin epitopes. Additionally, lymphocytes from EAE mice restimulated in vitro in the presence of recombinant HMGB1 exhibited increased proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, an effect that was blocked by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Similarly recombinant HMGB1 promoted proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro, and anti-HMGB1 antibody blocked this effect. These findings indicate that HMGB1 contributes to neuroinflammatory responses that drive EAE pathogenesis and that HMGB1 blockade may be a novel means to selectively disrupt the pro-inflammatory loop that drives MS autoimmunity.

  6. Novel sinomenine derivative 1032 improves immune suppression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-Chen; Bi, En-Guang; Lou, Yang-Tong; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Duo; Zou, Jia; Zhou, Jia; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Zhao; Lin, Guo-Mei; Sun, Shu-Hui; Bian, Chao; Chen, Ai-Zhong; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Sun, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. It is widely used as an immunosuppressive drug for treating autoimmune diseases. Due to its poor efficiency, the large-dose treatment presents some side effects and limits its further applications. In this study, we used chemical modification to improve the therapeutic effect of SIN in vitro and in vivo. A new derivative of sinomenine, named 1032, demonstrates significantly improved immunosuppressive activity over that of its parent natural compound (SIN). In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, 1032 significantly reduced encephalitogenic T cell responses and induced amelioration of EAE, which outcome was related to its selective inhibitory effect on the production of IL-17. By contrast, SIN treatment only led to a moderate alleviation of EAE severity and the expression level of IL-17 was not significantly reduced. Furthermore, 1032 exhibited suppression of Th17, but not Treg, cell differentiation, a result probably related to its inhibitory effect on IkappaB-alpha degradation as well as on IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion in BMDCs. We speculate that 1032 as a novel anti-inflammatory agent may target DC to block IL-6 production, which in turn would terminate Th17 cell development. Thus, SIN derivative 1032 presents considerable potential in new drug development for treating autoimmune and inflammatory disease. PMID:20004644

  7. Chaperone Activity of Small Heat Shock Proteins Underlies Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis*

    PubMed Central

    Kurnellas, Michael P.; Brownell, Sara E.; Su, Leon; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Dolganov, Gregory; Chopra, Sidharth; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Webster, Jonathan; Ousman, Shalina S.; Becker, Rachel A.; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the therapeutic activity of αB crystallin, small heat shock protein B5 (HspB5), was shared with other human sHsps, a set of seven human family members, a mutant of HspB5 G120 known to exhibit reduced chaperone activity, and a mycobacterial sHsp were expressed and purified from bacteria. Each of the recombinant proteins was shown to be a functional chaperone, capable of inhibiting aggregation of denatured insulin with varying efficiency. When injected into mice at the peak of disease, they were all effective in reducing the paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional structure activity correlations between chaperone activity and therapeutic function were established when linear regions within HspB5 were examined. A single region, corresponding to residues 73–92 of HspB5, forms amyloid fibrils, exhibited chaperone activity, and was an effective therapeutic for encephalomyelitis. The linkage of the three activities was further established by demonstrating individual substitutions of critical hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide resulted in the loss of all of the functions. PMID:22955287

  8. Vibsanin B preferentially targets HSP90β, inhibits interstitial leukocyte migration, and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bai-Xin; Deng, Xu; Shao, Li-Dong; Lu, Ying; Xiao, Run; Liu, Yi-Jie; Jin, Yi; Xie, Yin-Yin; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Liu-Fei; Ma, Shun; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Lian-Ru; He, Juan; Zhang, Wei-Na; Chen, Yi; Xia, Cheng-Feng; Deng, Min; Liu, Ting-Xi; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Interstitial leukocyte migration plays a critical role in inflammation and offers a therapeutic target for treating inflammation-associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Identifying small molecules to inhibit undesired leukocyte migration provides promise for the treatment of these disorders. In this study, we identified vibsanin B, a novel macrocyclic diterpenoid isolated from Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl, that inhibited zebrafish interstitial leukocyte migration using a transgenic zebrafish line (TG:zlyz-enhanced GFP). We found that vibsanin B preferentially binds to heat shock protein (HSP)90β. At the molecular level, inactivation of HSP90 can mimic vibsanin B's effect of inhibiting interstitial leukocyte migration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that vibsanin B ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with pathological manifestation of decreased leukocyte infiltration into their CNS. In summary, vibsanin B is a novel lead compound that preferentially targets HSP90β and inhibits interstitial leukocyte migration, offering a promising drug lead for treating inflammation-associated diseases.

  9. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  10. Microglia response in retina and optic nerve in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Lioba; Kuehn, Sandra; Pedreiturria, Xiomara; Haak, Kathrin; Pfarrer, Christiane; Dick, H Burkhard; Kleiter, Ingo; Joachim, Stephanie C

    2016-09-15

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a common rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the long-term consequences for retina and optic nerve (ON) are unknown. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an encephalitogenic peptide (MOG35-55) and the controls received the carriers or PBS. Clinical symptoms started at day 8, peaked at day 14, and were prevalent until day 60. They correlated with infiltration and demyelination of the ON. In MOG-immunized animals more microglia cells in the ONs and retinas were detected at day 60. Additionally, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss was combined with an increased macroglia response. At this late stage, an increased number of microglia was associated with axonal damage in the ON and in the retina with RGC loss. Whether glial activation contributes to repair mechanisms or adversely affects the number of RGCs is currently unclear. PMID:27609273

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés

    2011-02-01

    It has been reported that the spinal cord possesses Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and that GnRH has neurotrophic properties. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) causes neurodegeneration in spinal cord. Thus, the present study was designed to determine whether administration of GnRH reduces the severity of EAE. The clinical signs of locomotion, axonal morphometry and neurofilaments (NFs) expression were evaluated. Clinical signs remained significantly lower in EAE rats with GnRH administration compared to animals without treatment. Morphometric analysis, there were more axons of larger areas in the spinal cord of EAE+GnRH group compared to EAE animals. Western blot analysis demonstrated that GnRH administration significantly increased the expression of NFs of 68, 160 and 200kDa in the spinal cord of EAE animals. Our results indicate that GnRH administration reduces the severity of EAE in the rat.

  12. Strain-related effects of fenbendazole treatment on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ramp, A A; Hall, C; Orian, J M

    2010-07-01

    Parasitic infections are a concern in animal facilities, in view of their influence on physiological processes and the immune status of animals. Pinworms are effectively controlled with the anthelminthic fenbendazole (FBZ, [5-(phenylthio)-1H-benzamidazol-2-yl]carbamic acid methyl ester; C(15)H(13)N(3)O(2)S); however, questions remain as to whether prolonged FBZ exposure alters the disease course in specific experimental models, such as those pertaining to the immune system. We report that a three-month regimen of FBZ-medicated feed severely affected the onset and disease severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease that mimics multiple sclerosis. Differences were recorded between mouse strains used. Our data suggest that where the use of FBZ is mandatory, its full effect should be verified on the particular EAE variant adopted by the laboratory.

  13. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is ameliorated in interleukin-32 alpha transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk; Gu, Sun Mi; Yun, Hyung Mun; Son, Dong Ju; Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Moon Soon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminate, is an inflammatory disease in which myelin in the spinal cord and brain are damaged. IL-32α is known as a critical molecule in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancers. However, the role of IL-32α on spinal cord injuries and demyelination is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that the release of proinflammatory cytokines were reduced in IL-32α-overexpressing transgenic mice. In this study, we investigated whether IL-32α plays a role on MS using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental mouse model of MS, in human IL-32α Tg mice. The Tg mice were immunized with MOG35-55 suspended in CFA emulsion followed by pertussis toxin, and then EAE paralysis of mice was scored. We observed that the paralytic severity and neuropathology of EAE in IL-32α Tg mice were significantly decreased compared with that of non-Tg mice. The immune cells infiltration, astrocytes/microglials activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) levels in spinal cord were suppressed in IL-32α Tg mice. Furthermore, NG2 and O4 were decreased in IL-32α Tg mice, indicating that spinal cord damaging was suppressed. In addition, in vitro assay also revealed that IL-32α has a preventive role against Con A stimulation which is evidenced by decrease in T cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine levels in IL-32α overexpressed Jurkat cell. Taken together, our findings suggested that IL-32α may play a protective role in EAE by suppressing neuroinflammation in spinal cord. PMID:26564962

  14. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. PMID:26364732

  15. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through inhibition of microglia activation and promotion of remyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jieru; Cai, Wei; Jin, Min; Xu, Jingwei; Wang, Yanan; Xiao, Yichuan; Hao, Li; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Yanyun; Han, Jie; Huang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The under controlled microglia activation plays important roles in inflammatory demyelination diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the means to modulate microglia activation as a therapeutic modality and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that administration of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), by using both preventive and therapeutic treatment protocols, significantly suppresses disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. The treatment effect of GRA on EAE is attributed to its regulatory effect on microglia. GRA-modulated microglia significantly decreased pro-inflammatory profile in the CNS through suppression of MAPK signal pathway. The ameliorated CNS pro-inflammatory profile prevented the recruitment of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS, which alleviated inflammation-induced demyelination. In addition, GRA treatment promoted remyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. The induced remyelination can be mediated by the overcome of inflammation-induced blockade of brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in microglia, as well as enhancing oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that GRA-modulated microglia suppresses EAE through inhibiting microglia activation-mediated CNS inflammation, and promoting neuroprotective effect of microglia, which represents a potential therapeutic strategy for MS and maybe other neuroinflammatory diseases associated with microglia activation.

  16. An aza-anthrapyrazole negatively regulates Th1 activity and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew P; Leaman, Douglas W; Hazelhurst, Lori A; Hwang, Eun S; Quinn, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Previously we showed that BBR3378, a novel analog of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone, had the ability to ameliorate ascending paralysis in MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of human multiple sclerosis, without the drug-induced cardiotoxicity or lymphopenia associated with mitoxantrone therapy. Chemotherapeutic drugs like mitoxantrone, a topoisomerase inhibitor, are thought to provide protection in inflammatory autoimmune diseases like EAE by inducing apoptosis in rapidly proliferating autoreactive lymphocytes. Here, we show that while BR3378 blocked cell division, T cells were still able to respond to antigenic stimulation and upregulate surface molecules indicative of activation. However, in contrast to mitoxantrone, BBR3378 inhibited the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ both in recently activated T cell blasts and established Th1 effectors, while sparing the activities of IL-13-producing Th2 cells. IFN-γ is known to be regulated by the transcription factor T-bet. In addition to IFN-γ, in vitro and in vivo exposure to BBR3378 suppressed the expression of other T-bet regulated proteins, including CXCR3 and IL-2Rβ. Microarray analysis revealed BBR3378-induced suppression of additional T-bet regulated genes, suggesting that the drug might disrupt global Th1 programming. Importantly, BBR3378 antagonized ongoing Th1 autoimmune responses in vivo, modulated clinical disease and CNS inflammation in acute and relapsing forms of EAE. Therefore, BBR3378 may be a unique inhibitor of T-bet regulated genes and may have potential as a therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune disease. PMID:26709219

  17. Ulinastatin attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by enhancing anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming; Shu, Yaqing; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Xueping; Li, Rui; Wang, Yuge; Dai, Yongqiang; Qiu, Wei; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory and demyelinating neurological disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, has been widely used to test MS treatment methods. Ulinastatin (UTI), a drug used to treat acute inflammatory disorders, has been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. We recently found that UTI has a neuroprotective effect on EAE by reducing oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination. The anti-inflammatory effects of UTI on EAE/MS, however, have never been investigated. We have therefore evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of UTI in EAE and explored the mechanisms underlying this effect. EAE was induced in mice with and without UTI treatment. Inflammation and demyelination of spinal cords were evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with Luxol fast blue, respectively. Inflammatory markers in serum were analyzed by the Luminex method, and spinal cords were evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. UTI significantly lowered the clinical and pathological scores and the serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and matrix metal protease-9 (MMP-9). UTI also reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins and decreased CD11b(+) cells in spinal cord lesions. UTI may protect against EAE in mice by suppressing inflammatory responses. We think that UTI might be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.

  18. Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Albornoz, Eduardo A.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Cortes, Claudia M.; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Cisternas, Pablo A.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Catalán, Tamara P.; Opazo, M. Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring. PMID:23777566

  19. Treatment of ongoing autoimmune encephalomyelitis with activated B-cell progenitors maturing into regulatory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Korniotis, Sarantis; Gras, Christophe; Letscher, Hélène; Montandon, Ruddy; Mégret, Jérôme; Siegert, Stefanie; Ezine, Sophie; Fallon, Padraic G.; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Fillatreau, Simon; Zavala, Flora

    2016-01-01

    The influence of signals perceived by immature B cells during their development in bone marrow on their subsequent functions as mature cells are poorly defined. Here, we show that bone marrow cells transiently stimulated in vivo or in vitro through the Toll-like receptor 9 generate proB cells (CpG-proBs) that interrupt experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when transferred at the onset of clinical symptoms. Protection requires differentiation of CpG-proBs into mature B cells that home to reactive lymph nodes, where they trap T cells by releasing the CCR7 ligand, CCL19, and to inflamed central nervous system, where they locally limit immunopathogenesis through interleukin-10 production, thereby cooperatively inhibiting ongoing EAE. These data demonstrate that a transient inflammation at the environment, where proB cells develop, is sufficient to confer regulatory functions onto their mature B-cell progeny. In addition, these properties of CpG-proBs open interesting perspectives for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27396388

  20. Critical role of activation induced cytidine deaminase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonglian; Peng, Ivan; Senger, Kate; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Reichelt, Mike; Baca, Miriam; Yeh, Ronald; Lorenzo, Maria N; Sebrell, Andrew; Dela Cruz, Christopher; Tam, Lucinda; Corpuz, Racquel; Wu, Jiansheng; Sai, Tao; Roose-Girma, Merone; Warming, Søren; Balazs, Mercedesz; Gonzalez, Lino C; Caplazi, Patrick; Martin, Flavius; Devoss, Jason; Zarrin, Ali A

    2013-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder caused by chronic inflammation and demyelination within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical studies in MS patients have demonstrated efficacy with B cell targeted therapies such as anti-CD20. However, the exact role that B cells play in the disease process is unclear. Activation Induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for the processes of antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. To evaluate the impact of affinity maturation and isotype switching, we have interrogated the effect of AID-deficiency in an animal model of MS. Here, we show that the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the extracellular domain of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG1-125) is significantly reduced in Aicda deficient mice, which, unlike wild-type mice, lack serum IgG to myelin associated antigens. MOG specific T cell responses are comparable between wild-type and Aicda knockout mice suggesting an active role for antigen experienced B cells. Thus affinity maturation and/or class switching are critical processes in the pathogenesis of EAE. PMID:23167594

  1. Critical role of activation induced cytidine deaminase in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder caused by chronic inflammation and demyelination within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical studies in MS patients have demonstrated efficacy with B cell targeted therapies such as anti-CD20. However, the exact role that B cells play in the disease process is unclear. Activation Induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for the processes of antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. To evaluate the impact of affinity maturation and isotype switching, we have interrogated the effect of AID-deficiency in an animal model of MS. Here, we show that the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the extracellular domain of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG1-125) is significantly reduced in Aicda deficient mice, which, unlike wild-type mice, lack serum IgG to myelin associated antigens. MOG specific T cell responses are comparable between wild-type and Aicda knockout mice suggesting an active role for antigen experienced B cells. Thus affinity maturation and/or class switching are critical processes in the pathogenesis of EAE. PMID:23167594

  2. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a good model of multiple sclerosis if used wisely.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Although multiple sclerosis is a uniquely human disease, many pathological features can be induced in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models following induction of central nervous system-directed autoimmunity. Whilst it is an imperfect set of models, EAE can be used to identify pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutics. However, the failure to translate many treatments from EAE into human benefit has led some to question the validity of the EAE model. Whilst differences in biology between humans and other species may account for this, it is suggested here that the failure to translate may be considerably influenced by human activity. Basic science contributes to failings in aspects of experimental design and over-interpretation of results and lack of transparency and reproducibility of the studies. Importantly issues in trial design by neurologists and other actions of the pharmaceutical industry destine therapeutics to failure and terminate basic science projects. However animal, particularly mechanism-orientated, studies have increasingly identified useful treatments and provided mechanistic ideas on which most hypothesis-led clinical research is based. Without EAE and other animal studies, clinical investigations will continue to be "look-see" exercises, which will most likely provide more misses than hits and will fail the people with MS that they aim to serve.

  3. Novel Function of Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 in Suppressing Th17 Cell Development in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Su, Pan; Chen, Sheng; Zheng, Yu Han; Zhou, Hai Yan; Yan, Cheng Hua; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Ya Guang; He, Lan; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yanming; Wu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoai; Yu, Bingke; Ma, Li Yan; Yang, Zhiru; Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Guixian; Zhu, Jinfang; Wu, Zhi-Ying; Sun, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination and axonal damage. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model for human MS. Although Th17 cells are important for disease induction, Th2 cells are inhibitory in this process. In this article, we report the effect of a Th2 cell product, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), on the differentiation of Th17 cells and the development of EAE. Our results demonstrated that ECM1 administration from day 1 to day 7 following the EAE induction could ameliorate the Th17 cell responses and EAE development in vivo. Further study of the mechanism revealed that ECM1 could interact with αv integrin on dendritic cells and block the αv integrin-mediated activation of latent TGF-β, resulting in an inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation at an early stage of EAE induction. Furthermore, overexpression of ECM1 in vivo significantly inhibited the Th17 cell response and EAE induction in ECM1 transgenic mice. Overall, our work has identified a novel function of ECM1 in inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation in the EAE model, suggesting that ECM1 may have the potential to be used in clinical applications for understanding the pathogenesis of MS and its diagnosis. PMID:27316685

  4. Triterpenoid modulation of IL-17 and Nrf-2 expression ameliorates neuroinflammation and promotes remyelination in autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej K.; Belkadi, Abdelmadjid; Kesavapany, Sashi; Zaremba, Anita; Loh, Sook L.; Bai, Lianhua; Cohen, Mark L.; Meyer, Colin; Liby, Karen T.; Miller, Robert H.; Sporn, Michael B.; Letterio, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines and endogenous anti-oxidants are variables affecting disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we demonstrate the dual capacity of triterpenoids to simultaneously repress production of IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory mediators while exerting neuroprotective effects directly through Nrf2-dependent induction of anti-oxidant genes. Derivatives of the natural triterpene oleanolic acid, namely CDDO-trifluoroethyl-amide (CDDO-TFEA), completely suppressed disease in a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 mRNA and cytokine production. Encephalitogenic T cells recovered from treated mice were hypo-responsive to myelin antigen and failed to adoptively transfer the disease. Microarray analyses showed significant suppression of pro-inflammatory transcripts with concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory genes including Ptgds and Hsd11b1. Finally, triterpenoids induced oligodendrocyte maturation in vitro and enhanced myelin repair in an LPC-induced non-inflammatory model of demyelination in vivo. These results demonstrate the unique potential of triterpenoid derivatives for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders such as MS. PMID:22355716

  5. A Mushroom Extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Immune Cell Infiltration in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lan; Wu, Guang; Choi, Bo Young; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Jin Hee; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Hyoung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35–55) in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the spinal cord and integrin-α4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-γ in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression. PMID:24592383

  6. A mushroom extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Wu, Guang; Choi, Bo Young; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Jin Hee; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Jae Youl; Suh, Sang Won; Park, Hyoung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55) in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the spinal cord and integrin-α 4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-γ in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression. PMID:24592383

  7. The leukotriene B{sub 4} receptor, BLT1, is required for the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kunita, Akiko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Ishii, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takao

    2010-04-09

    Leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells. These cells are a key component of inflammation and all express BLT1, a high affinity G-protein-coupled receptor for LTB{sub 4}. However, little is known about the neuroimmune functions of BLT1. In this study, we describe a distinct role for BLT1 in the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and T{sub H}1/T{sub H}17 immune responses. BLT1 mRNA was highly upregulated in the spinal cord of EAE mice, especially during the induction phase. BLT1{sup -/-} mice had delayed onset and less severe symptoms of EAE than BLT1{sup +/+} mice. Additionally, inflammatory cells were recruited to the spinal cord of asymptomatic BLT1{sup +/+}, but not BLT1{sup -/-} mice before the onset of disease. Ex vivo studies showed that both the proliferation and the production of IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha}, IL-17 and IL-6 were impaired in BLT1{sup -/-} cells, as compared with BLT1{sup +/+} cells. Thus, we suggest that BLT1 exacerbates EAE by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells and T{sub H}1/T{sub H}17 immune responses. Our findings provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other T{sub H}17-mediated diseases.

  8. A silent exonic SNP in kdm3a affects nucleic acids structure but does not regulate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Alan; Bergman, Petra; Parsa, Roham; Bremges, Andreas; Giegerich, Robert; Jagodic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Defining genetic variants that predispose for diseases is an important initiative that can improve biological understanding and focus therapeutic development. Genetic mapping in humans and animal models has defined genomic regions controlling a variety of phenotypes known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Causative disease determinants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), lie within these regions and can often be identified through effects on gene expression. We previously identified a QTL on rat chromosome 4 regulating macrophage phenotypes and immune-mediated diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Gene analysis and a literature search identified lysine-specific demethylase 3A (Kdm3a) as a potential regulator of these phenotypes. Genomic sequencing determined only two synonymous SNPs in Kdm3a. The silent synonymous SNP in exon 15 of Kdm3a caused problems with quantitative PCR detection in the susceptible strain through reduced amplification efficiency due to altered secondary cDNA structure. Shape Probability Shift analysis predicted that the SNP often affects RNA folding; thus, it may impact protein translation. Despite these differences in rats, genetic knockout of Kdm3a in mice resulted in no dramatic effect on immune system development and activation or EAE susceptibility and severity. These results provide support for tools that analyze causative SNPs that impact nucleic acid structures. PMID:24312603

  9. A mushroom extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Wu, Guang; Choi, Bo Young; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Jin Hee; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Jae Youl; Suh, Sang Won; Park, Hyoung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55) in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the spinal cord and integrin-α 4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-γ in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression.

  10. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Haikuo; Ren, Huijun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoxu; Wang, Wanhai; Zhang, Shijie; Zhao, Junwei; Ming, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E) is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT) which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results: AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine), though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion: According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS. PMID:27403263

  11. Characterization of immune response to neurofilament light in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity to neuronal proteins occurs in several neurological syndromes, where cellular and humoral responses are directed to surface as well as intracellular antigens. Similar to myelin autoimmunity, pathogenic immune response to neuroaxonal components such as neurofilaments may contribute to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. Methods We studied the immune response to the axonal protein neurofilament light (NF-L) in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis. To examine the association between T cells and axonal damage, pathology studies were performed on NF-L immunized mice. The interaction of T cells and axons was analyzed by confocal microscopy of central nervous system tissues and T-cell and antibody responses to immunodominant epitopes identified in ABH (H2-Ag7) and SJL/J (H2-As) mice. These epitopes, algorithm-predicted peptides and encephalitogenic motifs within NF-L were screened for encephalitogenicity. Results Confocal microscopy revealed both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells alongside damaged axons in the lesions of NF-L immunized mice. CD4+ T cells dominated the areas of axonal injury in the dorsal column of spastic mice in which the expression of granzyme B and perforin was detected. Identified NF-L epitopes induced mild neurological signs similar to the observed with the NF-L protein, yet distinct from those characteristic of neurological disease induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Conclusions Our data suggest that CD4+ T cells are associated with spasticity, axonal damage and neurodegeneration in NF-L immunized mice. In addition, defined T-cell epitopes in the NF-L protein might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24053384

  12. Novel pathogenic epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Delarasse, Cecile; Smith, Paul; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor protein of the central nervous system myelin, is recognized as a potential target in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The extracellular domain of MOG is commonly used in a wide range of mouse strains and other animals to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis, because it is a target for antibody-mediated attack. Previous studies, using selected peptides, have indicated that MOG(35-55) peptide is an encephalitogenic epitope in C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice. A more systematic analysis of both T-cell and B-cell responses following immunization of C57BL/6 mice with either recombinant extracellular mouse MOG protein (1-116) or with overlapping peptides spanning the whole sequence of MOG, before assessment of responses to 15 mer and 23 mer peptides was undertaken. The studies identified T-cell responses within the MOG(35-55) (extracellular domain) but also two new immunogenic and encephalitogenic T-cell epitopes within residues MOG(113-127), MOG(120-134) (localized in the transmembrane region) and MOG(183-197) (in the second hydrophobic MOG domain). In addition, residue MOG(113-127) was found to be a B-cell epitope, suggesting that this may be a useful adjunct for the induction of EAE as well as for immunological studies in C57BL/6 mice, which are increasingly being used to study immune function through the use of transgenic and gene knockout technology.

  13. The role of interferon-β in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis – in the perspective of inflammasomes

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Makoto; Shinohara, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    Inflammasomes in innate immune cells mediate the induction of inflammation by sensing microbes and pathogen-associated/damage-associated molecular patterns. Inflammasomes are also known to be involved in the development of some human and animal autoimmune diseases. The Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is currently the most fully characterized inflammasome, although a limited number of studies have demonstrated its role in demyelinating autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system of humans and animals. Currently, the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is known to be induced by the NLRP3 inflammasome through enhanced recruitment of inflammatory immune cells in the central nervous system. On the other hand, interferon-β (IFNβ), a first-line drug to treat MS, inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and ameliorates EAE. The NLRP3 inflammasome is indeed a factor capable of inducing EAE, but it is dispensable when EAE is induced by aggressive disease induction regimens. In such NLRP3 inflammasome-independent EAE, IFN-β treatment is generally not effective. This might therefore be one mechanism that leads to occasional failures of IFN-β treatment in EAE, and possibly, in MS as well. In the current review, we discuss inflammasomes and autoimmunity; in particular, the impact of the NLRP3 inflammasome on MS/EAE, and on IFN-β therapy. PMID:23360426

  14. Implanting glass spinal cord windows in adult mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; Weber, Pascal; Rougon, Genevieve; Debarbieux, Franck

    2013-12-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult rodents is the standard experimental model for studying autonomic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we present a low-cost and reproducible glass window implantation protocol that is suitable for intravital microscopy and studying the dynamics of spinal cord cytoarchitecture with subcellular resolution in live adult mice with EAE. Briefly, we surgically expose the vertebrae T12-L2 and construct a chamber around the exposed vertebrae using a combination of cyanoacrylate and dental cement. A laminectomy is performed from T13 to L1, and a thin layer of transparent silicone elastomer is applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed spinal cord. A modified glass cover slip is implanted over the exposed spinal cord taking care that the glass does not directly contact the spinal cord. To reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells between the window and spinal cord, anti-inflammatory treatment is administered every 2 days (as recommended by ethics committee) for the first 10 days after implantation. EAE is induced only 2-3 weeks after the cessation of anti-inflammatory treatment. Using this approach we successfully induced EAE in 87% of animals with implanted windows and, using Thy1-CFP-23 mice (blue axons in dorsal spinal cord), quantified axonal loss throughout EAE progression. Taken together, this protocol may be useful for studying the recruitment of various cell populations as well as their interaction dynamics, with subcellular resolution and for extended periods of time. This intravital imaging modality represents a valuable tool for developing therapeutic strategies to treat autoimmune demyelinating diseases such as EAE.

  15. Systemic lack of canonical histamine receptor signaling results in increased resistance to autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Saligrama, Naresha; Case, Laure K; del Rio, Roxana; Noubade, Rajkumar; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-07-15

    Histamine (HA) is a key regulator of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. HA exerts its effects through four known G-protein-coupled receptors: H1, H2, H3, and H4 (histamine receptors; H(1-4)R). Using HR-deficient mice, our laboratory has demonstrated that H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R play important roles in EAE pathogenesis, by regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses, cytokine production by APCs, blood-brain barrier permeability, and T regulatory cell activity, respectively. Histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice (HDCKO), which lack systemic HA, exhibit more severe EAE and increased Th1 effector cytokine production by splenocytes in response to myelin oligodendrocyte gp35-55. In an inverse approach, we tested the effect of depleting systemic canonical HA signaling on susceptibility to EAE by generating mice lacking all four known G-protein-coupled-HRs (H(1-4)RKO mice). In this article, we report that in contrast to HDCKO mice, H(1-4)RKO mice develop less severe EAE compared with wild-type animals. Furthermore, splenocytes from immunized H(1-4)RKO mice, compared with wild-type mice, produce a lower amount of Th1/Th17 effector cytokines. The opposing results seen between HDCKO and H1-4RKO mice suggest that HA may signal independently of H1-4R and support the existence of an alternative HAergic pathway in regulating EAE resistance. Understanding and exploiting this pathway has the potential to lead to new disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  16. Analysis of neurogenesis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reveals pitfalls of bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Schlevogt, Sibylle; Metzdorf, Judith; Stahlke, Sarah; Pedreitturia, Xiomara; Hunfeld, Anika; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Kleiter, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a sensitive approach for longitudinal neuroimaging. Transgenic mice expressing luciferase under the promoter of doublecortin (DCX-luc), a specific marker of neuronal progenitor cells (NPC), allow monitoring of neurogenesis in living mice. Since the extent and time course of neurogenesis during autoimmune brain inflammation are controversial, we investigated neurogenesis in MOG-peptide induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) using DCX-luc reporter mice. We observed a marked, 2- to 4-fold increase of the bioluminescence signal intensity 10 days after EAE induction and a gradual decline 1-2 weeks thereafter. In contrast, immunostaining for DCX revealed no differences between EAE and control mice 2 and 4 weeks after immunization in zones of adult murine neurogenesis such as the dentate gyrus. Ex vivo bioluminescence imaging showed similar luciferase expression in brain homogenates of EAE and control animals. Apart from complete immunization including MOG-peptide also incomplete immunization with complete Freund´s adjuvant and pertussis toxin resulted in a rapid increase of the in vivo bioluminescence signal. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage was demonstrated 10 days after both complete and incomplete immunization and might explain the increased bioluminescence signal in vivo. We conclude, that acute autoimmune inflammation in EAE does not alter neurogenesis, at least at the stage of DCX-expressing NPC. Effects of immunization on the BBB integrity must be considered when luciferase is used as a reporter within the CNS during the active stage of EAE. Models with stable CNS-restricted luciferase expression could serve as technically convenient way to evaluate BBB integrity in a longitudinal manner.

  17. Application of dendritic cells stimulated with Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigens alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L J; Radovic, I; Ilic, N; Majstorovic, I; Cvetkovic, J; Gruden-Movsesijan, A

    2013-06-01

    The parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), exerts an immunomodulatory effect on the host immune response through excretory-secretory products (ES L1) released from encysted muscle larvae. Our model of combined T. spiralis infection and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti (DA) rats demonstrated a significant reduction in EAE severity in infected animals. Recently, we have created an immune status characteristic for the live infection by in vivo application of dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated with ES L1 products of T. spiralis muscle larvae. Moreover, these cells were able to ameliorate EAE when applied 7 days before EAE induction. ES L1-stimulated DCs increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β, and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-17, both at the systemic level and in target organs. A significant increase in the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was found among spleen cells, and CNS infiltrates from DA rats treated with ES L1-stimulated DCs before EAE induction, compared to controls injected with unstimulated DCs. Regulatory T cells, together with elevated levels of IL-10 and TGF-β, are most likely involved in restraining the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines responsible for autoimmunity and thus are responsible for the beneficial effect of ES L1-educated DCs on the course of EAE. Our results show that ES L1 antigen-stimulated DCs are able not only to provoke, but also to sustain anti-inflammatory and regulatory responses regardless of EAE induction, with subsequent amelioration of EAE, or even protection from the disease.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects and improved prognosis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis after O-tetradecanoyl-genistein treatment.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sandra B R; Junior, Celso O R; Alves, Caio C S; Dias, Alyria T; Alves, Lívia L; Mazzoccoli, Luciano; Mesquita, Felipe P; Figueiredo, Nathália S V; Juliano, Maria A; Castañon, Maria Christina M N; Gameiro, Jacy; Almeida, Mauro V; Teixeira, Henrique C; Ferreira, Ana Paula

    2012-02-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis (MS), a human inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Genistein, an isoflavonoid phytoestrogenic compound found in soy, is known to reverse clinical signs of EAE. Although genistein has some potential in clinical application, it has some disadvantages related to its chemical structure, such as rapid in vivo metabolism and a fast decline in serum after oral administration. The present work investigates the treatment of EAE by using 7-O-tetradecanoyl-genistein (TDG), a more lipophilic analog of genistein obtained by esterification. The clinical course of EAE was investigated in C57Bl/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)(35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RA. After 14 days of MOG immunization, mice were treated with TDG for seven days. Numbers of IL-17-producing cells and Foxp3 by CD4(+) T cells and CTLA-4 expression by CD3(+) T cells from brain were determined by flow cytometry. Levels of IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated by ELISA. Brain sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin method. The data obtained indicate that TDG treatment ameliorates the clinical signs of EAE, which correlates with a decrease of IL-17-producing cells and an increase in Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells in the brain. TDG is also shown to enhance IL-10 production and CTLA-4 expression and to reduce IFN-γ and IL-6. Altogether, these findings suggest an immunomodulatory therapeutic role for TDG in EAE and multiple sclerosis.

  19. Significant Contribution of Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Early Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozloo, Marjan; Mahmoud, Shaimaa; Gris, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG35–55 plus complete Freund's adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE triggered significant increases in brain levels of mMCP-4 mRNA and immunoreactive ET-1 in WT mice, the latter peptide was reduced to basal levels in mMCP-4 KO congeners. Together, the present study supports a role for mMCP-4 in the early inflammatory phases of the disease in a mouse model of MS. PMID:27610007

  20. Significant Contribution of Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Early Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Desbiens, Louisane; Lapointe, Catherine; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Mahmoud, Shaimaa; Pejler, Gunnar; Gris, Denis; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG35-55 plus complete Freund's adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE triggered significant increases in brain levels of mMCP-4 mRNA and immunoreactive ET-1 in WT mice, the latter peptide was reduced to basal levels in mMCP-4 KO congeners. Together, the present study supports a role for mMCP-4 in the early inflammatory phases of the disease in a mouse model of MS. PMID:27610007

  1. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  2. Effects of exercise in a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Stasula, Ulana; Steelman, Andrew J; Hernandez, Jessica; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Motl, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, all previous studies have utilized a chronic model of EAE, with exercise delivered prior to or immediately after induction of EAE. To our knowledge, no study has examined the effects of exercise delivered during a remission period after initial disease onset in a relapsing-remitting model of EAE (RR-EAE). The current study examines the effects of both voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise on clinical disability and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in SJL mice with RR-EAE. The results demonstrate no significant effects of exercise delivered during remission after initial disease onset on clinical disability scores or levels of hippocampal BDNF in mice with RR-EAE. Furthermore, our results demonstrate no significant increase in citrate synthase activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of mice in the running wheel or treadmill conditions compared with the sedentary condition. These results suggest that the exercise stimuli might have been insufficient to elicit differences in clinical disability or hippocampal BDNF among treatment conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312674

  3. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS: utility for understanding disease pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    ROBINSON, ANDREW P.; HARP, CHRISTOPHER T.; NORONHA, AVERTANO; MILLER, STEPHEN D.

    2014-01-01

    While no single model can exactly recapitulate all aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), animal models are essential in understanding the induction and pathogenesis of the disease and to develop therapeutic strategies that limit disease progression and eventually lead to effective treatments for the human disease. Several different models of MS exist, but by far the best understood and most commonly used is the rodent model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This model is typically induced by either active immunization with myelin-derived proteins or peptides in adjuvant or by passive transfer of activated myelin-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Mouse models are most frequently used because of the inbred genotype of laboratory mice, their rapid breeding capacity, the ease of genetic manipulation, and availability of transgenic and knockout mice to facilitate mechanistic studies. Although not all therapeutic strategies for MS have been developed in EAE, all of the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immunomodulatory drugs are effective to some degree in treating EAE, a strong indicator that EAE is an extremely useful model to study potential treatments for MS. Several therapies, such as glatiramer acetate (GA: Copaxone), and natalizumab (Tysabri), were tested first in the mouse model of EAE and then went on to clinical trials. Here we discuss the usefulness of the EAE model in understanding basic disease pathophysiology and developing treatments for MS as well as the potential drawbacks of this model. PMID:24507518

  4. C-reactive protein directly suppresses T helper 1 cell differentiation and alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shan-Hui; Wright, Tyler T.; Shen, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Hai-Yun; Zhu, Wei; Potempa, Lawrence A.; Ji, Shang-Rong; Szalai, Alexander J.; Wu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that serves as a marker of inflammation and directly contributes to innate immunity. Herein we show that human CRP also directly contributes to adaptive immunity, i.e. native CRP binds specifically to human Jurkat T cells and to mouse naïve CD4+ T cells and modulates their T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 responses. In vitro both exogenously added (purified) and endogenously expressed (via transfection) human CRP inhibited Th1 differentiation and augmented Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells. In vivo for human CRP transgenic (CRPtg) compared to wild type mice, a lesser proportion of the T cells recovered from the spleens of healthy animals were Th1 cells. Moreover in both CRPtg mice and in wild type mice treated with human CRP, during myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis both the Th1 cell response and disease severity were inhibited. These pattern recognition-independent actions of CRP directly on T cells highlights the potential for this soluble PRR to act as a tonic regulator of immunity, shaping global adaptive immune responses during both homeostasis and disease. PMID:25917100

  5. Significant Contribution of Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Early Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozloo, Marjan; Mahmoud, Shaimaa; Gris, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG35–55 plus complete Freund's adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE triggered significant increases in brain levels of mMCP-4 mRNA and immunoreactive ET-1 in WT mice, the latter peptide was reduced to basal levels in mMCP-4 KO congeners. Together, the present study supports a role for mMCP-4 in the early inflammatory phases of the disease in a mouse model of MS.

  6. Thiamine deficiency promotes T cell infiltration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: the involvement of CCL2.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Fan, Zhiqin; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Ronghuan; Yang, Haihua; Zhou, Chenghua; Luo, Jia; Ke, Zun-Ji

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease that results from the interplay between environmental factors and a susceptible genetic background. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to investigate the mechanisms underlying MS pathogenesis. Chemokines, such as CCL2, are involved in the development of EAE. We have previously shown that thiamine deficiency (TD) induced CCL2 in neurons. We hypothesized that TD may affect the pathogenesis of EAE. In this study, EAE was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the injection of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptides 35-55 with or without TD. TD aggravated the development of EAE, which was indicated by clinical scores and pathologic alterations in the spinal cord. TD also accelerated the development of EAE in an adoptive transfer EAE model. TD caused microglial activation and a drastic increase (up 140%) in leukocyte infiltration in the spinal cord of the EAE mice; specifically, TD increased Th1 and Th17 cells. TD upregulated the expression of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Cells in peripheral lymph node and spleen isolated from MOG-primed TD mice showed much stronger proliferative responses to MOG. CCL2 stimulated the proliferation and migration of T lymphocytes in vitro. Our results suggested that TD exacerbated the development of EAE through activating CCL2 and inducing pathologic inflammation.

  7. Visualisation of the kinetics of macrophage infiltration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Kurt; Hendriks, Jerome Ja; Hellings, Niels; Theunissen, Evi; Vanderlocht, Joris; Ryck, Leen De; Gelan, Jan; Stinissen, Piet; Adriaensens, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Macrophages are considered to be the predominant effector cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Ultra small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) can be used to detect macrophage infiltrates in the CNS with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we investigated whether the kinetics of lesion formation in EAE can be visualised by altering the time point of USPIO injection and the time interval between particle injection and MRI. When USPIO are systemically injected 24 h before MRI, hypo intense regions are detected in different brain regions depending on the disease stage. These regions correspond to sites of macrophage infiltration. A more complete visualisation of sites of inflammation is accomplished by USPIO injection at disease onset and postponing MRI to top of disease. This study demonstrates that the distribution pattern and amount of inflammatory lesions detected with USPIO, depends on timing of USPIO administration and subsequent MRI. These findings are important for a correct application and interpretation of USPIO dependent contrast imaging of CNS inflammation.

  8. CCR5 knockout suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sun Mi; Park, Mi Hee; Yun, Hyung Mun; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Son, Dong Ju; Yun, Jae Suk; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-03-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which myelin in the spinal cord is damaged. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether CCR5 plays a role in MS progression using a murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in CCR5 deficient (CCR5-/-) mice. CCR5-/- and CCR5+/+ (wild-type) mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) followed by pertussis toxin, after which EAE paralysis was scored for 28 days. We found that clinical scoring and EAE neuropathology were lower in CCR5-/- mice than CCR5+/+ mice. Immune cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, B cell, NK cell and macrophages) infiltration and astrocytes/microglial activation were attenuated in CCR5-/- mice. Moreover, levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1 cytokine levels were decreased in CCR5-/- mice spinal cord. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and CNPase were increased while NG2 and O4 were decreased in CCR5-/- mice, indicating that demyelination was suppressed by CCR5 gene deletion. These findings suggest that CCR5 is likely participating in demyelination in the spinal cord the MS development, and that it could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of MS.

  9. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:26383267

  10. IFN-γ ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis by limiting myelin lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Rebecca A; Murphey, Cathi; Robinson, Rachel R; Forsthuber, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    Evidence has suggested both a pathogenic and a protective role for the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of IFN-γ in EAE have not been fully resolved, particularly in the context of CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this study we examined the role of IFN-γ in myelin antigen uptake by CNS APCs during EAE. We found that myelin antigen colocalization with APCs was decreased substantially and that EAE was significantly more severe and showed a chronic-progressive course in IFN-γ knockout (IFN-γ-/-) or IFN-γ receptor knockout (IFN-γR-/-) mice as compared with WT animals. IFN-γ was a critical regulator of phagocytic/activating receptors on CNS APCs. Importantly, "free" myelin debris and lipid peroxidation activity at CNS lesions was increased in mice lacking IFN-γ signaling. Treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent antioxidant, abolished lipid peroxidation activity and ameliorated EAE in IFN-γ-signaling-deficient mice. Taken together the data suggest a protective role for IFN-γ in EAE by regulating the removal of myelin debris by CNS APCs and thereby limiting the substrate available for the generation of neurotoxic lipid peroxidation products.

  11. Treatment with Vitamin D/MOG Association Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model to study multiple sclerosis (MS). Considering the tolerogenic effects of active vitamin D, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) associated with active vitamin D in EAE development. EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG emulsified with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant plus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Animals also received two intraperitoneal doses of Bordetella pertussis toxin. One day after immunization, mice were treated with 0,1μg of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) every other day during 15 days (on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15). MOG (150μg) was co-administered on days 3 and 11. The administration of 1,25(OH) 2D3 or MOG determined significant reduction in EAE incidence and in clinical scores. When MOG was associated with 1,25(OH) 2D3 the animals did not develop EAE. Spleen and central nervous system (CNS) cell cultures from this group produced less IL-6 and IL-17 upon stimulation with MOG in comparison to the EAE control group. In addition, this treatment inhibited dendritic cells maturation in the spleen and reduced inflammatory infiltration in the CNS. The association of MOG with 1,25(OH) 2D3 was able to control EAE development. PMID:25965341

  12. Ncx3 gene ablation impairs oligodendrocyte precursor response and increases susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Casamassa, Antonella; La Rocca, Claudia; Sokolow, Sophie; Herchuelz, Andre; Matarese, Giuseppe; Annunziato, Lucio; Boscia, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger NCX3, recently identified as a myelin membrane component, is involved in the regulation of [Ca(2+) ]i during oligodendrocyte maturation. Here NCX3 involvement was studied in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blotting and quantitative colocalization studies performed in wild-type ncx3(+/+) mice at different stages of EAE disease showed that NCX3 protein was intensely upregulated during the chronic stage, where it was intensely coexpressed with the oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) marker NG2 and the premyelinating marker CNPase. Moreover, MOG35-55 -immunized mice lacking the ncx3 gene displayed not only a reduced diameter of axons and an intact myelin ring number but also a dramatic decrease in OPC and pre-myelinating cells in the white matter of the spinal cord when compared with ncx3(+/+) . Accordingly, ncx3(-/-) and ncx3(+/-) mutants developed early onset of EAE and more severe clinical symptoms. Interestingly, cytofluorimetric analysis revealed that during the peak stage of the disease, the number of immune T-cell subsets in ncx3(-/-) mice, was not statistically different from that measured in ncx3(+/+) . Our findings demonstrate that knocking-out NCX3 impairs oligodendrocyte response and worsens clinical symptoms in EAE without altering the immune T-cell population. GLIA 2016;64:1124-1137. PMID:27120265

  13. Laquinimod arrests experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Joel; Piryatinsky, Victor; Birnberg, Tal; Hingaly, Tal; Raymond, Emanuel; Kashi, Rina; Amit-Romach, Einat; Caballero, Ignacio S.; Towfic, Fadi; Ator, Mark A.; Rubinstein, Efrat; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Orbach, Aric; Shinar, Doron; Marantz, Yael; Grossman, Iris; Knappertz, Volker; Hayden, Michael R.; Laufer, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Laquinimod is an oral drug currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing, remitting, and primary progressive multiple sclerosis and Huntington’s disease. Laquinimod exerts beneficial activities on both the peripheral immune system and the CNS with distinctive changes in CNS resident cell populations, especially astrocytes and microglia. Analysis of genome-wide expression data revealed activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in laquinimod-treated mice. The AhR pathway modulates the differentiation and function of several cell populations, many of which play an important role in neuroinflammation. We therefore tested the consequences of AhR activation in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using AhR knockout mice. We demonstrate that the pronounced effect of laquinimod on clinical score, CNS inflammation, and demyelination in EAE was abolished in AhR−/− mice. Furthermore, using bone marrow chimeras we show that deletion of AhR in the immune system fully abrogates, whereas deletion within the CNS partially abrogates the effect of laquinimod in EAE. These data strongly support the idea that AhR is necessary for the efficacy of laquinimod in EAE and that laquinimod may represent a first-in-class drug targeting AhR for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27671624

  14. Complement activation and expression during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse.

    PubMed

    Ramaglia, V; Jackson, S J; Hughes, T R; Neal, J W; Baker, D; Morgan, B P

    2015-06-01

    Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (crEAE) in mice recapitulates many of the clinical and histopathological features of human multiple sclerosis (MS), making it a preferred model for the disease. In both, adaptive immunity and anti-myelin T cells responses are thought to be important, while in MS a role for innate immunity and complement has emerged. Here we sought to test whether complement is activated in crEAE and important for disease. Disease was induced in Biozzi ABH mice that were terminated at different stages of the disease to assess complement activation and local complement expression in the central nervous system. Complement activation products were abundant in all spinal cord areas examined in acute disease during relapse and in the progressive phase, but were absent in early disease remission, despite significant residual clinical disease. Local expression of C1q and C3 was increased at all stages of disease, while C9 expression was increased only in acute disease; expression of the complement regulators CD55, complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and CD59a was reduced at all stages of the disease compared to naive controls. These data show that complement is activated in the central nervous system in the model and suggest that it is a suitable candidate for exploring whether anti-complement agents might be of benefit in MS.

  15. Prevention and Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Soluble CD83

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, Elisabeth; Lechmann, Matthias; Golka, Antje; Lutz, Manfred B.; Steinkasserer, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    CD83 is up-regulated on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) during maturation and has been widely used as a marker for mature DCs. Recently, we reported the recombinant expression of the extracellular immunoglobulin domain of human CD83 (hCD83ext). Using this soluble form of CD83, allogeneic as well as specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte proliferation could be blocked in vitro. Here we report the functional analysis of soluble CD83 in vivo, using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model. Strikingly, only three injections of soluble CD83 prevented the paralysis associated with EAE almost completely. In addition, even when the EAE was induced a second time, CD83-treated mice were protected, indicating a long-lasting suppressive effect. Furthermore, soluble CD83 strongly reduced the paralysis in different therapeutic settings. Most important, even when the treatment was delayed until the disease symptoms were fully established, soluble CD83 clearly reduced the paralyses. In addition, also when EAE was induced a second time, soluble CD83-treated animals showed reduced disease symptoms. Finally, hCD83ext treatment almost completely reduced leukocyte infiltration in the brain and in the spinal cord. In summary, this work strongly supports an immunosuppressive role of soluble CD83, thereby indicating its therapeutic potential in the regulation of immune disorders in vivo. PMID:15289503

  16. Breast regression protein-39 is not required for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Ester; Espejo, Carmen; Costa, Carme; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence points to a role for chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of CHI3L1 in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by immunization with MOG 35-55 peptide in wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice for breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39), the mouse homologue of human CHI3L1. Immunological responses in splenocytes were assessed by means of polyclonal and antigen-specific proliferation assays. Central nervous system pathology and chitinase gene expression were also investigated. BRP-39 expression was increased in WT MOG 35-55-immunized mice compared to saline-immunized controls. No differences were found between WT and BRP-39 KO mice regarding EAE clinical course, day of disease onset, mortality rate, splenocyte proliferative responses or histopathological findings. These results do not support a role of BRP-39 in the pathogenesis of EAE.

  17. Modulation of the expression of integrins on glial cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A central role for TNF-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Previtali, S. C.; Archelos, J. J.; Hartung, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins comprise a group of adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Evidence is accumulating that integrins expressed on mononuclear cells play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. The effects of integrins on glial cell behavior, myelination, and angiogenesis suggest that they may also have a role in resolving inflammation in the nervous system and in promoting tissue repair. We investigated the temporospatial expression of integrins in the rat central nervous system during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. A higher expression of alpha v- and beta 4-integrin subunits in astrocytes and alpha 2 integrin in oligodendrocytes was observed in active lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, in comparison with controls. Proinflammatory cytokines, primarily TNF-alpha, also enhanced alpha v, beta 4, and alpha 2 expression in purified glial cells ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of some integrin subunits was modulated in the cerebral vasculature during inflammation. Our results suggest an active role for glial and vascular integrins in the regulation of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, opening an avenue for new potential immunotherapies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:9358769

  18. Protective effects of matrine on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via regulation of ProNGF and NGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Pan, Qing-xia; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Xu, Yu-Ming; Chu, Yao-juan; Liu, Nan; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Kan, Quan-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation, demyelination, oligodendrocyte (OLG) death, and axonal degeneration are primary characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). OLGs generate myelin sheaths that surround axons, while damage to OLGs leads to demyelination and neurological functional deficit. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been recently found to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in EAE. Its therapeutic mechanism has, however, not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we found that MAT retarded the disease process, attenuated the clinical severity of EAE rats, ameliorated inflammation and demyelination, and suppressed the apoptosis of OLGs in the central nervous system (CNS) of EAE rats. In addition, MAT markedly blocked increased expression of the proNGF-p75(NTR) death signaling complex, which is known to mediate OLG death in EAE animals. At the same time, MAT also prevented a decrease in the levels of NGF and its receptor TrkA, which together mediate the cell survival pathway and differentiation of OLGs. ProNGF, NGF, and the downstream effector proteins play an important role in the growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of OLGs as well as the reparative response to neuronal damage. These findings thus indicate that MAT improves clinical severity of EAE in part by reducing OLG apoptosis via restoring the ratios of proNGF:NGF and the respective receptors p75(NTR):TrkA in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that MAT may be a promising agent for MS treatment based on its protective effect on OLGs. PMID:26681653

  19. Protective effects of matrine on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via regulation of ProNGF and NGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Pan, Qing-xia; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Xu, Yu-Ming; Chu, Yao-juan; Liu, Nan; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Kan, Quan-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation, demyelination, oligodendrocyte (OLG) death, and axonal degeneration are primary characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). OLGs generate myelin sheaths that surround axons, while damage to OLGs leads to demyelination and neurological functional deficit. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been recently found to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in EAE. Its therapeutic mechanism has, however, not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we found that MAT retarded the disease process, attenuated the clinical severity of EAE rats, ameliorated inflammation and demyelination, and suppressed the apoptosis of OLGs in the central nervous system (CNS) of EAE rats. In addition, MAT markedly blocked increased expression of the proNGF-p75(NTR) death signaling complex, which is known to mediate OLG death in EAE animals. At the same time, MAT also prevented a decrease in the levels of NGF and its receptor TrkA, which together mediate the cell survival pathway and differentiation of OLGs. ProNGF, NGF, and the downstream effector proteins play an important role in the growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of OLGs as well as the reparative response to neuronal damage. These findings thus indicate that MAT improves clinical severity of EAE in part by reducing OLG apoptosis via restoring the ratios of proNGF:NGF and the respective receptors p75(NTR):TrkA in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that MAT may be a promising agent for MS treatment based on its protective effect on OLGs.

  20. EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is a Modulator of Onset and Disease Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    PubMed Central

    Gresle, Melissa M.; Jonas, Anna; Kemper, Dennis; Doherty, William; Fabri, Louis J.; Owczarek, Catherine M.; Pearse, Martin; Boyd, Andrew W.; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Butzkueven, Helmut; Turnley, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator. Given that multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mouse models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), axonal degeneration and reactive gliosis are prominent clinical features, we hypothesised that endogenous EphA4 could play a role in modulating EAE. EAE was induced in EphA4 knockout and wildtype mice using MOG peptide immunisation and clinical severity and histological features of the disease were then compared in lumbar spinal cord sections. EphA4 knockout mice exhibited a markedly less severe clinical course than wildtype mice, with a lower maximum disease grade and a slightly later onset of clinical symptoms. Numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, the number and size of the lesions, and the extent of astrocytic gliosis were similar in both genotypes; however, EphA4 knockout mice appeared to have decreased axonal pathology. Blocking of EphA4 in wildtype mice by administration of soluble EphA4 (EphA4-Fc) as a decoy receptor following induction of EAE produced a delay in onset of clinical symptoms; however, most mice had clinical symptoms of similar severity by 22 days, indicating that EphA4 blocking treatment slowed early EAE disease evolution. Again there were no apparent differences in histopathology. To determine whether the role of EphA4 in modulating EAE was CNS mediated or due to an altered immune response, MOG primed T cells from wildtype and EphA4 knockout mice were passively transferred into naive recipient mice and both were shown to induce disease of equivalent severity. These results are consistent with a non-inflammatory, CNS specific, deleterious effect of EphA4 during neuroinflammation that results in axonal pathology. PMID:23390555

  1. A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J.; Navarrete, Carmen; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Collado, Juan A.; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L.; Muñoz, Eduardo; Guaza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35–55) immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of VCE

  2. The Immunomodulatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): A Model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    Al Jumah, Mohammed A.; Abumaree, Mohamed H.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages of adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs can also transdifferentiate and thereby cross lineage barriers, differentiating for example into neurons under certain experimental conditions. MSCs have anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons. Therefore, MSCs were tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), for their effectiveness in modulating the pathogenic process in EAE to develop effective therapies for MS. The data in the literature have shown that MSCs can inhibit the functions of autoreactive T cells in EAE and that this immunomodulation can be neuroprotective. In addition, MSCs can rescue neural cells via a mechanism that is mediated by soluble factors, which provide a suitable environment for neuron regeneration, remyelination and cerebral blood flow improvement. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of MSCs in modulating the immunopathogenic process and in providing neuroprotection in EAE. PMID:22942767

  3. Vitamin D₃ and monomethyl fumarate enhance natural killer cell lysis of dendritic cells and ameliorate the clinical score in mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaderi, Zaidoon; Maghazachi, Azzam A

    2015-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4⁺ T cell mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease that is induced in mice by administration of peptides derived from myelin proteins. We developed EAE in SJL mice by administration of PLP139-151 peptide. The effect of treating these mice with 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (vitamin D₃), or with monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was then examined. We observed that both vitamin D₃ and MMF inhibited and/or prevented EAE in these mice. These findings were corroborated with isolating natural killer (NK) cells from vitamin D₃-treated or MMF-treated EAE mice that lysed immature or mature dendritic cells. The results support and extend other findings indicating that an important mechanism of action for drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) is to enhance NK cell lysis of dendritic cells.

  4. Vitamin D3 and Monomethyl Fumarate Enhance Natural Killer Cell Lysis of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorate the Clinical Score in Mice Suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaderi, Zaidoon; Maghazachi, Azzam A.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease that is induced in mice by administration of peptides derived from myelin proteins. We developed EAE in SJL mice by administration of PLP139–151 peptide. The effect of treating these mice with 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3), or with monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was then examined. We observed that both vitamin D3 and MMF inhibited and/or prevented EAE in these mice. These findings were corroborated with isolating natural killer (NK) cells from vitamin D3-treated or MMF-treated EAE mice that lysed immature or mature dendritic cells. The results support and extend other findings indicating that an important mechanism of action for drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) is to enhance NK cell lysis of dendritic cells. PMID:26580651

  5. Moringin activates Wnt canonical pathway by inhibiting GSK3β in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Soundara Rajan, Thangavelu; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), although the results are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the role of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway in experimental MS and also to test moringin (4-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy]-benzyl isothiocyanate), resulting from exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis of the natural phytochemical glucomoringin 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate as a modulator of neuroinflammation via the β-catenin–PPARγ axis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most common model of MS, was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35–55. Released moringin (10 mg/kg glucomoringin +5 μL myrosinase/mouse) was administered daily for 1 week before EAE induction and continued until mice were killed on day 28 after EAE induction. Our results clearly showed that the Wnt–β-catenin pathway was downregulated in the EAE model, whereas moringin pretreatment was able to avert this. Moringin pretreatment normalizes the aberrant Wnt–β-catenin pathway, resulting in GSK3β inhibition and β-catenin upregulation, which regulates T-cell activation (CD4 and FoxP3), suppresses the main inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and COX2), through activation of PPARγ. In addition, moringin attenuates apoptosis by reducing the expression of the Fas ligand and cleaved caspase 9, and in parallel increases antioxidant Nrf2 expression in EAE mice. Taken together, our results provide an interesting discovery in identifying moringin as a modulator of the Wnt–β-catenin signaling cascade and as a new potential therapeutic target for MS treatment. PMID:27784989

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 facilitates immune access to the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, Lillian A; Samara, Ramsey; Guzman, Esther; Wilson, Carole L; Krizanac-Bengez, Liljana; Janigro, Damir; Ethell, Douglas W

    2009-01-01

    Background Metalloproteinase inhibitors can protect mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been implicated, but it is not clear if other MMPs are also involved, including matrilysin/MMP-7 – an enzyme capable of cleaving proteins that are essential for blood brain barrier integrity and immune suppression. Results Here we report that MMP-7-deficient (mmp7-/-) mice on the C57Bl/6 background are resistant to EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Brain sections from MOG-primed mmp7-/-mice did not show signs of immune cell infiltration of the CNS, but MOG-primed wild-type mice showed extensive vascular cuffing and mononuclear cell infiltration 15 days after vaccination. At the peak of EAE wild-type mice had MMP-7 immuno-reactive cells in vascular cuffs that also expressed the macrophage markers Iba-1 and Gr-1, as well as tomato lectin. MOG-specific proliferation of splenocytes, lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were reduced in cells isolated from MOG-primed mmp7-/- mice, compared with MOG-primed wild-type mice. However, the adoptive transfer of splenocytes and lymphocytes from MOG-primed mmp7-/- mice induced EAE in naïve wild-type recipients, but not naïve mmp7-/- recipients. Finally, we found that recombinant MMP-7 increased permeability between endothelial cells in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MMP-7 may facilitate immune cell access or re-stimulation in perivascular areas, which are critical events in EAE and multiple sclerosis, and provide a new therapeutic target to treat this disorder. PMID:19267908

  7. GABAergic Agonists Modulate the Glutamate Release from Frontal Cortex Synaptosomes of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fernández Hurst, Nicolás; Chanaday, Natalí L; Roth, German A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that mimics many of the clinical and pathological features of multiple sclerosis. We have previously described a significant diminution in the GABAergic regulation of glutamate release from synaptosomes of EAE rats isolated during the acute stage of the disease. In order to explore the possible metabolic pathways responsible for this alteration, in this work we evaluate the direct effect of different GABAergic agonists on the glutamate release and concomitant synapsin I phosphorylation in synaptosomes from the frontal cortex of control and EAE animals. The results show that GABA as well as the GABA receptor agonists Muscimol (GABAA agonist) and Baclofen (GABAB agonist) caused a decrease in glutamate release in control rats paralleled by a similar reduction in synapsin I phosphorylation. Meanwhile synaptosomes from EAE animals are responsive only to Baclofen with respect to nontreated EAE synaptosomes, since glutamate release from the synaptosomes treated with Muscimol was similar to that observed in EAE rat synaptosomes which was already reduced as consequence of the disease. In the case of the benzodiazepines Diazepam and Clonazepam (GABAA allosteric agonists), both of them induced a reduction in glutamate release in synaptosomes from the CFA rats, effect that was only observed in synaptosomes of EAE rats treated with Clonazepam. In all cases both benzodiazepines showed a higher effect on synapsin I phosphorylation than in glutamate release. These results indicate that the extent of GABAergic modulation of presynaptic terminals depends on the type of agonist employed and this regulation is altered in the frontal cortex during the acute phase of EAE with respect to control animals. PMID:26631092

  8. Dual roles of PGE2-EP4 signaling in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Yoshiyasu; Li, Youxian; Sakata, Daiji; Yao, Chengcan; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Narumiya, Shuh

    2010-07-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although prostaglandin (PG) concentrations are increased in cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, the role of PGs in MS is unknown. We examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each PG receptor type or subtype to EAE induction and using agonists or antagonists selective for each of the four PGE receptor (EP) subtypes. Among PG receptor-deficient mice, only EP4(-/-) mice manifested significant suppression of EAE, which was mimicked in wild-type mice and to a greater extent, in EP2(-/-) mice by administration of the EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 during the immunization phase. EP4 antagonism during immunization also suppressed the generation of antigen-specific T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells in wild-type mice and to a greater extent, in EP2(-/-) mice. ONO-AE3-208 administration at EAE onset had little effect on disease severity, and its administration throughout the experimental period did not cause significant reduction of the peak of disease, suggesting that, in addition to its facilitative action during the immunization phase, EP4 exerts a preventive action in the elicitation phase. Administration of the EP4 agonist ONO-AE1-329 at EAE onset delayed and suppressed disease progression as well as inhibited the associated increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Thus, PGE(2) exerts dual functions in EAE, facilitating Th1 and Th17 cell generation redundantly through EP4 and EP2 during immunization and attenuating invasion of these cells into the brain by protecting the blood-brain barrier through EP4.

  9. Accelerated and enhanced effect of CCR5-transduced bone marrow neural stem cells on autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxian; Yan, Yaping; Ma, Cun-Gen; Kang, Tingguo; Zhang, Nan; Gran, Bruno; Xu, Hui; Li, Ke; Ciric, Bogoljub; Zangaladze, Andro; Curtis, Mark; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The suppressive effect of neural stem cells (NSCs) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been reported. However, the migration of NSCs to inflammatory sites was relatively slow as was the onset of rather limited clinical benefit. Lack of, or low expression of particular chemokine receptors on NSCs could be an important factor underlying the slow migration of NSCs. To enhance the therapeutic effect of NSCs, in the present study we transduced bone marrow (BM)-derived NSCs with CCR5, a receptor for CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, chemokines that are abundantly produced in CNS-inflamed foci of MS/EAE. After i.v. injection, CCR5-NSCs rapidly reached EAE foci in larger numbers, and more effectively suppressed CNS inflammatory infiltration, myelin damage, and clinical EAE than GFP-NSCs used as controls. CCR5-NSC-treated mice also exhibited augmented remyelination and neuron/oligodendrocyte repopulation compared to PBS- or GFP-NSC-treated mice. We inferred that the critical mechanism underlying enhanced effect of CCR5-transduced NSCs on EAE is the early migration of chemokine receptor-transduced NSCs into the inflamed foci. Such migration at an earlier stage of inflammation enables NSCs to exert more effective immunomodulation, to reduce the extent of early myelin/neuron damage by creating a less hostile environment for remyelinating cells, and possibly to participate in the remyelination/neural re-population process. These features of BM-derived transduced NSCs, combined with their easy availability (the subject’s own BM) and autologous properties, may lay the groundwork for an innovative approach to rapid and highly effective MS therapy. PMID:22526024

  10. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. PMID:26033473

  11. Obeticholic acid, a synthetic bile acid agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The bile acid–FXR interaction regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, bile acid–FXR regulation has been reported to play an integral role in both hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that FXR knockout mice had more disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Obeticholic acid (6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid, 6-ECDCA), a synthetic FXR agonist, is an orally available drug that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. When we treated mice exhibiting established EAE with 6-ECDCA, or the natural FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), clinical disease was ameliorated by (i) suppressing lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production; (ii) reducing CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cell populations and their expression of negative checkpoint regulators programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA); (iii) increasing CD8+ T cells and PD1, PDl-1, and BTLA expression; and (iv) reducing VLA-4 expression in both the T- and B-cell populations. Moreover, adoptive transfer of 6-ECDCA– or CDCA-treated donor cells failed to transfer disease in naive recipients. Thus, we show that FXR functions as a negative regulator in neuroinflammation and we highlight that FXR agonists represent a potential previously unidentified therapy for MS. PMID:26811456

  12. Targeted GAS6 Delivery to the CNS Protects Axons from Damage during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Ross C.; Ray, Alex K.; Johndrow, Christopher T.; Guzik, Hillary; Burek, Dominika; de Frutos, Pablo García

    2014-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) is a soluble agonist of the TYRO3, AXL, MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases identified to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and promyelinating properties. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), wild-type (WT) mice demonstrate a significant induction of Gas6, Axl, and Mertk but not Pros1 or Tyro3 mRNA. We tested the hypothesis that intracerebroventricular delivery of GAS6 directly into the CNS of WT mice during myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE would improve the clinical course of disease relative to artificial CSF (ACSF)-treated mice. GAS6 did not delay disease onset, but significantly reduced the clinical scores during peak and chronic EAE. Mice receiving GAS6 for 28 d had preserved SMI31+ neurofilament immunoreactivity, significantly fewer SMI32+ axonal swellings and spheroids and less demyelination relative to ACSF-treated mice. Alternate-day subcutaneous IFNβ injection did not enhance GAS6 treatment effectiveness. Gas6−/− mice sensitized with MOG35-55 peptide exhibit higher clinical scores during late peak to early chronic disease, with significantly increased SMI32+ axonal swellings and Iba1+ microglia/macrophages, enhanced expression of several proinflammatory mRNA molecules, and decreased expression of early oligodendrocyte maturation markers relative to WT mouse spinal cords with scores for 8 consecutive days. During acute EAE, flow cytometry showed significantly more macrophages but not T-cell infiltrates in Gas6−/− spinal cords than WT spinal cords. Our data are consistent with GAS6 being protective during EAE by dampening the inflammatory response, thereby preserving axonal integrity and myelination. PMID:25471571

  13. Natural killer T cells in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Van Kaer, Luc; Wu, Lan; Parekh, Vrajesh V

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes demyelination of neurons in the central nervous system. Traditional therapies for MS have involved anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs with significant side effects that often only provide short-term relief. A more desirable outcome of immunotherapy would be to protect against disease before its clinical manifestation or to halt disease after its initiation. One attractive approach to accomplish this goal would be to restore tolerance by targeting immunoregulatory cell networks. Although much of the work in this area has focused on CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, other studies have investigated natural killer T (NKT) cells, a subset of T cells that recognizes glycolipid antigens in the context of the CD1d glycoprotein. Studies with human MS patients have revealed alterations in the numbers and functions of NKT cells, which have been partially supported by studies with the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of MS. Additional studies have shown that activation of NKT cells with synthetic lipid antigens can, at least under certain experimental conditions, protect mice against the development of MS-like disease. Although mechanisms of this protection remain to be fully investigated, current evidence suggests that it involves interactions with other immunoregulatory cell types such as regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive myeloid cells. These studies have provided a strong foundation for the rational design of NKT-cell-based immunotherapies for MS that induce tolerance while sparing overall immune function. Nevertheless, additional pre-clinical and clinical studies will be required to bring this goal to fruition.

  14. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease.

  15. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H W G M; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical features of MS including relapsing-remitting episodes and secondary-progressive disability. To address the contribution of recurrent inflammatory events and ageing as factors that amplify progressive neurological disease, we examined EAE in 8- to 12-week-old and 12-month-old ABH mice. Compared with the relapsing-remitting (RREAE) and secondary progressive (SPEAE) EAE observed in young mice, old mice developed progressive disease from onset (PEAE) associated with pronounced axonal damage and increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells and microglia/macrophages, but not B cells. Whereas the clinical neurological features of PEAE and SPEAE were comparable, the pathology was distinct. SPEAE was associated with significantly reduced perivascular infiltrates and T-cell numbers in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with PEAE and the acute phase of RREAE. In contrast to perivascular infiltrates that declined during progression from RREAE into SPEAE, the numbers of microglia clusters remained constant. Similar to what is observed during MS, the microglia clusters emerging during EAE were associated with axonal damage and oligodendrocytes expressing heat-shock protein B5, but not lymphocytes. Taken together, our data reveal that the course of EAE is dependent on the age of the mice. Younger mice show a relapsing-remitting phase followed by progressive disease, whereas old mice immediately show progression. This indicates that recurrent episodes of inflammation in the CNS, as well as age, contribute to progressive neurological disease.

  16. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sankavaram, Sreenivasa R.; Svensson, Mikael A.; Olsson, Tomas; Brundin, Lou; Johansson, Clas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss. Aim In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei. Results Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis), we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord. Conclusion This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy

  17. Role of ethanolamine phosphate in the hippocampus of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Llera, D; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Barrios, V; Hernández-Pinto, A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E

    2011-01-01

    Here, we assessed the effects of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) on the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether administration of an ethanolamine phosphate salt could prevent the appearance of the clinical signs and the impairment of the somatostatinergic system in this pathological condition. Female Lewis rats were injected in both hindlimb footpads with myelin basic protein from guinea pig brain and complete Freund's adjuvant and were sacrificed when limp tail (grade 1 EAE) or severe hindlimb paralysis (grade 3 EAE) were observed. One group was injected daily with ethanolamine phosphate, starting two days prior to immunization and for 15 days thereafter. The animals were sacrificed 15 days post-immunization. Acute EAE in grade 3 increased anti-myelin basic protein antibodies in rat serum as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels in hippocampal extracts. In addition, it decreased the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA and protein content, and the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the hippocampus. The protein levels of the inhibitory G protein subunits αi(1-3), the G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoforms 2, 5 and 6, the phosphorylated cyclic AMP-binding protein and the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity content were unaltered in this brain area. Acute EAE in grade 1 did not modify any of these parameters. Ethanolamine phosphate administration prevented the clinical expression of acute EAE as well as the decrease in the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression and the capacity of somatostatin to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity at the time-period studied. Furthermore, it blunted the rise in serum anti-myelin basic protein antibodies and hippocampal interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Altogether, these data suggest that ethanolamine phosphate might provide protection against acute EAE.

  18. Targeted GAS6 delivery to the CNS protects axons from damage during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ross C; Ray, Alex K; Johndrow, Christopher T; Guzik, Hillary; Burek, Dominika; de Frutos, Pablo García; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget

    2014-12-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) is a soluble agonist of the TYRO3, AXL, MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases identified to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and promyelinating properties. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), wild-type (WT) mice demonstrate a significant induction of Gas6, Axl, and Mertk but not Pros1 or Tyro3 mRNA. We tested the hypothesis that intracerebroventricular delivery of GAS6 directly into the CNS of WT mice during myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE would improve the clinical course of disease relative to artificial CSF (ACSF)-treated mice. GAS6 did not delay disease onset, but significantly reduced the clinical scores during peak and chronic EAE. Mice receiving GAS6 for 28 d had preserved SMI31(+) neurofilament immunoreactivity, significantly fewer SMI32(+) axonal swellings and spheroids and less demyelination relative to ACSF-treated mice. Alternate-day subcutaneous IFNβ injection did not enhance GAS6 treatment effectiveness. Gas6(-/-) mice sensitized with MOG35-55 peptide exhibit higher clinical scores during late peak to early chronic disease, with significantly increased SMI32(+) axonal swellings and Iba1(+) microglia/macrophages, enhanced expression of several proinflammatory mRNA molecules, and decreased expression of early oligodendrocyte maturation markers relative to WT mouse spinal cords with scores for 8 consecutive days. During acute EAE, flow cytometry showed significantly more macrophages but not T-cell infiltrates in Gas6(-/-) spinal cords than WT spinal cords. Our data are consistent with GAS6 being protective during EAE by dampening the inflammatory response, thereby preserving axonal integrity and myelination. PMID:25471571

  19. Immune response to controlled release of immunomodulating peptides in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Kiptoo, Paul; Williams, Todd D.; Siahaan, Teruna J.; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of controlled release on immune response to an immunomodulating peptide were evaluated in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The peptide, Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 (Ac-HSLGKWLGHPDKF-(AcpGAcpGAcp)2-ITDGEATDSG-NH2; Ac = acetyl, Acp = aminocaproic acid) was designed to suppress T-cell activation in response to PLP139–151, an antigenic peptide in MS. Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles containing Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 (8±4 μm, 1.4±0.2% (w/w)) were prepared by a powder-in oil-in water emulsion-solvent evaporation method, sterilized and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to SJL/J (H-2s) mice in which EAE had been induced by immunization with PLP139–151. Treatment groups received Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2: (i) in solution by repeated i.v. or s.c. injection, (ii) in solution co-administered with blank PLGA microparticles, (iii) in solution co-administered with Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 loaded microparticles, and (iv) as Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 loaded microparticles. Administration of Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 as an s.c. solution produced clinical scores and maintenance of body weight comparable to i.v. solution, but with reduced overall survival, presumably due to anaphylaxis. Administration as s.c. microparticles provided a somewhat less effective reduction in symptoms but with no toxicity during treatment. Thus, the results suggest that s.c. administration of Ac-PLP-BPI-NH2-2 microparticles can provide pharmacological efficacy and reduction in dosing frequency without increased toxicity. PMID:19748537

  20. Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Gil; Zhang, Jun; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Nguyen, Ha; Kent, Gail; Jordan, Kelley; Manning, Dustin; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2016-04-15

    Sex hormones promote immunoregulatory effects on multiple sclerosis. The current study evaluated estrogen effects on regulatory B cells and resident CNS microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of multiple regulatory B cell markers indicative of IL-10 dependent as well as IFN-γ dependent pathways. Moreover, although estrogen pretreatment of EAE mice inhibited the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells into the CNS, it enhanced the frequency of regulatory B cells and M2 microglia. Our study suggests that estrogen has a broad effect on the development of regulatory B cells during EAE, which in turn could promote neuroprotection. PMID:27049561

  1. Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Gil; Zhang, Jun; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Nguyen, Ha; Kent, Gail; Jordan, Kelley; Manning, Dustin; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2016-04-15

    Sex hormones promote immunoregulatory effects on multiple sclerosis. The current study evaluated estrogen effects on regulatory B cells and resident CNS microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of multiple regulatory B cell markers indicative of IL-10 dependent as well as IFN-γ dependent pathways. Moreover, although estrogen pretreatment of EAE mice inhibited the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells into the CNS, it enhanced the frequency of regulatory B cells and M2 microglia. Our study suggests that estrogen has a broad effect on the development of regulatory B cells during EAE, which in turn could promote neuroprotection.

  2. Antagonism of histamine H4 receptors exacerbates clinical and pathological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ballerini, C; Aldinucci, A; Luccarini, I; Galante, A; Manuelli, C; Blandina, P; Katebe, M; Chazot, P L; Masini, E; Passani, M B

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The histamine H4 receptor has a primary role in inflammatory functions, making it an attractive target for the treatment of asthma and refractory inflammation. These observations suggested a facilitating action on autoimmune diseases. Here we have assessed the role of H4 receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental Approach We induced EAE with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35–55) in C57BL/6 female mice as a model of MS. The histamine H4 receptor antagonist 5-chloro-2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl]-1H-indole (JNJ7777120) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 10 post-immunization (D10 p.i.). Disease severity was monitored by clinical and histopathological evaluation of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, anti-MOG35–55 antibody production, assay of T-cell proliferation by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, mononucleate cell phenotype by flow cytometry, cytokine production by elisa assay and transcription factor quantification of mRNA expression. Key Results Treatment with JNJ7777120 exacerbated EAE, increased inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice and increased IFN-γ expression in lymph nodes, whereas it suppressed IL-4 and IL-10, and augmented expression of the transcription factors Tbet, FOXP3 and IL-17 mRNA in lymphocytes. JNJ7777120 did not affect proliferation of anti-MOG35–55 T-cells, anti-MOG35–55 antibody production or mononucleate cell phenotype. Conclusions and Implications H4 receptor blockade was detrimental in EAE. Given the interest in the development of H4 receptor antagonists as anti-inflammatory compounds, it is important to understand the role of H4 receptors in immune diseases to anticipate clinical benefits and also predict possible detrimental effects. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http

  3. Prevention and Mitigation of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Murine β-Defensins via Induction of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bruhs, Anika; Schwarz, Thomas; Schwarz, Agatha

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide murine β-defensin-14 (mBD14) was found to exert, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, the capacity to induce regulatory T cells as demonstrated in the model of contact hypersensitivity. Because it is induced by ultraviolet radiation, mBD14 may contribute to the antigen-specific immunosuppression by ultraviolet radiation. To prove whether this applies also for other immunologic models and because ultraviolet radiation appears to have beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis, we utilized the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Injection of mBD14 into mice before immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein caused amelioration of the disease with less central nervous system inflammation and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic T cells. The beneficial effect was due to Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells because it was lost on in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells. mBD14, however, also acts in a therapeutic setting, because injection of mBD14 into mice with clinical features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reduced the clinical score significantly. Human β-defensin-3, the human orthologue of mBD14, induced in vitro regulatory T cell-specific markers in CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, shifting these nonregulatory cells into a regulatory phenotype with suppressive features. Thus, defensins may represent candidates worth being further pursued for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26763437

  4. Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens: Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. Methods Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined. Results Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte

  5. In healthy primates, circulating autoreactive T cells mediate autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Genain, C P; Lee-Parritz, D; Nguyen, M H; Massacesi, L; Joshi, N; Ferrante, R; Hoffman, K; Moseley, M; Letvin, N L; Hauser, S L

    1994-01-01

    A T cell response against myelin basic protein (MBP) is thought to contribute to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation that occurs in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. To test whether MBP-reactive T cells that are normally retrieved from the circulation are capable of inducing CNS disease, MBP-reactive T cell clones were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy, unimmunized Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus) marmosets. This primate species is characterized by a natural chimerism of bone marrow elements between siblings that should make possible adoptive transfer of MBP-reactive T cells. We report that MBP-reactive T cell clones efficiently and reproducibly transfer CNS inflammatory disease between members of C. jacchus chimeric sets. The demyelination that is characteristic of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced in C. jacchus by immunization against human white matter did not occur after adoptive transfer of the MBP-reactive clones. It was noteworthy that encephalitogenic T cell clones were diverse in terms of their recognition of different epitopes of MBP, distinguishing the response in C. jacchus from that in some inbred rodents in which restricted recognition of MBP occurs. These findings are the first direct evidence that natural populations of circulating T cells directed against a CNS antigen can mediate an inflammatory autoimmune disease. Images PMID:7521889

  6. Aurora kinase a regulates m1 macrophage polarization and plays a role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lixia; Gu, Haijuan; Gao, Xiaoming; Xiong, Sidong; Zheng, Biao

    2015-04-01

    Macrophage polarization is a dynamic and integral process of tissue inflammation and remodeling. Here we demonstrate an important role of Aurora kinase A in the regulation of inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. We found that there was an elevated expression of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages and inhibition of Aurora-A by small molecules or specific siRNA selectively led to the suppression of M1 polarization, sparing over the M2 macrophage differentiation. At the molecular level, we found that the effects of Aurora-A in M1 macrophages were mediated through the down-regulation of NF-κB pathway and subsequent IRF5 expression. In an autoimmune disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor blocked the disease development and shifted the macrophage phenotype from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. Thus, this study reveals a novel function of Aurora-A in controlling the polarization of macrophages, and modification of Aurora-A activity may lead to a new therapeutic approach for chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Arctigenin Suppress Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through AMPK and PPAR-γ/ROR-γt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zimu; Zhang, Lijuan; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Junwei; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-10-01

    Arctigenin is a herb compound extract from Arctium lappa and is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, including neuronal protection and antidiabetic, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of arctigenin on autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the CNS, multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that arctigenin-treated mice are resistant to EAE; the clinical scores of arctigenin-treated mice are significantly reduced. Histochemical assays of spinal cord sections also showed that arctigenin reduces inflammation and demyelination in mice with EAE. Furthermore, the Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral immune organs are inhibited by arctigenin in vivo. In addition, the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, as well as the Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and transcription factor ROR-γt are significantly suppressed upon arctigenin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Interestedly, Th17 cells are obviously inhibited in CNS of mice with EAE, while Th1 cells do not significantly change. Besides, arctigenin significantly restrains the differentiation of Th17 cells. We further demonstrate that arctigenin activates AMPK and inhibits phosphorylated p38, in addition, upregulates PPAR-γ, and finally suppresses ROR-γt. These findings suggest that arctigenin may have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties via inhibiting Th17 cells, indicating that it could be a potential therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  8. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae-Kwon; Park, Dongsun; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Goeun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Shin, Kyungha; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Gonhyung; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Seung U.

    2016-01-01

    Since multiple sclerosis (MS) is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs) with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG-) induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse) were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP). The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS. PMID:27429621

  9. Induction of regulatory T cells in Th1-/Th17-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by zinc administration.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Eva; Maywald, Martina; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Brieger, Anne; Clarner, Tim; Kipp, Markus; Plümäkers, Birgit; Meyer, Sören; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element zinc is indispensable for proper immune function as zinc deficiency accompanies immune defects and dysregulations like allergies, autoimmunity and an increased presence of transplant rejection. This point to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. This study investigates the capacity of zinc to induce immune tolerance. The beneficial impact of physiological zinc supplementation of 6 μg/day (0.3mg/kg body weight) or 30 μg/day (1.5mg/kg body weight) on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis with a Th1/Th17 (Th, T helper) cell-dominated immunopathogenesis, was analyzed. Zinc administration diminished EAE scores in C57BL/6 mice in vivo (P<.05), reduced Th17 RORγT(+) cells (P<.05) and significantly increased inducible iTreg cells (P<.05). While Th17 cells decreased systemically, iTreg cells accumulated in the central nervous system. Cumulatively, zinc supplementation seems to be capable to induce tolerance in unwanted immune reactions by increasing iTreg cells. This makes zinc a promising future tool for treating autoimmune diseases without suppressing the immune system.

  10. Arctigenin Suppress Th17 Cells and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through AMPK and PPAR-γ/ROR-γt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zimu; Zhang, Lijuan; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Qi; Hao, Junwei; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-10-01

    Arctigenin is a herb compound extract from Arctium lappa and is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, including neuronal protection and antidiabetic, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of arctigenin on autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the CNS, multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that arctigenin-treated mice are resistant to EAE; the clinical scores of arctigenin-treated mice are significantly reduced. Histochemical assays of spinal cord sections also showed that arctigenin reduces inflammation and demyelination in mice with EAE. Furthermore, the Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral immune organs are inhibited by arctigenin in vivo. In addition, the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, as well as the Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and transcription factor ROR-γt are significantly suppressed upon arctigenin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Interestedly, Th17 cells are obviously inhibited in CNS of mice with EAE, while Th1 cells do not significantly change. Besides, arctigenin significantly restrains the differentiation of Th17 cells. We further demonstrate that arctigenin activates AMPK and inhibits phosphorylated p38, in addition, upregulates PPAR-γ, and finally suppresses ROR-γt. These findings suggest that arctigenin may have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties via inhibiting Th17 cells, indicating that it could be a potential therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune inflammatory diseases. PMID:26440666

  11. Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, improves experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Soto, Irene; Salinas, Eva; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Quintanar, J Luis

    2012-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a well known hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been reported to possess neurotrophic properties. Leuprolide acetate, a synthetic analogue of GnRH is considered to be a very safe and tolerable drug and it has been used for diverse clinical applications, including the treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, central precocious puberty and in vitro fertilization techniques. The present study was designed to determine whether Leuprolide acetate administration, exerts neurotrophic effects on clinical signs, body weight gain, neurofilaments (NFs) and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression, axonal morphometry and cell infiltration in spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats. In this work, we have found that Leuprolide acetate treatment decreases the severity of clinical signs of locomotion, induces a significantly greater body weight gain, increases the MBP and NFs expression, axonal area and cell infiltration in EAE animals. These results suggest the use of this agonist as a potential therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis.

  12. CP-10, a chemotactic peptide, is expressed in lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, neuritis, uveitis and in C6 gliomas.

    PubMed

    Deininger, M H; Zhao, Y; Schluesener, H J

    1999-01-01

    CP-10 (chemotactic protein of m.w. 10,000) is a member of the S100 superfamily of Ca2+ binding peptides, which has potent chemotactic activity for murine and human myeloid cells. Here we report on the generation of monoclonal antibodies against CP-10 and accumulation of CP-10+ cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), neuritis (EAN), uveitis (EAU) and in experimentally transplanted C6 gliomas. During acute inflammation, CP-10 is mainly expressed by large ED1+ monocytic perivascular cells that accumulate at days 11-14. CP-10+ cells are predominantly located in areas of cellular infiltration but are as well found in the meninges and infiltrating the brain parenchyma. In transplanted gliomas, CP-10+ cells are located exclusively within the tumor parenchyma. Using double labeling experiments, other cells participating in the inflammatory reaction were found to express CP-10, like few lymphoblastic W3/13+ cells in the vicinity of the inflammatory infiltrate.

  13. Reg-2, A Downstream Signaling Protein in the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Survival Pathway, Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Tian, Ke-Wei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Beibei; Han, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), originally described as a neurocytokine that could support the survival of neurons, has been recently found to alleviate demyelination, prevent axon loss, and improve functional recovery in a rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, poor penetration into the brain parenchyma and unfavorable side effects limit the utility of CNTF. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a protein downstream of CNTF, regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2). Using multiple morphological, molecular biology, and electrophysiological methods to assess neuroinflammation, axonal loss, demyelination, and functional impairment, we observed that Reg-2 and CNTF exert similar effects in the acute phase of EAE. Both treatments attenuated axonal loss and demyelination, improved neuronal survival, and produced functional improvement. With a smaller molecular weight and improved penetration into the brain parenchyma, Reg-2 may be a useful substitute for CNTF therapy in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27242448

  14. Low dose CP-690,550 (tofacitinib), a pan-JAK inhibitor, accelerates the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by potentiating Th17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Kimura, Akihiro; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Sekiya, Takashi; Morita, Rimpei; Shichita, Takashi; Inoue, Hiromasa; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2012-02-10

    Th17 cells, which have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, require STAT3 signaling activated by IL-6 or IL-23 for their development. Other Th1 and Th2 cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 strongly suppress Th17 development. Recently, CP-690,550 (tofacitinib), originally developed as a JAK3 inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in phase III clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models, but the precise mechanism of the effect, especially with respect to Th17 cells, is poorly understood. To our surprise, a low dose CP-690,550 was found to accelerate the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at a concentration that suppressed CIA. At an early stage after immunization, more IL-17 production was observed in 15mg/kg body weight CP-690,550-treated mice than in untreated mice. In vitro, CP-690,550 inhibited both Th1 and Th2 development, while promoting Th17 differentiation at 10-50nM concentrations. Enhancement of Th17 by CP-690,550 is probably due to suppression of IL-2 signaling, because anti-IL-2 antibodies cancel the Th17-promoting effect of CP-690,550. CP-690,550 selectively inhibited IFN--induced STAT1, IL-4-induced STAT6 and IL-2-induced STAT5 at 3-30nM, while suppression of IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation required a concentration greater than 100nM. In HEK293T cells, CP-690,550 less effectively suppressed JAK1-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation compared with JAK3. These results suggest that CP-690,550 has a different effects among JAKs and STATs, thereby affecting helper T cell differentiation, and murine autoimmune disease models.

  15. Altered expression of oligodendrocyte and neuronal marker genes predicts the clinical onset of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and indicates the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Evangelidou, Maria; Karamita, Maria; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; Szymkowski, David E; Probert, Lesley

    2014-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a valuable model for studying immunopathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) and for exploring the interface between autoimmune responses and CNS tissue that ultimately leads to lesion development. In this study, we measured gene expression in mouse spinal cord during myelin oligodendrocyte gp35-55 peptide-induced EAE, using quantitative RT-PCR, to identify gene markers that monitor individual hallmark pathological processes. We defined a small panel of genes whose longitudinal expression patterns provided insight into the timing, interrelationships, and mechanisms of individual disease processes and the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of MS. Earliest transcriptional changes were upregulation of Il17a and sharp downregulation of neuronal and oligodendrocyte marker genes preceding clinical disease onset, whereas neuroinflammatory markers progressively increased as symptoms and tissue lesions developed. EAE-induced gene-expression changes were not altered in mice deficient in IKKβ in cells of the myeloid lineage compared with controls, but the administration of a selective inhibitor of soluble TNF to mice from the day of immunization delayed changes in the expression of innate inflammation, myelin, and neuron markers from the presymptomatic phase. Proof of principle that the gene panel shows drug screening potential was obtained using a well-established MS therapeutic, glatiramer acetate. Prophylactic treatment of mice with glatiramer acetate normalized gene marker expression, and this correlated with the level of therapeutic success. These results show that neurons and oligodendrocytes are highly sensitive to CNS-directed autoimmunity before the development of clinical symptoms and immunopathology and reveal a role for soluble TNF in mediating the earliest changes in gene expression.

  16. Sex bias in CNS autoimmune disease mediated by androgen control of autoimmune regulator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Bakhru, Pearl; Conley, Bridget; Nelson, Jennifer S; Free, Meghan; Martin, Aaron; Starmer, Joshua; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Su, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Male gender is protective against multiple sclerosis and other T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. This protection may be due, in part, to higher androgen levels in males. Androgen binds to the androgen receptor (AR) to regulate gene expression, but how androgen protects against autoimmunity is not well understood. Autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity by promoting self-antigen expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells, such that developing T cells that recognize these self-antigens within the thymus undergo clonal deletion. Here we show that androgen upregulates Aire-mediated thymic tolerance to protect against autoimmunity. Androgen recruits AR to Aire promoter regions, with consequent enhancement of Aire transcription. In mice and humans, thymic Aire expression is higher in males compared with females. Androgen administration and male gender protect against autoimmunity in a multiple sclerosis mouse model in an Aire-dependent manner. Thus, androgen control of an intrathymic Aire-mediated tolerance mechanism contributes to gender differences in autoimmunity. PMID:27072778

  17. Cold agglutinin-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Randen, Ulla; Tjønnfjord, Geir E

    2015-06-01

    Cold antibody types account for about 25% of autoimmune hemolytic anemias. Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is characterized by a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder. Secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) complicates specific infections and malignancies. Hemolysis in CAD and CAS is mediated by the classical complement pathway and is predominantly extravascular. Not all patients require treatment. Successful CAD therapy targets the pathogenic B-cell clone. Complement modulation seems promising in both CAD and CAS. Further development and documentation are necessary before clinical use. We review options for possible complement-directed therapy.

  18. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated Catalase Expression Suppresses Optic Neuritis in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, John; Qi, Xiaoping; Hauswirth, William W.

    1998-11-01

    Suppression of oxidative injury by viral-mediated transfer of the human catalase gene was tested in the optic nerves of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of primary central nervous system demyelination that has been frequently used as an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerve is a frequent site of involvement common to both EAE and MS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus containing the human gene for catalase was injected over the right optic nerve heads of SJL/J mice that were simultaneously sensitized for EAE. After 1 month, cell-specific catalase activity, evaluated by quantitation of catalase immunogold, was increased approximately 2-fold each in endothelia, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and axons of the optic nerve. Effects of catalase on the histologic lesions of EAE were measured by computerized analysis of the myelin sheath area (for demyelination), optic disc area (for optic nerve head swelling), extent of the cellular infiltrate, extravasated serum albumin labeled by immunogold (for blood-brain barrier disruption), and in vivo H2O2 reaction product. Relative to control, contralateral optic nerves injected with the recombinant virus without a therapeutic gene, catalase gene inoculation reduced demyelination by 38%, optic nerve head swelling by 29%, cellular infiltration by 34%, disruption of the blood-brain barrier by 64%, and in vivo levels of H2O2 by 61%. Because the efficacy of potential treatments for MS are usually initially tested in the EAE animal model, this study suggests that catalase gene delivery by using viral vectors may be a therapeutic strategy for suppression of MS.

  19. AKP-11 - A Novel S1P1 Agonist with Favorable Safety Profile Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Saxena, Nishant; Dhindsa, Jasdeep S.; Singh, Avtar K.; Gill, Gurmit S.; Grobelny, Damian W.; Singh, Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) mediated regulation of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs is recognized as the mechanism of FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) efficacy in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this study we describe a novel S1P1 agonist AKP-11, next generation of S1P1 agonist, with immunomodulatory activities in cell culture model and for therapeutic efficacy against an animal model of MS, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) but without the adverse effects observed with FTY720. Like FTY720, AKP-11 bound to S1P1 is internalized and activates intracellular AKT and ERKs cellular signaling pathways. In contrast to FTY720, AKP-11 mediated S1P1 downregulation is independent of sphingosine kinase activity indicating it to be a direct agonist of S1P1. The S1P1 loss and inhibition of lymphocyte egress by FTY720 leads to lymphopenia. In comparison with FTY720, oral administration of AKP-11 caused milder and reversible lymphopenia while providing a similar degree of therapeutic efficacy in the EAE animal model. Consistent with the observed reversible lymphopenia with AKP-11, the S1P1 recycled back to cell membrane in AKP-11 treated cells following its withdrawal, but not with withdrawal of FTY720. Accordingly, a smaller degree of ubiquitination and proteolysis of S1P1 was observed in AKP-11 treated cells as compared to FTY720. Consistent with previous observations, FTY720 treatment is associated with adverse effects of bradycardia and lung vascular leaks in rodents, whereas AKP-11 treatment had undetectable effects on bradycardia and reduced lung vascular leaks as compared to FTY720. Taken together, the data documents that AKP-11 treatment cause milder and reversible lymphopenia with milder adverse effects while maintaining therapeutic efficacy similar to that observed with FTY720, thus indicating therapeutic potential of AKP-11 for treatment of MS and related autoimmune disorders. PMID:26513477

  20. Immune cell-specific transcriptional profiling highlights distinct molecular pathways controlled by Tob1 upon experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Didonna, Alessandro; Cekanaviciute, Egle; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Baranzini, Sergio E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Despite the recent advances in understanding MS molecular basis, no reliable biomarkers have been identified yet to monitor disease progression. Our group has previously reported that low levels of TOB1 in CD4+ T cells are strongly associated with a higher risk of MS conversion in individuals experiencing an initial demyelinating event. Consistently, Tob1 ablation in mice exacerbates the clinical phenotype of the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To shed light on Tob1 molecular functions in the immune system, we have conducted the first cell-based transcriptomic analysis in Tob1−/− and wildtype mice upon EAE. Next-generation sequencing was employed to characterize the changes in gene expression in T and B cells at pre- and post-symptomatic EAE stages. Remarkably, we found only modest overlap among the different genetic signatures, suggesting that Tob1 may control distinct genetic programs in the different cytotypes. This hypothesis was corroborated by gene ontology and global interactome analyses, which highlighted specific cellular pathways in each cellular subset before and after EAE induction. In summary, our work pinpoints a multifaceted activity of Tob1 in both homeostasis and disease progression. PMID:27546286

  1. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Rafael M; Oliveira, Rafael P; Medeiros, Samara R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Alves, Andrea C; Loli, Flávia G; Guimarães, Mauro A F; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M C

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  2. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S.; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  3. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Rafael M; Oliveira, Rafael P; Medeiros, Samara R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Alves, Andrea C; Loli, Flávia G; Guimarães, Mauro A F; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M C

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of a polyphenolic white grape juice extract in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Ulaszewska, Maria Malgorzata; Mattivi, Fulvio; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-06-01

    In the last 20 years, wine phenolic compounds have received increasing interest since several epidemiological studies have suggested associations between regular consumption of moderate amount of wine and prevention of certain chronic pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective role of a polyphenolic white grape juice extract (WGJe) in an experimental mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS) in vivo. EAE mimics the main features of MS, including paralysis, weight loss, demyelination, central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of WGJe (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) may exert neuroprotective effects against MS, diminishing both clinical signs and histological score typical of disease (lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination). In particular, by western blot, histological evaluations and immunolocalization of the main markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis (TNF-α, iNOS, Nitrotyrosine, PARP, Foxp3, Bcl-2, Caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation), we documented that WGJe counteracts the alteration of all these inflammatory and oxidative pathway, without any apparent sign of toxicity. On these bases, we propose this natural product as putative novel helpful tools for the prevention of autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. WGJe could have considerable implication for future therapies of MS, and this study may represents the starting point for further investigation on the role of WGJe in neuroinflammation. PMID:25863350

  5. Kirenol Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 Cells and Inducing Apoptosis of Effector T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Juan; Yang, Rongbing; Yang, Lin; Fan, Xiaohang; Liu, Wenwei; Deng, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is characterized by CNS demyelination mediated by autoreactive T cells. Kirenol, a biologically active substance isolated from Herba Siegesbeckiae, has potent anti-inflammatory activities. Here we investigated effects of kirenol on EAE. Kirenol treatment markedly delayed onset of disease and reduced clinical scores in EAE mice. Kirenol treatment reduced expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A in the serum and proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in draining lymph nodes. Priming of lymphocytes was reduced and apoptosis of MOG-activated CD4+ T cells was increased in kirenol treated EAE mice. Kirenol treatment of healthy animals did not affect the lymphocytes in these non-immunized mice. Further in vitro studies showed that kirenol inhibited viability of MOG-specific lymphocytes and induced apoptosis of MOG-specific CD4+ T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Kirenol treatment upregulated Bax,downregulated Bcl-2,and increased activation of caspase-3 and release of cytochrome c, indicating that a mitochondrial pathway was involved in kirenol induced apoptosis. Moreover, pretreatment with either a pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk or a more specific caspase 3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO in lymphocytes reduced kirenol induced apoptosis. Our findings implicate kirenol as a useful agent for the treatment of MS. PMID:25762107

  6. CD8+ T cells are not necessary for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Terrence F.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] appears to be a modulator of the immune system. Administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 prevents disease in several autoimmune animal models, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The vitamin D receptor is believed to mediate this activity. Among cells of the immune system, CD8+ T cells have the highest levels of the vitamin D receptor. Because CD8+ T cells have been implicated as both suppressors and effectors of the inflammation associated with multiple sclerosis and EAE, we examined the question of whether the 1,25-(OH)2D3 suppression of EAE occurs through a CD8+ T cell-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, mice that are homozygous knockouts for the α chain of the CD8 receptor and have been characterized as lacking functional CD8+ T cells (CD8+ −/−) were provided 1,25-(OH)2D3 in their diet before EAE induction. Although CD8+ −/− mice fed the same diet lacking 1,25-(OH)2D3 have a high incidence of EAE, EAE did not occur in CD8+ −/− mice fed the diet containing 1,25-(OH)2D3. We conclude that CD8+ T cells neither are needed nor do they play a role in the prevention of EAE by 1,25-(OH)2D3. PMID:11929984

  7. Involvement of Src-suppressed C kinase substrate in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a link between release of astrocyte proinflammatory factor and oligodendrocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Yan, Meijuan; Hu, Ling; Sun, Linlin; Zhang, Fupeng; Ji, Huoyan; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Ping; Liu, Haiou; Gao, Ying; Tao, Tao; He, Xingxin; Cheng, Chun; Shen, Aiguo

    2010-07-01

    Src-suppressed C kinase substrate (SSeCKS) is involved in inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays a role in control of cell signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement. However, the expression and function of SSeCKS and its function in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its common animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we first reported that SSeCKS was remarkably increased in astrocytes of EAE rats in vivo. TNF-alpha and NO were significantly induced in astrocytes stimulated with LPS/IFN-gamma in vitro, which was blocked in astrocytes transfected with SSeCKS siRNA. These results indicated that SSeCKS played a role in the production of TNF-alpha and NO in astrocytes with inflammatory stimulation. As excessive release of TNF-alpha and NO were major mediators in autoimmune diseases and correlated with oligodendrocyte cell death, we further investigated whether SSeCKS participated in oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Conditioned media (CM) from astrocytes treated with LPS/IFN-gamma decreased oligodendrocyte cell viability, while siRNA targeted to SSeCKS in astrocytes inhibited oligodendrocyte cell death. The results from antibody neutralization and NO inhibition suggested that the oligodendrocyte apoptosis may be due to the production of astrocyte-derived proinflammatory factors (TNF-alpha and NO). These findings revealed that there was a pathogenic interaction between SSeCKS expression in astrocytes and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. Understanding the mechanism of SSeCKS in the pathogenesis of EAE may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies against EAE and MS.

  8. Overlapping roles of P-selectin and alpha 4 integrin to recruit leukocytes to the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Steven M; Kubes, Paul

    2002-07-15

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is mediated by inflammatory cells recruited from the circulation to the CNS. We used intravital microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of this recruitment. No leukocyte rolling and very little adhesion was observed in healthy control mice. In contrast, both rolling and adhesion was observed in brain postcapillary venules before onset of physical symptoms of EAE. Rolling and adhesion remained elevated for 2 wk and returned to near normal levels by 5 wk postsymptom onset. Consistent with a role for P-selectin in recruitment to the CNS, P-selectin protein was detected in the brains and spinal cords of EAE mice. Expression was highest before symptom onset and decreased over the next 2 wk. The importance of alpha(4) integrin increased with time as anti-alpha(4) integrin blocked approximately 20, 50, and 60% of leukocyte rolling 2 days before disease onset, 5 days and 2 wk postonset of symptoms, respectively, and 85% of rolling 5 wk postsymptoms. Addition of anti-P-selectin to alpha(4) integrin Ab-treated mice blocked all remaining rolling at each time point. Interestingly, however, alpha(4) integrin-mediated rolling appeared to be entirely dependent on P-selectin as anti-P-selectin alone was able to completely block all leukocyte rolling. In the absence of rolling (with P-selectin Ab), a 70% reduction in adhesion was noted. A very similar reduction was seen when mice were treated with alpha(4) integrin-blocking Ab. In conclusion, we describe increased leukocyte trafficking in the brains of EAE mice with important overlapping roles for both P-selectin and alpha(4) integrin in mediating leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

  9. The Critical Role of Antigen-Presentation-Induced Cytokine Crosstalk in the Central Nervous System in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that has been extensively studied using the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It is believed that CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease by mediating the demyelination of neuronal axons via secretion of proinflammatory cytokines resulting in the clinical manifestations. Although a great deal of information has been gained in the last several decades about the cells involved in the inflammatory and disease mediating process, important questions have remained unanswered. It has long been held that initial neuroantigen presentation and T cell activation events occur in the immune periphery and then translocate to the CNS. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that antigen (Ag) presentation might initiate within the CNS itself. Importantly, it has remained unresolved which antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the CNS are the first to acquire and present neuroantigens during EAE/MS to T cells, and what the conditions are under which this takes place, ie, whether this occurs in the healthy CNS or only during inflammatory conditions and what the related cytokine microenvironment is comprised of. In particular, the central role of interferon-γ as a primary mediator of CNS pathology during EAE has been challenged by the emergence of Th17 cells producing interleukin-17. This review describes our current understanding of potential APCs in the CNS and the contribution of these and other CNS-resident cells to disease pathology. Additionally, we discuss the question of where Ag presentation is initiated and under what conditions neuroantigens are made available to APCs with special emphasis on which cytokines may be important in this process. PMID:21919736

  10. Oral Tolerance Induction in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Candida utilis Expressing the Immunogenic MOG35-55 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Buerth, Christoph; Mausberg, Anne K; Heininger, Maximilian K; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Induction of oral tolerance is a potent mechanism to prevent autoimmunity. The food yeast Candida utilis was used to test the therapeutic potential of oral tolerance induction in an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We constructed a C. utilis strain, which displays a fusion peptide composed of the encephalitogenic MOG35-55 peptide and the C. utilis Gas1 cell wall protein on its surface.By immunizing mice with MOG35-55 peptide experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in a mouse model. Feeding of mice with C. utilis that expresses MOG35-55 peptide on its surface was started seven days prior to immunization and was continued for ten days. Control animals were treated with wild-type fungus or left untreated. Untreated mice developed first clinical symptoms ten days post immunization (p. i.) with an ascending paralysis reaching maximal clinical disability at day 18 to 20 p. i.. Treatment with the wild-type strain demonstrated comparable clinical symptoms. In contrast, oral gavage of MOG35-55-presenting fungus ameliorated the development of EAE. In addition, incidence as well as maximal clinical disease severity were significantly reduced. Interestingly, reduction of disease severity also occurred in animals treated with heat-inactivated C. utilis cells indicating that tolerance induction was independent of fungal viability. Better disease outcome correlated with reduced demyelination and cellular inflammation in the spinal cord, lower T cell proliferation against rechallenge with MOG35-55 and more regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate successful that using the food approved fungus C. utilis presenting the immunogenic MOG35-55 peptide on its surface induced an oral tolerance against this epitope in EAE. Further studies will reveal the nature and extent of an anti-inflammatory environment established by the

  11. St. John's wort and its component hyperforin alleviate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through expansion of regulatory T-cells.

    PubMed

    Nosratabadi, Reza; Rastin, Maryam; Sankian, Mojtaba; Haghmorad, Dariush; Tabasi, Nafiseh; Zamani, Shahrzad; Aghaee, Azita; Salehipour, Zohre; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder mainly characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal injury. Anti-inflammatory agents can be used to ameliorate the disease process. Hypericum perforatum L or St. John's wort is widely used as an anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. Based on St. John's wort properties, the therapeutic potentials of an H. perforatum extract (HPE) and a single component, hyperforin were evaluated for effectiveness against MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for human multiple sclerosis. Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with specific antigen MOG35-55 and then administered different doses of hyperforin or HPE post-immunization. Clinical symptoms/other relevant parameters were assessed daily. Histological analysis of the spinal cord was performed. T-cell proliferative activity was also evaluated using a BrdU assay. The effect of hyperforin on regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) was assessed using flow cytometry. The results indicate hyperforin and HPE reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, an outcome that closely correlated with an inhibition of pathological features (leukocyte infiltration and demyelination) and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. The study also showed that hyperforin caused increased Treg cell levels in the spleen. These results indicated that hyperforin and HPE could attenuate EAE autoimmune responses by inhibiting immune cell infiltration and expansion of Treg cell and could eventually be considered as a potential candidate for use in the treatment of MS.

  12. Regulatory T Cell Dysfunction Acquiesces to BTLA+ Regulatory B Cells Subsequent to Oral Intervention in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Eduardo; Jun, SangMu; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Golden, Sara; Jackiw, Larissa; Hoffman, Carol; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W

    2016-06-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced during autoimmunity often become quiescent and unable to resolve disease, suggesting inadequate activation. Resolution of established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be achieved with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) fused to reovirus protein σ1 (MOG-pσ1), which activates Tregs, restoring protection, but requiring other regulatory cells to revitalize them. B cells have a dichotomous role in both the pathogenesis and recovery from EAE. Although inflammatory B cells contribute to EAE's pathogenesis, treatment of EAE mice with MOG-pσ1, but not OVA-pσ1, resulted in an influx of IL-10-producing B220(+)CD5(+) B regulatory cells (Bregs) enabling Tregs to recover their inhibitory activity, and in turn, leading to the rapid amelioration of EAE. These findings implicate direct interactions between Bregs and Tregs to facilitate this recovery. Adoptive transfer of B220(+)CD5(-) B cells from MOG-pσ1-treated EAE or Bregs from PBS-treated EAE mice did not resolve disease, whereas the adoptive transfer of MOG-pσ1-induced B220(+)CD5(+) Bregs greatly ameliorated EAE. MOG-pσ1-, but not OVA-pσ1-induced IL-10-producing Bregs, expressed elevated levels of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) relative to CD5(-) B cells, as opposed to Tregs or effector T (Teff) cells, whose BTLA expression was not affected. These induced Bregs restored EAE Treg function in a BTLA-dependent manner. BTLA(-/-) mice showed more pronounced EAE with fewer Tregs, but upon adoptive transfer of MOG-pσ1-induced BTLA(+) Bregs, BTLA(-/-) mice were protected against EAE. Hence, this evidence shows the importance of BTLA in activating Tregs to facilitate recovery from EAE. PMID:27194787

  13. Persistent Macrophage/Microglial Activation and Myelin Disruption after Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Stephen J.; Whitmire, Jason K.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Chertboonmuang, Parntip; Soloway, Paul D.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Campbell, Iain L.

    2006-01-01

    Increased leukocyte trafficking into the parenchyma during inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) is facilitated by the extracellular proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinases that are regulated, in part, by the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), TIMP-1 gene expression is induced in astrocytes surrounding inflammatory lesions in the CNS. The physiological importance of this temporal and spatial relationship is not clear. Herein, we have addressed the functional role of TIMP-1 in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced model of EAE using TIMP-1-deficient (TIMP-1−/−) C57BL/6 mice. Although CD4+ T-cell immune responses to myelin in wild-type (WT) and TIMP-1−/− mice were similar, analysis of CNS tissues from TIMP-1−/− mice after EAE revealed more severe myelin pathology than that of WT mice. This disruption of myelin was associated with both increased lymphocyte infiltration and microglial/macrophage accumulation in the brain parenchyma. These findings suggest that induction of TIMP-1 by astrocytes during EAE in WT mice represents an inherent cytoprotective response that mitigates CNS myelin injury through the regulation of both immune cell infiltration and microglial activation. PMID:17148673

  14. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α4β1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  15. Intranasal delivery of FSD-C10, a novel Rho kinase inhibitor, exhibits therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Hua; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Li, Jun-Lian; Feng, Qian-Jin; Feng, Ling; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2014-01-01

    Viewing multiple sclerosis (MS) as both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has major implications for therapy, with neuroprotection and neurorepair needed in addition to controlling neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). While Fasudil, an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK), is known to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, it relies on multiple, short-term injections, with a narrow safety window. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of a novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, on EAE. An important advantage of this derivative is that it can be used via non-injection routes; intranasal delivery is the preferred route because of its efficient CNS delivery and the much lower dose compared with oral delivery. Our results showed that intranasal delivery of FSD-C10 effectively ameliorated the clinical severity of EAE and CNS inflammatory infiltration and promoted neuroprotection. FSD-C10 effectively induced CNS production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 and boosted expression of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins, while inhibiting activation of p-nuclear factor-κB/p65 on astrocytes and production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, FSD-C10 treatment effectively induced CD4+ CD25+, CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that intranasal delivery of the novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10 has therapeutic potential in EAE, through mechanisms that possibly involve both inhibiting CNS inflammation and promoting neuroprotection. PMID:24749492

  16. Microwave & Magnetic (M2) Proteomics Reveals CNS-Specific Protein Expression Waves that Precede Clinical Symptoms of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, Itay; Mahesula, Swetha; Purkar, Anjali; Black, David; Catala, Alexis; Gelfond, Jonathon A. L.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Haskins, William E.

    2014-09-01

    Central nervous system-specific proteins (CSPs), transported across the damaged blood-brain-barrier (BBB) to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood (serum), might be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive protein biomarkers of disease in individual multiple sclerosis (MS) patients because they are not expected to be present at appreciable levels in the circulation of healthy subjects. We hypothesized that microwave & magnetic (M2) proteomics of CSPs in brain tissue might be an effective means to prioritize putative CSP biomarkers for future immunoassays in serum. To test this hypothesis, we used M2 proteomics to longitudinally assess CSP expression in brain tissue from mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Confirmation of central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating inflammatory cell response and CSP expression in serum was achieved with cytokine ELISPOT and ELISA immunoassays, respectively, for selected CSPs. M2 proteomics (and ELISA) revealed characteristic CSP expression waves, including synapsin-1 and α-II-spectrin, which peaked at day 7 in brain tissue (and serum) and preceded clinical EAE symptoms that began at day 10 and peaked at day 20. Moreover, M2 proteomics supports the concept that relatively few CNS-infiltrating inflammatory cells can have a disproportionally large impact on CSP expression prior to clinical manifestation of EAE.

  17. Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Frederick, Terra J.; Huff, Terry B.; Goings, Gwendolyn E.; Miller, Stephen D.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    How demyelination is initiated is a standing question for pathology of multiple sclerosis. By label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin lipids, we investigate myelin integrity in the lumbar spinal cord tissue isolated from naïve SJL mice, and from mice at the onset, peak acute, and remission stages of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Progressive demyelinating disease is initially characterized by the retraction of paranodal myelin both at the onset of disease and at the borders of acute demyelinating lesions. Myelin retraction is confirmed by elongated distribution of neurofascin proteins visualized by immunofluorescence. The disruption of paranodal myelin subsequently exposes Kv1.2 channels at the juxtaparanodes and lead to the displacement of Kv1.2 channels to the paranodal and nodal domains. Paranodal myelin is partially restored during disease remission, indicating spontaneous myelin regeneration. These findings suggest that paranodal domain injury precedes formation of internodal demyelinating lesions in relapsing EAE. Our results also demonstrate that CARS microscopy is an effective readout of myelin disease burden.

  18. Mannosylated self-peptide inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via expansion of nonencephalitogenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kel, Junda M; Slütter, Bram; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Koning, Frits; Nagelkerken, Lex

    2008-07-01

    Tolerance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice can be induced by immunization with a mannosylated form of the proteolipid protein (M-PLP139-151), despite the presence of CFA. The state of tolerance is characterized by poor delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and the absence of clinical EAE symptoms. In vivo monitoring of CFSE-labeled PLP139-151-specific TCR-transgenic (5B6) T cells revealed that immunization with M-PLP139-151 increases the clonal expansion of 5B6 T cells that do not develop full effector functions. Moreover, nonfunctional T cells obtained from M-PLP139-151-immunized mice showed poor blastogenesis and were unable to transfer EAE to naïve recipients. Nevertheless, the in vitro production of cytokines and chemokines associated with EAE was unaffected. Importantly, tolerance induced by M-PLP139-151 was abrogated by the administration of pertussis toxin, resulting in EAE development. Our results suggest that M-PLP139-151 inhibits EAE development by affecting the differentiation of T cells into encephalitogenic effector cells.

  19. Matrine downregulates IL-33/ST2 expression in the central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Lv, Ying; Xu, Yuming; Li, Menglong; Pan, Qingxia; Chu, Yaojuan; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Zhu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently described member of the IL-1 family and functions as a ligand for ST2, a member of the IL-1 receptor family. The role of IL-33/ST2 axis in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS), remains controversial. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been recently found to suppress clinical EAE and CNS inflammation. However, the underlying immunoregulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, and whether this effect of MAT is through inhibiting the function of the IL-33/ST2 axis is not known. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the therapeutic effects of MAT and IL-33/ST2 expression. MAT treatment successfully attenuated severe clinical deficit and histopathological changes, compared to untreated controls. While IL-33/ST2 mRNA expression was largely increased in spinal cord of EAE rats compared to naïve rats, this expression was significantly inhibited in rats treated with MAT. These results were further confirmed by their protein levels tested with immunohistochemistry. Together, our study demonstrates that MAT treatment regulates the inflammatory IL-33/ST2 axis, thus being a novel mechanism underlying the effect of MAT.

  20. Matrine downregulates IL-33/ST2 expression in the central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Lv, Ying; Xu, Yuming; Li, Menglong; Pan, Qingxia; Chu, Yaojuan; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Zhu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently described member of the IL-1 family and functions as a ligand for ST2, a member of the IL-1 receptor family. The role of IL-33/ST2 axis in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS), remains controversial. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been recently found to suppress clinical EAE and CNS inflammation. However, the underlying immunoregulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, and whether this effect of MAT is through inhibiting the function of the IL-33/ST2 axis is not known. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the therapeutic effects of MAT and IL-33/ST2 expression. MAT treatment successfully attenuated severe clinical deficit and histopathological changes, compared to untreated controls. While IL-33/ST2 mRNA expression was largely increased in spinal cord of EAE rats compared to naïve rats, this expression was significantly inhibited in rats treated with MAT. These results were further confirmed by their protein levels tested with immunohistochemistry. Together, our study demonstrates that MAT treatment regulates the inflammatory IL-33/ST2 axis, thus being a novel mechanism underlying the effect of MAT. PMID:27562326

  1. The immunomodulator AS101suppresses production of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorates the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Chen, Jing; McMickle, Anthony; Awar, Nadia; Nady, Soad; Sredni, Benjamin; Drew, Paul D.; Yu, Shiguang

    2014-01-01

    We reported that AS101 (organotellurium compound, trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O′) tellurate) inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells and reduced the production of IL-17 and GM-CSF. In addition, AS101 promoted the production of IL-2 in activated T cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that AS101 inhibited Th17 cell proliferation. AS101 blocked the activation of transcriptional factor NFAT, Stat3, and RORγt, and increased activation of Erk1/2, suggesting a mechanism of action of AS101. We further demonstrated that AS101 was effective in amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Finally, by real-time PCR analysis we showed that AS101 reduces the IL-17, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-6 mRNA expression in inflammatory cells of spinal cords. Additionally, flow cytometry analysis also indicated that the CD4+ T cells and IL-17 and GM-CSF-producing cells were reduced in the spinal cords of AS101 treated mice compared to those treated with PBS. PMID:24975323

  2. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  3. Microwave & Magnetic (M2) Proteomics Reveals CNS-Specific Protein Expression Waves that Precede Clinical Symptoms of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Itay; Mahesula, Swetha; Purkar, Anjali; Black, David; Catala, Alexis; Gelfond, Jonathon A. L.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Haskins, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system-specific proteins (CSPs), transported across the damaged blood-brain-barrier (BBB) to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood (serum), might be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive protein biomarkers of disease in individual multiple sclerosis (MS) patients because they are not expected to be present at appreciable levels in the circulation of healthy subjects. We hypothesized that microwave & magnetic (M2) proteomics of CSPs in brain tissue might be an effective means to prioritize putative CSP biomarkers for future immunoassays in serum. To test this hypothesis, we used M2 proteomics to longitudinally assess CSP expression in brain tissue from mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Confirmation of central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating inflammatory cell response and CSP expression in serum was achieved with cytokine ELISPOT and ELISA immunoassays, respectively, for selected CSPs. M2 proteomics (and ELISA) revealed characteristic CSP expression waves, including synapsin-1 and α-II-spectrin, which peaked at day 7 in brain tissue (and serum) and preceded clinical EAE symptoms that began at day 10 and peaked at day 20. Moreover, M2 proteomics supports the concept that relatively few CNS-infiltrating inflammatory cells can have a disproportionally large impact on CSP expression prior to clinical manifestation of EAE. PMID:25182730

  4. Sphingosine kinase 2 deficient mice exhibit reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Resistance to FTY720 but not ST-968 treatments.

    PubMed

    Imeri, Faik; Schwalm, Stephanie; Lyck, Ruth; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger; Engelhardt, Britta; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Huwiler, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The immunomodulatory drug FTY720 is presently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a prodrug that requires activation by sphingosine kinase 2 (SK-2) to induce T cell homing to secondary lymphoid tissue. In this study, we have investigated the role of SK-2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. We show that SK-2 deficiency reduced clinical symptoms of EAE. Furthermore, in SK-2-deficient mice, the protective effect of FTY720 on EAE was abolished, while the non-prodrug FTY720-derivative ST-968 was still fully active. Protection was paralleled by reduced numbers of T-lymphocytes in blood and a reduced blood-brain-barrier leakage. This correlated with reduced mRNA expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, but enhanced expression of PECAM-1. A similar regulation of permeability and of PECAM-1 was seen in primary cultures of isolated mouse brain vascular endothelial cells and in a human immortalized cell line upon SK-2 knockdown. In summary, these data demonstrated that deletion of SK-2 exerts a protective effect on the pathogenesis of EAE in C57BL/6 mice and that SK-2 is essential for the protective effect of FTY720 but not of ST-968. Thus, ST-968 is a promising novel immunomodulatory compound that may be a valuable alternative to FTY720 under conditions where SK-2 activity is limited. PMID:26808312

  5. Single-Step Grafting of Aminooxy-Peptides to Hyaluronan: A Simple Approach to Multifunctional Therapeutics for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Joshua.; Mullins, Meagan; Northrup, Laura; Thati, Shara; Siahaan, Teruna; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to antigens is directed in part by the presence or absence of costimulatory signals. The ability to coincidently present both antigen and, for example, a peptide that inhibits or activates the costimulatory pathway, would be a valuable tool for tolerization or immunization, respectively. A simple reaction scheme utilizing oxime chemistry was identified as a means to efficiently conjugate different peptide species to hyaluronan. Peptides synthesized with an aminooxy N-terminus reacted directly to hyaluronan under slightly acidic aqueous conditions without the need for a catalyst. The resulting oxime bond was found to rapidly hydrolyze at pH 2 releasing peptide, but was stable at higher pH values (5.5 and 7). Two different peptide species, a multiple sclerosis antigen (PLP) and an ICAM-1 ligand (LABL) known to block immune cell stimulation, were functionalized with the aminooxy end group. These peptides showed similar reactivity to hyaluronan and were conjugated in an equimolar ratio. The resulting hyaluronan with grafted PLP and LABL significantly inhibited disease in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Aminooxy-peptides facilitate simple synthesis of multifunctional hyaluronan graft polymers, thus enabling novel approaches to antigen-specific immune modulation. PMID:23541930

  6. A method for histopathological study of the multifocal nature of spinal cord lesions in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Boyden, Alexander W; Leidinger, Mariah R; Lambertz, Allyn M; Ofori-Amanfo, Georgina; Naumann, Paul W; Goeken, J Adam; Karandikar, Nitin J

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established mouse model for multiple sclerosis and is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination within the central nervous system along with the clinical symptoms of paralysis. EAE is a multifocal and random disease, which sometimes makes histopathologic analysis of lesions difficult as it may not be possible to predict where lesions will occur, especially when evaluating cross sections of spinal cord. Consequently, lesions may be easily missed due to limited sampling in traditional approaches. To evaluate the entire length of the spinal cord while maintaining anatomic integrity, we have developed a method to section the cord within the decalcified spinal column, which allows for the study of the multifocal nature of this disease and also minimizes handling artifact. HE and Luxol fast blue staining of these spinal cord sections revealed a paucity of lesions in some areas, while others showed marked inflammation and demyelination. The percentage of spinal cord affected by EAE was evaluated at four separate areas of longitudinally sectioned cord and it varied greatly within each animal. Immunohistochemical staining of in situ spinal cords which had undergone decalcification was successful for key immuno-markers used in EAE research including CD3 for T cells, B220 for B cells and F4/80 for murine macrophages. This method will allow investigators to look at the entire spinal cord on a single slide and evaluate the spinal cord with and without classic EAE lesions. PMID:26855861

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by altering balance among CD4+ T cell subsets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies suggest that green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may have a beneficial effect in reducing the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; however, the underlying mechanism(s) are not well understood. In this study, we determined the effect of EGCG on the development of experiment...

  8. Neural Stem Cells Engineered to Express Three Therapeutic Factors Mediate Recovery from Chronic Stage CNS Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Yaping; Ciric, Bogoljub; Ma, Cun-Gen; Gran, Bruno; Curtis, Mark; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a major challenge. Here we genetically engineer neural stem cells (NSCs) to produce a triply therapeutic cocktail comprising IL-10, NT-3, and LINGO-1-Fc, thus simultaneously targeting all mechanisms underlie chronicity of MS in the central nervous system (CNS): persistent inflammation, loss of trophic support for oligodendrocytes and neurons, and accumulation of neuroregeneration inhibitors. After transplantation, NSCs migrated into the CNS inflamed foci and delivered these therapeutic molecules in situ. NSCs transduced with one, two, or none of these molecules had no or limited effect when injected at the chronic stage of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; cocktail-producing NSCs, in contrast, mediated the most effective recovery through inducing M2 macrophages/microglia, reducing astrogliosis, and promoting axonal integrity and endogenous oligodendrocyte/neuron differentiation. These engineered NSCs simultaneously target major mechanisms underlying chronicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) and encephalomyelitis (EAE), thus representing a novel and potentially effective therapy for the chronic stage of MS, for which there is currently no treatment available. PMID:27203442

  9. Multiple rodent models and behavioral measures reveal unexpected responses to FTY720 and DMF in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; Schmitz, K; Schiffmann, S; Tafferner, N; Schmidt, M; Jordan, H; Häußler, A; Tegeder, I; Geisslinger, G; Parnham, M J

    2016-03-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely-used rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS), but a single model can hardly capture all features of MS. We investigated whether behavioral parameters in addition to clinical motor function scores could be used to assess treatment efficacy during score-free intervals in the relapsing-remitting EAE model in SJL/J mice. We studied the effects of the clinical reference compounds FTY720 (fingolimod, 0.5mg/kg/day) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF, 20-30 mg/kg/day) on clinical scores in several rodent EAE models in order to generate efficacy profiles. SJL/J mice with relapsing-remitting EAE were studied using behavioral tests, including rotarod, gait analysis, locomotor activity and grip strength. SJL/J mice were also examined according to Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 prevented clinical scores in three of the four EAE rodent models: Dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis rats and C57BL/6J mice. Neither prophylactic nor late-therapeutic treatment with FTY720 reduced clinical scores or reversed deficits in the rotarod test in SJL/J mice, but we observed effects on motor functions and sociability in the absence of clinical scores. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 improved the gait of SJL/J mice whereas late-therapeutic treatment improved manifestations of reduced social (re)cognition or preference for social novelty. DMF was tested in three EAE models and did not improve clinical scores at the dose used. These data indicate that improvements in behavioral deficits can occur in absence of clinical scores, which indicate subtle drug effects and may have translational value for human MS. PMID:26692368

  10. The Influence of Differentially Expressed Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Lisa Cm; Nasa, Zeyad; Chung, JieYu; Niego, Be'eri; Tarlac, Volga; Ho, Heidi; Galle, Adam; Petratos, Steven; Lee, Jae Young; Alderuccio, Frank; Medcalf, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been implicated in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that levels of t-PA mRNA and activity are increased ~4 fold in the spinal cords of wild-type mice that are mice subjected to EAE. This was also accompanied with a significant increase in the levels of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pro-MMP-9) and an influx of fibrinogen. We next compared EAE severity in wild-type mice, t-PA-/- mice and T4+ transgenic mice that selectively over-express (~14-fold) mouse t-PA in neurons of the central nervous system. Our results confirm that t-PA deficient mice have an earlier onset and more severe form of EAE. T4+ mice, despite expressing higher levels of endogenous t-PA, manifested a similar rate of onset and neurological severity of EAE. Levels of proMMP-9, and extravasated fibrinogen in spinal cord extracts were increased in mice following EAE onset regardless of the absence or over-expression of t-PA wild-type. Interestingly, MMP-2 levels also increased in spinal cord extracts of T4+ mice following EAE, but not in the other genotypes. Hence, while the absence of t-PA confers a more deleterious form of EAE, neuronal over-expression of t-PA does not overtly protect against this condition with regards to symptom onset or severity of EAE. PMID:27427941

  11. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Exacerbates Loss of Lower Motor Neurons and Axons during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifeng; Stone, Sarrabeth; Cvetanovic, Marija; Lin, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). It is believed that MS and EAE are initiated by autoreactive T lymphocytes that recognize myelin antigens; however, the mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration in these diseases remain elusive. Data indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) plays a role in the development of MS and EAE. Interestingly, VEGF-A is regarded as a neurotrophic factor in the CNS that promotes neuron survival and neurogenesis in various neurodegenerative diseases by activating VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). In this study, we sought to explore the role of the VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling in neurodegeneration in MS and EAE. We showed that the expression of VEGF-A was decreased in the spinal cord during EAE and that VEGFR2 was activated in lower motor neurons in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Interestingly, we found that treatment with SU5416, a selective VEGFR2 inhibitor, starting after the onset of EAE clinical symptoms exacerbated lower motor neuron loss and axon loss in the lumbar spinal cord of mice undergoing EAE, but did not alter Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum or upper motor neuron loss in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, SU5416 treatment had a minimal effect on EAE clinical symptoms as well as inflammation, demyelination, and oligodendrocyte loss in the lumbar spinal cord. These results imply the protective effects of the VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling on lower motor neurons and axons in the spinal cord in MS and EAE. PMID:27466819

  12. Disparate MHC class II haplotypes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- and myelin basic protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Muhallab, Saad; Dahlman, Ingrid; Wallström, Erik

    2005-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) regulates multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We created four new intra-MHC recombinant rat strains, between the MHC haplotypes RT1(n) (BN) and RT1(l) (LEW) on the LEW background, to define disease regulation and localization within the MHC. Immunization with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (a.a.1-125; MOG)/IFA induced EAE in strains expressing the MHC class II allele RT1.B(n), whereas strains expressing the RT1.B(l) were resistant. In myelin basic protein peptide (MBP(GP)63-88)/CFA-induced EAE, RT1.B(l) expressing strains were susceptible whereas strains expressing the RT1.B(n) were resistant. High levels of antigen-specific IFN-gamma secreting lymphoid cells and antigen-specific serum IgG antibodies were only recorded in rats with an MHC class II allele that permitted MOG- or MBP-EAE, respectively. Genetically, we localized the MHC regulation of the investigated EAE models to the central part of the MHC, containing the MHC class II (RT1.B/D) and the centromeric parts of the MHC class III. No influences were evident from the classical MHC class I (RT1.A), the telomeric parts of the MHC class III or the non-classical MHC class I (RT1.C/E/M) in contrast to previous reports. The MHC class II haplotype-specific regulation of EAE induced with two different CNS antigens demonstrates a strikingly specific MHC-association even within the same target organ. PMID:15748954

  13. Inflammatory demyelination induces glia alterations and ganglion cell loss in the retina of an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is often accompanied by optic nerve inflammation. And some patients experience permanent vision loss. We examined if the grade of optic nerve infiltration and demyelination affects the severity of clinical signs in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and alterations in glia activity were also investigated. Methods C57BL/6 mice were immunized with peptide MOG35-55 in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and controls received PBS in CFA. Then 23 days post immunization eyes were prepared for flatmounts and stained with Nissl to evaluated neuronal density. Clinical EAE symptoms as well as cell infiltration and demyelination in the optic nerve were examined. Retinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver stain. Immunohistochemistry was used to label RGCs (Brn-3a), apoptotic cells (caspase 3), macroglia (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)), microglia (Iba1), macrophages (F 4/80) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Results EAE symptoms started at day 8 and peaked at day 15. Cell infiltrations (P = 0.0047) and demyelination (P = 0.0018) of EAE nerves correlated with the clinical score (r > 0.8). EAE led to a significant loss of RGCs (P< 0.0001). Significantly more caspase 3+ cells were noted in these animals (P = 0.0222). They showed an increased expression of GFAP (P< 0.0002) and a higher number of microglial cells (P< 0.0001). Also more macrophages and IL-6 secretion were observed in EAE mice. Conclusions MOG immunization leads to optic neuritis and RGC loss. EAE severity is related to the severity of optic nerve inflammation and demyelination. EAE not only affects activation of apoptotic signals, but also causes a glial response in the retina. PMID:24090415

  14. The anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57 BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zou, Yan; Chen, Shaoqiong; Zhu, Cansheng; Wu, Aimin; Liu, Yingying; Ma, Lili; Zhu, Dongliang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Mei; Kang, Zhuang; Pi, Rongbiao; Peng, Fuhua; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xiaohong

    2013-10-01

    Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It has been reported to restore cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an established model of MS. However, there are no reports about the anti-inflammatory effects of donepezil on EAE. In this study, the donepezil treatments on EAE mice were initiated at day 7 post immunization (7 p.i., subclinical periods, early donepezil treatment) and day 13 p.i. (clinical periods, late donepezil treatment) with the dosage of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/d respectively and the treatments persisted throughout the experiments. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was detected by Evan's blue content, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) as well as nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor form (proNGF) in the brains of EAE mice were detected by Western blot, and the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in the splenocytes culture supernatants and brains of EAE mice were evaluated by ELISA. The results showed that the 2 mg/kg/d late donepezil treatment was the optimal dosage and could ameliorate clinical and pathological parameters, improve magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, reduce the permeability of BBB, inhibit the production of MMP-2 and MMP-9, modulate the expression of NGF and proNGF, increase Th2 bias and the phosphorylation of Akt in the brains of EAE mice. Our data suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of donepezil may be a novel mechanism on treating EAE and provided further insights to understand the donepezil's neuroprotective activities in MS.

  15. Grb2 Is Important for T Cell Development, Th Cell Differentiation, and Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Daniel; Lacher, Sonja M; Szumilas, Nadine; Sandrock, Lena; Ackermann, Jochen; Nitschke, Lars; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The small adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) modulates and integrates signals from receptors on cellular surfaces in inner signaling pathways. In murine T cells, Grb2 is crucial for amplification of TCR signaling. T cell-specific Grb2(fl/fl) Lckcre(tg) Grb2-deficient mice show reduced T cell numbers due to impaired negative and positive selection. In this study, we found that T cell numbers in Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice were normal in the thymus and were only slightly affected in the periphery. Ex vivo analysis of CD4(+) Th cell populations revealed an increased amount of Th1 cells within the CD4(+) population of Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice. Additionally, Grb2-deficient T cells showed a greater potential to differentiate into Th17 cells in vitro. To test whether these changes in Th cell differentiation potential rendered Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice more prone to inflammatory diseases, we used the murine Th1 cell- and Th17 cell-driven model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast to our expectations, Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice developed a milder form of EAE. The impaired EAE disease can be explained by the reduced proliferation rate of Grb2-deficient CD4(+) T cells upon stimulation with IL-2 or upon activation by allogeneic dendritic cells, because the activation of T cells by dendritic cells and the subsequent T cell proliferation are known to be crucial factors for the induction of EAE. In summary, Grb2-deficient T cells show defects in T cell development, increased Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation capacities, and impaired proliferation after activation by dendritic cells, which likely reduce the clinical symptoms of EAE.

  16. Changes of extracellular space volume and tortuosity in the spinal cord of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Simonová, Z; Svoboda, J; Orkand, P; Bernard, C C; Lassmann, H; Syková, E

    1996-01-01

    Three diffusion parameters of nervous tissue, extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction (alpha), tortuosity (gamma) and non-specific uptake (k') of tetramethylammonium (TMA+), were studied in the spinal cord of rats during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The three parameters were determined in vivo from concentration-time profiles of TMA+ using ion-selective microelectrodes. EAE was induced by injection of guinea-pig myelin basic protein (MBP), which resulted in typical morphological changes in the CNS tissue, namely inflammatory reaction, astrogliosis, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and paralysis. EAE was accompanied by a statistically significant increase of alpha (mean +/- S.E.M.) in the dorsal horn from 0.21 +/- 0.01 to 0.28 +/- 0.02, in the intermediate region from 0.22 +/- 0.01 to 0.33 +/- 0.02, in the ventral horn from 0.23 +/- 0.01 to 0.47 +/- 0.02 and in white matter from 0.18 +/- 0.03 to 0.30 +/- 0.03. There were significant decreases in tortuosity in the dorsal horn and in the intermediate region and decreases in non-specific uptake in the intermediate region and in the ventral horn. Although the inflammatory reaction and the astrogliosis preceded and greatly outlasted the neurological symptoms, the BBB damage had a similar time course. Moreover, there was a close correlation between the changes in extracellular space diffusion parameters and the manifestation of neurological signs. We suggest that the expansion of the extracellular space alters the diffusion properties in the spinal cord. This may affect synaptic as well as non-synaptic transmission, intercellular communication and recovery from acute EAE, and may contribute to the manifestation of neurological signs in EAE rats.

  17. Multiple rodent models and behavioral measures reveal unexpected responses to FTY720 and DMF in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; Schmitz, K; Schiffmann, S; Tafferner, N; Schmidt, M; Jordan, H; Häußler, A; Tegeder, I; Geisslinger, G; Parnham, M J

    2016-03-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely-used rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS), but a single model can hardly capture all features of MS. We investigated whether behavioral parameters in addition to clinical motor function scores could be used to assess treatment efficacy during score-free intervals in the relapsing-remitting EAE model in SJL/J mice. We studied the effects of the clinical reference compounds FTY720 (fingolimod, 0.5mg/kg/day) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF, 20-30 mg/kg/day) on clinical scores in several rodent EAE models in order to generate efficacy profiles. SJL/J mice with relapsing-remitting EAE were studied using behavioral tests, including rotarod, gait analysis, locomotor activity and grip strength. SJL/J mice were also examined according to Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 prevented clinical scores in three of the four EAE rodent models: Dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis rats and C57BL/6J mice. Neither prophylactic nor late-therapeutic treatment with FTY720 reduced clinical scores or reversed deficits in the rotarod test in SJL/J mice, but we observed effects on motor functions and sociability in the absence of clinical scores. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 improved the gait of SJL/J mice whereas late-therapeutic treatment improved manifestations of reduced social (re)cognition or preference for social novelty. DMF was tested in three EAE models and did not improve clinical scores at the dose used. These data indicate that improvements in behavioral deficits can occur in absence of clinical scores, which indicate subtle drug effects and may have translational value for human MS.

  18. The Influence of Differentially Expressed Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Lisa CM; Nasa, Zeyad; Chung, JieYu; Niego, Be’eri; Tarlac, Volga; Ho, Heidi; Galle, Adam; Petratos, Steven; Lee, Jae Young; Alderuccio, Frank; Medcalf, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been implicated in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that levels of t-PA mRNA and activity are increased ~4 fold in the spinal cords of wild-type mice that are mice subjected to EAE. This was also accompanied with a significant increase in the levels of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pro-MMP-9) and an influx of fibrinogen. We next compared EAE severity in wild-type mice, t-PA-/- mice and T4+ transgenic mice that selectively over-express (~14-fold) mouse t-PA in neurons of the central nervous system. Our results confirm that t-PA deficient mice have an earlier onset and more severe form of EAE. T4+ mice, despite expressing higher levels of endogenous t-PA, manifested a similar rate of onset and neurological severity of EAE. Levels of proMMP-9, and extravasated fibrinogen in spinal cord extracts were increased in mice following EAE onset regardless of the absence or over-expression of t-PA wild-type. Interestingly, MMP-2 levels also increased in spinal cord extracts of T4+ mice following EAE, but not in the other genotypes. Hence, while the absence of t-PA confers a more deleterious form of EAE, neuronal over-expression of t-PA does not overtly protect against this condition with regards to symptom onset or severity of EAE. PMID:27427941

  19. Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4 + T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie A; Waldner, Hanspeter; Zagon, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltrating myelin-reactive T lymphocytes and demyelinating lesions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model widely utilized to study MS. EAE is mediated by CD4+ T cells and can be induced in EAE-susceptible mice through immunization with a myelin antigen, such as proteolipid protein 139–151 (PLP139-151) in SJL mice. In this PLP-induced EAE model, autoreactive CD4+ T cells migrate from peripheral tissues into the CNS where they are reactivated resulting in CNS damage. Th1 and Th17 cells produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-17, respectively, that have been shown to have pathogenic roles in EAE and MS. Anti-inflammatory Th2, IL-4 secreting cells, have been indicated to inhibit EAE exacerbation. However, given the inflammatory environment of EAE, Th2 effector cells are outnumbered by Th1/Th17 cells. Regulatory CD4+ T cells suppress immune reactions and have been demonstrated to be dysfunctional in MS patients. Opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin, is a negative growth factor that interacts with the OGF receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis can be activated through exogenous administration of OGF or a low dosage of naltrexone (LDN), an opioid antagonist. We have previously demonstrated that modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis results in alleviation from relapse-remitting EAE, and that CNS-infiltrating CD3+ T cells are diminished with exogenous OGF or intermittent blockade with LDN administration. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether OGF or LDN alter the Th effector responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes within the CNS in established EAE. We report in these studies that the numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the CNS of EAE mice are decreased following treatment with OGF for five days but not LDN. However, modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis did not result in changes to CD4+ Th effector cell responses in the CNS of

  20. Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4 + T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie A; Waldner, Hanspeter; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltrating myelin-reactive T lymphocytes and demyelinating lesions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model widely utilized to study MS. EAE is mediated by CD4(+) T cells and can be induced in EAE-susceptible mice through immunization with a myelin antigen, such as proteolipid protein 139-151 (PLP139-151) in SJL mice. In this PLP-induced EAE model, autoreactive CD4(+) T cells migrate from peripheral tissues into the CNS where they are reactivated resulting in CNS damage. Th1 and Th17 cells produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-17, respectively, that have been shown to have pathogenic roles in EAE and MS. Anti-inflammatory Th2, IL-4 secreting cells, have been indicated to inhibit EAE exacerbation. However, given the inflammatory environment of EAE, Th2 effector cells are outnumbered by Th1/Th17 cells. Regulatory CD4(+) T cells suppress immune reactions and have been demonstrated to be dysfunctional in MS patients. Opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is a negative growth factor that interacts with the OGF receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis can be activated through exogenous administration of OGF or a low dosage of naltrexone (LDN), an opioid antagonist. We have previously demonstrated that modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis results in alleviation from relapse-remitting EAE, and that CNS-infiltrating CD3(+) T cells are diminished with exogenous OGF or intermittent blockade with LDN administration. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether OGF or LDN alter the Th effector responses of CD4(+) T lymphocytes within the CNS in established EAE. We report in these studies that the numbers of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the CNS of EAE mice are decreased following treatment with OGF for five days but not LDN. However, modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis did not result in changes to CD4(+) Th effector cell responses

  1. Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Sofia; Pryce, Gareth; Jackson, Samuel J; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A; Michael, Gregory J; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim)) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen)) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim) mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some

  2. Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some

  3. Complement inhibitors to treat IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia may exacerbate extravascular hemolysis and may occasionally result in intravascular hemolysis. IgM autoantibodies as characteristically found in cold autoantibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in cold agglutinin disease but also in a considerable percentage of patients with warm autoantibodies are very likely to activate complement in vivo. Therapy of IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia mainly aims to decrease autoantibody production. However, most of these treatments require time to become effective and will not stop immediate ongoing complement-mediated hemolysis nor prevent hemolysis of transfused red blood cells. Therefore pharmacological inhibition of the complement system might be a suitable approach to halt or at least attenuate ongoing hemolysis and improve the recovery of red blood cell transfusion in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In recent years, several complement inhibitors have become available in the clinic, some of them with proven efficacy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In the present review, we give a short introduction on the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, followed by an overview on the complement system with a special focus on its regulation. Finally, we will discuss complement inhibitors with regard to their potential efficacy to halt or attenuate hemolysis in complement-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. PMID:26521297

  4. Complement inhibitors to treat IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-11-01

    Complement activation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia may exacerbate extravascular hemolysis and may occasionally result in intravascular hemolysis. IgM autoantibodies as characteristically found in cold autoantibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in cold agglutinin disease but also in a considerable percentage of patients with warm autoantibodies are very likely to activate complement in vivo. Therapy of IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia mainly aims to decrease autoantibody production. However, most of these treatments require time to become effective and will not stop immediate ongoing complement-mediated hemolysis nor prevent hemolysis of transfused red blood cells. Therefore pharmacological inhibition of the complement system might be a suitable approach to halt or at least attenuate ongoing hemolysis and improve the recovery of red blood cell transfusion in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In recent years, several complement inhibitors have become available in the clinic, some of them with proven efficacy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In the present review, we give a short introduction on the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, followed by an overview on the complement system with a special focus on its regulation. Finally, we will discuss complement inhibitors with regard to their potential efficacy to halt or attenuate hemolysis in complement-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

  5. An increase in tolerogenic dendritic cell and natural regulatory T cell numbers during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Rras-/- mice results in attenuated disease.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avijit; Basu, Sreemanti; Miller, Nichole M; Chan, Andrew M; Dittel, Bonnie N

    2014-06-01

    R-Ras is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which are regulators of various cellular processes, including adhesion, survival, proliferation, trafficking, and cytokine production. R-Ras is expressed by immune cells and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro and has been associated with liver autoimmunity. We used Rras-deficient mice to study the mechanism whereby R-Ras contributes to autoimmunity using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of the CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. We found that a lack of R-Ras in peripheral immune cells resulted in attenuated EAE disease. Further investigation revealed that, during EAE, absence of R-Ras promoted the formation of MHC II(low) DC concomitant with a significant increase in proliferation of natural regulatory T cells, resulting in an increase in their cell numbers in the periphery. Our study suggests a novel role for R-Ras in promoting autoimmunity through negative regulation of natural regulatory T cell numbers by inhibiting the development of MHCII(low) DC with tolerogenic potential.

  6. Additive Effects of Combination Treatment with Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Agents in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Sienmi; Sandoval, Francisco; Trinh, Pauline; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of combination treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent, interferon(IFN)-β, and a putative neuroprotective agent, an estrogen receptor(ER)-β ligand, during EAE. Combination treatment significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, preserved axonal densities in spinal cord, and reduced CNS inflammation. Combining ERβ treatment with IFNβ reduced IL-17, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated increases in Th1 and Th2 cytokines from splenocytes. Additionally, combination treatment reduced VLA-4 expression on CD4+ T cells, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated decreases in MMP-9. Our data demonstrate that combination treatments can result in complex effects that could not have been predicted based on monotherapy data alone. PMID:20006910

  7. A SELDI mass spectrometry study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: sample preparation, reproducibility, and differential protein expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is widely used as a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the development of neuropathology in MS and may also play a role in disease pathology in EAE. Here, surface enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) has been employed to obtain protein expression profiles from mitochondrially enriched fractions derived from EAE and control mouse brain. To gain insight into experimental variation, the reproducibility of sub-cellular fractionation, anion exchange fractionation as well as spot-to-spot and chip-to-chip variation using pooled samples from brain tissue was examined. Results Variability of SELDI mass spectral peak intensities indicates a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.6% and 17.6% between spots on a given chip and between different chips, respectively. Thinly slicing tissue prior to homogenization with a rotor homogenizer showed better reproducibility (CV = 17.0%) than homogenization of blocks of brain tissue with a Teflon® pestle (CV = 27.0%). Fractionation of proteins with anion exchange beads prior to SELDI-MS analysis gave overall CV values from 16.1% to 18.6%. SELDI mass spectra of mitochondrial fractions obtained from brain tissue from EAE mice and controls displayed 39 differentially expressed proteins (p≤ 0.05) out of a total of 241 protein peaks observed in anion exchange fractions. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that protein fractions from EAE animals with severe disability clearly segregated from controls. Several components of electron transport chain complexes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b1, subunit 6C, and subunit 4; NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 3, alpha subcomplex subunit 2, Fe-S protein 4, and Fe-S protein 6; and ATP synthase subunit e) were identified as possible differentially expressed proteins. Myelin Basic Protein

  8. The complement system contributes to the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by triggering demyelination and modifying the antigen-specific T and B cell response.

    PubMed

    Hundgeburth, Lorenz C; Wunsch, Marie; Rovituso, Damiano; Recks, Mascha S; Addicks, Klaus; Lehmann, Paul V; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    So far, studies of the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) have largely been hampered by the absence of a pathogenic B cell component in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To overcome this shortcoming, we have previously introduced the myelin basic protein (MBP)-proteolipid protein (PLP) MP4-induced EAE, which is B cell and autoantibody-dependent. Here we show that MP4-immunized wild-type C57BL/6 mice displayed a significantly lower disease incidence when their complement system was transiently depleted by a single injection of cobra venom factor (CVF) prior to immunization. Considering the underlying pathomechanism, our data suggest that the complement system is crucial for MP4-specific antibodies to trigger CNS pathology. Demyelinated lesions in the CNS were colocalized with complement depositions. In addition, B cell deficient JHT mice reconstituted with MP4-reactive serum showed significantly attenuated clinical and histological EAE after depletion of complement by CVF. The complement system was also critically involved in the generation of the MP4-specific T and B cell response: in MP4-immunized wild-type mice treated with CVF the MP4-specific cytokine and antibody response was significantly attenuated compared to untreated wild-type mice. Taken together, we propose two independent mechanisms by which the complement system can contribute to the pathology of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Our data corroborate the role of complement in triggering antibody-dependent demyelination and antigen-specific T cell immunity and also provide first evidence that the complement system can modify the antigen-specific B cell response in EAE and possibly MS.

  9. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tokunori; Hirata, Shinya; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Haruta, Miwa; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Ito, Takaaki; Uchino, Makoto; Ando, Yukio; Nagafuchi, Seiho; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs) using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:25522369

  10. Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice and Evaluation of the Disease-dependent Distribution of Immune Cells in Various Tissues.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, Julia; Tafferner, Nadja; Kurz, Jennifer; de Bruin, Natasja; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Schiffmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is presumed to be an inflammatory autoimmune disease, which is characterized by lesion formation in the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in cognitive and motor impairment. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a useful animal model of MS, because it is also characterized by lesion formation in the CNS, motor impairment and is also driven by autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. One of the EAE models is induced with a peptide derived from the myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG)35-55 in mice. The EAE mice develop a progressive disease course. This course is divided into three phases: the preclinical phase (day 0 - 9), the disease onset (day 10 - 11) and the acute phase (day 12 - 14). MS and EAE are induced by autoreactive T cells that infiltrate the CNS. These T cells secrete chemokines and cytokines which lead to the recruitment of further immune cells. Therefore, the immune cell distribution in the spinal cord during the three disease phases was investigated. To highlight the time point of the disease at which the activation/proliferation/accumulation of T cells, B cells and monocytes starts, the immune cell distribution in lymph nodes, spleen and blood was also assessed. Furthermore, the levels of several cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, TNFα, IFNγ) in the three disease phases were determined, to gain insight into the inflammatory processes of the disease. In conclusion, the data provide an overview of the functional profile of immune cells during EAE pathology.

  11. Intravenous Administration of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces a Switch from Classical to Atypical Symptoms in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kurte, Mónica; Bravo-Alegría, Javiera; Torres, Alexander; Carrasco, Vania; Ibáñez, Cristina; Vega-Letter, Ana María; Fernández-O'Ryan, Catalina; Irarrázabal, Carlos E.; Figueroa, Fernando E.; Fuentealba, Rodrigo A.; Riedel, Claudia; Carrión, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Potent immunosuppressive and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) position them as a novel therapy for autoimmune diseases. This research examines the therapeutic effect of MSCs administration at different disease stages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Classical and atypical scores of EAE, associated with Th1 and Th17 response, respectively, and also Treg lymphocytes, were evaluated. MSCs administration at the onset (EAE+MSConset) induced an important amelioration of the clinical signs and less lasting effect at the peak of EAE (EAE+MSCpeak). No effect was observed when MSCs were applied after EAE stabilization (EAE+MSClate). Surprisingly, EAE atypical signs were detected in EAE+MSCpeak and EAE+MSClate mice. However, no correlation was found in Th17/Th1 ratio. Interestingly, regardless of time administration, MSCs significantly reduced IL-6 and also T-bet, RORγT, and Foxp3 mRNA levels in brain samples of EAE mice. The downregulation of IL-6 could restore the well-functioning of the blood-brain barrier of EAE mice, correlated with a decreased number of brain infiltrating leukocytes. These results suggest that the inflammatory status is important to be considered for administering MSCs in autoimmune pathologies, leading to a further research to clarify the effect of MSCs for multiple sclerosis. PMID:25838828

  12. Codelivery of antigen and an immune cell adhesion inhibitor is necessary for efficacy of soluble antigen arrays in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Joshua O; Sullivan, Bradley P; Thati, Sharadvi; Northrup, Laura; Hartwell, Brittany; Antunez, Lorena; Forrest, M Laird; Vines, Charlotte M; Siahaan, Teruna J; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are typified by the misrecognition of self-antigen and the clonal expansion of autoreactive T cells. Antigen-specific immunotherapies (antigen-SITs) have long been explored as a means to desensitize patients to offending self-antigen(s) with the potential to retolerize the immune response. Soluble antigen arrays (SAgAs) are composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) cografted with disease-specific autoantigen (proteolipid protein peptide) and an ICAM-1 inhibitor peptide (LABL). SAgAs were designed as an antigen-SIT that codeliver peptides to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Codelivery of antigen and cell adhesion inhibitor (LABL) conjugated to HA was essential for SAgA treatment of EAE. Individual SAgA components or mixtures thereof reduced proinflammatory cytokines in cultured splenocytes from EAE mice; however, these treatments showed minimal to no in vivo therapeutic effect in EAE mice. Thus, carriers that codeliver antigen and a secondary “context” signal (e.g., LABL) in vivo may be an important design criteria to consider when designing antigen-SIT for autoimmune therapy. PMID:26015953

  13. Interferon-beta treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis leads to rapid nonapoptotic termination of T cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Stürzebecher, S; Toyka, K V; Gold, R

    2001-07-01

    We investigated the possible mechanisms how interferon (IFN)-beta may control T cell infiltration in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Adoptive transfer (AT) EAE was induced in groups of six female Lewis rats. Animals were treated with 3 x 10(5) units of recombinant rat IFN-beta s.c. once at 18 hr, or with 10 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MP) i.v. twice at 18 and 6 hr prior to dissection, or with a combination of both. T cell apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of spinal cord, using morphological criteria and TUNEL staining. Double labeling of immune cells was done for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and metalloproteinase (MMP) 2. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was visualized by staining for albumin. In severe EAE, an increase of T cell apoptosis was seen after IFN-beta alone (all data presented as mean +/- SD: 24.5% +/- 2.2%, P < 0.05, vs. 19.4% +/- 3.1% in controls), and in combination with MP (29.4% +/- 7.3%, P < 0.05 vs. controls). Only the combination therapy decreased T cell infiltration (53.9 +/- 17.7 cells/mm(2), P < 0.05, vs. 99.5 +/- 35.2 cells/mm2 in controls). In moderate EAE, the rate of T cell apoptosis was slightly increased after IFN-beta (21.2% +/- 5.2% vs. 17.4% +/- 5.0% in controls), whereas MP alone (25.5% +/- 3.5%, P < 0.01 vs. controls) and the combination therapy (22.4% +/- 4.8%, P < 0.05 vs. controls) had a clear augmenting effect. IFN-beta tended to decrease T cell infiltration (46.1 +/- 12.7 cells/mm2) compared to controls (59.2 +/- 18.5 cells/mm2). The rate of TNF-alpha-expressing T cells was significantly decreased by IFN-beta and in combination with MP. Also, TNF-alpha expression in macrophages was significantly reduced by IFN-beta and by the combination therapy. The rate of MMP2-expressing macrophages was lower after IFN-beta but clearly decreased only in combination with MP. BBB disruption was ameliorated after IFN-beta but significantly only in combination with MP

  14. Characterization of a Severe Parenchymal Phenotype of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in (C57BL6xB10.PL)F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carrithers, Michael D.; Carrithers, Lisette M.; Czyzyk, Jan; Henegariu, Octavian

    2009-01-01

    We here describe a novel CD4 T cell adoptive transfer model of severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in (C57BL6xB10.PL)F1 mice. This FI cross developed severe disease characterized by extensive parenchymal spinal cord and brain periventricular white matter infiltrates. In contrast, B10.PL mice developed mild disease characterized by meningeal predominant infiltrates. As determined by cDNA microarray and quantitative real time PCR expression analysis, histologic and flow cytometry analysis of inflammatory infiltrates, and attenuation of disease in class I-deficient and CD8-depleted F1 mice; this severe disease phenotype appears to be regulated by CNS infiltration of CD8 T lymphocytes early in the disease course. PMID:17512611

  15. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats by grafting primary skin fibroblasts engineered to express transforming growth factor-beta1.

    PubMed

    Zargarova, T; Kulakova, O; Prassolov, V; Zharmukhamedova, T; Tsyganova, V; Turobov, V; Ivanov, D; Parfenov, M; Sudomoina, M; Chernajovsky, Y; Favorova, O

    2004-08-01

    To determine whether primary fibroblasts producing latent transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) are capable of down-regulating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a retroviral vector TGF-beta1-pBabe-neo (-5'UTR) was used for efficient gene transfer into primary skin fibroblasts of DA rats. After heat activation, conditioned medium from the transduced fibroblasts was found to inhibit significantly in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from lymph nodes of DA rats with EAE. Intraperitoneal administration of TGF-beta1-transduced fibroblasts into DA rats during the priming phase of EAE resulted in a significant reduction in mortality and in the mean clinical and EAE scores versus the control immunized animals treated with non-transduced fibroblasts.

  16. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats by grafting primary skin fibroblasts engineered to express transforming growth factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Zargarova, T; Kulakova, O; Prassolov, V; Zharmukhamedova, T; Tsyganova, V; Turobov, V; Ivanov, D; Parfenov, M; Sudomoina, M; Chernajovsky, Y; Favorova, O

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether primary fibroblasts producing latent transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) are capable of down-regulating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a retroviral vector TGF-β1-pBabe-neo (−5′UTR) was used for efficient gene transfer into primary skin fibroblasts of DA rats. After heat activation, conditioned medium from the transduced fibroblasts was found to inhibit significantly in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from lymph nodes of DA rats with EAE. Intraperitoneal administration of TGF-β1-transduced fibroblasts into DA rats during the priming phase of EAE resulted in a significant reduction in mortality and in the mean clinical and EAE scores versus the control immunized animals treated with non-transduced fibroblasts. PMID:15270848

  17. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-mediated calcium signalling in effector T cells regulates autoimmunity of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Kawakami, Naoto; Klinkert, Wolfgang E. F.; Lodygin, Dimtri; Lühder, Fred; Breunig, Esther; Schild, Detlev; Ulaganathan, Vijay Kumar; Dornmair, Klaus; Dammermann, Werner; Potter, Barry V. L.; Guse, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate represents a newly identified second messenger in T cells involved in antigen receptor-mediated calcium signalling. Its function in vivo is, however, unknown due to the lack of biocompatible inhibitors. Using a recently developed inhibitor, we explored the role of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in autoreactive effector T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that calcium signalling controlled by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is relevant for the pathogenic potential of autoimmune effector T cells. Live two photon imaging and molecular analyses revealed that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate signalling regulates T cell motility and re-activation upon arrival in the nervous tissues. Treatment with the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor significantly reduced both the number of stable arrests of effector T cells and their invasive capacity. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 were strongly diminished. Consecutively, the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis were ameliorated. In vitro, antigen-triggered T cell proliferation and cytokine production were evenly suppressed. These inhibitory effects were reversible: after wash-out of the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate antagonist, the effector T cells fully regained their functions. The nicotinic acid derivative BZ194 induced this transient state of non-responsiveness specifically in post-activated effector T cells. Naïve and long-lived memory T cells, which express lower levels of the putative nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptor, type 1 ryanodine receptor, were not targeted. T cell priming and recall responses in vivo were not reduced. These data indicate that the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

  18. Cannabidiol Limits T Cell–Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis: Implications to Autoimmune Disorders and Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Shin; Erdelyi, Katalin; Matyas, Csaba; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Varga, Zoltan V; Liaudet, Lucas; Hask’, György; ’iháková, Daniela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death in young adults and adolescents. Many cases of myocarditis are associated with autoimmune processes in which cardiac myosin is a major autoantigen. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies often provide unsatisfactory results and are associated with adverse toxicities during the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana that exerts antiinflammatory effects independent of classical cannabinoid receptors. Recently, 80 clinical trials have investigated the effects of CBD in various diseases from inflammatory bowel disease to graft versus host disease. CBD-based formulations are used for the management of multiple sclerosis in numerous countries, and CBD also received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy and glioblastoma multiforme. Herein, using a well-established mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced by immunization with cardiac myosin emmulsified in adjuvant resulting in T cell–mediated inflammation, cardiomyocyte cell death, fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction, we studied the potential beneficial effects of CBD. EAM was characterized by marked myocardial T-cell infiltration, profound inflammatory response and fibrosis (measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunohistochemistry analyses) accompanied by marked attenuation of both systolic and diastolic cardiac functions measured with a pressure-volume conductance catheter technique. Chronic treatment with CBD largely attenuated the CD3+ and CD4+ T cell–mediated inflammatory response and injury, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in mice. In conclusion, CBD may represent a promising novel treatment for managing autoimmune myocarditis and possibly other autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation. PMID:26772776

  19. ERβ in CD4+ T Cells Is Crucial for Ligand-Mediated Suppression of Central Nervous System Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Aggelakopoulou, Maria; Kourepini, Evangelia; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Panoutsakopoulou, Vily

    2016-06-15

    The development of therapies for multiple sclerosis targeting pathogenic T cell responses remains imperative. Previous studies have shown that estrogen receptor (ER) β ligands could inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, the effects of ERβ-specific ligands on human or murine pathogenic immune cells, such as Th17, were not investigated. In this article, we show that the synthetic ERβ-specific ligand 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis[trifluoromethyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)phenol (PHTPP) reversed established paralysis and CNS inflammation, characterized by a dramatic suppression of pathogenic Th responses as well as induction of IL-10-producing regulatory CD4(+) T cell subsets in vivo. Moreover, administration of PHTPP in symptomatic mice induced regulatory CD4(+) T cells that were suppressive in vivo. PHTPP-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis amelioration was canceled in mice with ERβ-deficient CD4(+) T cells only, indicating that expression of ERβ by these cells is crucial for the observed therapeutic effect. Importantly, synthetic ERβ-specific ligands acting directly on CD4(+) T cells suppressed human and mouse Th17 cells, downregulating Th17 cell signature gene expression and expanding IL-10-producing T cells among them. TGF-β1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation enhanced the ERβ ligand-mediated expansion of IL-10-producing T cells among Th17 cells. In addition, these ERβ-specific ligands promoted the induction and maintenance of Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells, as well as their in vitro suppressive function. Thus, ERβ-specific ligands targeting pathogenic Th17 cells and inducing functional regulatory cells represent a promising subset of therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:27183630

  20. Treatment with tanshinone IIA suppresses disruption of the blood-brain barrier and reduces expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Yan, Jun; Feng, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major bioactive components of the traditional Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been reported to have both anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. The effect of treatment with TSIIA in multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, however, remains poorly understood. In the present study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a classical experimental model of MS, was used to investigate the therapeutic effect of TSIIA. TSIIA attenuated motor dysfunction and improved inflammation and demyelination associated with EAE in a dose-dependent manner. TSIIA also significantly reduced the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), and protected the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by increasing the expression of critical endothelial tight junction (TJ) proteins. TSIIA also inhibited the expression of some adhesion molecules and chemokines, which are considered to be critical for adhesion of immune cells and migration across the BBB. TSIIA was thus shown to be effective in the treatment of EAE through preventing the infiltration of immune cells into the CNS, strengthening the integrity of the BBB and decreasing the numbers of adhesion molecules and chemokines.

  1. Intracerebral expression of CXCL13 and BAFF is accompanied by formation of lymphoid follicle-like structures in the meninges of mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Magliozzi, Roberta; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Serafini, Barbara; Aloisi, Francesca

    2004-03-01

    Given the abnormalities in B-cell activity occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), we have explored the possibility that CNS inflammation induced in mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) triggers expression of molecules that control the development and functional organization of lymphoid follicles, the sites where B-cell responses are initiated. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we find that gene expression of CXCL13, a chemokine involved in B-cell recruitment into lymphoid follicles, and BAFF, a key regulator of B-cell survival, is markedly and persistently upregulated in the CNS of mice with relapsing-remitting and chronic-relapsing EAE. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we also show the presence of lymphoid follicle-like structures containing B cells and a reticulum of CXCL13+ and FDC-M1+ follicular dendritic cells within the meninges of several mice undergoing progressive relapsing EAE. These observations indicate that, under chronic inflammatory conditions, the less immunoprivileged meningeal compartment is the site where ectopic lymphoid follicles preferentially develop and where pathogenic B-cell responses could be sustained in autoimmune disorders of the CNS.

  2. VPAC2 (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2) receptor deficient mice develop exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with increased Th1/Th17 and reduced Th2/Treg responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqi; Lopez, Robert; Waschek, James

    2014-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are two structurally-related neuropeptides with widespread expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although these peptides have been repeatedly shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory actions when administered in animal models of inflammatory disease, mice deficient in VIP and PACAP were recently shown to exhibit different phenotypes (ameliorated and exacerbated, respectively) in response to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Therefore, elucidating what are the specific immunoregulatory roles played by each of their receptor subtypes (VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1) is critical. In this study, we found that mice with a genetic deletion of VIPR2, encoding the VPAC2 receptor, exhibited exacerbated (MOG35-55)-induced EAE compared to wild type mice, characterized by enhanced clinical and histopathological features, increased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ (Th1), and IL-17 (Th17)) and reduced anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGFβ, and IL-4 (Th2)) in the CNS and lymph nodes. Moreover, the abundance and proliferative index of lymph node, thymus and CNS CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs were strikingly reduced in VPAC2-deficient mice with EAE. Finally, the in vitro suppressive activity of lymph node and splenic Tregs from VPAC2-deficient mice was impaired. Overall, our results demonstrate critical protective roles for PACAP and the VPAC2 receptor against autoimmunity, promoting the expansion and maintenance of the Treg pool. PMID:25305591

  3. Mature dendritic cells cause Th17/Treg imbalance by secreting TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pingxia; Cao, Yingping; Wang, Meihua; Zheng, Peizheng; Hou, Juan; Zhu, Chanhong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally acknowledged to be an autoimmune disease, but its etiology remains unknown. The most intensively studied animal model of MS is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), have gained increasing attention because they connect innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the role of mature DCs in the pathogenesis of EAE. It was found that the number of mature DCs in the EAE spleen increased compared to the control group (p < 0.05). And there was an imbalance between Th17 (effector) and Treg (regulatory) in EAE. The data showed that mature DCs can regulate the differentiation of Th17 and Treg in EAE. In addition, there was a significant difference in secretion of TGF-β1 and IL-6 between mature DCs from mice with EAE and controls. The present data suggest that mature DCs cause an imbalance between Th17 and Treg by secreting TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the pathogenesis of EAE disease. Thus, targeting DC may be an effective strategy for treating MS. PMID:27536199

  4. Treatment with NAD(+) inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and modulating Th1/Th17 immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jueqiong; Zhao, Congying; Kong, Peng; Sun, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhe; Bian, Guanyun; Sun, Yafei; Guo, Li

    2016-10-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) plays vital roles in mitochondrial functions, cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of NAD(+) administration for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. EAE, a classical animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), was induced by subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyteglycoprotein (MOG). The mice were treated with 250mg/kg (body weight) NAD(+) in PBS administered intraperitoneally once daily. We observed that NAD(+) treatment could lessen the severity of EAE. Additionally, NAD(+) treatment attenuated pathological injuries of EAE mice. We also found that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1(SIRT1) pathway was activated in the NAD(+)-treated mice and NAD(+) treatment suppressed pro-inflammatory T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that NAD(+) could be an effective and promising agent to treat multiple sclerosis and its effects on other autoimmune diseases should be explored. PMID:27500459

  5. Neonatal Induction of Myelin-specific Th1/Th17 Immunity Does Not Result in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Can Protect Against the Disease in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Harald H.; Kovalovsky, Andra; Shive, Carey L.; Lehmann, Paul V.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    The neonatal immune system is believed to be biased towards T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity, but under certain conditions neonates can also develop Th1 immune responses. Neonatal Th2 immunity to myelin antigens is not pathogenic and can prevent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adulthood, but the consequences of neonatally induced Th1 immunity to self antigens have remained unresolved. Here, we show that neonatal injection of mice with myelin antigens emulsified in complete Freunds’ adjuvant (CFA) induced vigorous production of IFN-γ and IL-17, but not IL-5, consistent with myelin-specific Th1/Th17 immunity. Importantly, the myelin-specific Th1/Th17 cells persisted in the mice until adulthood without causing symptoms of EAE. Intraperitoneal, but not subcutaneous injection of neonates with myelin antigens protected against induction of EAE as adults. Intraperitoneally injected neonates showed a substantial decrease of the number and avidity of myelin-reactive Th17 cells, suggesting a decrease in IL-17 producing precursor cells as the mechanism of protection from EAE upon reinjection with myelin antigens as adults. The results could provide a rationale for the presence of autoreactive T cells found in healthy human individuals without autoimmune disease. PMID:17482277

  6. Neurodegeneration and inflammation in hippocampus in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced in rats by one--time administration of encephalitogenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, I; Swiątkiewicz, M; Zaremba, M; Cudna, A; Piechal, A; Pyrzanowska, J; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E; Członkowska, A

    2013-09-17

    Cognitive dysfunction is relatively frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and it happens from the early stages of the disease. There is increasing evidence that the grey matter may be involved in autoimmune inflammation during relapses of MS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a single transfer of encephalitogenic T cells, mimicking a relapse of MS, may cause hippocampal damage and memory disturbances in rats. Lewis rats were injected with anti-MBP CD4+ T cells, that induced one-phase autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with full recovery from motor impairments at 10-15 days. The spatial learning and memory were tested by the Morris water maze test in control and EAE animals, 30 and 90 days post-induction (dpi). The neural injury and inflammation was investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analyses. There was a marked decrease in the number of CA1 and CA4 pyramidal neurons 5 dpi. The loss of neurons then aggravated till the 90 dpi. An increase in microglial and astroglial activation and in pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in the hippocampus, were present 30 and 90 dpi. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels were also significantly elevated. The water maze test, however, did not reveal memory deficits. The present data indicate that a single transfer of autoimmune T cells results in preserved inflammation and probable on-going neuronal injury in the hippocampus, long after recovery from motor disturbances. These findings suggest that any relapse of the MS may start the neurodegenerative process in the hippocampus, which is not necessarily connected with memory deficits.

  7. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalopathies and Immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Thouin, Anaïs; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. The diseases are not invariably cancer-related and are therefore different from the classical paraneoplastic neurological diseases that are associated with, but not caused by, Abs to intracellular proteins. Most importantly, the new antibody-associated diseases almost invariably respond to immunotherapies with considerable and sometimes complete recovery, and there is convincing evidence of their pathogenicity in the relatively limited studies performed so far. Treatments include first-line steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasma exchange, and second-line rituximab and cyclophosphamide, followed in many cases by steroid-sparing agents in the long-term. This review focuses mainly on N-methyl D-aspartate receptor- and voltage-gated potassium channel complex-related Abs in adults, the clinical phenotypes, and treatment responses. Pediatric cases are referred to but not reviewed in detail. As there have been very few prospective studies, the conclusions regarding immunotherapies are based on retrospective studies. PMID:26692392

  8. TIM-1 glycoprotein binds the adhesion receptor P-selectin and mediates T cell trafficking during inflammation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Angiari, Stefano; Donnarumma, Tiziano; Rossi, Barbara; Dusi, Silvia; Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Della Bianca, Vittorina; Toffali, Lara; Piacentino, Gennj; Budui, Simona; Rennert, Paul; Xiao, Sheng; Laudanna, Carlo; Casasnovas, Jose M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Constantin, Gabriela

    2014-04-17

    Selectins play a central role in leukocyte trafficking by mediating tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces. Here we have reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. We have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. Th1 and Th17 cells lacking the TIM-1 mucin domain showed reduced rolling in thrombin-activated mesenteric venules and inflamed brain microcirculation. Inhibition of TIM-1 had no effect on naive T cell homing, but it reduced T cell recruitment in a skin hypersensitivity model and blocked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Uniquely, the TIM-1 immunoglobulin variable domain was also required for P-selectin binding. Our data demonstrate that TIM-1 is a major P-selectin ligand with a specialized role in T cell trafficking during inflammatory responses and the induction of autoimmune disease.

  9. TIM-1 glycoprotein binds the adhesion receptor P-selectin and mediates T cell trafficking during inflammation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Angiari, Stefano; Donnarumma, Tiziano; Rossi, Barbara; Dusi, Silvia; Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Della Bianca, Vittorina; Toffali, Lara; Piacentino, Gennj; Budui, Simona; Rennert, Paul; Xiao, Sheng; Laudanna, Carlo; Casasnovas, Jose M; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Constantin, Gabriela

    2014-04-17

    Selectins play a central role in leukocyte trafficking by mediating tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces. Here we have reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. We have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. Th1 and Th17 cells lacking the TIM-1 mucin domain showed reduced rolling in thrombin-activated mesenteric venules and inflamed brain microcirculation. Inhibition of TIM-1 had no effect on naive T cell homing, but it reduced T cell recruitment in a skin hypersensitivity model and blocked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Uniquely, the TIM-1 immunoglobulin variable domain was also required for P-selectin binding. Our data demonstrate that TIM-1 is a major P-selectin ligand with a specialized role in T cell trafficking during inflammatory responses and the induction of autoimmune disease. PMID:24703780

  10. TIM-1 glycoprotein binds the adhesion receptor P-selectin and mediates T cell trafficking during inflammation and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Angiari, Stefano; Donnarumma, Tiziano; Rossi, Barbara; Dusi, Silvia; Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Della Bianca, Vittorina; Toffali, Lara; Piacentino, Gennj; Budui, Simona; Rennert, Paul; Xiao, Sheng; Laudanna, Carlo; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Constantin, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Selectins play a central role in leukocyte trafficking by mediating tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces. Here we have reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. We have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper-1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. Th1 and Th17 cells lacking the TIM-1 mucin domain showed reduced rolling in thrombin-activated mesenteric venules and inflamed brain microcirculation. Inhibition of TIM-1 had no effect on naive T cell homing, but reduced T cell recruitment in a skin hypersensitivity model and blocked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Uniquely, the TIM-1 IgV domain was also required for P-selectin binding. Our data demonstrate that TIM-1 is a major P-selectin ligand with a specialized role in T cell trafficking during inflammatory responses and the induction of autoimmune disease. PMID:24703780

  11. Cell mediated autoimmune granulocytopenia in a case of Felty's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, S; Liang, M H

    1980-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms have been demonstrated or suggested to explain the neutropenia that accompanies Felty's syndrome. This case report presents with Felty's syndrome with recurrent infections with initially had a clinical response to splenectomy. Eleven years later profound neutropenia recurred. In-vitro evidence for cell mediated autosensitisation of peripheral blood lymphocytes to autologous bone marrow cells was found. The cellular abnormalities improved after high-dose corticosteroids but not lithium. However, there did not appear to be a reduction in the incidence of clinical infections. The finding suggests that granulocytopenia in some patients with Felty's syndrome may be an autoimmune phenomenon. PMID:7436567

  12. Immune modulation by a tolerogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)10–60 containing fusion protein in the marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Kap, Y S; van Driel, N; Arends, R; Rouwendal, G; Verolin, M; Blezer, E; Lycke, N; ‘t Hart, B A

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, mostly target general cell populations or immune molecules, which may lead to a compromised immune system. A more directed strategy would be to re-enforce tolerance of the autoaggressive T cells that drive tissue inflammation and injury. In this study, we have investigated whether the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice and marmosets can be altered by a potent tolerizing fusion protein. In addition, a multi-parameter immunological analysis was performed in marmosets to assess whether the treatment induces modulation of EAE-associated cellular and humoral immune reactions. The fusion protein, CTA1R9K-hMOG10–60-DD, contains a mutated cholera toxin A1 subunit (CTA1R9K), a dimer of the Ig binding D region of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (DD), and the human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (hMOG) sequence 10–60. We observed that intranasal application of CTA1R9K-hMOG10–60-DD seems to skew the immune response against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) towards a regulatory function. We show a reduced number of circulating macrophages, reduced MOG-induced expansion of mononuclear cells in peripheral blood, reduced MOG-induced production of interleukin (IL)-17A in spleen, increased MOG-induced production of IL-4 and IL-10 and an increased percentage of cells expressing programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). Nevertheless, the treatment did not detectably change the EAE course and pathology. Thus, despite a detectable effect on relevant immune parameters, the fusion protein failed to influence the clinical and pathological outcome of disease. This result warrants further development and improvement of this specifically targeted tolerance inducing therapy. PMID:25393803

  13. Reversal of Paralysis and Reduced Inflammation from Peripheral Administration of Amyloid-β in Th1- and Th17-Versions of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jacqueline L.; Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Axtell, Robert C.; Herges, Katja; Kuipers, Hedwich F.; Woodling, Nathan S.; Andreasson, Katrin; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42) and β-amyloid-40 (Aβ40), major components of senile plaque deposits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are considered neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory. In multiple sclerosis (MS), Aβ42 is upregulated in brain lesions and damaged axons. Here we found, unexpectedly, that treatment with either Aβ42 or Aβ40 peptides reduced motor paralysis and brain inflammation in four different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with attenuation of motor paralysis, reduction of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), and suppression of lymphocyte activation. Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatments were effective in reducing ongoing paralysis induced with adoptive transfer of either autoreactive Th1 or Th17 cells. High-dimensional 14-parameter flow cytometry of peripheral immune cell populations after in vivo Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatment revealed substantial modulations in the percentage of lymphoid and myeloid subsets during EAE. Major pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were reduced in the blood following Aβ peptide treatment. Protection conferred by Aβ treatment did not require its delivery to the brain: adoptive transfer with lymphocytes from donors treated with Aβ42 attenuated EAE in WT recipient mice and Aβ deposition in the brain was not detected in treated EAE mice by immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast to the improvement in EAE with Aβ-treatment, EAE was worse in mice with genetic deletion of the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, in the absence of Aβ there is exacerbated clinical EAE disease progression. Since Aβ42 and Aβ40 ameliorate experimental autoimmune inflammation targeting the CNS, we might now consider its potential anti-inflammatory role in other neuropathological conditions. PMID:22855462

  14. Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a defined tract system. For this reason we have developed a localized EAE model, in which large inflammatory lesions are targeted to the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, an area including the corticospinal tract. These lesions show the pathological hallmarks of MS plaques and lead to reproducible and pronounced deficits in hindlimb locomotion. Because of the anatomical specificity of this technique we can now use highly sensitive behavioral tests that assess the functional integrity of specific axonal tracts. We show that these tests are predictive of the site and extent of a given lesion and are more sensitive for assessing the clinical course than the scales commonly used for disseminated EAE models. We believe that this targeted EAE model will become a helpful new tool for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for MS that attempt to protect axons or support their repair. PMID:15039233

  15. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking glial fibrillary acidic protein is characterized by a more severe clinical course and an infiltrative central nervous system lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, W.; Edelmann, W.; Chiu, F. C.; Kucherlapati, R.; Raine, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    Insights into the role of the astrocyte intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), have only recently emerged with reports on subtle abnormalities in GFAP-deficient mice, including the documentation of defective long-term maintenance of central nervous system myelination. Here, we extend these observations by examining the astroglial response in GFAP-/- mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. Clinically, the monophasic disease was more severe in GFAP-/- mice than in wild-type littermates despite increased remyelination in the former. More in keeping with the clinical course was the observation of an infiltrative EAE lesion in GFAP-/- mice. GFAP-/- astrocytes had a reduced cytoarchitectural stability as evidenced by less abundant and irregularly spaced hemidesmosomes. The blunt GFAP-/- astrocyte processes possessed intermediate filaments consisting mainly of vimentin, though to a lesser degree than in the wild-type. In contrast, in wild-type littermates, GFAP was most abundant and nestin occurred at lower levels. Taken together, the present study introduces the novel concepts that GFAP plays an important role in the control of clinical disease associated with formation of a clearly defined edge to the EAE lesion and that GFAP is operative in the regulation of the intermediate filament components in reactive fibrillary astrogliosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422542

  16. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization.

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase initiates relapsing remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats, yet nitric oxide appears to be essential for clinical expression of disease.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, N C; Charlton, B; Cowden, W B; Willenborg, D O

    2001-11-15

    Myelin basic protein-CFA-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats is an acute monophasic disease from which animals recover. In this model, spontaneous relapses do not occur and rats develop a resistance to further active reinduction of disease. Previously, we reported that oral administration of the NO synthase inhibitor N-methyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMA) to recovered rats precipitated a second episode of disease in 100% of animals. Further studies now show that this second clinical episode is actually a chronic relapsing disease that persists for months. This occurs only in rats that have recovered from actively induced EAE and not in rats recovered from passively induced EAE, suggesting the need for a peripheral Ag depot to induce secondary disease. We have also determined that clinical signs of EAE in L-NMA-treated recovered rats do not appear until L-NMA treatment has stopped. This is despite the fact that, at the same time point, CNS inflammatory lesions in symptomless animals receiving L-NMA are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those with severe disease symptoms from whom L-NMA treatment has been withdrawn. The latter animals have significantly higher levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates in the cerebrospinal fluid than the former group. This study examines the mechanism of reinduction of disease by L-NMA treatment, and the findings suggest a dual role for NO in regulation of pathology in EAE that is dependent on site and timing of NO production. PMID:11698467

  18. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization. PMID:25375337

  19. Protective effect of a novel Rho kinase inhibitor WAR-5 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by modulating inflammatory response and neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-hua; Yu, Jie-zhong; Xin, Yan-le; Feng, Ling; Chai, Zhi; Liu, Jian-chun; Zhang, Hong-zhen; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Xiao, Bao-guo; Ma, Cun-gen

    2015-10-01

    The Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Fasudil has proven beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Given the small safety window of Fasudil, we are looking for novel ROCK inhibitors, which have similar or stronger effect on EAE with greater safety. In this study, we report that WAR-5, a Y-27632 derivative, alleviates the clinical symptoms, attenuates myelin damage and reduces CNS inflammatory responses in EAE C57BL/6 mice at an extent similar to Fasudil, while exhibits less vasodilator and adverse reaction in vivo. WAR-5 inhibits ROCK activity, and selectively suppresses the expression of ROCK II in spleen, brain and spinal cord of EAE mice, especially in spinal cord, accompanied by decreased expression of Nogo. WAR-5 also regulates the imbalance of Th1/Th17 T cells and regulatory T cells, inhibits inflammatory microenvironment induced with NF-κB-IL-1β pathway. Importantly, WAR-5 converts M1 toward M2 microglia/macrophages that are positively correlated with BDNF and NT-3 production. Taken together, WAR-5 exhibits therapeutic potential in EAE by more selectively inhibits ROCK II, with a greater safety than Fasudil, and is worthy of further clinical study to clarify its clinical value.

  20. Thrombin mutant W215A/E217A treatment improves neurological outcome and attenuates central nervous system damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Verbout, Norah G; Yu, Xiaolin; Healy, Laura D; Phillips, Kevin G; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T; Offner, Halina

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease characterized by demyelination and axonal damage of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of MS has also been linked to vascular inflammation and local activation of the coagulation system, resulting in perivascular fibrin deposition. Treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of human MS, with antithrombotic and antiinflammatory activated protein C (APC) reduces disease severity. Since recombinant APC (Drotecogin alfa), originally approved for the treatment of severe sepsis, is not available for human MS studies, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic activation of endogenous protein C could likewise improve the outcome of EAE. Mice were immunized with murine myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptides and at the onset of EAE symptoms, were treated every other day with either WE thrombin (25 μg/kg; i.v.), a selective recombinant protein C activator thrombin analog, or saline control. Mice were monitored for changes in disease score until euthanized for ex vivo analysis of inflammation. Administration of WE thrombin significantly ameliorated clinical severity of EAE, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, suppressed the activation of macrophages comprising the CD11b + population and reduced accumulation of fibrin (ogen) in the spinal cord. These data suggest that symptomatic MS may respond to a treatment strategy that involves temporal pharmacological enhancement of endogenous APC generation. PMID:24810631

  1. Ginger extracts influence the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Mohammadi-Kordkhayli, M; Ahangar-Parvin, R; Azizi, V; Khoramdel-Azad, H; Shamsizadeh, A; Ayoobi, A; Nemati, M; Hassan, Z M; Moazeni, S M; Khaksari, M

    2014-11-15

    The immunomodulatory effects of the IL-27 and IL-33 and the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger have been reported in some studies. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the ginger extract on the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In PBS-treated EAE mice the expression of IL-27 P28 was significantly lower whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly higher than unimmunized control mice. In 200 and 300 mg/kg ginger-treated EAE groups the expression of IL-27 P28 and IL-27 EBI3 was significantly higher whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower than PBS-treated EAE mice. The EAE clinical symptoms and the pathological scores were significantly lower in ginger-treated EAE groups. These results showed that the ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.

  2. Evaluation of the co-registration capabilities of a MRI/PET compatible bed in an Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giovanna; D'angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Chaabane, Linda; Terreno, Enzo

    2013-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG is a promising tool for the detection and evaluation of active inflammation in animal models of neuroinflammation. MRI is a complementary imaging technique with high resolution and contrast suitable to obtain the anatomical data required to analyze PET data. To combine PET and MRI modalities, we developed a support bed system compatible for both scanners that allowed to perform imaging exams without animal repositioning. With this approach, MRI and PET data were acquired in mice with Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this model, it was possible to measure a variation of 18F-FDG uptake proportional to the degree of disease severity which is mainly related to Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammation. Against the low resolved PET images, the co-registered MRI/PET images allowed to distinguish the different brain structures and to obtain a more accurate tracer evaluation. This is essential in particular for brain regions whose size is of the order of the spatial resolution of PET.

  3. Temporal pattern of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 expression in the spinal cord correlates with the course of clinical symptoms in two rodent models of autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Arnaud; Kurnellas, Michael; Elkabes, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Axonal/neuronal pathology is an important and early feature of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We have previously reported that the levels of an important neuronal calcium pump, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and synaptic proteins, synapsin IIa and syntaxin 1B are decreased in the rat spinal cord at onset of acute EAE. Whether the expression of these genes is restored during neurological recovery and affected in other EAE models is currently unknown. The present study was undertaken to address these issues by use of validated multiplex quantitative real-time RT-PCR with fluoro-primers, western blot and immunocytochemistry. We report that plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2) transcript and protein levels return to control values during recovery from acute disease in the Lewis rat, whereas they are reduced throughout the course of chronic, non-remitting EAE in the C57Bl/6 mouse. These results indicate a close correlation between PMCA2 levels and disease course as defined by clinical scores reflecting motor deficits. Decrease in synapsin IIa expression also correlated with the onset and progression of neurological symptoms, whereas the pattern of syntaxin 1B mRNA and protein expression suggested post-transcriptional regulation. The decrease in PMCA2 transcript and protein levels and the correlation between expression and disease course in two different EAE models further highlight the importance of this calcium pump in neuronal dysfunction during inflammation. PMID:15926914

  4. dNP2 is a blood–brain barrier-permeable peptide enabling ctCTLA-4 protein delivery to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sangho; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Yeon-Ho; Lee, Sohee; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Heeseok; Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Hong-Jai; Kim, Hye-Mi; Lee, Hong-Gyun; Yun Kim, Ji; Lee, Jae-Ung; Hun Shin, Jae; Kyun Kim, Lark; Doh, Junsang; Kim, Hongtae; Lee, Sang-Kyou; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Suh, Minah; Choi, Je-Min

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating effector T cells play critical roles in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, current drugs for MS are very limited due to the difficulty of delivering drugs into the CNS. Here we identify a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, which efficiently delivers proteins into mouse and human T cells, as well as various tissues. Moreover, it enters the brain tissue and resident cells through blood vessels by penetrating the tightly organized blood–brain barrier. The dNP2-conjugated cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (dNP2-ctCTLA-4) negatively regulates activated T cells and shows inhibitory effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in both preventive and therapeutic mouse models, resulting in the reduction of demyelination and CNS-infiltrating T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells. Thus, this study demonstrates that dNP2 is a blood–brain barrier-permeable peptide and dNP2-ctCTLA-4 could be an effective agent for treating CNS inflammatory diseases such as MS. PMID:26372309

  5. Control of T Cell-mediated autoimmunity by metabolite flux to N-glycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Ani; Lee, Sung-Uk; Tian, Wenqiang; Chen, I-Ju; Gao, Guoyan; Mendelsohn, Richard; Dennis, James W; Demetriou, Michael

    2007-07-01

    Autoimmunity is a complex trait disease where the environment influences susceptibility to disease by unclear mechanisms. T cell receptor clustering and signaling at the immune synapse, T cell proliferation, CTLA-4 endocytosis, T(H)1 differentiation, and autoimmunity are negatively regulated by beta1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans attached to cell surface glycoproteins. Beta1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycan expression in T cells is dependent on metabolite supply to UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis (hexosamine pathway) and in turn to Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases Mgat1, -2, -4, and -5. In Jurkat T cells, beta1,6GlcNAc-branching in N-glycans is stimulated by metabolites supplying the hexosamine pathway including glucose, GlcNAc, acetoacetate, glutamine, ammonia, or uridine but not by control metabolites mannosamine, galactose, mannose, succinate, or pyruvate. Hexosamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo also increases beta1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans in naïve mouse T cells and suppresses T cell receptor signaling, T cell proliferation, CTLA-4 endocytosis, T(H)1 differentiation, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Our results indicate that metabolite flux through the hexosamine and N-glycan pathways conditionally regulates autoimmunity by modulating multiple T cell functionalities downstream of beta1,6GlcNAc-branched N-glycans. This suggests metabolic therapy as a potential treatment for autoimmune disease.

  6. Effects of beta 2 adrenergic agonists on axonal injury and mitochondrial metabolism in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z W; Qin, X Y; Che, F Y; Xie, G; Shen, L; Bai, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to investigate mitochondrial metabolism during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model axonal injury and to determine the correlation among neurological function scores, pathological changes, and the activities of the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-BB), catalase (CAT), and calpain in the brain tissues of EAE rats. Another goal was to preliminarily define the mechanism of mitochondrial metabolism resulting from the effect of beta 2 adrenergic agonists in the process of EAE animal model axonal damage. EAE was induced in specific pathogen free Wistar rats by guinea pig spinal cord homogenate, complete Freund's adjuvant, and pertussis vaccine. We recorded the behavioral change in EAE rats, detected pathological changes in central nervous tissue, and observed the changes of the CK-BB, CAT, and calpain in the EAE rat brain and spinal cord. The results indicated that the average neurologic function score increased in the EAE group compared to that of the controls (P < 0.01). In addition, CAT and CK-BB activities significantly decreased and the calpain activity significantly increased compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The decrease of the activity of central nervous CK-BB and CAT content, as well as the increase of calpain activity at the highest time point were considered to be the consequences of EAE. Furthermore, the results revealed that use of salbutamol could alleviate disease symptoms and reduce the recurrence of the EAE disease. PMID:26535670

  7. The Synergistic Local Immunosuppressive Effects of Neural Stem Cells Expressing Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Eun; An, Jaeyeol; Lee, Kee-Hang; Kim, Sung Su; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Heejang; Nam, Hyun; Kang, Kyeongjin; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases provoke robust immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), which further deteriorate the neural tissue damage. We hypothesized that the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that has potent immune suppressive activities, in neural stem cells (NSCs) would have synergistic therapeutic effects against neurodegenerative diseases, since NSCs themselves have low IDO expression. In this study, the synergistic immune suppressive effects of rat fetal NSCs expressing IDO (rfNSCs-IDO) were validated by mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model in vivo. rfNSCs-IDO showed significantly more suppressive effects on T cell proliferation in the MLR compared to control rfNSCs (rfNSCs-Cont). Importantly, IDO inhibition using 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, reversed the synergistic effects, confirming IDO-specific effects in rfNSCs-IDO. In the EAE animal model, systemic rfNSCs-IDO injections resulted in significant local immune suppression in the cervical lymph nodes and CNS, evidenced by a reduction in the number of activated T lymphocytes and an increase in regulatory T cell numbers, which induced significantly fewer clinical symptoms and faster recovery. In contrast, rfNSCs-Cont failed to reduce symptoms in the EAE animal models, although they showed local immune suppression, which was significantly less than that in rfNSCs-IDO. Taken together, IDO expression in NSCs synergistically potentiates the immune suppression activities of NSCs and could be applicable for the development of therapeutic modalities against various neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Evaluation of locomotor function and microscopic structure of the spinal cord in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following treatment with syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Nilesh Kumar; Bindal, Umesh; Eng Hwa, Wong; Chua, Caroline L L; Tan, Chek Ying

    2015-01-01

    Out of the minor myelin proteins, most significant one is myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proven immunoregulatory capacity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of syngeneic MSCs on mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through observation of locomotion by footprint analysis, histological analysis of spinal cord and estimation IL-17. C57BL/6 mice (10 weeks, n = 16) were immunized with 300 µg of MOG35-55 and 200 µL of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to produce EAE model. Sham-treated control (n = 8) were injected with CFA. Half of immunized mice were given 100 µL of PBS (n = 8) and next half (n = 8) received 1 × 10(5) MSCs on day 11 through the tail veins. Clinical scoring showed development of EAE (loss of tonicity of tail and weakness of hind limb) on day 10. Following MSC treatment, clinical scores and hindlimb stride length showed significant improvement on day 15 onwards, compared to day 10 (P < 0.05). Under LFB staining, while PBS-treated group of EAE mice showed pale and degenerated axons in anterolateral white column of lumbar spinal cord, MSC-treated group showed numerous normal-looking axons. H&E staining showed normal axons in anterolateral white column and reduction of macrophages in MSC-treated EAE mice group. A lower level of IL-17 was observed in MSC treated EAE mice, compared to PBS-treated EAE mice. Our results suggest that Intravenous MSC has the potential to improve the locomotion and regeneration of axons in spinal cord in MOG-induced EAE model. PMID:26722389

  9. Basic FGF and FGF receptor 1 are expressed in microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: temporally distinct expression of midkine and pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Mashour, G A; Webster, H F; Kurtz, A

    1998-12-01

    Heparin-binding growth factors have been implicated in central nervous system development, regeneration and pathology. To assess the expression pattern and possible function in multiple sclerosis, the heparin-binding growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine (MK), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and one of its receptors (FGFR1/flg) mRNA and protein levels were examined in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in the Lewis rat. We assessed the time course of expression of PTN, MK and FGF-2 during EAE and determined the cellular origin of FGF-2 and FGFR1 in normal spinal cord and during inflammatory demyelination. Basal expression of PTN and MK mRNAs in normal spinal cords was significantly upregulated after induction of EAE. MK expression was upregulated two to threefold correlating with disease progression, whereas PTN expression reached peak levels threefold above basal levels during the clinical recovery period. FGF-2 mRNA expression was low in normal spinal cord and dramatically increased in correlation with progressive demyelination. FGF-2 was confined to neurons in normal tissue and shifted dramatically to microglia, paralleling their activation during EAE. Double immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of FGF-2 to activated microglia/macrophages with strongest expression in the macrophage-rich perivascular core area and microglial expression at the edges of white and gray matter perivascular regions. FGFR1, like its ligand, was induced in activated macrophages/microglia. Growth factor expression in demyelinating diseases could serve several functions, e.g., to modulate the activity of microglia/macrophage in an autocrine fashion, to induce the expression of other factors like insulin-like growth factor 1 or plasminogen activator, which can effect regeneration or degeneration, respectively, and finally to stimulate directly localized proliferation and/or regeneration of oligodendrocytes within the lesion area.

  10. N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Ani; Araujo, Lindsey; Naidu, Nandita N; Place, Dylan J; Choudhury, Biswa; Demetriou, Michael

    2011-11-18

    Current treatments and emerging oral therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited by effectiveness, cost, and/or toxicity. Genetic and environmental factors that alter the branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans result in T cell hyperactivity, promote spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in mice, and converge to regulate the risk of MS. The sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) enhances N-glycan branching and inhibits T cell activity and adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that oral GlcNAc inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses and attenuates the clinical severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE when administered after disease onset. Oral GlcNAc increased expression of branched N-glycans in T cells in vivo as shown by high pH anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and FACS analysis with the plant lectin l-phytohemagglutinin. Initiating oral GlcNAc treatment on the second day of clinical disease inhibited MOG-induced EAE as well as secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22. In the more severe 2D2 T cell receptor transgenic EAE model, oral GlcNAc initiated after disease onset also inhibits clinical disease, except for those with rapid lethal progression. These data suggest that oral GlcNAc may provide an inexpensive and nontoxic oral therapeutic agent for MS that directly targets an underlying molecular mechanism causal of disease. PMID:21965673

  11. ASP4058, a Novel Agonist for Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors 1 and 5, Ameliorates Rodent Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with a Favorable Safety Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Rie; Okada, Youhei; Hirose, Jun; Koshika, Tadatsura; Kawato, Yuka; Maeda, Masashi; Saito, Rika; Hattori, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hironori; Nagasaka, Yasuhisa; Morokata, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid that acts through the members of a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1–S1P5). S1P1 is a major regulator of lymphocyte trafficking, and fingolimod, whose active metabolite fingolimod phosphate acts as a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, exerts its immunomodulatory effect, at least in part, by regulating the lymphocyte trafficking by inducing down regulation of lymphocyte S1P1. Here, we detail the pharmacological profile of 5-{5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-{[(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-yl]oxy}phenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl}-1H-benzimidazole (ASP4058), a novel next-generation S1P receptor agonist selective for S1P1 and S1P5. ASP4058 preferentially activates S1P1 and S1P5 compared with S1P2, 3, 4 in GTPγS binding assays in vitro. Oral administration of ASP4058 reduced the number of peripheral lymphocytes and inhibited the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Further, ASP4058 prevented relapse of disease in a mouse model of relapsing-remitting EAE. Although these immunomodulatory effects were comparable to those of fingolimod, ASP4058 showed a wider safety margin than fingolimod for bradycardia and bronchoconstriction in rodents. These observations suggest that ASP4058 represents a new therapeutic option for treating multiple sclerosis that is safer than nonselective S1P receptor agonists such as fingolimod. PMID:25347187

  12. The Synergistic Local Immunosuppressive Effects of Neural Stem Cells Expressing Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Eun; An, Jaeyeol; Lee, Kee-Hang; Kim, Sung Su; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Heejang; Nam, Hyun; Kang, Kyeongjin; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases provoke robust immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), which further deteriorate the neural tissue damage. We hypothesized that the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that has potent immune suppressive activities, in neural stem cells (NSCs) would have synergistic therapeutic effects against neurodegenerative diseases, since NSCs themselves have low IDO expression. In this study, the synergistic immune suppressive effects of rat fetal NSCs expressing IDO (rfNSCs-IDO) were validated by mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model in vivo. rfNSCs-IDO showed significantly more suppressive effects on T cell proliferation in the MLR compared to control rfNSCs (rfNSCs-Cont). Importantly, IDO inhibition using 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, reversed the synergistic effects, confirming IDO-specific effects in rfNSCs-IDO. In the EAE animal model, systemic rfNSCs-IDO injections resulted in significant local immune suppression in the cervical lymph nodes and CNS, evidenced by a reduction in the number of activated T lymphocytes and an increase in regulatory T cell numbers, which induced significantly fewer clinical symptoms and faster recovery. In contrast, rfNSCs-Cont failed to reduce symptoms in the EAE animal models, although they showed local immune suppression, which was significantly less than that in rfNSCs-IDO. Taken together, IDO expression in NSCs synergistically potentiates the immune suppression activities of NSCs and could be applicable for the development of therapeutic modalities against various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26636969

  13. Increased levels of brain serotonin correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels resulted in severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Seo, J-E; Rahaman, K A; Kang, M-J; Jung, B-H; Kwon, O-S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of monoamine neurotransmitters on the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice. EAE was induced in mice with normal diets (ND-EAE) and obese mice with high-fat diets (HFD-EAE) through the immune response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (35-55). The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in different anatomical brain regions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue NADPH oxidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activities were analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The cumulative disease index and disease peaks were significantly higher in HFD-EAE compared with those in ND-EAE. Significantly higher 5-HT levels and lower 5-HT turnovers 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid ((5-HIAA)/5-HT) were found in the brains of HFD-EAE mice compared with those found in the HFD-CON and ND-EAE mice brains. Moreover, increased DA levels were observed in the caudate nucleus of the HFD-EAE mice compared with the control and ND-EAE mice. The NADPH oxidase and MMP-9 activities in the plasma and tissues were significantly higher in both the ND-EAE and HFD-EAE groups than in their respective controls. The cytokine levels in the plasma, tissues, and cultured splenocytes were found to be significantly altered in EAE mice compared with control mice. Moreover, HFD-EAE mice exhibited significantly higher MMP-9 activity and lower IL-4 levels than ND-EAE mice and were significantly correlated with brain 5-HT levels. In conclusion, the increased 5-HT levels in the brain significantly correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels play an important role in the exacerbation of disease severity in HFD-EAE mice. PMID:26820599

  14. Effects of prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Hanak, Susan; Ji, Zhongqi; Petty, Margaret; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Teriflunomide is a once-daily oral immunomodulatory agent recently approved in the United States for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). This study investigated neurophysiological deficits in descending spinal cord motor tracts during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a model of multiple sclerosis) and the functional effectiveness of prophylactic or therapeutic teriflunomide treatment in preventing the debilitating paralysis observed in this model. Relapsing-remitting EAE was induced in Dark Agouti rats using rat spinal cord homogenate. Animals were treated with oral teriflunomide (10 mg/kg daily) prophylactically, therapeutically, or with vehicle (control). Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials were measured throughout the disease to provide quantitative assessment of the neurophysiological status of descending motor tracts. Axonal damage was quantified histologically by silver staining. Both prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide treatment significantly reduced maximum EAE disease scores (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively) compared with vehicle-treated rats. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that both teriflunomide treatment regimens prevented a delay in wave-form latency and a decrease in wave-form amplitude compared with that observed in vehicle-treated animals. A significant reduction in axonal loss was observed with both teriflunomide treatment regimens compared with vehicle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0014, respectively). The results of this study suggest that therapeutic teriflunomide can prevent the deficits observed in this animal model in descending spinal cord motor tracts. The mechanism behind reduced axonal loss and improved motor function may be primarily the reduced inflammation and consequent demyelination observed in these animals through the known effects of teriflunomide on impairing proliferation of stimulated T cells. These findings may have significant implications for patients with RMS

  15. Astrocyte matricellular proteins that control excitatory synaptogenesis are regulated by inflammatory cytokines and correlate with paralysis severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Pennelope K; Hussain, Shabbir; Carlin, Lindsey E; Irani, David N

    2015-01-01

    The matricellular proteins, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and SPARC-like 1 (SPARCL1), are produced by astrocytes and control excitatory synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. While SPARCL1 directly promotes excitatory synapse formation in vitro and in the developing nervous system in vivo, SPARC specifically antagonizes the synaptogenic actions of SPARCL1. We hypothesized these proteins also help maintain existing excitatory synapses in adult hosts, and that local inflammation in the spinal cord alters their production in a way that dynamically modulates motor synapses and impacts the severity of paralysis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Using a spontaneously remitting EAE model, paralysis severity correlated inversely with both expression of synaptic proteins and the number of synapses in direct contact with the perikarya of motor neurons in spinal gray matter. In both remitting and non-remitting EAE models, paralysis severity also correlated inversely with sparcl1:sparc transcript and SPARCL1:SPARC protein ratios directly in lumbar spinal cord tissue. In vitro, astrocyte production of both SPARCL1 and SPARC was regulated by T cell-derived cytokines, causing dynamic modulation of the SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio. Taken together, these data support a model whereby proinflammatory cytokines inhibit SPARCL1 and/or augment SPARC expression by astrocytes in spinal gray matter that, in turn, cause either transient or sustained synaptic retraction from lumbar spinal motor neurons thereby regulating hind limb paralysis during EAE. Ongoing studies seek ways to alter this SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio in favor of synapse reformation/maintenance and thus help to modulate neurologic deficits during times of inflammation. This could identify new astrocyte-targeted therapies for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26500475

  16. Astrocyte matricellular proteins that control excitatory synaptogenesis are regulated by inflammatory cytokines and correlate with paralysis severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Pennelope K; Hussain, Shabbir; Carlin, Lindsey E; Irani, David N

    2015-01-01

    The matricellular proteins, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and SPARC-like 1 (SPARCL1), are produced by astrocytes and control excitatory synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. While SPARCL1 directly promotes excitatory synapse formation in vitro and in the developing nervous system in vivo, SPARC specifically antagonizes the synaptogenic actions of SPARCL1. We hypothesized these proteins also help maintain existing excitatory synapses in adult hosts, and that local inflammation in the spinal cord alters their production in a way that dynamically modulates motor synapses and impacts the severity of paralysis during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Using a spontaneously remitting EAE model, paralysis severity correlated inversely with both expression of synaptic proteins and the number of synapses in direct contact with the perikarya of motor neurons in spinal gray matter. In both remitting and non-remitting EAE models, paralysis severity also correlated inversely with sparcl1:sparc transcript and SPARCL1:SPARC protein ratios directly in lumbar spinal cord tissue. In vitro, astrocyte production of both SPARCL1 and SPARC was regulated by T cell-derived cytokines, causing dynamic modulation of the SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio. Taken together, these data support a model whereby proinflammatory cytokines inhibit SPARCL1 and/or augment SPARC expression by astrocytes in spinal gray matter that, in turn, cause either transient or sustained synaptic retraction from lumbar spinal motor neurons thereby regulating hind limb paralysis during EAE. Ongoing studies seek ways to alter this SPARCL1:SPARC expression ratio in favor of synapse reformation/maintenance and thus help to modulate neurologic deficits during times of inflammation. This could identify new astrocyte-targeted therapies for diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  17. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-{kappa}B and phospho-I{kappa}B in the CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee; Ahn, Ginnae; Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin; Jee, Youngheun

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor I{kappa}B and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. {yields} The expression of RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. {yields} TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. {yields} TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG{sub 35-55}-specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. {yields} The NF-{kappa}B cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-{kappa}B family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering I{kappa}B phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of I{kappa}B dissociation from NF-{kappa}B reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of I{kappa}B from NF-{kappa}B can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  18. Vaccination against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis with T Cell Receptor Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Mark D.; Winters, Steven T.; Olee, Tsaiwei; Powell, Henry C.; Carlo, Dennis J.; Brostoff, Steven W.

    1989-11-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mediated by CD4+ T cells reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP). Rats were rendered resistant to the induction of EAE by vaccination with synthetic peptides corresponding to idiotypic determinants of the β chain VDJ region and Jα regions of the T cell receptor (TCR) that are conserved among encephalitogenic T cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of TCR peptide vaccination for modulating the activity of autoreactive T cells and represent a general therapeutic approach for T cell--mediated pathogenesis.

  19. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autoimmune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and lupus nephritis. In a toxin-induced mouse model that mimics the early stages of IgAN, n-3 PUFA consumption suppresses aberrant interleukin (IL)-6-driven IgA production and mesangial IgA immune complex deposition by impairing phosphorylation of upstream kinases and activation of transcription factors essential for IL-6 gene transcription. n-3 PUFAs can also suppress production of anti-double-stranded DNA IgG antibodies and the resultant development of lupus nephritis in the NZBW F1 mouse and related models. These effects have been linked in part to impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules as well as increases in antioxidant enzymes in kidney and immune organs. Several recent clinical trials have provided compelling evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation could be useful in treatment of human IgAN and lupus nephritis, although some other studies suggest such supplementation might be without benefit. Future investigations employing genomics/proteomics and novel genetically altered mice should provide further insight into how n-3 PUFAs modulate these diseases as well help to identify clinically relevant biomarkers. The latter could be employed in future well-designed, long-term clinical studies that will resolve current controversies on n-3 PUFA efficacy in autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis. PMID:20189790

  20. An autoimmune-mediated strategy for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jaini, Ritika; Kesaraju, Pavani; Johnson, Justin M; Altuntas, Cengiz Z; Jane-Wit, Daniel; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2010-07-01

    Although vaccination is most effective when used to prevent disease, cancer vaccine development has focused predominantly on providing therapy against established growing tumors. The difficulty in developing prophylactic cancer vaccines is primarily due to the fact that tumor antigens are variations of self proteins and would probably mediate profound autoimmune complications if used in a preventive vaccine setting. Here we use several mouse breast cancer models to define a prototypic strategy for prophylactic cancer vaccination. We selected alpha-lactalbumin as our target vaccine autoantigen because it is a breast-specific differentiation protein expressed in high amounts in the majority of human breast carcinomas and in mammary epithelial cells only during lactation. We found that immunoreactivity against alpha-lactalbumin provides substantial protection and therapy against growth of autochthonous tumors in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer and against 4T1 transplantable breast tumors in BALB/c mice. Because alpha-lactalbumin is conditionally expressed only during lactation, vaccination-induced prophylaxis occurs without any detectable inflammation in normal nonlactating breast tissue. Thus, alpha-lactalbumin vaccination may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer for women in their post-child-bearing, premenopausal years, when lactation is readily avoidable and risk for developing breast cancer is high.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of IL-17-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Autoimmune Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Lleo, Ana; Ma, Xiong; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence reveals that various cytokines and tissue microenvironments contribute to liver inflammation and autoimmunity, and IL-17 family is one of highlights acknowledged. Although the implication of IL-17 family in most common autoimmune diseases (such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis) has been extensively characterized, the role of this critical family in pathophysiology of autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) still needs to be clarified. In the review, we look into the intriguing biology of IL-17 family and further dissect on the intricate role of IL-17-mediated pathway in AILD. Considering encouraging data from preclinical and clinical trials, IL-17 targeted therapy has shown promises in several certain autoimmune conditions. However, blocking IL-17-mediated pathway is just beginning, and more fully investigation and reflection are required. Taking together, targeting IL-17-mediated responses may open up new areas of potential clinical treatment for AILD. PMID:26146463

  2. The immunomodulatory effect of laquinimod in CNS autoimmunity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Berg, Johannes; Mahmoudjanlou, Yasaman; Duscha, Alexander; Massa, Megan G; Thöne, Jan; Esser, Charlotte; Gold, Ralf; Haghikia, Aiden

    2016-09-15

    Though several functional properties of laquinimod have been identified, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still incomplete. Since the compound elicits similar immunomodulatory effects to ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), we compared the efficacy of laquinimod in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-afflicted wild-type and AhR-deficient mice. Laquinimod failed to ameliorate clinical symptoms and leukocyte infiltration in AhR-deficient mice; however, treatment exerted neuroprotection by elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) independent of genetic profile. Thus, our data identify the AhR pathway in these mutant mice as crucial for the immunomodulatory, but not neuroprotective, efficacy of laquinimod in EAE.

  3. The immunomodulatory effect of laquinimod in CNS autoimmunity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Berg, Johannes; Mahmoudjanlou, Yasaman; Duscha, Alexander; Massa, Megan G; Thöne, Jan; Esser, Charlotte; Gold, Ralf; Haghikia, Aiden

    2016-09-15

    Though several functional properties of laquinimod have been identified, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still incomplete. Since the compound elicits similar immunomodulatory effects to ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), we compared the efficacy of laquinimod in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-afflicted wild-type and AhR-deficient mice. Laquinimod failed to ameliorate clinical symptoms and leukocyte infiltration in AhR-deficient mice; however, treatment exerted neuroprotection by elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) independent of genetic profile. Thus, our data identify the AhR pathway in these mutant mice as crucial for the immunomodulatory, but not neuroprotective, efficacy of laquinimod in EAE. PMID:27609269

  4. Protection of SJL/J mice from demyelinating disease mediated by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, C I; Sun, X M; Fujinami, R S

    1995-01-01

    Intracerebral infection with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces a chronic demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Intraperitoneal inoculation with either the wild-type DA virus or an attenuated variant virus of DA, H7A6-2, results in protection from development of chronic demyelinating disease. Protective anti-viral immune responses result in reduced viral titers and decreased inflammation in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge with virus. Development of protective immunity requires the presence of B cells and CD4+ T cells but does not require CD8+ T cells. High titers of serum anti-viral IgG and neutralizing antibodies are induced following the intraperitoneal inoculation with the DA virus or H7A6-2 virus prior to challenge. While protection could not be transferred with immune serum from DA virus-infected mice or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, protection was correlated with increased numbers of DA virus-specific plasma cells in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge. Protected mice also had enhanced levels of anti-DA virus IgG and neutralizing antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid by 1 week following intracerebral challenge with DA virus. Thus, we conclude that vaccination with live virus results in protection from chronic demyelinating disease by inducing immune responses which are manifested in the central nervous system and rapidly clear infection after intracerebral challenge with DA virus.

  5. Cutting Edge: CD99 Is a Novel Therapeutic Target for Control of T Cell-Mediated Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Winger, Ryan C; Harp, Christopher T; Chiang, Ming-Yi; Sullivan, David P; Watson, Richard L; Weber, Evan W; Podojil, Joseph R; Miller, Stephen D; Muller, William A

    2016-02-15

    Leukocyte trafficking into the CNS is a prominent feature driving the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Blocking the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes into the CNS represents an exploitable therapeutic target; however, the adhesion molecules that specifically regulate the step of leukocyte diapedesis into the CNS remain poorly understood. We report that CD99 is critical for lymphocyte transmigration without affecting adhesion in a human blood-brain barrier model. CD99 blockade in vivo ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and decreased the accumulation of CNS inflammatory infiltrates, including dendritic cells, B cells, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Anti-CD99 therapy was effective when administered after the onset of disease symptoms and blocked relapse when administered therapeutically after disease symptoms had recurred. These findings underscore an important role for CD99 in the pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity and suggest that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target for controlling neuroinflammation.

  6. Cutting Edge: CD99 Is a Novel Therapeutic Target for Control of T Cell-Mediated Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Winger, Ryan C; Harp, Christopher T; Chiang, Ming-Yi; Sullivan, David P; Watson, Richard L; Weber, Evan W; Podojil, Joseph R; Miller, Stephen D; Muller, William A

    2016-02-15

    Leukocyte trafficking into the CNS is a prominent feature driving the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Blocking the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes into the CNS represents an exploitable therapeutic target; however, the adhesion molecules that specifically regulate the step of leukocyte diapedesis into the CNS remain poorly understood. We report that CD99 is critical for lymphocyte transmigration without affecting adhesion in a human blood-brain barrier model. CD99 blockade in vivo ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and decreased the accumulation of CNS inflammatory infiltrates, including dendritic cells, B cells, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Anti-CD99 therapy was effective when administered after the onset of disease symptoms and blocked relapse when administered therapeutically after disease symptoms had recurred. These findings underscore an important role for CD99 in the pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity and suggest that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target for controlling neuroinflammation. PMID:26773145

  7. Cell-mediated immunity in idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, S; Aker, M; Plesser, Y M; Rachmilewitz, E A

    1975-01-01

    Membrane antigens from autologous and from allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) induced migration inhibition of splenic leucocytes and transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient with idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic disease (AHD). No migration inhibition occurred following stimulation of splenic leucocytes obtained during splenectomy from a patient with beta-thalassaemia major. Lymphocyte transformation did not occur when normal lymphocytes were stimulated by similar RBC membrane preparations. These findings indicate that autosensitization in AHD may be a function of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. PMID:1204245

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of cold agglutinin mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Tjønnfjord, Geir E

    2012-05-01

    Exact diagnosis of the subtype has essential therapeutic consequences in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Cold-antibody types include primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) and rare cases of cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) secondary to cancer or acute infection. Primary CAD is a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder. Not all patients require pharmacological therapy, but treatment seems indicated more often than previously thought. Corticosteroids should not be used to treat primary CAD. Half of the patients respond to rituximab monotherapy; median response duration is 11 months. The most efficient treatment to date is fludarabine and rituximab in combination, resulting in responses in 75%, complete responses in 20% and median response duration of more than 66 months. Toxicity may be a concern, and an individualized approach is discussed. Erythrocyte transfusions can be given provided specific precautions are undertaken. No evidence-based therapy exists in secondary CAS, but optimal treatment of the underlying disorder is essential when feasible.

  9. B cell autophagy mediates TLR7-dependent autoimmunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Weindel, Chi G; Richey, Lauren J; Bolland, Silvia; Mehta, Abhiruchi J; Kearney, John F; Huber, Brigitte T

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, defined by loss of B cell self-tolerance that results in production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and chronic inflammation. While the initiating events in lupus development are not well defined, overexpression of the RNA-recognizing toll-like receptor (TLR)7 has been linked to SLE in humans and mice. We postulated that autophagy plays an essential role in TLR7 activation of B cells for the induction of SLE by delivering RNA ligands to the endosomes, where this innate immune receptor resides. To test this hypothesis, we compared SLE development in Tlr7 transgenic (Tg) mice with or without B cell-specific ablation of autophagy (Cd19-Cre Atg5f/f). We observed that in the absence of B cell autophagy the 2 hallmarks of SLE, ANA and inflammation, were eliminated, thus curing these mice of lupus. This was also evident in the significantly extended survival of the autophagy-deficient mice compared to Tlr7.1 Tg mice. Furthermore, glomerulonephritis was ameliorated, and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the knockout (KO) mice were indistinguishable from those of control mice. These data provide direct evidence that B cells require TLR7-dependent priming through an autophagy-dependent mechanism before autoimmunity is induced, thereafter involving many cell types. Surprisingly, hyper-IgM production persisted in Tlr7.1 Tg mice in the absence of autophagy, likely involving a different activation pathway than the production of autoantibodies. Furthermore, these mice still presented with anemia, but responded with a striking increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), possibly due to the absence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26120731

  10. B cell autophagy mediates TLR7-dependent autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Weindel, Chi G; Richey, Lauren J; Bolland, Silvia; Mehta, Abhiruchi J; Kearney, John F; Huber, Brigitte T

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, defined by loss of B cell self-tolerance that results in production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and chronic inflammation. While the initiating events in lupus development are not well defined, overexpression of the RNA-recognizing toll-like receptor (TLR)7 has been linked to SLE in humans and mice. We postulated that autophagy plays an essential role in TLR7 activation of B cells for the induction of SLE by delivering RNA ligands to the endosomes, where this innate immune receptor resides. To test this hypothesis, we compared SLE development in Tlr7 transgenic (Tg) mice with or without B cell-specific ablation of autophagy (Cd19-Cre Atg5(f/f)). We observed that in the absence of B cell autophagy the 2 hallmarks of SLE, ANA and inflammation, were eliminated, thus curing these mice of lupus. This was also evident in the significantly extended survival of the autophagy-deficient mice compared to Tlr7.1 Tg mice. Furthermore, glomerulonephritis was ameliorated, and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the knockout (KO) mice were indistinguishable from those of control mice. These data provide direct evidence that B cells require TLR7-dependent priming through an autophagy-dependent mechanism before autoimmunity is induced, thereafter involving many cell types. Surprisingly, hyper-IgM production persisted in Tlr7.1 Tg mice in the absence of autophagy, likely involving a different activation pathway than the production of autoantibodies. Furthermore, these mice still presented with anemia, but responded with a striking increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), possibly due to the absence of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  11. Selectin-mediated leukocyte trafficking during the development of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Angiari, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Tissue inflammation is a finely regulated process that controls wound healing and allows the clearance of damaged cells, pathogens and irritants. However, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation is detrimental, causing tissue damage and leading to autoimmunity. The recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the target tissue is a key stage in the inflammatory process, and is controlled by a multistep cascade in which adhesive receptors known as selectins mediate initial leukocyte tethering and rolling along vascular surfaces, which is required for their subsequent adhesion and arrest. This review considers the role of selectins and their ligands in the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to peripheral tissues during inflammatory responses that lead to the development of autoimmunity, focusing on data from animal models and clinical trials suggesting that selectins may offer valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  12. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a systemic immune complex mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vikram; Chicano, Sonia; Chiocca, Sonia; Finkelberg, Dmitry; Selig, Martin K; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Brugge, William R; Colvin, Robert B; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2006-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a mass forming inflammatory pancreatobiliary-centric disease. Recent reports of multiorgan inflammatory mass forming lesions with increased numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells suggest that AIP may have a systemic component. In this study, we explore the systemic nature of AIP, investigate the relevance of subtyping AIP, perform a systematic study of tissue IgG4 immunoperoxidase, and ultrastructurally evaluate the presence of immune complexes. Our study group consisted of 36 patients with AIP, 21 of whom underwent a Whipple procedure. On the basis of the pattern of inflammation, pancreatic involvement was subtyped as ductocentric (AIP-D) or lobulocentric (AIP-L). Extrapancreatic lesions included bile duct (n=3), salivary glands (n=3), lung (n=2), gallbladder (n=11), and kidney (n=4). Clinical and radiologic data was recorded. Immunohistochemistry for IgG4 was performed on both pancreatic and extrapancreatic tissues and the numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells were semiquantitatively scored. A control cohort composed of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=19) and chronic pancreatitis-not otherwise specified (NOS) (n=14) was also evaluated. Eleven pancreatic specimens, including 2 cases of chronic pancreatitis-NOS and 4 kidneys were evaluated ultrastructurally. The pancreas, bile duct, gall bladder, salivary gland, kidney, and lung lesions were characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with reactive fibroblasts and venulitis. IgG4 positive plasma cells were identified in all pancreatic and extrapancreatic lesions. The AIP cases showed significantly more pancreatic IgG4 positive plasma cells than chronic pancreatitis-NOS or adenocarcinoma (P=0.001). However, IgG4 positive cells were identified in 57.1% of chronic pancreatitis-NOS and 47.4% of ductal adenocarcinoma. Fifteen of 21 resected cases were classified as AIP-D, and 6 as AIP-L, the latter notably showing significantly more IgG4 positive plasma cells than the former (P=0

  13. N-Acetylcysteine protects against trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity by attenuating oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Ma, Huaxian; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2013-11-15

    Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to induce autoimmunity both in humans and animal models. However, mechanisms underlying TCE-mediated autoimmunity remain largely unknown. Previous studies from our laboratory in MRL +/+ mice suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response. The current study was undertaken to further assess the role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity by supplementing with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, 250 mg/kg/day through drinking water). TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum levels of anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies. TCE exposure also led to significant induction of anti-malondiadelhyde (MDA)- and anti-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adduct antibodies which were associated with increased ANA in the sera along with increased MDA-/HNE-protein adducts in the livers and kidneys, and increases in protein oxidation (carbonylation) in the sera, livers and kidneys, suggesting an overall increase in oxidative stress. Moreover, TCE exposure also resulted in increased release of IL-17 from splenocytes and increases in IL-17 mRNA expression. Remarkably, NAC supplementation attenuated not only the TCE-induced oxidative stress, IL-17 release and mRNA expression, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies in the sera. These results provide further support to a role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmune response. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. - Highlights: • TCE led to increased autoantibodies, supporting its potential to induce autoimmunity. • TCE exposure led to increases in lipid perioxidation and protein carbonyls. • TCE exposure resulted in

  14. Murine autoimmune hearing loss mediated by CD4+ T cells specific for inner ear peptides.

    PubMed

    Solares, C Arturo; Edling, Andrea E; Johnson, Justin M; Baek, Moo-Jin; Hirose, Keiko; Hughes, Gordon B; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) is characterized typically by bilateral, rapidly progressive hearing loss that responds therapeutically to corticosteroid treatment. Despite its name, data implicating autoimmunity in the etiopathogenesis of ASNHL have been limited, and targeted self-antigens have not been identified. In the current study we show that the inner ear-specific proteins cochlin and beta-tectorin are capable of targeting experimental autoimmune hearing loss (EAHL) in mice. Five weeks after immunization of SWXJ mice with either Coch 131-150 or beta-tectorin 71-90, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) showed significant hearing loss at all frequencies tested. Flow cytometry analysis showed that each peptide selectively activated CD4(+) T cells with a proinflammatory Th1-like phenotype. T cell mediation of EAHL was determined by showing significantly increased ABR thresholds 6 weeks after adoptive transfer of peptide-activated CD4(+) T cells into naive SWXJ recipients. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that leukocytic infiltration of inner ear tissues coincided with onset of hearing loss. Our study provides a contemporary mouse model for clarifying our understanding of ASNHL and facilitating the development of novel effective treatments for this clinical entity. Moreover, our data provide experimental confirmation that ASNHL may be a T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorder of the inner ear.

  15. Mumps encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, K K; Manickam, W D; Cardosa, M J

    1992-10-01

    A 7-year-old Indian girl developed complete paralysis of her lower limbs and acute urinary retention 10 days after suffering from mumps. Encephalomyelitis due to mumps was not suspected initially since it is a rare complication of mumps, although relatively well-documented. However, the preceding history of parotitis and the presence of mumps-specific IgM in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis. The initially severe acute neurological deficits resolved completely three months after onset of her illness. Serological investigations were helpful in diagnosing neurological complications of mumps in this case, and especially where there is no preceding parotitis.

  16. Treatment with MOG-DNA vaccines induces CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and up-regulates genes with neuroprotective functions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA vaccines represent promising therapeutic strategies in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the precise mechanisms by which DNA vaccines induce immune regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to expand previous knowledge existing on the mechanisms of action of DNA vaccines in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by treating EAE mice with a DNA vaccine encoding the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and exploring the therapeutic effects on the disease-induced inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. Methods EAE was induced in C57BL6/J mice by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide. Mice were intramuscularly treated with a MOG-DNA vaccine or vehicle in prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Histological studies were performed in central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Cytokine production and regulatory T cell (Treg) quantification were achieved by flow cytometry. Gene expression patterns were determined using microarrays, and the main findings were validated by real-time PCR. Results MOG-DNA treatment reduced the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE when administered in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Suppression of clinical EAE was associated with dampening of antigen (Ag)-specific proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 immune responses and, interestingly, expansion of Treg in the periphery and upregulation in the CNS of genes encoding neurotrophic factors and proteins involved in remyelination. Conclusions These results suggest for the first time that the beneficial effects of DNA vaccines in EAE are not limited to anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and DNA vaccines may also exert positive effects through hitherto unknown neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:22727044

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Sativex (THC BDS: CBD BDS) on Inhibition of Spasticity in a Chronic Relapsing Experimental Allergic Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, A; Stott, C; Wright, S; Guy, G; Pryce, G; Al-Izki, S; Bolton, C; Giovannoni, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the antispasticity potential of Sativex in mice. Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis was induced in adult ABH mice resulting in hind limb spasticity development. Vehicle, Sativex, and baclofen (as a positive control) were injected intravenously and the "stiffness" of limbs assessed by the resistance force against hind limb flexion. Vehicle alone caused no significant change in spasticity. Baclofen (5 mg/kg) induced approximately a 40% peak reduction in spasticity. Sativex dose dependently reduced spasticity; 5 mg/kg THC + 5 mg/kg CBD induced approximately a 20% peak reduction; 10 mg/kg THC + 10 mg/kg CBD produced approximately a 40% peak reduction in spasticity. Sativex has the potential to reduce spasticity in an experimental mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Baclofen reduced spasticity and served as a positive control. Sativex (10 mg/kg) was just as effective as baclofen, providing supportive evidence for Sativex use in the treatment of spasticity in MS. PMID:22928118

  18. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription and suppressor of cytokine-signaling gene expression in the brain of mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-12 or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim; Kincaid, Carrie; Pagenstecher, Axel; Campbell, Iain L

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma are implicated in the pathogenesis of immune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). To define the basis for the actions of these cytokines in the CNS, we examined the temporal and spatial regulation of key signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the brain of transgenic mice with astrocyte production of IL-12 or in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In healthy mice, with the exception of STAT4 and STAT6, the expression of a number of STAT and SOCS genes was detectable. However, in symptomatic transgenic mice and in EAE significant up-regulation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, IRF9, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA transcripts was observed. Although the increased expression of STAT1 RNA was widely distributed and included neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, STAT4 and STAT3 and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA was primarily restricted to the infiltrating mononuclear cell population. The level and location of the STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 proteins overlapped with their corresponding RNA and additionally showed nuclear localization indicative of activation of these molecules. Thus, in both the glial fibrillary acidic protein-IL-12 mice and in EAE the CNS expression of key STAT and SOCS genes that regulate IL-12 (STAT4) and IFN-gamma (STAT1, SOCS1, and SOCS3) receptor signaling is highly regulated and compartmentalized. We conclude the interaction between these positive and negative signaling circuits and their distinct cellular locations likely play a defining role in coordinating the actions of IL-12 and IFN-gamma during the pathogenesis of type 1 immune responses in the CNS.

  19. Immune Tolerance Induction against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Using A New PLP-B7AP Conjugate that Simultaneously Targets B7/CD28 Costimulatory Signal and TCR/MHC-II Signal

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ahmed H; Kiptoo, Paul; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current therapies used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are either ineffective or have adverse side effects. As such, there is a need to develop better therapies that specifically target myelin-specific aberrant immune cells involved in CNS inflammation without compromising the general immune system. In the present study, we developed a new bifunctional peptide inhibitor (BPI) that is effective and specific. Our BPI (PLP-B7AP) is composed of an antigenic peptide from myelin proteolipid protein (PLP139–151) and a B7 antisense peptide (B7AP) derived from CD28 receptor. The main hypothesis is that PLP-B7AP simultaneously targets MHC-II and B7-costimulatory molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) and possibly alters the differentiation of naïve T cells from inflammatory to regulatory phenotypes. Results showed that PLP-B7AP was very effective in suppressing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared to various controls in a mouse model. PLP-B7AP was effective when administered both before and after disease induction. Secreted cytokines from splenocytes isolated during periods of high disease severity and remission indicated that PLP-B7AP treatment induced an increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, analysis of cortical brain tissue sections showed that PLP-B7AP treated mice had significantly lower demyelination compared to the control group. All these taken together indicate that the T cell receptor (TCR) and the CD28 receptor can be targeted simultaneously to improve efficacy and specificity of potential MS therapeutics. PMID:26140285

  20. Regulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription and Suppressor of Cytokine-Signaling Gene Expression in the Brain of Mice with Astrocyte-Targeted Production of Interleukin-12 or Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Joachim; Kincaid, Carrie; Pagenstecher, Axel; Campbell, Iain L.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ are implicated in the pathogenesis of immune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). To define the basis for the actions of these cytokines in the CNS, we examined the temporal and spatial regulation of key signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in the brain of transgenic mice with astrocyte production of IL-12 or in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In healthy mice, with the exception of STAT4 and STAT6, the expression of a number of STAT and SOCS genes was detectable. However, in symptomatic transgenic mice and in EAE significant up-regulation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, IRF9, and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA transcripts was observed. Although the increased expression of STAT1 RNA was widely distributed and included neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, STAT4 and STAT3 and SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA was primarily restricted to the infiltrating mononuclear cell population. The level and location of the STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 proteins overlapped with their corresponding RNA and additionally showed nuclear localization indicative of activation of these molecules. Thus, in both the glial fibrillary acidic protein-IL-12 mice and in EAE the CNS expression of key STAT and SOCS genes that regulate IL-12 (STAT4) and IFN-γ (STAT1, SOCS1, and SOCS3) receptor signaling is highly regulated and compartmentalized. We conclude the interaction between these positive and negative signaling circuits and their distinct cellular locations likely play a defining role in coordinating the actions of IL-12 and IFN-γ during the pathogenesis of type 1 immune responses in the CNS. PMID:11786421

  1. Utility of Plasmapheresis in Autoimmune-Mediated Encephalopathy in Children: Potentials and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy in children continues to constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in pediatric population. Utility and usefulness in this clinical setting of plasmapheresis have seldom been evaluated in current pediatric literature. Children with immune-mediated encephalopathies represent a uniquely different group among patients presenting to intensive care units or neurological services worldwide. Arriving at a final diagnosis is not an easy task for treating physicians. It is very crucial to consider early use of first-line immunotherapy modalities, save those children's lives and improve outcomes. Plasmapheresis is an emerging, potentially beneficial first-line therapy in such patients. However, indications, value, logistics, and procedural difficulties are often faced. This study is mainly meant to review the current knowledge in regard to the clinical value of plasmapheresis in children with immune-mediated encephalopathy. PMID:27239341

  2. Layers of dendritic cell-mediated T cell tolerance, their regulation and the prevention of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christian T.; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The last decades of Nobel prize-honored research have unequivocally proven a key role of dendritic cells (DCs) at controlling both T cell immunity and tolerance. A tight balance between these opposing DC functions ensures immune homeostasis and host integrity. Its perturbation could explain pathological conditions such as the attack of self tissues, chronic infections, and tumor immune evasion. While recent insights into the complex DC network help to understand the contribution of individual DC subsets to immunity, the tolerogenic functions of DCs only begin to emerge. As these consist of many different layers, the definition of a “tolerogenic DC” is subjected to variation. Moreover, the implication of DCs and DC subsets in the suppression of autoimmunity are incompletely resolved. In this review, we point out conceptual controversies and dissect the various layers of DC-mediated T cell tolerance. These layers include central tolerance, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), anergy/deletion and negative feedback regulation. The mode and kinetics of antigen presentation is highlighted as an additional factor shaping tolerance. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between layers of tolerance as well as their differential regulation during inflammation. Furthermore, potential technical caveats of DC depletion models are considered. Finally, we summarize our current understanding of DC-mediated tolerance and its role for the suppression of autoimmunity. Understanding the mechanisms of DC-mediated tolerance and their complex interplay is fundamental for the development of selective therapeutic strategies, e.g., for the modulation of autoimmune responses or for the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:22783257

  3. Tolerogenic nanoparticles inhibit T cell-mediated autoimmunity through SOCS2.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Ada; Takenaka, Maisa C; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Nadeau, Meghan; Kenison, Jessica E; Patel, Bonny; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Babon, Jenny Aurielle B; DeNicola, Megan; Kent, Sally C; Pozo, David; Quintana, Francisco J

    2016-06-21

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas. The administration to patients of ex vivo-differentiated FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells or tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) that promote Treg cell differentiation is considered a potential therapy for T1D; however, cell-based therapies cannot be easily translated into clinical practice. We engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver both a tolerogenic molecule, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), and the β cell antigen proinsulin (NPITE+Ins) to induce a tolerogenic phenotype in DCs and promote Treg cell generation in vivo. NPITE+Ins administration to 8-week-old nonobese diabetic mice suppressed autoimmune diabetes. NPITE+Ins induced a tolerogenic phenotype in DCs, which was characterized by a decreased ability to activate inflammatory effector T cells and was concomitant with the increased differentiation of FoxP3(+) Treg cells. The induction of a tolerogenic phenotype in DCs by NPs was mediated by the AhR-dependent induction of Socs2, which resulted in inhibition of nuclear factor κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production (properties of tolerogenic DCs). Together, these data suggest that NPs constitute a potential tool to reestablish tolerance in T1D and potentially other autoimmune disorders.

  4. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, W Todd

    2007-04-01

    Cells at the maternal-fetal interface express indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) to consume all local tryptophan for the express purpose of starving adjacent maternal T cells of this most limiting and essential amino acid. This stops local T cell proliferation to ultimately result in the most dramatic example of immune tolerance, acceptance of the fetus. By contrast, inhibition of IDO using 1-methyl-tryptophan causes a sudden catastrophic rejection of the mammalian fetus. Immunomodulatory factors including IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-1, and LPS use IDO induction in responsive antigen presenting cells (APCs) also to transmit tolerogenic signals to T cells. Thus it makes sense to consider IDO induction towards tolerance for autoimmune diseases in general. Approaches to cell specific therapeutic IDO induction with NAD precursor supplementation to prevent the collateral non-T cell pathogenesis due to chronic TNFalpha-IDO activated tryptophan depletion in autoimmune diseases are reviewed. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid most immediately because it is the only precursor for the endogenous biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Both autoimmune disease and the NAD deficiency disease pellagra occur in women at greater than twice the frequency of occurrence in men. The importance of IDO dysregulation manifest as autoimmune pellagric dementia is genetically illustrated for Nasu-Hakola Disease (or PLOSL), which is caused by a mutation in the IDO antagonizing genes TYROBP/DAP12 or TREM2. Loss of function leads to psychotic symptoms rapidly progressing to presenile dementia likely due to unchecked increases in microglial IDO expression, which depletes neurons of tryptophan causing neurodegeneration. Administration of NAD precursors rescued entire mental hospitals of dementia patients literally overnight in the 1930's and NAD precursors should help Nasu-Hakola patients as well. NAD depletion mediated by peroxynitrate PARP1 activation is one of the few

  5. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Timothy S C

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel class of innate-like T cells, expressing a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and able to recognize small molecules presented on the non-polymorphic MHC-related protein 1. Their intrinsic effector-memory phenotype, enabling secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their relative abundance in humans imply a significant potential to contribute to autoimmune processes. However, as MAIT cells were unknown until recently and specific immunological tools were unavailable, little is known of their roles in disease. Here I review observations from clinical studies and animal models of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases including the roles of MAIT cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and airways diseases. MAIT cell deficiencies are frequently observed in peripheral blood, and at sites of disease such as the airways in asthma. However, MAIT cells have a specific sensitivity to suppression by therapeutic corticosteroids that may confound many of these observations, as may the tendency of the surface marker CD161 to activation-induced down-regulation. Nonetheless, the dependence on bacteria for the development of MAIT cells suggests a potentially important protective role linking the influences of early life microbial exposures and subsequent development of autoimmunity. Conversely, MAIT cells could contribute to chronic inflammation either through TCR-independent activation, or potentially by TCR recognition of as yet undiscovered ligands. Future research will be greatly facilitated by the immunological tools that are now available, including murine genetic models and human and murine specific tetramers.

  6. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Timothy S C

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel class of innate-like T cells, expressing a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and able to recognize small molecules presented on the non-polymorphic MHC-related protein 1. Their intrinsic effector-memory phenotype, enabling secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their relative abundance in humans imply a significant potential to contribute to autoimmune processes. However, as MAIT cells were unknown until recently and specific immunological tools were unavailable, little is known of their roles in disease. Here I review observations from clinical studies and animal models of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases including the roles of MAIT cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and airways diseases. MAIT cell deficiencies are frequently observed in peripheral blood, and at sites of disease such as the airways in asthma. However, MAIT cells have a specific sensitivity to suppression by therapeutic corticosteroids that may confound many of these observations, as may the tendency of the surface marker CD161 to activation-induced down-regulation. Nonetheless, the dependence on bacteria for the development of MAIT cells suggests a potentially important protective role linking the influences of early life microbial exposures and subsequent development of autoimmunity. Conversely, MAIT cells could contribute to chronic inflammation either through TCR-independent activation, or potentially by TCR recognition of as yet undiscovered ligands. Future research will be greatly facilitated by the immunological tools that are now available, including murine genetic models and human and murine specific tetramers. PMID:26778581

  7. Time course and cellular localization of interleukin-10 mRNA and protein expression in autoimmune inflammation of the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Jander, S.; Pohl, J.; D'Urso, D.; Gillen, C.; Stoll, G.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of the Lewis rat is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by a self-limiting monophasic course. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 at the mRNA and protein level in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis actively induced with the encephalitogenic 68-86 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that IL-10 mRNA expression peaked during the acute phase of the disease at days 11 and 13. IL-10 mRNA was synchronously induced with mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. Immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against rat IL-10 showed that the peak of IL-10 mRNA was accompanied by an abundant expression of IL-10 protein during the acute stage of the disease. Both in situ hybridization and double labeling immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy identified T cells, macrophages/microglia, and astrocytes as major cellular sources of IL-10 in vivo. The early peak of IL-10 production was unexpected in light of its well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Additional studies are required to determine whether endogenous IL-10 contributes to rapid clinical remission typical for Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or if it plays other, yet undefined, roles in central nervous system autoimmunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9546358

  8. T-cell receptor (TCR) usage in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: TCR beta-chain-variable-region V beta 8.2-positive T cells are not essential for induction and course of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, R; Giegerich, G; Hartung, H P; Toyka, K V

    1995-01-01

    Predominant usage of V beta 8.2 gene segments, encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) beta chain variable region, has been reported for pathogenic Lewis rat T cells reactive to myelin basic protein (MBP). However, up to 75% of the alpha/beta T cells in a panel of MBP-specific T-cell lines did not display TCR V beta 8.2, V beta 8.5, V beta 10, or V beta 16 elements. To further investigate TCR usage, we sorted the T-cell lines for V beta 8.2- and V beta 10-positive T cells or depleted the lines of cells with these TCRs. V beta 8.2-positive T cells and one of the depleted T-cell lines strongly reacted against the MBP peptide MBP-(68-88). The depleted T-cell line caused marked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) even in Lewis rats in which endogenous V beta 8.2-positive T cells had been eliminated by neonatal treatment with anti-V beta 8.2 monoclonal antibodies. T-cell hybridomas generated from this line predominantly used V beta 3 TCR genes coexpressed with TCR V alpha 2 transcripts, which were also used by V beta 8.2-positive T cells. Furthermore, V beta 10-positive T cells reactive to MBP-(44-67) were encephalitogenic when injected immediately after positive selection. After induction of EAE by sorted V beta 8.2- or V beta 10-positive T-cell lines, immunocytochemical analysis of the spinal cord tissue showed a predominance of the injected TCR or of nontypable alpha/beta T cells after injection of the depleted line. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity of TCR beta-chain usage even for a single autoantigen in an inbred strain. Moreover, V beta 8.2-positive T cells are not essential for the induction and progression of adoptive-transfer EAE. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597040

  9. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Erkes, Dan A.; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2014-01-01

    Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1) ex vivo haptenation, (2) in situ haptenation, (3) epifocal hapten application, and (4) antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field. PMID:24949488

  10. Prevention of murine autoimmune diabetes by CCL22-mediated Treg recruitment to the pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Montane, Joel; Bischoff, Loraine; Soukhatcheva, Galina; Dai, Derek L; Hardenberg, Gijs; Levings, Megan K; Orban, Paul C; Kieffer, Timothy J; Tan, Rusung; Verchere, C Bruce

    2011-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets by effector T cells. Tregs, defined by the markers CD4 and FoxP3, regulate immune responses by suppressing effector T cells and are recruited to sites of action by the chemokine CCL22. Here, we demonstrate that production of CCL22 in islets after intrapancreatic duct injection of double-stranded adeno-associated virus encoding CCL22 recruits endogenous Tregs to the islets and confers long-term protection from autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In addition, adenoviral expression of CCL22 in syngeneic islet transplants in diabetic NOD recipients prevented β cell destruction by autoreactive T cells and thereby delayed recurrence of diabetes. CCL22 expression increased the frequency of Tregs, produced higher levels of TGF-β in the CD4+ T cell population near islets, and decreased the frequency of circulating autoreactive CD8+ T cells and CD8+ IFN-γ–producing T cells. The protective effect of CCL22 was abrogated by depletion of Tregs with a CD25-specific antibody. Our results indicate that islet expression of CCL22 recruits Tregs and attenuates autoimmune destruction of β cells. CCL22-mediated recruitment of Tregs to islets may be a novel therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:21737880

  11. TREML4 amplifies TLR7-mediated signaling during antiviral responses and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Prasad, Amit; Griffith, Jason W.; Pendergraft, William F.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Root, David E.; Tai, Melissa; Luster, Andrew D.; Khoury, Joseph El; Hacohen, Nir; Means, Terry K.

    2015-01-01

    The genes and pathways that fine-tune TLR7-mediated innate inflammatory responses remain to be fully elucidated. Using an unbiased genome-scale shRNA screen, we identified the receptor TREML4 as an essential positive regulator of TLR7 signaling. Macrophages from Treml4–/– mice were hyporesponsive to TLR7 agonists and failed to produce type I interferon due to impaired phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 by the MAP kinase p38 and decreased recruitment of MyD88 to TLR7. TREML4 deficiency reduced production of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies in SLE-prone MRL/lpr mice and inhibited the antiviral immune response to influenza. Our data identify TREML4 as a positive regulator of TLR7 signaling and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that control antiviral immunity and the development of autoimmunity. PMID:25848864

  12. Interleukin-7: a key mediator in T cell-driven autoimmunity, inflammation, and tissue destruction.

    PubMed

    Bikker, Angela; Hack, C Erik; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van Roon, Joel A G

    2012-01-01

    IL-7, expressed by stromal cells in primary lymphoid organs, is known for its critical role in the development and homeostatic expansion of T cells in humans and mice. IL-7 is equally important for B cell development in human and mice, but only in mice seems critical for B cell development and expansion. Recent studies demonstrate that this potent immunostimulatory cytokine is overexpressed in inflamed tissues of patients with (rheumatic) autoimmune diseases and that expression levels correlate with clinical parameters of disease. In inflamed tissues several cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts produce IL-7. IL-7 primarily acts on T cells that abundantly express the IL-7 receptor and that are increased at the inflammatory sites, and predominantly induces Th1 and Th17-associated cytokine secretion. IL-7-mediated T cell-dependent activation of macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells is accompanied by up regulation of T cell differentiating factors, chemokines, adhesion/co-stimulatory molecules and catabolic cytokines and enzymes. Moreover, overexpression of IL-7 is associated with ectopic lymphoid aggregate formation, corresponding with the capacity of IL-7 to induce LTβ and TNFα and to activate innate lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Additionally, IL-7 promotes T cell-driven osteoclastogenesis and fibroblast activation, processes involved in tissue destruction in chronic inflammation. Altogether this suggests that IL-7 is an important proinflammatory mediator in several chronic (rheumatic) inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The substantial amelioration of inflammation and immunopathology in experimental animal models for these diseases by blocking IL-7(receptor) supports this role of IL-7 and demonstrates that IL-7 and its receptor represent novel targets for immunotherapy.

  13. Manipulating Autophagic Processes in Autoimmune Diseases: A Special Focus on Modulating Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy, an Emerging Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengjuan; Muller, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a constitutive intracellular degradation pathway, displays essential role in the homeostasis of immune cells, antigen processing and presentation, and many other immune processes. Perturbation of autophagy has been shown to be related to several autoimmune syndromes, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, modulating autophagy processes appears most promising for therapy of such autoimmune diseases. Autophagy can be said non-selective or selective; it is classified into three main forms, namely macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), the former process being by far the most intensively investigated. The role of CMA remains largely underappreciated in autoimmune diseases, even though CMA has been claimed to play pivotal functions into major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. Therefore, hereby, we give a special focus on CMA as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, based in particular on our most recent experimental results where a phosphopeptide modulates lupus disease by interacting with CMA regulators. We propose that specifically targeting lysosomes and lysosomal pathways, which are central in autophagy processes and seem to be altered in certain autoimmune diseases such as lupus, could be an innovative approach of efficient and personalized treatment. PMID:26042127

  14. A GMCSF-neuroantigen fusion protein is a potent tolerogen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that is associated with efficient targeting of neuroantigen to APC

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, J. Lori; Mannie, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-NAg fusion proteins represent an emerging platform for specific targeting of self-antigen to particular APC subsets as a means to achieve antigen-specific immunological tolerance. This study focused on cytokine-NAg fusion proteins that targeted NAg to myeloid APC. Fusion proteins contained GM-CSF or the soluble extracellular domain of M-CSF as the N-terminal domain and the encephalitogenic 69–87 peptide of MBP as the C-terminal domain. GMCSF-NAg and MCSF-NAg fusion proteins were ∼1000-fold and 32-fold more potent than NAg in stimulating antigenic proliferation of MBP-specific T cells, respectively. The potentiated antigenic responses required cytokine-NAg covalent linkage and receptor-mediated uptake. That is, the respective cytokines did not potentiate antigenic responses when cytokine and NAg were added as separate molecules, and the potentiated responses were inhibited specifically by the respective free cytokine. Cytokine-dependent targeting of NAg was specific for particular subsets of APC. GMCSF-NAg and MCSF-NAg targeted NAg to DC and macrophages; conversely, IL4-NAg and IL2-NAg fusion proteins, respectively, induced an ∼1000-fold enhancement in NAg reactivity in the presence of B cell and T cell APC. GMCSF-NAg significantly attenuated severity of EAE when treatment was completed before encephalitogenic challenge or alternatively, when treatment was initiated after onset of EAE. MCSF-NAg also had significant tolerogenic activity, but GMCSF-NAg was substantially more efficacious as a tolerogen. Covalent GMCSF-NAg linkage was required for prevention and treatment of EAE. In conclusion, GMCSF-NAg was highly effective for targeting NAg to myeloid APC and was a potent, antigen-specific tolerogen in EAE. PMID:20007248

  15. Characterisation of Transcriptional Changes in the Spinal Cord of the Progressive Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Biozzi ABH Mouse Model by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Gareth; Baker, David; Selwood, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating immune-mediated neurological disorder affecting young adults. MS is primarily relapsing-remitting, but neurodegeneration and disability accumulate from disease onset. The most commonly used mouse MS models exhibit a monophasic immune response with fast accumulation of neurological damage that does not allow the study of progressive neurodegeneration. The chronic relapsing and secondary progressive EAE (pEAE) Biozzi ABH mouse model of MS exhibits a reproducible relapsing-remitting disease course that slowly accumulates permanent neurological deficit and develops a post-relapsing progressive disease that permits the study of demyelination and neurodegeneration. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was used to explore global gene expression in the pEAE Biozzi ABH mouse. Spinal cord tissue RNA from pEAE Biozzi ABH mice and healthy age-matched controls was sequenced. 2,072 genes were differentially expressed (q<0.05) from which 1,397 were significantly upregulated and 675 were significantly downregulated. This hypothesis-free investigation characterised the genomic changes that describe the pEAE mouse model. The differentially expressed genes revealed a persistent immunoreactant phenotype, combined with downregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis superpathway and the LXR/RXR activation pathway. Genes differentially expressed include the myelination genes Slc17a7, Ugt8A and Opalin, the neuroprotective genes Sprr1A, Osm and Wisp2, as well as genes identified as MS risk factors, including RGs14 and Scap2. Novel genes with unestablished roles in EAE or MS were also identified. The identification of differentially expressed novel genes and genes involved in MS pathology, opens the door to their functional study in the pEAE mouse model which recapitulates some of the important clinical features of progressive MS. PMID:27355629

  16. Autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Britton, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common manifestation of autoimmune limbic encephalitis and multifocal paraneoplastic disorders. Accumulating evidence supports an autoimmune basis for seizures in the absence of syndromic manifestations of encephalitis. The autoimmune epilepsies are immunologically mediated disorders in which recurrent seizures are a primary and persistent clinical feature. When other etiologies have been excluded, an autoimmune etiology is suggested in a patient with epilepsy upon detection of neural autoantibodies and/or the presence of inflammatory changes on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or magnetic resonance imaging. In such patients, immunotherapy may be highly effective, depending on the particular autoimmune epilepsy syndrome present. In this chapter, several autoimmune epilepsy syndromes are discussed. First, epilepsies secondary to other primary autoimmune disorders will be discussed, and then those associated with antibodies that are likely to be pathogenic, such as voltage-gated potassium channel-complex and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, gamma-aminobutyric acid A and B receptor antibodies. For each syndrome, the typical clinical, imaging, electroencephaloram, CSF, and serologic features, and pathophysiology and treatment are described. Finally, suggested guidelines for the recognition, evaluation, and treatment of autoimmune epilepsy syndromes are provided. PMID:27112680

  17. Tinospora cordifolia inhibits autoimmune arthritis by regulating key immune mediators of inflammation and bone damage.

    PubMed

    Sannegowda, K M; Venkatesha, S H; Moudgil, K D

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints leading to tissue damage. Despite the availability of potent drugs including the biologics, many patients fail to respond to them, whereas others suffer adverse effects following long-term use of these drugs. Accordingly, the use of natural herbal products by RA patients has been increasing over the years. However, limited information about the mechanism of action of these natural products is a major shortcoming that prevents the widespread acceptance of herbal therapy by professionals and patients alike. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-arthritic activity of Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) using the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human RA and elaborated the immune mechanisms underlying this effect. TCE treatment suppressed arthritic inflammation and bone and cartilage damage. The anti-inflammatory effect of TCE was mediated via reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as: IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17; the frequency of IL-17-producing T cells; and the production of chemokines such as RANTES. Furthermore, TCE treatment limited bone damage by shifting the balance of mediators of bone remodeling (e.g., receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand [RANKL] and MMP-9) in favor of anti-osteoclastic activity. Our results suggest that TCE and its bioactive components should be evaluated for their utility as therapeutic adjuncts to conventional drugs against RA. PMID:26467057

  18. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells orchestrate TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hideaki; Arimura, Keiichi; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Sato, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated detection of viral nucleic acids (NAs) and production of type I interferon (IFN-I) are key elements of antiviral defense, while inappropriate recognition of self NAs with the induction of IFN-I responses is linked to autoimmunity such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are cells specialized in robust IFN-I secretion by the engagement of endosomal TLRs, and predominantly express sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-H. However, how pDCs control endosomal TLR-mediated immune responses that cause autoimmunity remains unclear. Here we show a critical role of pDCs in TLR7-mediated autoimmunity using gene-modified mice with impaired expression of Siglec-H and selective ablation of pDCs. pDCs were shown to be indispensable for the induction of systemic inflammation and effector T-cell responses triggered by TLR7 ligand. pDCs aggravated psoriasiform dermatitis mediated through the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and enhanced dermal infiltration of granulocytes and γδ T cells. Furthermore, pDCs promoted the production of anti-self NA antibodies and glomerulonephritis in lupus-like disease by activating inflammatory monocytes. On the other hand, Siglec-H regulated the TLR7-mediated activation of pDCs. Thus, our findings reveal that pDCs provide an essential link between TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of IFN-I-associated autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27075414

  19. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells orchestrate TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hideaki; Arimura, Keiichi; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Sato, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated detection of viral nucleic acids (NAs) and production of type I interferon (IFN-I) are key elements of antiviral defense, while inappropriate recognition of self NAs with the induction of IFN-I responses is linked to autoimmunity such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are cells specialized in robust IFN-I secretion by the engagement of endosomal TLRs, and predominantly express sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-H. However, how pDCs control endosomal TLR-mediated immune responses that cause autoimmunity remains unclear. Here we show a critical role of pDCs in TLR7-mediated autoimmunity using gene-modified mice with impaired expression of Siglec-H and selective ablation of pDCs. pDCs were shown to be indispensable for the induction of systemic inflammation and effector T-cell responses triggered by TLR7 ligand. pDCs aggravated psoriasiform dermatitis mediated through the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and enhanced dermal infiltration of granulocytes and γδ T cells. Furthermore, pDCs promoted the production of anti-self NA antibodies and glomerulonephritis in lupus-like disease by activating inflammatory monocytes. On the other hand, Siglec-H regulated the TLR7-mediated activation of pDCs. Thus, our findings reveal that pDCs provide an essential link between TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of IFN-I-associated autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27075414

  20. IDO2 is a critical mediator of autoantibody production and inflammatory pathogenesis in a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lauren M F; Pigott, Elizabeth; DuHadaway, James B; Grabler, Samantha; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders are associated with altered activity of the immunomodulatory enzyme IDO. However, the precise contributions of IDO function to autoimmunity remain unclear. In this article, we examine the effect of two different IDO enzymes, IDO1 and IDO2, on the development of autoimmune arthritis in the KRN preclinical model of rheumatoid arthritis. We find that IDO2, not IDO1, is critical for arthritis development, providing direct evidence of separate in vivo functions for IDO1 and IDO2. Mice null for Ido2 display decreased joint inflammation relative to wild-type mice owing to a reduction in pathogenic autoantibodies and Ab-secreting cells. Notably, IDO2 appears to specifically mediate autoreactive responses, but not normal B cell responses, as total serum Ig levels are not altered and IDO2 knockout mice are able to mount productive Ab responses to model Ags in vitro and in vivo. Reciprocal adoptive transfer studies confirm that autoantibody production and arthritis are modulated by IDO2 expression in a cell type extrinsic to the T cell. Taken together, our results, provide important insights into IDO2 function by defining its pathogenic contributions to autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity.

  1. The role of cytokines and chemokines in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune process in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-11-01

    The aetiology of alopecia areata (AA) is still not fully understood. However, recent clinical and experimental studies have provided insights into the pathomechanisms of AA and revealed that it is an organ-specific and cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Some triggers, such as viral infections, trauma, hormones and emotional/physical stressors, may cause activation of autoreactive T cells that target hair follicle (HF) autoantigens. In these immunological responses, cytokines and chemokines are regarded as key players that mediate the autoimmune inflammation. This results in the collapse of HF immune privilege, which is central to the pathogenesis of AA. This essay will focus on how cytokines and chemokines contribute to the immunological aspects of AA. The management of AA often remains difficult in a number of cases. Our review suggests that novel therapies for AA may involve targeting cytokines and chemokines. PMID:25040075

  2. The role of cytokines and chemokines in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune process in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-11-01

    The aetiology of alopecia areata (AA) is still not fully understood. However, recent clinical and experimental studies have provided insights into the pathomechanisms of AA and revealed that it is an organ-specific and cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Some triggers, such as viral infections, trauma, hormones and emotional/physical stressors, may cause activation of autoreactive T cells that target hair follicle (HF) autoantigens. In these immunological responses, cytokines and chemokines are regarded as key players that mediate the autoimmune inflammation. This results in the collapse of HF immune privilege, which is central to the pathogenesis of AA. This essay will focus on how cytokines and chemokines contribute to the immunological aspects of AA. The management of AA often remains difficult in a number of cases. Our review suggests that novel therapies for AA may involve targeting cytokines and chemokines.

  3. Genetically Engineered Human Islets Protected From CD8-mediated Autoimmune Destruction In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Alkemade, Gonnie; Carlotti, Françoise; Nikolic, Tatjana; Abreu, Joana RF; Engelse, Marten A; Skowera, Anja; de Koning, Eelco J; Peakman, Mark; Roep, Bart O; Hoeben, Rob C; Wiertz, Emmanuel JHJ

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, but graft function and survival are compromised by recurrent islet autoimmunity. Immunoprotection of islets will be required to improve clinical outcome. We engineered human β cells to express herpesvirus-encoded immune-evasion proteins, “immunevasins.” The capacity of immunevasins to protect β cells from autoreactive T-cell killing was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in humanized mice. Lentiviral vectors were used for efficient genetic modification of primary human β cells without impairing their function. Using a novel β-cell–specific reporter gene assay, we show that autoreactive cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell clones isolated from patients with recent onset diabetes selectively destroyed human β cells, and that coexpression of the human cytomegalovirus-encoded US2 protein and serine proteinase inhibitor 9 offers highly efficient protection in vitro. Moreover, coimplantation of these genetically modified pseudoislets with β-cell–specific cytotoxic T cells into immunodeficient mice achieves preserved human insulin production and C-peptide secretion. Collectively, our data provide proof of concept that human β cells can be efficiently genetically modified to provide protection from killing mediated by autoreactive T cells and retain their function in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23689598

  4. Small molecule mediated inhibition of RORγ-dependent gene expression and autoimmune disease pathology in vivo.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Daliya; Zhao, Linlin; Wu, Lan; Palanichamy, Arumugam; Ergun, Ayla; Peng, Liaomin; Quigley, Catherine; Hamann, Stefan; Dunstan, Robert; Cullen, Patrick; Allaire, Norm; Guertin, Kevin; Wang, Tao; Chao, Jianhua; Loh, Christine; Fontenot, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (RORγ) orchestrates a pro-inflammatory gene expression programme in multiple lymphocyte lineages including T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, γδ T cells, innate lymphoid cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. There is compelling evidence that RORγ-expressing cells are relevant targets for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Unlike Th17 cells, where RORγ expression is induced under specific pro-inflammatory conditions, γδ T cells and other innate-like immune cells express RORγ in the steady state. Small molecule mediated disruption of RORγ function in cells with pre-existing RORγ transcriptional complexes represents a significant and challenging pharmacological hurdle. We present data demonstrating that a novel, selective and potent small molecule RORγ inhibitor can block the RORγ-dependent gene expression programme in both Th17 cells and RORγ-expressing γδ T cells as well as a disease-relevant subset of human RORγ-expressing memory T cells. Importantly, systemic administration of this inhibitor in vivo limits pathology in an innate lymphocyte-driven mouse model of psoriasis. PMID:26694902

  5. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients’ blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients’ blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: “Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize”. Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be

  6. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients' blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients' blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: "Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize". Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be promising

  7. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the proposed health benefits of consuming green tea is its protective effect on autoimmune diseases. Research on the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has made significant progression in the past few years and several key concepts have been revised. T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper...

  8. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Updates on an inflammatory CNS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Alper, Gulay; Van Haren, Keith; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Tenembaum, Silvia; Belman, Anita L

    2016-08-30

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance. ADEM is clinically defined by acute polyfocal neurologic deficits including encephalopathy. MRI typically demonstrates reversible, ill-defined white matter lesions of the brain and often also the spinal cord, along with frequent involvement of thalami and basal ganglia. CSF analysis may reveal a mild pleocytosis and elevated protein, but is generally negative for intrathecal oligoclonal immunoglobulin G synthesis. In the absence of a specific diagnostic test, ADEM is considered a diagnosis of exclusion, and ADEM mimics, especially those requiring a different treatment approach, have to be carefully ruled out. The role of biomarkers, including autoantibodies like anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ADEM is currently under debate. Based on the presumed autoimmune etiology of ADEM, the current treatment approach consists of early immunotherapy. Outcome of ADEM in pediatric patients is generally favorable, but cognitive deficits have been reported even in the absence of other neurologic sequelae. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, CSF findings, differential diagnosis, therapy, and outcome, with a focus on recent advances and controversies. PMID:27572859

  9. Immunomodulatory vaccines against autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Sela, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines are for healthy people, to prevent them from becoming ill. Such prophylactic vaccines have been a great success. Therapeutic vaccines become more and more important, especially as life expectancy increases. Efforts to develop vaccines against such diseases as cancer, AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, Alzheimer disease, and mad cow disease have not yet reached the stage where they can be successfully used on a daily basis. However, significant progress has been made in the realm of autoimmune diseases, resulting (at least in one case) in an immunomodulatory vaccine against multiple sclerosis that was developed in the author's laboratory, and that is in daily use by about 100,000 patients. The drug or therapeutic vaccine against the exacerbating-remitting type of multiple sclerosis is a copolymer of four amino acid residues, denoted Copaxone, which are related to myelin basic protein. This paper discusses Copaxone as well as a candidate immunomodulatory vaccine against myasthenia gravis, a peptide derived from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copolymer 1 (Cop 1, glatiramer acetate, Copaxone) is a synthetic amino acid random copolymer that is immunologically cross-reactive with myelin basic protein and suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in several animal species. Cop 1 slows the progression of disability and reduces the relapse rate in exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Cop 1 is a potent inducer of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory cells in mice and humans; and Th2 cells are found in both the brains and spinal cords of Cop 1-treated mice and humans. MG and experimental autoimmune MG are T cell-regulated, antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Two peptides, representing sequences of the human AChR-alpha-subunit, p195-212 and p259-271, are immunodominant T-cell epitopes in MG patients and two strains of mice. Altered peptide ligand, composed of the randomly arranged two single amino acid analogs inhibits in vitro and in vivo MG

  10. Oral tolerance: mechanisms and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Koh, D R

    1998-01-01

    Oral tolerance is a state of immune hyporesponsiveness induced by the oral or mucosal exposure to antigens. This state is dependent on the dose of the oral antigen administered, with a low dose stimulating regulatory T cell development leading to an active immune suppression that is transferable via T cells. The active mechanism appears to be a cytokine mediated immune deviation with a predominant Th2 and Th3 response (TGF-beta). In contrast, high dose oral antigens lead to clonal deletion and anergy. The active suppression of low dose oral tolerance can also suppress an unrelated immune response (bystander suppression) paving the way for therapy of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Oral tolerance has been effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and insulin-dependent diabetes in animals. However, recent studies in human autoimmune diseases have not been as effective but the results are encouraging and more work is required to understand the mechanisms involved and other factors that may modulate the response. PMID:9588275

  11. Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae Kyu; Petersen, Mark A.; Murray, Sara G.; Baeten, Kim M.; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Chan, Justin P.; Vagena, Eirini; Bedard, Catherine; Machado, Michael R.; Coronado, Pamela E. Rios; Prod'homme, Thomas; Charo, Israel F.; Lassmann, Hans; Degen, Jay L.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood–brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of the fibrinogen receptor CD11b/CD18 protects from all immune and neuropathologic effects. Our results show that the final product of the coagulation cascade is a key determinant of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26353940

  12. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Ambrosius, Björn; Meyer, Daniela; Schrewe, Lisa; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system. Methods and Findings Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53–78) of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN. Conclusions We conclude that immunmodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:26618510

  13. Estrogen-mediated downregulation of AIRE influences sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α-deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. PMID:26999605

  14. Estrogen-mediated downregulation of AIRE influences sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α–deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. PMID:26999605

  15. Estrogen-mediated downregulation of AIRE influences sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α-deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.

  16. Sex differences in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This increased susceptibility in females compared to males is also present in animal models of autoimmune diseases such as spontaneous SLE in (NZBxNZW)F1 and NZM.2328 mice, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice, thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice and diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Indeed, being female confers a greater risk of developing these diseases than any single genetic or environmental risk factor discovered to date. Understanding how the state of being female so profoundly affects autoimmune disease susceptibility would accomplish two major goals. First, it would lead to an insight into the major pathways of disease pathogenesis and, secondly, it would likely lead to novel treatments which would disrupt such pathways. PMID:21208397

  17. N-WASP is required for B-cell-mediated autoimmunity in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Stefano; Santori, Elettra; Abernethy, Katrina; Mizui, Masayuki; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Recher, Mike; Capuder, Kelly; Csizmadia, Eva; Ryan, Douglas; Mathew, Divij; Tsokos, George C; Snapper, Scott; Westerberg, Lisa S; Thrasher, Adrian J; Candotti, Fabio; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2016-01-14

    Mutations of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene (WAS) are responsible for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity. Mice with conditional deficiency of Was in B lymphocytes (B/WcKO) have revealed a critical role for WAS protein (WASP) expression in B lymphocytes in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Neural WASP (N-WASP) is a broadly expressed homolog of WASP, and regulates B-cell signaling by modulating B-cell receptor (BCR) clustering and internalization. We have generated a double conditional mouse lacking both WASP and N-WASP selectively in B lymphocytes (B/DcKO). Compared with B/WcKO mice, B/DcKO mice showed defective B-lymphocyte proliferation and impaired antibody responses to T-cell-dependent antigens, associated with decreased autoantibody production and lack of autoimmune kidney disease. These results demonstrate that N-WASP expression in B lymphocytes is required for the development of autoimmunity of WAS and may represent a novel therapeutic target in WAS. PMID:26468226

  18. N-WASP is required for B-cell-mediated autoimmunity in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Stefano; Santori, Elettra; Abernethy, Katrina; Mizui, Masayuki; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Recher, Mike; Capuder, Kelly; Csizmadia, Eva; Ryan, Douglas; Mathew, Divij; Tsokos, George C; Snapper, Scott; Westerberg, Lisa S; Thrasher, Adrian J; Candotti, Fabio; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2016-01-14

    Mutations of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene (WAS) are responsible for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity. Mice with conditional deficiency of Was in B lymphocytes (B/WcKO) have revealed a critical role for WAS protein (WASP) expression in B lymphocytes in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Neural WASP (N-WASP) is a broadly expressed homolog of WASP, and regulates B-cell signaling by modulating B-cell receptor (BCR) clustering and internalization. We have generated a double conditional mouse lacking both WASP and N-WASP selectively in B lymphocytes (B/DcKO). Compared with B/WcKO mice, B/DcKO mice showed defective B-lymphocyte proliferation and impaired antibody responses to T-cell-dependent antigens, associated with decreased autoantibody production and lack of autoimmune kidney disease. These results demonstrate that N-WASP expression in B lymphocytes is required for the development of autoimmunity of WAS and may represent a novel therapeutic target in WAS.

  19. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-mediated autoimmunity: lessons to learn from ANCA vasculitis and pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Athanasios; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Liaskos, Christos; Smyk, Daniel S; Billinis, Charalambos; Blank, Miri; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2013-03-01

    Evidence is beginning to accumulate that p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and humoral autoimmune responses. The exact mechanisms and the degree by which the p38 MAPK pathway participates in the immune-mediated induction of diseases have started to emerge. This review discusses the recent advances in the molecular dissection of the p38 MAPK pathway and the findings generated by reports investigating its role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune hepatitis. Application of newly-developed protocols based on sensitive flow cytometric detection has proven to be a useful tool in the investigation of the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK within different peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations and may help us to better understand the enigmatic role of this signaling cascade in the induction of autoimmunity as well as its role in immunosuppressive-induced remission. Special attention is paid to reported data proposing a specific role for autoantibody-induced activation of p38 MAPK-mediated immunopathology in the pathogenesis of autoimmune blistering diseases and anti-neutrophilic antibody-mediated vasculitides.

  20. [Autoimmune encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Günther, Albrecht; Schubert, Julia; Brämer, Dirk; Witte, Otto Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis, an inflammatory disease of the brain, is usually attributed to antibody-mediated damage and dysfunction of neuronal structures. A distinction is made between onconeuronal antibodies (directed against intracellular neuronal antigens with resulting paraneoplastic neurological syndromes) and antibodies directed against neuronal cell surface proteins (with resulting synaptic encephalopathies). Anti-NMDA-Receptor-Encephalitis, the most common form of autoimmune encephalopathy, is characterized by a phased course of disease. Early disease phase involves nonspecific prodromes (fatigue, fever, headache) which lead to family doctor or emergency department consultation. Subsequently, neuropsychiatric behavioural problems, seizures, disturbance of memory and finally coma, dysautonomia and respiratory insufficiency often result in major complications (e.g. status epilepticus) necessitating intensive care treatment. The diagnosis is secured by detection of auto-antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. An intensive search for tumors is also recommended. The treatment of autoimmune encephalitis comprises of immunomodulatory and immunosuppessive strategies. Tumor therapy is the most important treatment of autoimmune encephalitis by onconeuronal antibodies. PMID:27557073

  1. The IgG-specific endoglycosidase EndoS inhibits both cellular and complement-mediated autoimmune hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Juana G.; Baudino, Lucie; Lood, Christian; Olsson, Martin L.; Izui, Shozo; Collin, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is an immunomodulating enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes glycans from human immunoglobulin G and thereby affects antibody effector functions. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is caused by antibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) destruction and often resists treatment with corticosteroids that also cause frequent adverse effects. We show here that anti-RhD (anti-D) and rabbit anti–human-RBC antibodies (anti-RBC) mediated destruction of RBC, ie, phagocytosis, complement activation, and hemolysis in vitro and in vivo was inhibited by EndoS. Phagocytosis by monocytes in vitro was inhibited by pretreatment of anti-D with EndoS before sensitization of RBCs and abrogated by direct addition of EndoS to blood containing sensitized RBCs. The toxic effects of monocytes stimulated with anti-D–sensitized RBCs, as measured by interleukin-8 secretion and oxygen metabolite production, was restrained by EndoS. Agglutination of RBCs and complement-mediated hemolysis in vitro in whole human blood caused by rabbit anti-RBCs was inhibited by EndoS. Development of anemia in mice caused by a murine anti-RBC immunoglobulin G2a monoclonal autoantibody and complement activation and erythrophagocytosis by Kupffer cells in the liver were reduced by EndoS. Our data indicate that EndoS is a potential therapeutic agent that might be evaluated as an alternative to current treatment regimens against antibody-mediated destruction of RBCs. PMID:20357243

  2. Blood coagulation factor XII drives adaptive immunity during neuroinflammation via CD87-mediated modulation of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Asaridou, Chloi-Magdalini; Herrmann, Alexander M.; Bittner, Stefan; Merker, Monika; Ruck, Tobias; Glumm, Sarah; Langhauser, Friederike; Kraft, Peter; Krug, Thorsten F.; Breuer, Johanna; Herold, Martin; Gross, Catharina C.; Beckmann, Denise; Korb-Pap, Adelheid; Schuhmann, Michael K.; Kuerten, Stefanie; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ruppert, Clemens; Nolte, Marc W.; Panousis, Con; Klotz, Luisa; Kehrel, Beate; Korn, Thomas; Langer, Harald F.; Pap, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Wiendl, Heinz; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein–kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator. High levels of FXII activity are present in the plasma of MS patients during relapse. Deficiency or pharmacologic blockade of FXII renders mice less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a model of MS) and is accompanied by reduced numbers of interleukin-17A-producing T cells. Immune activation by FXII is mediated by dendritic cells in a CD87-dependent manner and involves alterations in intracellular cyclic AMP formation. Our study demonstrates that a member of the plasmatic coagulation cascade is a key mediator of autoimmunity. FXII inhibition may provide a strategy to combat MS and other immune-related disorders. PMID:27188843

  3. Blood coagulation factor XII drives adaptive immunity during neuroinflammation via CD87-mediated modulation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Asaridou, Chloi-Magdalini; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bittner, Stefan; Merker, Monika; Ruck, Tobias; Glumm, Sarah; Langhauser, Friederike; Kraft, Peter; Krug, Thorsten F; Breuer, Johanna; Herold, Martin; Gross, Catharina C; Beckmann, Denise; Korb-Pap, Adelheid; Schuhmann, Michael K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ruppert, Clemens; Nolte, Marc W; Panousis, Con; Klotz, Luisa; Kehrel, Beate; Korn, Thomas; Langer, Harald F; Pap, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Wiendl, Heinz; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G

    2016-05-18

    Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein-kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator. High levels of FXII activity are present in the plasma of MS patients during relapse. Deficiency or pharmacologic blockade of FXII renders mice less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a model of MS) and is accompanied by reduced numbers of interleukin-17A-producing T cells. Immune activation by FXII is mediated by dendritic cells in a CD87-dependent manner and involves alterations in intracellular cyclic AMP formation. Our study demonstrates that a member of the plasmatic coagulation cascade is a key mediator of autoimmunity. FXII inhibition may provide a strategy to combat MS and other immune-related disorders.

  4. Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Haghikia, Aiden; Jörg, Stefanie; Duscha, Alexander; Berg, Johannes; Manzel, Arndt; Waschbisch, Anne; Hammer, Anna; Lee, De-Hyung; May, Caroline; Wilck, Nicola; Balogh, Andras; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Akkad, Denis A; Grohme, Diana A; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Thöne, Jan; Demir, Seray; Müller, Dominik N; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2015-10-20

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that nutrition and bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response in the context of disease and autoimmunity. We report that long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) enhanced differentiation and proliferation of T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 cells and impaired their intestinal sequestration via p38-MAPK pathway. Alternatively, dietary short-chain FAs (SCFAs) expanded gut T regulatory (Treg) cells by suppression of the JNK1 and p38 pathway. We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T cell-mediated autoimmunity to show that LCFAs consistently decreased SCFAs in the gut and exacerbated disease by expanding pathogenic Th1 and/or Th17 cell populations in the small intestine. Treatment with SCFAs ameliorated EAE and reduced axonal damage via long-lasting imprinting on lamina-propria-derived Treg cells. These data demonstrate a direct dietary impact on intestinal-specific, and subsequently central nervous system-specific, Th cell responses in autoimmunity, and thus might have therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26488817

  5. Proatherogenic conditions promote autoimmune T helper 17 cell responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoyong; Kim, Young Uk; Sun, Hua; Lee, Joyce H; Reynolds, Joseph M; Hanabuchi, Shino; Wu, Huaizhu; Teng, Ba-Bie; Chung, Yeonseok

    2014-01-16

    Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases show increased incidence of atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of proatherogenic factors to autoimmunity remains unclear. We found that atherogenic mice (herein referred to as LDb mice) exhibited increased serum interleukin-17, which was associated with increased numbers of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in secondary lymphoid organs. The environment within LDb mice was substantially favorable for Th17 cell polarization of autoreactive T cells during homeostatic proliferation, which was considerably inhibited by antibodies directed against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Moreover, the uptake of oxLDL induced dendritic-cell-mediated Th17 cell polarization by triggering IL-6 production in a process dependent on TLR4, CD36, and MyD88. Furthermore, self-reactive CD4(+) T cells that expanded in the presence of oxLDL induced more profound experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These findings demonstrate that proatherogenic factors promote the polarization and inflammatory function of autoimmune Th17 cells, which could be critical for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other related autoimmune diseases.

  6. Human IL2RA null mutation mediates immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Kevin; Aydin, Didem; Barzaghi, Federica; Gambineri, Eleonora; Vignoli, Marina; Mannurita, Sara Ciullini; Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Assanelli, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto; Brigida, Immacolata; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Martino, Silvana; Olek, Sven; Aiuti, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Cell-surface CD25 expression is critical for maintaining immune function and homeostasis. As in few reported cases, CD25 deficiency manifests with severe autoimmune enteritis and viral infections. To dissect the underlying immunological mechanisms driving these symptoms, we analyzed the regulatory and effector T cell functions in a CD25 deficient patient harboring a novel IL2RA mutation. Pronounced lymphoproliferation, mainly of the CD8+ T cells, was detected together with an increase in T cell activation markers and elevated serum cytokines. However, Ag-specific responses were impaired in vivo and in vitro. Activated CD8+STAT5+ T cells with lytic potential infiltrated the skin, even though FOXP3+ Tregs were present and maintained a higher capacity to respond to IL-2 compared to other T-cell subsets. Thus, the complex pathogenesis of CD25 deficiency provides invaluable insight into the role of IL2/IL-2RA-dependent regulation in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23416241

  7. New approaches for predicting T cell–mediated drug reactions: A role for inducible and potentially preventable autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Aaron W.; Ostrov, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are commonplace and occur when a drug binds to its intended pharmacological target (Type A ADR) or an unintended target (Type B ADR). Immunologically mediated Type B ADRs, such as drug hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN), can be severe and result in a diverse set of clinical manifestations that include fever and rash as well as multiple organ failure (liver, kidney, lungs, and/or heart) in the case of drug hypersensitivity syndrome. There is increasing evidence that specific HLA alleles influence the risk of drug reactions. Several features of T cell–mediated ADRs are strikingly similar to those displayed by autoimmune diseases like type I diabetes, such as strong HLA association, organ-specific adaptive immune responses, viral involvement, and activation of innate immunity. There is a need to better predict patient populations at risk for developing immunologically mediated Type B ADRs. Since methods to predict type 1 diabetes using genetic and immunological biomarkers have been developed to a high level of accuracy (predicting 100% of individuals likely to progress), new research strategies based on these methods may also improve the ability to predict drug hypersensitivity. PMID:26254052

  8. New approaches for predicting T cell-mediated drug reactions: A role for inducible and potentially preventable autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Ostrov, David A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are commonplace and occur when a drug binds to its intended pharmacologic target (type A ADR) or an unintended target (type B ADR). Immunologically mediated type B ADRs, such as drug hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, can be severe and result in a diverse set of clinical manifestations that include fever and rash, as well as multiple organ failure (liver, kidney, lungs, and/or heart) in the case of drug hypersensitivity syndrome. There is increasing evidence that specific HLA alleles influence the risk of drug reactions. Several features of T cell-mediated ADRs are strikingly similar to those displayed by patients with autoimmune diseases like type I diabetes, such as strong HLA association, organ-specific adaptive immune responses, viral involvement, and activation of innate immunity. There is a need to better predict patient populations at risk for immunologically mediated type B ADRs. Because methods to predict type 1 diabetes by using genetic and immunologic biomarkers have been developed to a high level of accuracy (predicting 100% of subjects likely to progress), new research strategies based on these methods might also improve the ability to predict drug hypersensitivity. PMID:26254052

  9. The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

  10. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs. PMID:27429513

  11. Galactosylation of IgG1 modulates FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition of murine autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazunori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Furukawa, Jun-Ichi; Nakata, Junichiro; Alvarez, Montserrat; Verbeek, J Sjef; Shinohara, Yasuro; Izui, Shozo

    2013-12-01

    Murine immune effector cells express three different stimulatory FcγRs (FcγRI, FcγRIII and FcγRIV) and one inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB. Competitive engagement of stimulatory and inhibitory FcγRs has been shown to be critical for the development of immune complex-mediated inflammatory disorders. Because of the previous demonstration that FcγRIIB was unable to inhibit FcγRIII-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by 105-2H IgG1 anti-RBC mAb, we reevaluated the regulatory role of FcγRIIB on the development of anemia using two additional IgG1 anti-RBC mAbs (34-3C and 3H5G1) and different 34-3C IgG subclass-switch variants. We were able to induce a more severe anemia in FcγRIIB-deficient mice than in FcγRIIB-sufficient mice after injection of 34-3C and 3H5G1 IgG1, but not 105-2H IgG1. Structural analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides attached to the CH2 domain revealed that 105-2H was poorly galactosylated as compared with the other mAbs, while the extent of sialylation was comparable between all mAbs. In addition, we observed that a more galactosylated 105-2H variant provoked more severe anemia in FcγRIIB-deficient mice than FcγRIIB-sufficient mice. In contrast, the development of anemia induced by three non-IgG1 subclass variants of the 34-3C mAb was not down-regulated by FcγRIIB, although they were more galactosylated than its IgG1 variant. These data indicate that FcγRIIB-mediated inhibition of autoimmune hemolytic anemia is restricted to the IgG1 subclass and that galactosylation, but not sialylation, of IgG1 (but not other IgG subclasses) is critical for the interaction with FcγR, thereby determining the pathogenic potential of IgG1 autoantibodies.

  12. p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C.; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis. PMID:24477292

  13. p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke; Allen, Joselyn; Morse, Herbert C., III; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is essential for immune homeostasis. Here we show that mouse CD300f (CLM-1) recognizes outer membrane-exposed phosphatidylserine, and regulates the phagocytosis of ACs. CD300f accumulates in phagocytic cups at AC contact sites. Phosphorylation within CD300f cytoplasmic tail tyrosine-based motifs initiates signals that positively or negatively regulate AC phagocytosis. Y276 phosphorylation is necessary for enhanced CD300f-mediated phagocytosis through the recruitment of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). CD300f-PI3K association leads to activation of downstream Rac/Cdc42 GTPase and mediates changes of F-actin that drive AC engulfment. Importantly, primary macrophages from CD300f-deficient mice have impaired phagocytosis of ACs. The biological consequence of CD300f deficiency is predisposition to autoimmune disease development, as FcγRIIB-deficient mice develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease at a markedly accelerated rate if CD300f is absent. In this report we identify the mechanism and role of CD300f in AC phagocytosis and maintenance of immune homeostasis.

  14. Maintenance of immune hyporesponsiveness to melanosomal proteins by DHICA-mediated antioxidation: Possible implications for autoimmune vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Qiong; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2011-05-01

    Melanocyte destruction in the skin of vitiligo patients has been considered to be a consequence of an autoimmune response against melanosomal proteins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes these sequestered intracellular self-proteins, which are confined in specialized organelles termed melanosomes, and is provoked into an autoimmune response to melanocytes. Here, we utilize a sucrose density-gradient ultracentrifugation protocol to enrich melanosomal components from dopachrome tautomerase (Dct)-mutant or wild-type melanocytes exposed to a pulse of hydrogen peroxide at a noncytotoxic concentration to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice challenged with the corresponding melanosomal proteins. The results demonstrate that enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses to a challenge with late-stage melanosomal proteins, especially with those derived from Dct-mutant melanocytes, are found in the immunized mice. To elucidate whether a reduced 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) content in melanin might cause a loss in antioxidative protection to the proteins, we incubated these melanosomal proteins in vitro with synthetic 5,6-dihydroindole (DHI)-melanin or DHI/DHICA (1:1)-melanin and then used them to immunize mice. T cell proliferation and IgG antibody responsiveness to the challenges were significantly induced by melanosomal proteins treated with DHI-melanin, but not by those treated with DHI/DHICA (1:1)-melanin. Moreover, we observed that melanosomal proteins derived from Dct-mutant melanocytes are subject to oxidative modifications that alter their antigenic configurations to attain an enhanced immunogenicity compared with those derived from wild-type melanocytes. From these results, we conclude that DHICA-mediated antioxidation plays a critical role in the maintenance of immune hyporesponsiveness to melanosomal proteins.

  15. Pharmacological prion protein silencing accelerates central nervous system autoimmune disease via T cell receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Nessler, Stefan; Hemmer, Bernhard; Eagar, Todd N.; Kane, Lawrence P.; Leliveld, S. Rutger; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Gocke, Anne R.; Lovett-Racke, Amy; Ben, Li-Hong; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Breil, Andreas; Elliott, Jeffrey L.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Cravens, Petra D.; Singh, Mahendra P.; Petsch, Benjamin; Stitz, Lothar; Racke, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary biological function of the endogenous cellular prion protein has remained unclear. We investigated its biological function in the generation of cellular immune responses using cellular prion protein gene-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid in vivo and in vitro. Our results were confirmed by blocking cellular prion protein with monovalent antibodies and by using cellular prion protein-deficient and -transgenic mice. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment effects were of limited duration, restricted to secondary lymphoid organs and resulted in a 70% reduction of cellular prion protein expression in leukocytes. Disruption of cellular prion protein signalling augmented antigen-specific activation and proliferation, and enhanced T cell receptor signalling, resulting in zeta-chain-associated protein-70 phosphorylation and nuclear factor of activated T cells/activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. In vivo prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment promoted T cell differentiation towards pro-inflammatory phenotypes and increased survival of antigen-specific T cells. Cellular prion protein silencing with small interfering ribonucleic acid also resulted in the worsening of actively induced and adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, treatment of myelin basic protein1–11 T cell receptor transgenic mice with prion protein gene-small interfering ribonucleic acid resulted in spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, central nervous system autoimmune disease was modulated at all stages of disease: the generation of the T cell effector response, the elicitation of T effector function and the perpetuation of cellular immune responses. Our findings indicate that cellular prion protein regulates T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation, differentiation and survival. Defects in autoimmunity are restricted to the immune system and not the central

  16. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    PubMed

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. PMID:26575109

  17. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    PubMed

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options.

  18. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in NOD autoimmune biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Yuehong; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Leung, Patrick S.; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Hunter, Kara M.; Morris, Gerard A.; Lyons, Paul A.; Peterson, Laurence B.; Wicker, Linda S.; Gershwin, M.E.; Ridgway, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described the NOD.c3c4 mouse, which is protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to protective alleles at multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, but develops autoimmune biliary disease (ABD) resembling primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Here we characterize the NOD.ABD strain, which is genetically-related to the NOD.c3c4 strain but develops both ABD and T1D. Histologically, NOD.ABD biliary disease is indistinguishable from that in NOD.c3c4 mice. The frequency of effector memory (CD44+CD62L-) and central memory (CD44+CD62L+) CD8 T cells is significantly increased in the intrahepatic lymphocyte fraction of NOD.ABD mice, and NOD.ABD CD8 T cells produce more IFN-γ and TNF-α, compared to controls. NOD.ABD splenocytes can transfer ABD and T1D to NOD.c3c4 scid mice, but only T1D to NOD scid mice, suggesting that the genetic origin of the target organ and/or its innate immune cells is critical to disease pathogenesis. The disease transfer model, importantly, shows that biliary duct damage (characteristic of PBC) and inflammation precede biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Unlike T1D where both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for disease transfer, purified NOD.ABD CD8 T cells can transfer liver inflammation into NOD.c3c4 scid recipients, and disease transfer is ameliorated by co-transferring T regulatory cells. Unlike NOD.c3c4 mice, NOD.ABD mice do not develop antinuclear or anti-Smith autoantibodies; however, NOD.ABD mice do develop the anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase antibodies typical of human PBC. The NOD.ABD strain is a model of immune dysregulation affecting two organ systems, most likely by mechanisms that do not completely coincide. PMID:21169553

  19. Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Felipe L; Gatto, Mariele; Bassi, Nicola; Luisetto, Roberto; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell–cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte–macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26142116

  20. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  1. Herbal medicinal products target defined biochemical and molecular mediators of inflammatory autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by synovial inflammation, damage to cartilage and bone, and deformities of the joints. Several drugs possessing anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties are being used in the conventional (allopathic) system of medicine to treat RA. However, the long-term use of these drugs is associated with harmful side effects. Therefore, newer drugs with low or no toxicity for the treatment of RA are actively being sought. Interestingly, several herbs demonstrate anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. In this review, we describe the role of the major biochemical and molecular mediators in the pathogenesis of RA, and highlight the sites of action of herbal medicinal products that have anti-arthritic activity. With the rapidly increasing use of CAM products by patients with RA and other inflammation-related disorders, our review presents timely information validating the scientific rationale for the use of natural therapeutic products. PMID:21115252

  2. Autoimmune Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Amy M. L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; So, Elson; Lennon, Vanda A.; Shin, Cheolsu; Klein, Christopher J.; Watson, Robert E.; Kotsenas, Amy L.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; Cascino, Gregory D.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Nickels, Katherine C.; Aksamit, Allen J.; Noe, Katherine H.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical characteristics and immunotherapy responses in patients with autoimmune epilepsy. Design Observational, retrospective case series. Setting Mayo Clinic Health System. Patients Thirty-two patients with an exclusive (n=11) or predominant (n = 21) seizure presentation in whom an autoimmune etiology was suspected (on the basis of neural autoantibody [91%], inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid [31%], or magnetic resonance imaging suggesting inflammation [63%]) were studied. All had partial seizures: 81% had failed treatment with 2 or more anti-epileptic drugs and had daily seizures and 38% had seizure semiologies that were multifocal or changed with time. Head magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 15 (47%) at onset. Electroencephalogram abnormalities included interictal epileptiform discharges in 20; electrographic seizures in 15; and focal slowing in 13. Neural autoantibodies included voltage-gated potassium channel complex in 56% (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 specific, 14; contactin-associated proteinlike 2 specific, 1); glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 in 22%; collapsin response-mediator protein 5 in 6%; and Ma2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor in 1 patient each. Intervention Immunotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone; intravenous immune globulin; and combinations of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclo-phosphamide. Main Outcome Measure Seizure frequency. Results After a median interval of 17 months (range, 3–72 months), 22 of 27 (81%) reported improvement postimmunotherapy; 18 were seizure free. The median time from seizure onset to initiating immunotherapy was 4 months for responders and 22 months for nonresponders (P<.05). All voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patients reported initial or lasting benefit (P<.05). One voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patient was seizure free after

  3. Specific Binding of Peroxidase-Labeled Myelin Basic Protein in Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anne B.; Wiśniewski, Henryk M.; Raine, Cedric S.; Eylar, E. H.; Terry, Robert D.

    1971-01-01

    A conjugate of horseradish peroxidase and the encephalitogenic basic protein from myelin has been used to study the antigen reactivity of tissue in the autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Control conjugates were also prepared of peroxidase and bovine serum albumin and of peroxidase and lysozyme, another basic protein. The basic protein from myelin conjugate was specifically bound by lymph node cells from rabbits immunized against the basic protein. Some of these cells appeared to be plasma cells. The conjugate was also specifically bound by occasional cells in the spinal-cord infiltrates of animals with early signs of allergic encephalomyelitis. These cells resembled large lymphocytes and plasma cells. There was no difference between the binding of basic protein of bovine and rabbit origin. The findings suggest the possibility that a local release of antibody within the target organ may play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic encephalomyelitis. Images PMID:5288245

  4. Specific binding of peroxidase-labeled myelin basic protein in allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Wiśniewski, H M; Raine, C S; Eylar, E H; Terry, R D

    1971-11-01

    A conjugate of horseradish peroxidase and the encephalitogenic basic protein from myelin has been used to study the antigen reactivity of tissue in the autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Control conjugates were also prepared of peroxidase and bovine serum albumin and of peroxidase and lysozyme, another basic protein. The basic protein from myelin conjugate was specifically bound by lymph node cells from rabbits immunized against the basic protein. Some of these cells appeared to be plasma cells. The conjugate was also specifically bound by occasional cells in the spinal-cord infiltrates of animals with early signs of allergic encephalomyelitis. These cells resembled large lymphocytes and plasma cells. There was no difference between the binding of basic protein of bovine and rabbit origin. The findings suggest the possibility that a local release of antibody within the target organ may play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic encephalomyelitis.

  5. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal

  6. The disease-modifying effects of a Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are preferentially due to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol acting through CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Feliú, Ana; Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Mecha, Miriam; Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guaza, Carmen; de Lago, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Sativex(®), an equimolecular combination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-botanical drug substance (Δ(9)-THC-BDS) and cannabidiol-botanical drug substance (CBD-BDS), is a licensed medicine that may be prescribed for alleviating specific symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) such as spasticity and pain. However, further evidence suggest that it could be also active as disease-modifying therapy given the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties of their two major components. In this study, we investigated this potential in the experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model of MS in mice. We compared the effect of a Sativex-like combination of Δ(9)-THC-BDS (10 mg/kg) and CBD-BDS (10 mg/kg) with Δ(9)-THC-BDS (20 mg/kg) or CBD-BDS (20 mg/kg) administered separately by intraperitoneal administration to EAE mice. Treatments were initiated at the time that symptoms appear and continued up to the first relapse of the disease. The results show that the treatment with a Sativex-like combination significantly improved the neurological deficits typical of EAE mice, in parallel with a reduction in the number and extent of cell aggregates present in the spinal cord which derived from cell infiltration to the CNS. These effects were completely reproduced by the treatment with Δ(9)-THC-BDS alone, but not by CBD-BDS alone which only delayed the onset of the disease without improving disease progression and reducing the cell infiltrates in the spinal cord. Next, we investigated the potential targets involved in the effects of Δ(9)-THC-BDS by selectively blocking CB(1) or PPAR-γ receptors, and we found a complete reversion of neurological benefits and the reduction in cell aggregates only with rimonabant, a selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Collectively, our data support the therapeutic potential of Sativex as a phytocannabinoid formulation capable of attenuating EAE progression, and that the active compound was Δ(9)-THC-BDS acting through CB(1

  7. The disease-modifying effects of a Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are preferentially due to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol acting through CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Feliú, Ana; Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Mecha, Miriam; Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guaza, Carmen; de Lago, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Sativex(®), an equimolecular combination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-botanical drug substance (Δ(9)-THC-BDS) and cannabidiol-botanical drug substance (CBD-BDS), is a licensed medicine that may be prescribed for alleviating specific symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) such as spasticity and pain. However, further evidence suggest that it could be also active as disease-modifying therapy given the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties of their two major components. In this study, we investigated this potential in the experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model of MS in mice. We compared the effect of a Sativex-like combination of Δ(9)-THC-BDS (10 mg/kg) and CBD-BDS (10 mg/kg) with Δ(9)-THC-BDS (20 mg/kg) or CBD-BDS (20 mg/kg) administered separately by intraperitoneal administration to EAE mice. Treatments were initiated at the time that symptoms appear and continued up to the first relapse of the disease. The results show that the treatment with a Sativex-like combination significantly improved the neurological deficits typical of EAE mice, in parallel with a reduction in the number and extent of cell aggregates present in the spinal cord which derived from cell infiltration to the CNS. These effects were completely reproduced by the treatment with Δ(9)-THC-BDS alone, but not by CBD-BDS alone which only delayed the onset of the disease without improving disease progression and reducing the cell infiltrates in the spinal cord. Next, we investigated the potential targets involved in the effects of Δ(9)-THC-BDS by selectively blocking CB(1) or PPAR-γ receptors, and we found a complete reversion of neurological benefits and the reduction in cell aggregates only with rimonabant, a selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Collectively, our data support the therapeutic potential of Sativex as a phytocannabinoid formulation capable of attenuating EAE progression, and that the active compound was Δ(9)-THC-BDS acting through CB(1

  8. Custom cerium oxide nanoparticles protect against a free radical mediated autoimmune degenerative disease in the brain.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Karin L; DeCoteau, William; Estevez, Ana; Reed, Kenneth J; Costanzo, Wendi; Sanford, David; Leiter, James C; Clauss, Jennifer; Knapp, Kylie; Gomez, Carlos; Mullen, Patrick; Rathbun, Elle; Prime, Kelly; Marini, Jessica; Patchefsky, Jamie; Patchefsky, Arthur S; Hailstone, Richard K; Erlichman, Joseph S

    2013-12-23

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanoceria's efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being 'washed' off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ∼4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems.

  9. Autoimmune muscular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C

    2005-05-01

    The T cell-mediated mechanism responsible for Polymyositis and inclusion Body Myositis and the complement-mediated microangiopathy associated with Dermatomyositis are reviewed. The management of autoimmune myopathies with the presently available immunotherapeutic agents as well as new therapies and ongoing trials are discussed.

  10. Inhibition of System Xc(-) Transporter Attenuates Autoimmune Inflammatory Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Evonuk, Kirsten S; Baker, Brandi J; Doyle, Ryan E; Moseley, Carson E; Sestero, Christine M; Johnston, Bryce P; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J; Weaver, Casey T; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M

    2015-07-15

    T cell infiltration into the CNS is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system Xc(-) transporter; however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system Xc(-) attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system Xc(-) 7 d after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system Xc(-) were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system Xc(-) in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system Xc(-) transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system Xc(-) transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary coculture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system Xc(-) transporter, causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Taken together, these studies support a novel role for the system Xc(-) transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE.

  11. Inhibition of system xc− transporter attenuates autoimmune inflammatory demyelination1

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Ryan E.; Moseley, Carson E.; Sestero, Christine M.; Johnston, Bryce P.; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J.; Weaver, Casey T.; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system xc− transporter, however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system xc− attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system xc− seven days after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system xc− were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system xc− in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system xc− transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system xc− transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary co-culture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system xc− transporter causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing OLs. Taken together these studies support a novel role for the system xc− transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE. PMID:26071560

  12. Immune complex-mediated autoimmunity in a patient With Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17p11.2).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Vilboux, Thierry; Smith, Ann C M; Peterson, Erik J

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a sporadic congenital disorder involving multiple organ systems caused by chromosome 17p11.2 deletions. Smith-Magenis syndrome features craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, cognitive impairment, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In addition, some SMS patients may exhibit hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the first case of SMS-associated autoimmunity in a woman who presented with adult onset of multiple autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. Molecular analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed a de novo 3.8-Mb deletion (breakpoints, chr17: 16,660,721-20,417,975), resulting in haploinsufficiency for TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor). Our data are consistent with potential loss of function for the BAFF (B cell-activating factor) receptor TACI as a contributing factor to human autoimmune phenomena.

  13. iNOS null MRL+/+ mice show attenuation of trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity: contribution of reactive nitrogen species and lipid-derived reactive aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangduo; Wakamiya, Maki; Wang, Jianling; Ansari, G A S; Firoze Khan, M

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggest that free radicals, especially overproduction of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and lipid-derived reactive aldehydes (LDRAs), are associated with trichloroethene (TCE)-mediated autoimmune response. The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of RNS and LDRAs in TCE-mediated autoimmunity by using iNOS-null MRL+/+ mice. iNOS-null MRL+/+ mice were obtained by backcrossing iNOS-null mice (B6.129P2-Nos2(tm1Lau)/J) to MRL +/+ mice. Female MRL+/+ and iNOS-null MRL+/+ mice were given TCE (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4(th) day) for 6 weeks; their respective controls received corn oil only. TCE exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA in livers, iNOS protein in livers and sera, increased nitrotyrosine (NT) formation in both livers and sera, induction of MDA-/HNE-protein adducts in livers and their respective antibodies in sera along with significant increases in serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA in MRL+/+ mice. Even though in iNOS-null MRL+/+ mice, the iNOS and NT levels were negligible in both TCE-treated and untreated groups, TCE treatment still led to significant increases in MDA-/HNE-protein adducts and their respective antibodies along with increases in serum ANA and anti-dsDNA compared to controls. Most remarkably, the increases in serum ANA and anti-dsDNA induced by TCE in the iNOS-null MRL+/+ mice were significantly less pronounced compared to that in MRL+/+ mice. Our results provide further evidence that both RNS and LDRAs contribute to TCE-induced autoimmunity in MRL+/+ mice, and iNOS deficiency attenuates this autoimmune response.

  14. Immunosuppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs by antibrain and antithymocyte heteroantisera.

    PubMed

    Rauch, H C; Tom, B H

    1980-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by central nervous system (CNS) myelin basic protein (MBP) in adjuvant, is considered a thymus dependent autoimmune disease. Brain contains the thymic antigen, thy 1. The possibility that brain associated anti thy 1 immunoglobulin may be provoked in certain pathologic conditions of the CNS suggested a comparative evaluation of brain and thymocyte antisera on the development of EAE. Antisera produced in rabbits against brain from guinea pigs, rats and mice or fetal guinea pig thymus were highly reactive against thy 1 containing cells when assessed by indirect immunofluorescent staining or complement-mediated cell lysis. Treatment of guinea pigs with heteroantisera to guinea pig and mouse, but not to rat brain, for 3 days around the time of MBP sensitization markedly reduced physical signs of disease, particularly paralysis, but had little effect on the development of inflammatory lesions in the CNS. Anti-guinea pig thymocyte sera eliminated all physical signs of EAE with only residual pathology. These results establish the relative immunosuppressive effect of brain and thymocyte antisera in EAE and corroborate the thymus-dependent nature of EAE in guinea pigs.

  15. Pathogenic Function of Herpesvirus Entry Mediator in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis by Induction of Th1- and Th17-Type T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Yukimi; Nagai, Tomohiko; Murata, Sizuka; Mizuno, Yukari; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Shoda, Hiromi; Morishige, Naoyuki; Yanai, Ryoji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Tamada, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), a member of the TNFR superfamily, serves as a unique molecular switch to mediate both stimulatory and inhibitory cosignals, depending on its functions as a receptor or ligand interacting with multiple binding partners. In this study, we explored the cosignaling functions of HVEM in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a mouse model resembling human autoimmune uveitis conditions such as ocular sarcoidosis and Behcet disease. Our studies revealed that EAU severity significantly decreased in HVEM-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice, suggesting that stimulatory cosignals from the HVEM receptor are predominant in EAU. Further studies elucidated that the HVEM cosignal plays an important role in the induction of both Th1- and Th17-type pathogenic T cells in EAU, including differentiation of IL-17-producing αβ(+)γδ(-) conventional CD4(+) T cells. Mice lacking lymphotoxin-like, inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes : LIGHT), B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) or both LIGHT and BTLA are also less susceptible to EAU, indicating that LIGHT-HVEM and BTLA-HVEM interactions, two major molecular pathways mediating HVEM functions, are both important in determining EAU pathogenesis. Finally, blocking HVEM cosignals by antagonistic anti-HVEM Abs ameliorated EAU. Taken together, our studies revealed a novel function of the HVEM cosignaling molecule and its ligands in EAU pathogenesis through the induction of Th1- and Th17-type T cell responses and suggested that HVEM-related molecular pathways can be therapeutic targets in autoimmune uveitis. PMID:26912321

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M P; Fozdar, M

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between the immune system and psychological states are both intricate and intriguing. Research at a molecular level has thrown considerable light on the previously ill-defined area of psychoneuroimmunology. In this report, we explore the psychoneuroimmunology of autoimmune disorders, particularly rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. Animal models of these diseases have provided a particularly useful window on complex psychoneuroimmunological interactions. Observations about the effect of stress on the onset and course of autoimmune disorders has added to our understanding of psychoneuroimmunological interactions. These interactions are bi-directional, as reflected in the autoimmune-mediated neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus. Exploring the role of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the stress response may have important therapeutic implications for autoimmune disorders.

  17. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  18. Cinnamon Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice via Regulatory T Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach. PMID:25569428

  19. Exacerbation of autoimmune neuroinflammation by dietary sodium is genetically controlled and sex specific.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Dimitry N; Case, Laure K; Hickey, William F; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease influenced by genetics and the environment. MS incidence in female subjects has approximately tripled in the last century, suggesting a sex-specific environmental influence. Recent animal and human studies have implicated dietary sodium as a risk factor in MS, whereby high sodium augmented the generation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal model of MS. However, whether dietary sodium interacts with sex or genetics remains unknown. Here, we show that high dietary sodium exacerbates EAE in a strain- and sex-specific fashion. In C57BL6/J mice, exposure to a high-salt diet exacerbated disease in both sexes, while in SJL/JCrHsd mice, it did so only in females. In further support of a genetic component, we found that sodium failed to modify EAE course in C57BL6/J mice carrying a 129/Sv-derived interval on chromosome 17. Furthermore, we found that the high-sodium diet did not augment Th17 or Th1 responses, but it did result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability and brain pathology. Our results demonstrate that the effects of dietary sodium on autoimmune neuroinflammation are sex specific, genetically controlled, and CNS mediated.

  20. Cistromic and genetic evidence that the vitamin D receptor mediates susceptibility to latitude-dependent autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Booth, D R; Ding, N; Parnell, G P; Shahijanian, F; Coulter, S; Schibeci, S D; Atkins, A R; Stewart, G J; Evans, R M; Downes, M; Liddle, C

    2016-06-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many cell types, including immune cells. It requires binding of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D3) for activation. Many autoimmune diseases show latitude-dependent prevalence and/or association with vitamin D deficiency, and vitamin D supplementation is commonly used in their clinical management. 1,25D3 is regulated by genes associated with the risk of autoimmune diseases and predominantly expressed in myeloid cells. We determined the VDR cistrome in monocytes and monocyte-derived inflammatory (DC1) and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC2). VDR motifs were highly overrepresented in ChIP-Seq peaks in stimulated monocyte (40%), DC1 (21%) and DC2 (47%), Pautoimmune disease risk polymorphisms were highly overrepresented within 5 kb of the peaks. Several transcription factor recognition motifs were highly overrepresented in the peaks, including those for the autoimmune risk gene, BATF. This evidence indicates that VDR regulates hundreds of myeloid cell genes and that the molecular pathways controlled by VDR in these cells are important in maintaining tolerance.

  1. Autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Greco, Antonio; Rizzo, Maria Ida; De Virgilio, Armando; Conte, Michela; Gallo, Andrea; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of seizures. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Besides, recent studies show that epilepsy and autoimmune disease frequently co-occur. Autoimmune epilepsy is increasingly recognized in the spectrum of neurological disorders characterized by detection of neural autoantibodies in serum or spinal fluid and responsiveness to immunotherapy. An autoimmune cause is suspected based on frequent or medically intractable seizures and the presence of at least one neural antibody, inflammatory changes indicated in serum or spinal fluid or on MRI, or a personal or family history of autoimmunity. It is essential that an autoimmune etiology be considered in the initial differential diagnosis of new onset epilepsy, because early immunotherapy assures an optimal outcome for the patient.

  2. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E A

    1995-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis can present as either acute or chronic disease in children. Clinical and laboratory features, including association with extrahepatic autoimmune syndromes and prompt response to immunosuppressive treatment, circulating autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, suggest an immune etiology. However, the disease mechanism remains uncertain. Different types of autoimmune hepatitis are defined on the basis of which autoantibodies are present: anti-smooth muscle (type 1), anti-liver/kidney microsomal (type 2), or anti-soluble liver antigen (type 3). Diseases which may be clinically similar to autoimmune hepatitis must be excluded before the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is established: Wilson's disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic hepatitis B or C, and drug-induced liver disease are among the most important entities. Corticosteroids alone or with azathioprine constitute the usual treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. Although some children achieve a complete remission, or even recovery, and can stop immunosuppressive treatment, others required low-dose prednisone treatment indefinitely.

  3. Autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Greco, Antonio; Rizzo, Maria Ida; De Virgilio, Armando; Conte, Michela; Gallo, Andrea; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, relatively little is known about the processes leading to the generation of seizures. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Besides, recent studies show that epilepsy and autoimmune disease frequently co-occur. Autoimmune epilepsy is increasingly recognized in the spectrum of neurological disorders characterized by detection of neural autoantibodies in serum or spinal fluid and responsiveness to immunotherapy. An autoimmune cause is suspected based on frequent or medically intractable seizures and the presence of at least one neural antibody, inflammatory changes indicated in serum or spinal fluid or on MRI, or a personal or family history of autoimmunity. It is essential that an autoimmune etiology be considered in the initial differential diagnosis of new onset epilepsy, because early immunotherapy assures an optimal outcome for the patient. PMID:26626229

  4. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  5. Proteins derived from neutrophil extracellular traps may serve as self-antigens and mediate organ damage in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason S; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in circulation and represent one of the first lines of defense against invading pathogens. Neutrophils possess a vast arsenal of antimicrobial proteins, which can be released from the cell by a death program termed NETosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures consisting of decondensed chromatin decorated with granular and cytosolic proteins. Both exuberant NETosis and impaired clearance of NETs have been implicated in the organ damage of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), small vessel vasculitis (SVV), and psoriasis. NETs may also represent an important source of modified autoantigens in SLE and SVV. Here, we review the autoimmune diseases linked to NETosis, with a focus on how modified proteins externalized on NETs may trigger loss of immune tolerance and promote organ damage.

  6. B7-H1 shapes T-cell–mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction and regional encephalitogenicity in spontaneous CNS autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Luisa; Kuzmanov, Ivan; Hucke, Stephanie; Gross, Catharina C.; Posevitz, Vilmos; Dreykluft, Angela; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Janoschka, Claudia; Lindner, Maren; Herold, Martin; Schwab, Nicholas; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Kurts, Christian; Meuth, Sven G.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that determine lesion localization or phenotype variation in multiple sclerosis are mostly unidentified. Although transmigration of activated encephalitogenic T cells across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the disease pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, the consequences on brain endothelial barrier integrity upon interaction with such T cells and subsequent lesion formation and distribution are largely unknown. We made use of a transgenic spontaneous mouse model of CNS autoimmunity characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions confined to optic nerves and spinal cord (OSE mice). Genetic ablation of a single immune-regulatory molecule in this model [i.e., B7-homolog 1 (B7-H1, PD-L1)] not only significantly increased incidence of spontaneous CNS autoimmunity and aggravated disease course, especially in the later stages of disease, but also importantly resulted in encephalitogenic T-cell infiltration and lesion formation in normally unaffected brain regions, such as the cerebrum and cerebellum. Interestingly, B7-H1 ablation on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cells, but not on antigen-presenting cells, amplified T-cell effector functions, such as IFN-γ and granzyme B production. Therefore, these T cells were rendered more capable of eliciting cell contact-dependent brain endothelial cell dysfunction and increased barrier permeability in an in vitro model of the BBB. Our findings suggest that a single immune-regulatory molecule on T cells can be ultimately responsible for localized BBB breakdown, and thus substantial changes in lesion topography in the context of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27671636

  7. Murine pattern recognition receptor dectin-1 is essential in the development of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

    PubMed

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Reid, Delyth M; Yeoh, Joyce; Taylor, Julie; McKenzie, Emma J; Brown, Gordon D; Gordon, Siamon; Forrester, John V; Wong, Simon Y C

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) are an essential component of immunization protocols in a number of autoimmune disease animal models including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and uveoretinitis (EAE and EAU, respectively). We determined the role in EAU of two C-type lectin receptors on myeloid cells that recognize and respond to mycobacteria. Using receptor-specific antibodies and knockout mice, we demonstrated for the first time that the macrophage mannose receptor delays disease development but does not affect severity. In contrast, dectin-1 is critically involved in the development of CFA-mediated EAU. Disease severity is reduced in dectin-1 knockout mice and antibody blockade of dectin-1 during the induction, but not the effector phase, prevents EAU development. Significantly, similar blockade of dectin-1 in vivo has no effect in non-CFA-mediated, spontaneously induced or adoptive transfer models of EAU. Thus dectin-1 plays a critical role in the ability of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce EAU in mice.

  8. Stem cell reconstitution of autoimmune T cell repertoires.

    PubMed

    Edling, Andrea E; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2005-12-01

    Maintenance of T cell memory in autoimmune disease may be complex because the unending renewable supply of self provides an inherent high antigen load that effectively precludes clearance, and because the broad array of potential immunogenic targets provides extensive self-recognition plasticity. Autoimmunity is characterized by a dynamic self-recognition process in which the primary autoreactivity initiating disease is soon followed and often displaced by secondary neoautoreactivities, or epitope spreading, that emerge as a result of endogenous self-priming. Here we show that the autoimmune disease process involves a tertiary phase of self recognition characterized by stem cell reconstitution of autoreactive T cells that recapitulates the myelin self recognition process involved in disease initiation and spreading during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study indicates that sustained autoimmune memory may not simply be due to the persistence of long-lived memory T cells, but may also involve bone marrow regeneration and replacement of the autoreactive T cell repertoire.

  9. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Neuroinflammation and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) molecules play an important role in the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Several TNF superfamily molecules are known to control alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and immunity. Development of transgenic and gene knockout animals, and monoclonal antibodies against TNFSF molecules have increased our understanding of individual receptor-ligand interactions, and their intracellular signaling during homeostasis and neuroinflammation. A strong clinical association has been observed between TNFSF members and CNS autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis and also in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, they are promising targets for alternative therapeutic options to control autoimmunity. Although, TNFSF ligands are widely distributed and have diverse functions, we have restricted the discussions in this review to TNFSF receptor-ligand interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and CNS autoimmunity.

  10. Protection of Tregs, Suppression of Th1 and Th17 Cells, and Amelioration of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis by a Physically-Modified Saline

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases, the autoreactive T cells overcome the resistance provided by the regulatory T cells (Tregs) due to a decrease in the number of Foxp3-expressing Tregs. Therefore, upregulation and/or maintenance of Tregs during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate Tregs and achieve immunomodulation. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), was found to upregulate Foxp3 and enrich Tregs in MBP-primed T cells. Moreover, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3 and PNS60, inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of iNOS in MBP-primed splenocytes. Incubation of the cells with an NO donor abrogated the RNS60-mediated upregulation of Foxp3. These results suggest that RNS60 boosts Tregs via suppression of NO production. Consistent to the suppressive activity of Tregs towards autoreactive T cells, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3, or PNS60, suppressed the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells and shifted the balance towards a Th2 response. Finally, RNS60 treatment exhibited immunomodulation and ameliorated adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, via Tregs. These results describe a novel immunomodulatory property of RNS60 and suggest its exploration for therapeutic intervention in MS and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:23284794

  11. Protection of Tregs, suppression of Th1 and Th17 cells, and amelioration of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by a physically-modified saline.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Martinson, Jeffrey A; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases, the autoreactive T cells overcome the resistance provided by the regulatory T cells (Tregs) due to a decrease in the number of Foxp3-expressing Tregs. Therefore, upregulation and/or maintenance of Tregs during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate Tregs and achieve immunomodulation. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), was found to upregulate Foxp3 and enrich Tregs in MBP-primed T cells. Moreover, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3 and PNS60, inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of iNOS in MBP-primed splenocytes. Incubation of the cells with an NO donor abrogated the RNS60-mediated upregulation of Foxp3. These results suggest that RNS60 boosts Tregs via suppression of NO production. Consistent to the suppressive activity of Tregs towards autoreactive T cells, RNS60, but not NS, RNS10.3, or PNS60, suppressed the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells and shifted the balance towards a Th2 response. Finally, RNS60 treatment exhibited immunomodulation and ameliorated adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, via Tregs. These results describe a novel immunomodulatory property of RNS60 and suggest its exploration for therapeutic intervention in MS and other autoimmune disorders.

  12. Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stefano; Waiczies, Helmar; Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  13. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  14. AAV8-Mediated Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Gene Delivery Prevents Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis by Regulating MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yiguo; Tao, Lifei; Zheng, Shijie; Lin, Ru; Fu, Xinyu; Chen, Zihe; Lei, Chunyan; Wang, Jiaming; Li, Hongwei; Li, Qiuhong; Lei, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a key hormonal system which regulates the cardiovascular function and is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. With the discovery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protective axis of RAS namely ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas that counteracts the deleterious ACE/AngII/AT1R axis has been established. This axis is emerging as a novel target to attenuate ocular inflammation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that enhancing the activity of the protective axis of RAS by subretinal delivery of an AAV8 (Y733F)-ACE2 vector would protect against the ocular inflammation in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) mice through regulating the local immune responses. Our studies demonstrated that increased ACE2 expression exerts protective effects on inflammation in EAU mouse by modulating ocular immune responses, including the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells and the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages; whereas the systemic immune responses appeared not affected. These effects were mediated by activating the Ang-(1–7)/Mas and inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways. This proof-of-concept study suggests that activation of ocular ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis with AAV gene transfer modulates local immune responses and may be a promising, long-lasting therapeutic strategy for refractory and recurrent uveitis, as well as other inflammatory eye diseases. PMID:27558087

  15. Class II-restricted T cell responses in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. III. Failure of neuroantigen-specific immune tolerance to affect the clinical course of demyelination.

    PubMed

    Miller, S D; Gerety, S J; Kennedy, M K; Peterson, J D; Trotter, J L; Tuohy, V K; Waltenbaugh, C; Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1990-01-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) into susceptible mouse strains produces a chronic demyelinating disease in which mononuclear cell-rich infiltrates in the central nervous system (CNS) are prominent. Current evidence strongly supports an immune-mediated basis for myelin breakdown, with an effector role proposed for TMEV-specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in which lymphokine-activated macrophages mediate bystander demyelination. The present study examined the possibility that concomitant or later-appearing neuroantigen-specific autoimmune T cell responses, such as those demonstrated in chronic-relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE), may contribute to the demyelinating process following TMEV infection. T cell responses against intact, purified major myelin proteins (myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP], and against altered myelin constituents were readily demonstrable in SJL/J mice with R-EAE, but were not detectable in SJL/J mice with TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. TMEV-infected mice also did not display T cell responses against the peptide fragments of MBP(91-104) and PLP(139-151) recently shown to be encephalitogenic in SJL/J mice. In addition, induction of neuroantigen-specific tolerance to a heterogeneous mixture of CNS antigens, via the i.v. injection of syngeneic SJL/J splenocytes covalently coupled with mouse spinal cord homogenate, resulted in significant suppression of clinical and histologic signs of R-EAE and the accompanying MBP- and PLP-specific DTH responses. In contrast, neuroantigen-specific tolerance failed to alter the development of clinical and histologic signs of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease or the accompanying virus-specific DTH and humoral immune responses. These findings demonstrate that TMEV-induced demyelinating disease can occur in the apparent absence of neuroantigen

  16. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2013-03-08

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions.

  17. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions. PMID:23497361

  18. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  19. Complement and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ballanti, Eleonora; Perricone, Carlo; Greco, Elisabetta; Ballanti, Marta; Di Muzio, Gioia; Chimenti, Maria Sole; Perricone, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The complement system is a component of the innate immune system. Its main function was initially believed to be limited to the recognition and elimination of pathogens through direct killing or stimulation of phagocytosis. However, in recent years, the immunoregulatory functions of the complement system were demonstrated and it was determined that the complement proteins play an important role in modulating adaptive immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive responses. When the delicate mechanisms that regulate this sophisticated enzymatic system are unbalanced, the complement system may cause damage, mediating tissue inflammation. Dysregulation of the complement system has been involved in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, Sjögren's syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Complement deficiencies have been associated with an increased risk to develop autoimmune disorders. Because of its functions, the complement system is an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. Up to date, several compounds interfering with the complement cascade have been studied in experimental models for autoimmune diseases. The main therapeutic strategies are inhibition of complement activation components, inhibition of complement receptors, and inhibition of membrane attack complex. At present, none of the available agents was proven to be both safe and effective for treatment of autoimmune diseases in humans. Nonetheless, data from preclinical studies and initial clinical trials suggest that the modulation of the complement system could constitute a viable strategy for the treatment of autoimmune conditions in the decades to come.

  20. Reconceiving autoimmunity: An overview.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2015-06-21

    Three interconnected positions are advocated: (1) although serving as a useful model, the immune self does not exist as such; (2) instead of a self/nonself demarcation, the immune system 'sees' itself, i.e., it does not ignore the 'self' or attack the 'other;' but exhibits a spectrum of responses, which when viewed from outside the system appear as discrimination of 'self' and 'nonself' based on certain criteria of reactivity. When immune reactions are conceived in terms of normal physiology and open exchange with the environment, where borders dividing host and foreign are elusive and changing, host defense is only part of the immune system's functions, which actually comprise two basic tasks: protection, i.e., to preserve host integrity, and maintenance of organismic identity. And thus (3) if the spectrum of immunity is enlarged, differentiating low reactive 'autoimmune' reactions from activated immune responses against the 'other' is only a matter of degree. Simply, all immunity is 'autoimmunity,' and the pathologic state of immunity directed at normal constituents of the organism is a particular case of dis-regulation, which appropriately is designated, autoimmune. Other uses of 'autoimmunity' and its congeners function as the semantic remnants of Burnet's original self/nonself theory and should be replaced. A new nomenclature is proposed, concinnity, which more accurately designates the physiology of the animal's ordinary housekeeping economy mediated by the immune system than 'autoimmunity' when used to describe such normal functions.

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  2. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue and antigens. As a result, the body sets off a reaction that destroys normal tissues. The exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ...

  3. Autoimmune Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Michel; Pittock, Sean J

    2015-06-01

    Seizures are recognized as a common manifestation of autoimmune limbic encephalitis and multifocal paraneoplastic disorders, but accumulating evidence supports an autoimmune basis for seizures in the absence of syndromic manifestations of encephalitis. Autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy have been linked to neural-specific autoantibodies targeting both intracellular and plasma membrane antigens. The detection of these antibodies can serve as a diagnostic marker directing physicians toward specific cancers and can assist in therapeutic decision-making, but are not necessary to establish the diagnosis. Response to an immunotherapy trial can support the diagnosis and help establish prognosis. Early recognition is important because expedited diagnosis can facilitate recovery. In this review, the authors summarize the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of autoimmune epilepsies for which neural antigen-specific autoantibodies serve as diagnostic aids. PMID:26060904

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  5. Disruption of the immune-checkpoint VISTA gene imparts a proinflammatory phenotype with predisposition to the development of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Le Mercier, Isabelle; Putra, Juan; Chen, Wenna; Liu, Jun; Schenk, Austin D; Nowak, Elizabeth C; Suriawinata, Arief A; Li, Jiannan; Noelle, Randolph J

    2014-10-14

    V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses. Previous studies using a VISTA-neutralizing monoclonal antibody show that VISTA blockade enhances T-cell activation. The current study describes a comprehensive characterization of mice in which the gene for VISTA has been deleted. Despite the apparent normal hematopoietic development in young mice, VISTA genetic deficiency leads to a gradual accumulation of spontaneously activated T cells, accompanied by the production of a spectrum of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Enhanced T-cell responsiveness was also observed upon immunization with neoantigen. Despite the presence of multiorgan chronic inflammation, aged VISTA-deficient mice did not develop systemic or organ-specific autoimmune disease. Interbreeding of the VISTA-deficient mice with 2D2 T-cell receptor transgenic mice, which are predisposed to the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, drastically enhanced disease incidence and intensity. Disease development is correlated with the increase in the activation of encephalitogenic T cells in the periphery and enhanced infiltration into the CNS. Taken together, our data suggest that VISTA is a negative checkpoint regulator whose loss of function lowers the threshold for T-cell activation, allowing for an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype and an increase in the frequency and intensity of autoimmunity under susceptible conditions.

  6. The ammonium/nitrate ratio is an input signal in the temperature-modulated, SNC1-mediated and EDS1-dependent autoimmunity of nudt6-2 nudt7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Lu, Yuqing; Liu, Pei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Jianhua; Ge, Xiaochun; Xia, Yiji

    2013-01-01

    AtNUDT7 was reported to be a negative regulator of EDS1-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis. However, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanism of the AtNUDT7-regulated defense pathway remains elusive. Here we report that AtNUDT7 and its closest paralog AtNUDT6 function as novel negative regulators of SNC1, a TIR-NB-LRR-type R gene. SNC1 is upregulated at transcriptional and possibly post-transcriptional levels in nudt6-2 nudt7. The nudt6-2 nudt7 double mutant exhibits autoimmune phenotypes that are modulated by temperature and fully dependent on EDS1. The nudt6-2 nudt7 mutation causes EDS1 nuclear accumulation shortly after the establishment of autoimmunity caused by the temperature shift. We found that a low ammonium/nitrate ratio in growth media leads to a higher level of nitrite-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production in nudt6-2 nudt7, and NO acts in a positive feedback loop with EDS1 to promote the autoimmunity. The low ammonium/nitrate ratio also enhances autoimmunity in snc1-1 and cpr1, two other autoimmune mutants in Arabidopsis. Our study indicates that Arabidopsis senses the ammonium/nitrate ratio as an input signal to determine the amplitude of the EDS1-mediated defense response, probably through the modulation of NO production.

  7. IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Roch, Toralf; Lampropoulou, Vicky; O'Connor, Richard A; Stervbo, Ulrik; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Ries, Stefanie; Dang, Van Duc; Jaimes, Yarúa; Daridon, Capucine; Li, Rui; Jouneau, Luc; Boudinot, Pierre; Wilantri, Siska; Sakwa, Imme; Miyazaki, Yusei; Leech, Melanie D; McPherson, Rhoanne C; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus; Hoehlig, Kai; Meinl, Edgar; Grützkau, Andreas; Grün, Joachim R; Horn, Katharina; Kühl, Anja A; Dörner, Thomas; Bar-Or, Amit; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Anderton, Stephen M; Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-03-20

    B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens. Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation of immunity. Mice in which only B cells did not express IL-35 lost their ability to recover from the T-cell-mediated demyelinating autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, these mice displayed a markedly improved resistance to infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as shown by their superior containment of the bacterial growth and their prolonged survival after primary infection, and upon secondary challenge, compared to control mice. The increased immunity found in mice lacking IL-35 production by B cells was associated with a higher activation of macrophages and inflammatory T cells, as well as an increased function of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). During Salmonella infection, IL-35- and IL-10-producing B cells corresponded to two largely distinct sets of surface-IgM(+)CD138(hi)TACI(+)CXCR4(+)CD1d(int)Tim1(int) plasma cells expressing the transcription factor Blimp1 (also known as Prdm1). During EAE, CD138(+) plasma cells were also the main source of B-cell-derived IL-35 and IL-10. Collectively, our data show the importance of IL-35-producing B cells in regulation of immunity and highlight IL-35 production by B cells as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune and infectious diseases. This study reveals the central role of activated B cells, particularly plasma cells, and their production of cytokines in the regulation of immune responses in health and disease.

  8. Immunopathology of Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis is similar to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blair, Tiffany C; Manoharan, Minsha; Rawlings-Rhea, Stephanie D; Tagge, Ian; Kohama, Steven G; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Ferguson, Betsy; Woltjer, Randall L; Frederick, Meredith C; Pollaro, James; Rooney, William D; Sherman, Larry S; Bourdette, Dennis N; Wong, Scott W

    2016-02-15

    Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that occurs spontaneously in a colony of Japanese macaques (JM) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Animals with JME display clinical signs resembling multiple sclerosis (MS), and magnetic resonance imaging reveals multiple T2-weighted hyperintensities and gadolinium-enhancing lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we undertook studies to determine if JME possesses features of an immune-mediated disease in the CNS. Comparable to MS, the CNS of animals with JME contain active lesions positive for IL-17, CD4+ T cells with Th1 and Th17 phenotypes, CD8+ T cells, and positive CSF findings.

  9. ERβ-Dependent Direct Suppression of Human and Murine Th17 Cells and Treatment of Established Central Nervous System Autoimmunity by a Neurosteroid.

    PubMed

    Aggelakopoulou, Maria; Kourepini, Evangelia; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Simoes, Davina C M; Kalavrizioti, Dimitra; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Panoutsakopoulou, Vily

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the CNS, is mediated by autoreactive Th cells. A previous study showed that the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), when administered preclinically, could suppress progression of relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effects of DHEA on human or murine pathogenic immune cells, such as Th17, were unknown. In addition, effects of this neurosteroid on symptomatic disease, as well as the receptors involved, had not been investigated. In this study, we show that DHEA suppressed peripheral responses from patients with MS and reversed established paralysis and CNS inflammation in four different EAE models, including the 2D2 TCR-transgenic mouse model. DHEA directly inhibited human and murine Th17 cells, inducing IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. Administration of DHEA in symptomatic mice induced regulatory CD4(+) T cells that were suppressive in an IL-10-dependent manner. Expression of the estrogen receptor β by CD4(+) T cells was necessary for DHEA-mediated EAE amelioration, as well as for direct downregulation of Th17 responses. TGF-β1 as well as aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation was necessary for the expansion of IL-10-producing T cells by DHEA. Thus, our studies demonstrate that compounds that inhibit pathogenic Th17 responses and expand functional regulatory cells could serve as therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases, such as MS. PMID:27549171

  10. Autoimmune encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of twelve autoimmune encephatilic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  11. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  12. PD-1 pathway-mediated regulation of islet-specific CD4+ T cell subsets in autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Martinov, Tijana; Spanier, Justin A.; Pauken, Kristen E.; Fife, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Clinical evidence and studies in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suggest that insulin is a major autoantigen. With this in mind, we developed insulin B10-23:IAg7 tetramer reagents to track insulin-specific CD4+ T cells in mice and interrogated the role of Programmed death-1 (PD-1) for peripheral tolerance. PD-1 is a T cell inhibitory receptor necessary to maintain tolerance and prevent T1D in NOD mice. PD-1 pathway inhibitors are increasingly used in the clinic for treating malignancies, and while many patients benefit, some develop adverse autoimmune events, including T1D. We therefore sought to understand the role of PD-1 in maintaining islet-specific tolerance in diabetes-resistant strains. B6.g7 mice express the same MHC Class II allele as NOD mice, have predominantly naïve insulin-specific CD4+ T cells in the periphery, and remain diabetes-free even after PD-1 pathway blockade. Here, we examined the trafficking potential of insulin-specific CD4+ T cells in NOD and B6.g7 mice with or without anti-PD-L1 treatment, and found that PD-L1 blockade preferentially increased the number of CD44highCXCR3+ insulin-specific cells in NOD but not B6.g7 mice. Additionally, we investigated whether pancreatic islets in NOD and B6.g7 mice expressed CXCL10, a lymphocyte homing chemokine and ligand for CXCR3. Anti-PD-L1 treated and control NOD mice had detectable CXCL10 expression in the islets, while B6.g7 islets did not. These data suggest that islet tolerance may be in part attributed to the pancreatic environment and in the absence of pancreas inflammation, chemotactic cytokines may be missing. This, together with our previous data showing that PD-1 pathway blockade preferentially affects effector but not anergic self-specific T cells has implications for the use of checkpoint blockade in treating tumor patients. Our work suggests that

  13. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L.

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Lethal acute demyelinization with encephalo-myelitis as a complication of cured Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Hieronimus, S; Vandenbos, F; Delmont, E; Cua, E; Cherick, F; Paquis, P; Michiels, J-F; Fenichel, P; Brucker-Davis, F

    2010-12-01

    Cushing's disease is usually associated with higher mortality rate, especially from cardiovascular causes. Development or exacerbation of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases is known to occur in patients with hypercortisolism after cure. We report for the first time a 34-year old woman with a psychiatric background, who developed four months after the surgical cure of Cushing's disease an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting initially as a psychiatric illness. We hypothesize that the recent correction of hypercortisolism triggered ADEM and that the atypical presentation, responsible for diagnosis delay, led to the death of this patient. PMID:20850107

  15. A monoclonal antibody to alpha 4 integrin suppresses and reverses active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kent, S J; Karlik, S J; Cannon, C; Hines, D K; Yednock, T A; Fritz, L C; Horner, H C

    1995-04-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), circulating leukocytes enter the central nervous system (CNS) producing inflammation, myelin damage and paralysis. Prevention of leukocyte infiltration by an antibody against alpha 4 integrin suppressed clinical and pathological features of EAE in the guinea pig. Rapid clearance of leukocytes from the CNS and reversal of clinical findings were observed when anti-alpha 4 treatment was administered during active disease. Clinical improvement was accompanied by a marked decrease in abnormal pathological findings, including demyelination. Therefore anti-alpha 4 is an effective treatment of EAE and may be similarly useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  16. Immune-Mediated Nephropathy and Systemic Autoimmunity in Mice Does Not Require Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (RIPK3)

    PubMed Central

    Corradetti, Chelsea; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Gallucci, Stefania; Madaio, Michael; Balachandran, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Immune mediated nephropathy is one of the most serious manifestations of lupus and is characterized by severe inflammation and necrosis that, if untreated, eventually leads to renal failure. Although lupus has a higher incidence in women, both sexes can develop lupus glomerulonephritis; nephritis in men develops earlier and is more severe than in women. It is therefore important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating nephritis in each sex. Previous work by our lab found that the absence or pharmacological inhibition of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), an enzyme involved in DNA repair and necrotic cell death, affects only male mice and results in milder nephritis, with less in situ inflammation, and diminished incidence of necrotic lesions, allowing for higher survival rates. A second pathway mediating necrosis involves Receptor-Interacting Serine-Threonine Kinase 3 (RIPK3); in this study we sought to investigate the impact of RIPK3 on the development of lupus and nephritis in both sexes. To this end, we used two inducible murine models of lupus: chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) and pristane-induced lupus; and nephrotoxic serum (NTS)-induced nephritis as a model of immune mediated nephropathy. We found that the absence of RIPK3 has neither positive nor negative impact on the disease development or progression of lupus and nephritis in all three models, and in both male and female mice. We conclude that RIPK3 is dispensable for the pathogenesis of lupus and immune mediated nephropathy as to accelerate, worsen or ameliorate the disease. PMID:27669412

  17. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  18. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  19. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  20. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  2. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  3. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  4. Detection of an autoreactive T-cell population within the polyclonal repertoire that undergoes distinct autoimmune regulator (Aire)-mediated selection.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ruth T; DeVoss, Jason J; Moon, James J; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Jenkins, Marc K; Anderson, Mark S

    2012-05-15

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays a critical role in central tolerance by promoting the display of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. To study the influence of Aire on thymic selection in a physiological setting, we used tetramer reagents to detect autoreactive T cells specific for the Aire-dependent tissue-specific antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), in the polyclonal repertoire. Two class II tetramer reagents were designed to identify T cells specific for two different peptide epitopes of IRBP. Analyses of the polyclonal T-cell repertoire showed a high frequency of activated T cells specific for both IRBP tetramers in Aire(-/-) mice, but not in Aire(+/+) mice. Surprisingly, although one tetramer-binding T-cell population was efficiently deleted in the thymus in an Aire-dependent manner, the second tetramer-binding population was not deleted and could be detected in both the Aire(-/-) and Aire(+/+) T-cell repertoires. We found that Aire-dependent thymic deletion of IRBP-specific T cells relies on intercellular transfer of IRBP between thymic stroma and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that Aire-mediated deletion relies not only on thymic expression of IRBP, but also on proper antigen processing and presentation of IRBP by thymic antigen-presenting cells.

  5. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Marcais, O; Larrey, D

    1994-01-01

    Acute and chronic autoimmune hepatitis are uncommon inflammatory liver diseases, mainly occurring in young women, in association with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. Different types have been described: type 1 characterized by anti-smooth muscle and anti-nuclear antibodies; type 2 characterized by anti-LKM1 antibodies; type 3 characterized by anti-SLA antibodies. Other types, still not clearly defined, may exist. Autoimmune hepatitis are associated with HLA A1 B8 DR3 and HLA DR4. Without any treatment, the disease leads to cirrhosis and, uncommonly, to fulminant hepatitis. Large doses of corticosteroids usually allow to control the disease. Relapse of hepatitis is frequent after corticosteroid withdrawal. Concomitant administration of immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine allows to reduce corticosteroid dosage and contributes to maintain the remission of the disease. Liver transplantation may be indicated in cases of severe cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis.

  6. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  7. EAF2 mediates germinal centre B-cell apoptosis to suppress excessive immune responses and prevent autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingqian; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Zhou, Yang; Hong, Rongjian; Suzuki, Akari; Tsubata, Takeshi; Hase, Koji; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Regulated apoptosis of germinal centre (GC) B cells is critical for normal humoral immune responses. ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) regulates transcription elongation and has been shown to be an androgen-responsive potential tumour suppressor in prostate by inducing apoptosis. Here we show that EAF2 is selectively upregulated in GC B cells among various immune cell types and promotes apoptosis of GC B cells both in vitro and in vivo. EAF2 deficiency results in enlarged GCs and elevated antibody production during a T-dependent immune response. After immunization with type II collagen, mice lacking EAF2 produce high levels of collagen-specific autoantibodies and rapidly develop severe arthritis. Moreover, the mutant mice spontaneously produce anti-dsDNA, rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies as they age. These results demonstrate that EAF2-mediated apoptosis in GC B cells limits excessive humoral immune responses and is important for maintaining self-tolerance. PMID:26935903

  8. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jasona, Leonard A.; Zinn, Marcie L.; Zinn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. Hurdles to establishing consensus to achieve accurate evaluation of patients with ME continue, fueled by poor agreement about case definitions, slow progress in development of standardized diagnostic approaches, and issues surrounding research priorities. Because there are other medical problems, such as early MS and Parkinson’s Disease, which have some similar clinical presentations, it is critical to accurately diagnose ME to make a differential diagnosis. In this article, we explore and summarize advances in the physiological and neurological approaches to understanding, diagnosing, and treating ME. We identify key areas and approaches to elucidate the core and secondary symptom clusters in ME so as to provide some practical suggestions in evaluation of ME for clinicians and researchers. This review, therefore, represents a synthesis of key discussions in the literature, and has important implications for a better understanding of ME, its biological markers, and diagnostic criteria. There is a clear need for more longitudinal studies in this area with larger data sets, which correct for multiple testing. PMID:26411464

  9. Von-Willebrand Factor Influences Blood Brain Barrier Permeability and Brain Inflammation in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Noubade, Rajkumar; del Rio, Roxana; McElvany, Benjamin; Zachary, James F.; Millward, Jason M.; Wagner, Denisa D.; Offner, Halina; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Teuscher, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Weibel-Palade bodies within endothelial cells are secretory granules known to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF), P-selectin, chemokines, and other stored molecules following histamine exposure. Mice with a disrupted VWF gene (VWFKO) have endothelial cells that are deficient in Weibel-Palade bodies. These mice were used to evaluate the role of VWF and/or Weibel-Palade bodies in Bordetella pertussis toxin-induced hypersensitivity to histamine, a subphenotype of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the principal autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. No significant differences in susceptibility to histamine between wild-type and VWFKO mice were detected after 3 days; however, histamine sensitivity persisted significantly longer in VWFKO mice. Correspondingly, encephalomyelitis onset was earlier, disease was more severe, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability was significantly increased in VWFKO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, inflammation was selectively increased in the brains, but not spinal cords, of VWFKO mice as compared with wild-type mice. Early increases in BBB permeability in VWFKO mice were not due to increased encephalitogenic T-cell activity since BBB permeability did not differ in adjuvant-treated VWFKO mice as compared with littermates immunized with encephalitogenic peptide plus adjuvant. Taken together, these data indicate that VWF and/or Weibel-Palade bodies negatively regulate BBB permeability changes and autoimmune inflammatory lesion formation within the brain elicited by peripheral inflammatory stimuli. PMID:18688020

  10. [Autoimmune epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Seeck, M; Zacharia, A; Rossetti, A O

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing recognition of an autoimmune origin of pharmacoresistant epileptic disorders. Besides the paraneoplastic limbic encephalopathies (LE), reports of syndromes of non-paraneoplastic LE are increasingly reported in the last 5-10 years. Three antibodies are now relatively well described: Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-(NMDA) antibodies. We review clinical syndromes, associated imaging and laboratory findings. While most reports arise from adult populations, children and adolescents are also concerned as evidenced by increasing observations. Early recognition is mandatory, since early immunomodulatory treatment appears to be related to significantly better outcome. PMID:20499581

  11. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rakhi

    2015-06-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.

  12. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  13. Undifferentiated Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Induces Insulin-Producing Cell Differentiation and Suppression of T-Cell-Mediated Autoimmunity in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Jiun; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Chou, Shu-Cheng; Chu, Tzu-Hui; Chuan, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ying-Jui; Weng, Zen-Chung; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chen, Tien-Hua; Shyu, Jia-Fwu

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) brings about their incorporation into a variety of tissues with immunosuppressive effects, resulting in regeneration of pancreatic islets. We previously showed that human MSCs isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) represent a potential cell source to treat diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to discern whether undifferentiated WJ-MSCs can differentiate into pancreatic insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and modify immunological responses in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Undifferentiated WJ-MSCs underwent lentiviral transduction to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and then were injected into the retro-orbital venous sinus of NOD mice. Seven days after transplantation, fluorescent islet-like cell clusters in the pancreas were apparent. WJ-MSC-GFP-treated NOD mice had significantly lower blood glucose and higher survival rates than saline-treated mice. Systemic and local levels of autoaggressive T-cells, including T helper 1 cells and IL-17-producing T-cells, were reduced, and regulatory T-cell levels were increased. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were increased, and dendritic cells were decreased. At 23 days, higher human C-peptide and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance were found. Additionally, WJ-MSCs-GFP differentiated into IPCs as shown by colocalization of human C-peptide and GFP in the pancreas. Significantly more intact islets and less severe insulitis were observed. In conclusion, undifferentiated WJ-MSCs can differentiate into IPCs in vivo with immunomodulatory effects and repair the destroyed islets in NOD mice.

  14. Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT1R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT1R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21383952

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Omiyale, Ayodeji Oluwarotimi

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  17. Role of Complement in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn

    2015-09-01

    The classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemias and the complement system are reviewed. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the warm antibody type, complement-mediated cell lysis is clinically relevant in a proportion of the patients but is hardly essential for hemolysis in most patients. Cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemias (primary cold agglutinin disease, secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) are entirely complement-mediated disorders. In cold agglutinin disease, efficient therapies have been developed in order to target the pathogenic B-cell clone, but complement modulation remains promising in some clinical situations. No established therapy exists for secondary cold agglutinin syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, and the possibility of therapeutic complement inhibition is interesting. Currently, complement modulation is not clinically documented in any autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The most relevant candidate drugs and possible target levels of action are discussed.

  18. PD-1, gender, and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Ravi K.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Singh, Ram Pyare

    2010-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) are responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling that helps mediate the mechanisms of tolerance and immune homeostasis. The PD-1:PD-L signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune conditions, chronic infection, and cancer. Recently, investigators have explored the role of sex hormones in modulating the pathway in autoimmune conditions. Exploring the effects of sex hormones on the PD-1:PD-L pathway could shed light on the gender biased nature of many autoimmune conditions as well as aide in the development of therapeutics targeting the immune system. PMID:20433954

  19. Commentary on "Possible induction of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like demyelinating illness by intrathecal mesenchymal stem cell injection".

    PubMed

    Butzkueven, Helmut

    2013-02-01

    The case report that is the subject of this Commentary describes a 27-year-old woman, who, 3 months after a devastating low cervical myelitis, underwent intrathecal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusions. Six hours after the third infusion, she became unconscious, febrile and cerebral MRI showed acute bitemporal and left cerebellar lesions, consistent with an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. It is likely that this is the first reported patient with neuroinflammatory exacerbation after MSC therapy. This case suggests that, in addition to their malignant potential, autologous MSC expanded in vitro can exhibit immune-activating properties leading to autoimmune exacerbation.

  20. Pathophysiology of autoimmune polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2013-06-01

    The most common autoimmune neuropathies include the acute inflammatory polyneuropathy [the Guillain-Barré Syndrome(s)]; chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and IgM anti-MAG-antibody mediated paraproteinemic neuropathy. These neuropathies occur when immunologic tolerance to peripheral nerve components (myelin, Schwann cell, axon, and motor or ganglionic neurons) is lost. Based on the immunopathologic similarities with experimental allergic neuritis induced after immunization with nerve proteins, disease transfer experiments with the patients' serum or with intraneural injections, and immunocytochemical studies on the patients' nerves, it appears that both cellular and humoral factors, either independently or in concert with each other, play a role in the cause of these neuropathies. Although in some of them there is direct evidence for autoimmune reactivity mediated by specific antibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes, in others the underlying immune-mediated mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in spite of good response to immunotherapies. The review highlights the factors associated with breaking the T-cell tolerance, the T-cell activation and costimulatory molecules, the immunoregulatory T-cells and relevant cytokines and the antibodies against peripheral nerve glycolipids or glycoproteins that seem to be of pathogenic relevance. Antigens in the nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions are discussed as potentially critical targets in explaining conduction failure and rapid recovery. Based on the immunopathologic network believed to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, future therapeutic directions are highlighted using new biological agents against T-cells, cytokines, B-cells, transmigration and transduction molecules.

  1.  An autoimmune polyglandular syndrome complicated with celiac disease and autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Crimi, Romina; Núñez, Concepción; Estrada, Lourdes; López-Palacios, Natalia

    2016-01-01

     Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is a combination of different autoimmune diseases. The close relationship between immune-mediated disorders makes it mandatory to perform serological screening periodically in order to avoid delayed diagnosis of additional autoimmune diseases. We studied a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who later developed an autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) and was referred to our hospital with a serious condition of his clinical status. The patient was suffering from an advance stage of celiac disease (CD), the delay in its diagnosis and in the establishment of a gluten-free dietled the patient to a severe proteincalorie malnutrition. Later, the patient developed an autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We consider that clinical deterioration in patients with APS should alert physicians about the possible presence of other immune-mediated diseases. Periodic screening for autoantibodies would help to prevent delayed diagnosis and would improve patient's quality of life. PMID:27236159

  2. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  3. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  4. Induction of peripheral tolerance with peptide-specific anergy in experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, S K; Clark, L; Heber-Katz, E; Amento, E P; Rostami, A

    1993-09-01

    Neuritogenic T cells specific for SP-26, a synthetic peptide (residue 53-78) of myelin P2 protein that causes experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), use the same T cell receptor (TCR) V gene family (V beta 8) that can induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Tolerance to autoregulatory T cells may be induced in rats by intravenous (iv) administration of antigen-coupled splenocytes; however, the mechanisms that lead to altered immune reactivity are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that SP-26, when coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered iv, either before or after disease induction, markedly inhibited development and expression of clinical signs and histological changes of EAN. The induction of tolerance by this method was peptide-specific and MHC-restricted. We showed previously that T cells involved in EAN utilize the T cell antigen receptor V beta 8, whereas less than 5% of normal rat peripheral T cells express V beta 8. We have examined T lymphocytes from tolerized rats to determine the presence or absence of V beta 8(+)-bearing cells in order to determine the mechanism of tolerance. V beta 8 cells were undetectable by Northern blot analysis in the lymph nodes of unimmunized animals but easily detected in SP-26-primed and tolerized rats. In addition, spleen cells isolated from tolerized animals were anergic and failed to proliferate in response to SP-26, but retained responsiveness to IL-2 and Con A stimulation. Thus, the peptide-specific unresponsiveness that can be induced in rats with EAN, a T-cell-mediated process that is MHC-restricted and utilizes the T cell receptor V beta 8, occurs while V beta 8 transcripts remain readily detectable in spleen and lymph node cells. The detection of V beta 8-bearing T cells requires the development of antibodies specific for this rat surface protein. PMID:7690307

  5. Induction of peripheral tolerance with peptide-specific anergy in experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, S K; Clark, L; Heber-Katz, E; Amento, E P; Rostami, A

    1993-09-01

    Neuritogenic T cells specific for SP-26, a synthetic peptide (residue 53-78) of myelin P2 protein that causes experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), use the same T cell receptor (TCR) V gene family (V beta 8) that can induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Tolerance to autoregulatory T cells may be induced in rats by intravenous (iv) administration of antigen-coupled splenocytes; however, the mechanisms that lead to altered immune reactivity are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that SP-26, when coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered iv, either before or after disease induction, markedly inhibited development and expression of clinical signs and histological changes of EAN. The induction of tolerance by this method was peptide-specific and MHC-restricted. We showed previously that T cells involved in EAN utilize the T cell antigen receptor V beta 8, whereas less than 5% of normal rat peripheral T cells express V beta 8. We have examined T lymphocytes from tolerized rats to determine the presence or absence of V beta 8(+)-bearing cells in order to determine the mechanism of tolerance. V beta 8 cells were undetectable by Northern blot analysis in the lymph nodes of unimmunized animals but easily detected in SP-26-primed and tolerized rats. In addition, spleen cells isolated from tolerized animals were anergic and failed to proliferate in response to SP-26, but retained responsiveness to IL-2 and Con A stimulation. Thus, the peptide-specific unresponsiveness that can be induced in rats with EAN, a T-cell-mediated process that is MHC-restricted and utilizes the T cell receptor V beta 8, occurs while V beta 8 transcripts remain readily detectable in spleen and lymph node cells. The detection of V beta 8-bearing T cells requires the development of antibodies specific for this rat surface protein.

  6. Autoimmune muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Patients with polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) present with the subacute onset of symmetric proximal muscle weakness, elevated muscle enzymes, myopathic findings on electromyography, and autoantibodies. DM patients are distinguished by their cutaneous manifestations. Characteristic features on muscle biopsy include the invasion of nonnecrotic muscle fibers by T cells in PM, perifascicular atrophy in DM, and myofiber necrosis without prominent inflammation in IMNM. Importantly, these are regarded as autoimmune diseases and most patients respond partially, if not completely, to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) usually present with the insidious onset of asymmetric weakness in distal muscles (e.g., wrist flexors, and distal finger flexors), often when more proximal muscle groups are relatively preserved. Although IBM muscle biopsies usually have focal invasion of myofibers by lymphocytes, the majority of IBM biopsies also include rimmed vacuoles. While most IBM patients do have autoantibodies, treatment with immunosuppressive agents does not improve their clinical course. Along with the presence of abnormally aggregated proteins on muscle biopsy, the refractory nature and relentless course of IBM suggest that the underlying pathophysiology may include a dominant myodegenerative component. This chapter will focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the autoimmune myopathies and IBM. An emphasis will be placed on recent advances, indicating that these are a diverse family of diseases and that each of more than a dozen myositis autoantibodies is associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. PMID:27112692

  7. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-β) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  8. The autoimmune tautology.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Although autoimmune diseases exhibit contrasting epidemiological features, pathology, and clinical manifestations, three lines of evidence demonstrate that these diseases share similar immunogenetic mechanisms (that is, autoimmune tautology). First, clinical evidence highlights the co-occurrence of distinct autoimmune diseases within an individual (that is, polyautoimmunity) and within members of a nuclear family (that is, familial autoimmunity). Second, physiopathologic evidence indicates that the pathologic mechanisms may be similar among autoimmune diseases. Lastly, genetic evidence shows that autoimmune phenotypes might represent pleiotropic outcomes of the interaction of non-specific disease genes.

  9. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune cytopenias in childhood.

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Lambert, Michele P

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis and management of children with autoimmune cytopenias can be challenging. Children can present with immune-mediated destruction of a single-cell lineage or multiple cell lineages, including platelets (immune thrombocytopenia [ITP]), erythrocytes (autoimmune hemolytic anemia), and neutrophils (autoimmune neutropenia). Immune-mediated destruction can be primary or secondary to a comorbid immunodeficiency, malignancy, rheumatologic condition, or lymphoproliferative disorder. Treatment options generally consist of nonspecific immune suppression or modulation. This nonspecific approach is changing as recent insights into disease biology have led to targeted therapies, including the use of thrombopoietin mimetics in ITP and sirolimus for cytopenias associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:24237984

  10. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Wei, T Y; Baumann, R J

    1999-07-01

    Although acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has been observed after a variety of viral infections and an occasional bacterial infection, it has not been reported in association with rickettsial infections. Reported is a 7-year-old male with magnetic resonance images and clinical manifestations suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after a tick bite and serologically proven Rocky Mountain spotted fever. PMID:10428440

  11. Autoimmunity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, A; Maclaren, N K

    1999-12-01

    The face of immune-mediated (type 1) diabetes is changing. No longer considered a disease confined to childhood, the incidence rate in Western countries is clearly rising and affecting younger children. Such a secular trend can only be explained on the basis of increased contacts with adverse environmental factors acting on a background of complex genetics. Multiple defects in immunological tolerance to "self' predispose to immune-mediated (type 1) diabetes. Initiation of immune responses involves the cytokine rich natural killer T cells. Such cells appear deficient in both humans and the rodent models of the disease. Furthermore, the regulatory abilities of T cells in general seem to be compromised. Effector mechanisms probably are dominated by cell-mediated beta cell destruction through apoptosis induction. Surprisingly, the essential antigen-presenting cells in the autoimmune processes involved appear to be B lymphocytes. The improved understanding of the beta cell autoantigens involved has led to better disease prediction. The long prodromal phase now readily identifiable through autoantibodies is spawning hopes of disease prevention, notably through antigen-based interventions or diabetes "vaccines."

  12. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  13. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  14. Cytokine network analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hornig, M; Gottschalk, G; Peterson, D L; Knox, K K; Schultz, A F; Eddy, M L; Che, X; Lipkin, W I

    2016-02-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome is an unexplained debilitating disorder that is frequently associated with cognitive and motor dysfunction. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid from 32 cases, 40 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 19 normal subjects frequency-matched for age and sex using a 51-plex cytokine assay. Group-specific differences were found for the majority of analytes with an increase in cases of CCL11 (eotaxin), a chemokine involved in eosinophil recruitment. Network analysis revealed an inverse relationship between interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and colony-stimulating factor 1, colony-stimulating factor 2 and interleukin 17F, without effects on interleukin 1α or interleukin 1β, suggesting a disturbance in interleukin 1 signaling. Our results indicate a markedly disturbed immune signature in the cerebrospinal fluid of cases that is consistent with immune activation in the central nervous system, and a shift toward an allergic or T helper type-2 pattern associated with autoimmunity.

  15. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome.

  16. An Overview of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases Including Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Lucy D

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of individuals are affected by autoimmune diseases, which are caused by aberrant recognition of self by the immune system. A wide variety of cells and organ systems are targets of pathologic activation of the immune mediators. Effective and safe therapies aimed at managing the chronic inflammatory aspect of many autoimmune diseases remain elusive. This review will focus on the available interventions and discuss the future of the field to prevent organ destruction by the autoimmune process. PMID:26575465

  17. Allergic Disease and Autoimmune Effectors Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, Menachem; Gershwin, M. Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Allergy and autoimmunity result from dysregulation of the immune system. Until recently, it was generally accepted that the mechanisms that govern these disease processes are quite disparate; however, new discoveries suggest possible common pathogenetic effector pathways. This review illustrates the concomitant presentation of these conditions and the potential relationship or common mechanism in some cases, by looking at the key elements that regulate the immune response in both allergic and autoimmunite conditions: mast cells, antibodies, T cells, cytokines, and genetic determinants. The parallel appearance of allergic and autoimmune conditions in the some patients may reveal that such aberrations of the immune system have a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Mast cells, which play a key role in allergic reactions, and the wealth of inflammatory mediators they express, make it likely that they have profound effects on many autoimmune processes. Activation of protein kinases by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses may contribute to both allergic and autoimmune diseases. The presence of autoantibodies in some allergic conditions suggests an autoimmune basis for these conditions. Because of the central role T cells play in immune reactivity, the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci have long been considered important candidates for common disease susceptibility within the immune system such as asthma, atopy, and autoimmunity. Immunomodulation is the key to a successful treatment of allergic and autoimmune conditions. PMID:12885156

  18. Sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rubtsova, Kira; Marrack, Philippa; Rubtsov, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks and destroys the organs and tissues of its own host. Autoimmunity is the third most common type of disease in the United States. Because there is no cure for autoimmunity, it is extremely important to study the mechanisms that trigger these diseases. Most autoimmune diseases predominantly affect females, indicating a strong sex bias. Various factors, including sex hormones, the presence or absence of a second X chromosome, and sex-specific gut microbiota can influence gene expression in a sex-specific way. These changes in gene expression may, in turn, lead to susceptibility or protection from autoimmunity, creating a sex bias for autoimmune diseases. In this Review we discuss recent findings in the field of sex-dependent regulation of gene expression and autoimmunity. PMID:25915581

  19. Morphogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bykovsky, A. F.; Yershov, F. I.; Zhdanov, V. M.

    1969-01-01

    Morphogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was studied by means of electron microscopy. Virus-specific structures (factories, viroplasts) were found at early stages of infection; these structures were composed of fibrillar and cylindrical formations, aggregates of ribosomes, and viral nucleoids. The latter emerged from fibrillar and cylindrical structures. Aggregates of viral nucleoids were found in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of virus-infected cells. Viral envelopes and mature virions were formed on the cell membranes and on the membranes of intracellular vacuoles. Anomalous forms of virions (both polygenomic and oligogenomic) were observed. Images PMID:5823233

  20. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection?

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, E. G.; Ramsay, A. M.; McCartney, R. A.; Bell, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a common disability but frequently misinterpreted. Amongst 6,000 patients referred for general microbiological diagnosis between 1975 and 1987, 420 cases were recognized. Coxsackie B neutralization tests, in 205 of these, demonstrated significant titres in 103/205 (50%), while of 124 additionally investigated for enteroviral IgM, 38/124 (31%) were positive. This illness is distinguished from a variety of other post-viral states by an unique clinical and epidemiological pattern characteristic of enteroviral infection. Prompt recognition and advice to avoid over-exertion is mandatory. Routine diagnosis, specific therapy and prevention, await further technical advances. PMID:2170962

  1. Progesterone and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Grant C.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human immune systems is most apparent in the female predominance of certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Epidemiologic, observational and experimental evidence strongly suggest sex steroids are important modulators of genetic risk in human AD. In this regard, the roles of progesterone (Pg), an immunomodulatory female sex steroid, are poorly understood. Several lines of investigation indicate Pg and synthetic progestins impact risk of AD and immune-mediated injury in different ways depending on their concentrations and their engagement of various Pg receptors expressed in immune organs, immune cells or tissues targeted by immune attack. At low physiologic levels, Pg may enhance interferon-alpha (IFN-α) pathways important in SLE pathogenesis. Commonly used synthetic progestins may have the opposite effect. At pregnancy levels, Pg may suppress disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) via inhibition of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 pathways and induction of anti-inflammatory molecules. Importantly, Pg’s immunomodulatory effects differ from those of estrogens and androgens. An additional layer of complexity arises from apparent interdependence of sex hormone signaling pathways. Identifying mechanisms by which Pg and other sex steroids modulate risk of AD and immune-mediated injury will require clarification of their cellular and molecular targets in vivo. These future studies should be informed by recent genetic discoveries in human AD, particularly those revealing their sex-specific genetic associations. PMID:22193289

  2. Myeloid derived suppressor cells and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Boros, Peter; Ochando, Jordi; Zeher, Margit

    2016-08-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory function. When activated and expanded, these cells can suppress T cell functions via cell-to cell interactions as well as soluble mediators. Recent studies investigated the involvement of MDSC in autoimmune diseases. Some papers have described beneficial effect of MDSC during the course of autoimmune diseases, and suggest a potential role as a treatment option, while others failed to detect these effects. Their contributions to autoimmune diseases are not fully understood, and many questions and some controversies remain as to the expansion, activation, and inhibitory functions of MDSC. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of MDSC in autoimmune disorders. PMID:27240453

  3. Update on Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver disorder affecting both children and adults, is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, elevated transaminase levels, circulating nonorganspecific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin G, in the absence of a known etiology. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity: smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody define AIH type 1 and antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 and/or liver cytosol type 1 define AIH type 2. AIH type 1 affects both adults and children, while AIH type 2 is mainly a paediatric disease, though it does occasionally affects young adults. AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any patient with increased liver enzyme levels. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone with or without azathioprine, with symptom free long-term survival for the majority of patients. For those who do not respond to standard treatment, or who are difficult-to-treat, mycophenolate mofetil and, in the absence of a response, calcineurin inhibitors should be tried in addition to steroids. The pathogenesis of AIH is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4 T-cells, although recent studies support the involvement of diverse populations, including Th17 cells. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AIH is likely to contribute to the development of novel treatments, such as the adoptive transfer of autologous expanded antigenspecific regulatory T-cells, which ultimately aim at restoring tolerance to liver-derived antigens. PMID:26357634

  4. Exploring the induction of preproinsulin-specific Foxp3+ CD4+ Treg cells that inhibit CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes by DNA vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Stifter, Katja; Schuster, Cornelia; Schlosser, Michael; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce effector T cells but also regulatory Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells and inhibit autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. Little is known about the antigen requirements that facilitate priming of Treg cells but not autoreactive effector CD8+ T cells. We have shown that the injection of preproinsulin (ppins)-expressing pCI/ppins vector into PD-1- or PD-L1-deficient mice induced Kb/A12-21-monospecific CD8+ T cells and autoimmune diabetes. A pCI/ppinsΔA12-21 vector (lacking the critical Kb/A12-21 epitope) did not induce autoimmune diabetes but elicited a systemic Foxp3+ CD25+ Treg cell immunity that suppressed diabetes induction by a subsequent injection of the diabetogenic pCI/ppins. TGF-β expression was significantly enhanced in the Foxp3+ CD25+ Treg cell population of vaccinated/ppins-primed mice. Ablation of Treg cells in vaccinated/ppins-primed mice by anti-CD25 antibody treatment abolished the protective effect of the vaccine and enabled diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. Adoptive transfer of Treg cells from vaccinated/ppins-primed mice into PD-L1−/− hosts efficiently suppressed diabetes induction by pCI/ppins. We narrowed down the Treg-stimulating domain to a 15-residue ppins76–90 peptide. Vaccine-induced Treg cells thus play a crucial role in the control of de novo primed autoreactive effector CD8+ T cells in this diabetes model. PMID:27406624

  5. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 allergen bound to 8-OH modified adenine reduces the Th2-mediated airway