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Sample records for autoimmune hair loss

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  2. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  3. Substance P as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in a mouse model for autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata).

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Sharov, Andrey A; Peters, Eva M J; Sharova, Tatyana Y; Syska, Wolfgang; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Freyschmidt-Paul, Pia; Sundberg, John P; Maurer, Marcus; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2007-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrates around actively growing (anagen) hair follicles. Substance P (SP) plays a critical role in the cutaneous neuroimmune network and influences immune cell functions through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To better understand the role of SP as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in AA, we studied its expression and effects on immune cells in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. During early stages of AA development, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in skin is increased, compared to non-affected mice. However, during advanced stages of AA, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerves and SP protein levels in skin are decreased, whereas the expression of the SP-degrading enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is increased, compared to control skin. In AA, NK-1R is expressed on CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages accumulating around affected hair follicles. Additional SP supply to the skin of AA-affected mice leads to a significant increase of mast cell degranulation and to accelerated hair follicle regression (catagen), accompanied by an increase of CD8+ cells-expressing granzyme B. These data suggest that SP, NEP, and NK-1R serve as important regulators in the molecular signaling network modulating inflammatory response in autoimmune hair loss.

  4. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  5. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs). The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN). IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PMID:24151515

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  7. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  8. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  9. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  10. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  12. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  13. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  14. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... with certain abnormalities of the nails and the teeth. Later in childhood, hair loss may be due ...

  15. Experimental autoimmune hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) has been hindered by the inaccessibility of the inner ear to biopsy and the lack of workable animal models. A report in this issue of the JCI describes a mouse model of CD4+ T cell–mediated ASNHL induced by immunization with peptides from the inner ear–specific proteins cochlin and β-tectorin. PMID:15085190

  16. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  18. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  19. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  20. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  1. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Can stress cause hair loss? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Yes, stress and hair loss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/expert-answers/stress-and-hair-loss/faq-20057820 . ...

  2. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  4. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  5. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  6. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca M

    2003-01-01

    The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:12587927

  8. Finasteride treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Vincenzi, Colombina; Voudouris, Stylianos; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral finasteride therapy associated with an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol in premenopausal women with female pattern hair loss. Outpatient consultation for hair disorders at the Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna. Thirty-seven women with female pattern hair loss were treated with oral finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using global photography and the hair density score from videodermoscopy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess patient evaluation of treatment effectiveness. At 12-month follow-up, 23 of the 37 patients were rated as improved using global photography (12 were slightly improved, 8 were moderately improved, and 3 were greatly improved). No improvement was recorded in 13 patients. One patient experienced worsening of the condition. There was a statistically significant (P = .002) increase in the hair density score in 12 patients. No adverse reactions to the drug were reported. Sixty-two percent of the patients demonstrated some improvement of their hair loss with the use of finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking the oral contraceptive. It is unclear whether the success was due to a higher dosage of finasteride (2.5 mg instead of 1 mg) or to its association with the oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, which has an antiandrogenic effect. Further studies are necessary to understand which patterns of female pattern hair loss respond better to this treatment.

  9. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  10. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes.

  11. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  12. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women. To determine the efficacy and safety of the available options for the treatment of female pattern hair loss in women. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1872), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), PubMed (from 1947), and Web of Science (from 1945). We also searched five trial registries and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of interventions for FPHL in women. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and carried out analyses. We included 47 trials, with 5290 participants, of which 25 trials were new to this update. Only five trials were at 'low risk of bias', 26 were at 'unclear risk', and 16 were at 'high risk of bias'.The included trials evaluated a wide range of interventions, and 17 studies evaluated minoxidil. Pooled data from six studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants (157/593) treated with minoxidil (2% and one study with 1%) reported a moderate to marked increase in their hair regrowth when compared with placebo (77/555) (risk ratio (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.47; moderate quality evidence). These results were confirmed by the investigator-rated assessments in seven studies with 1181

  13. A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Sandeep S

    2011-01-01

    There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

  14. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  16. Treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Masoumeh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Babakoohi, Shahab; Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Firooz, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) as a distinctive entity was first described about 30 years ago. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials for treatment of FPHL. A preliminary search was carried out in several databases up to August 2008 to identify all randomized controlled trials on nonsurgical interventions for treatment of FPHL. Studies reporting fewer than 10 patients and non-English articles were excluded. Additionally, references of relevant articles and reviews were checked manually in search for additional sources. Among 238 citations found in the preliminary search, 12 fulfilled all criteria to be included in the systematic review. Topical minoxidil 1% to 5% for 24 to 48 weeks was shown to be effective in FPHL and its effect was not related to age or androgen level of patients. In addition, it may be effective in women with FPHL, both with and without hyperandrogenism, and in young and old premenopausal or postmenopausal. In patients with increased serum androgens, oral flutamide but not finasteride or cyproterone acetate was more effective than no treatment. Topical minoxidil is effective in patients with FPHL, with or without hyperandrogenism, but there is limited evidence for the efficacy of antiandrogens.

  17. Hair loss at injection sites of mesotherapy for alopecia.

    PubMed

    El-Komy, Mohamed; Hassan, Akmal; Tawdy, Amira; Solimon, Mohamed; Hady, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-12-01

    The side effects of mesotherapy for treatment of various forms of alopecia are often underreported, while scientific data for its efficacy are severely lacking. To demonstrate the late onset side effects of mesotherapy for alopecia. Three patients with androgenetic alopecia showed hair loss after previously uneventful mesotherapy sessions up to 1 year. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings suggested an inflammatory scaring process at sites of mesotherapy injections. Mesotherapy for androgenetic alopecia may paradoxically induce hair loss and scarring. Proper regulation and monitoring of the use of mesotherapy products for treating hair loss in women, needs to be addressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Topical Treatment of Hair Loss with Formononetin by Modulating Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Formononetin is one of the main components of red clover plants and its role on hair regrowth against hair loss has not been established yet. In the present study, we assessed the potential effects of formononetin on alopecia, along with impaired hair cycles by induction of apoptosis-regression.Depilated C57BL/6 mice were used for monitoring the hair cycles. Formononetin (1 and 100 µM) was topically treated to the dorsal skin for 14 days. Topical formononetin treatment induced miniaturized hair follicles to recover to normal sizes. Tapering hair shaft began to grow newly, emerging from the hair follicles by formononetin. In addition, formononetin inhibited the activation of caspase-8 and decreased the procaspase-9 expression. As a result of formononetin treatment, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was up-regulated, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and p53 were down-regulated, resulting in a decrease of caspase-3 activation. Formononetin showed the obvious inhibition of apoptosis under terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining thereafter.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that formononetin exerted the hair regrowth effect on hair loss, in which the underlying mechanisms were associated with Fas/Fas L-induced caspase activation, thus inhibiting apoptosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Finasteride treatment of patterned hair loss in normoandrogenic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2004-01-01

    Finasteride, an inhibitor of type 2 5alpha-reductase, inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, resulting in a decrease in serum and scalp dihydrotestosterone levels believed to be pathogenic in androgenetic alopecia. Oral finasteride has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hair loss in men, while its efficacy in women has remained controversial. 5 postmenopausal women without clinical or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism were given 2.5 or 5 mg/day oral finasteride for the treatment of pattern hair loss. Efficacy was evaluated by patient and investigator assessments, and review of photographs taken at baseline and at months 6, 12 and 18 by an expert panel. Finasteride treatment improved scalp hair by all evaluation techniques. The patients' self-assessment demonstrated that finasteride treatment decreased hair loss, increased hair growth and improved appearance of hair. These improvements were confirmed by investigator assessment and assessments of photographs. No adverse effects were noted. Oral finasteride in a dosage of 2.5 mg/day or more may be effective for the treatment of pattern hair loss in postmenopausal women in the absence of clinical or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism.

  20. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  1. 5% Minoxidil: treatment for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil is a Health Canada and US FDA-approved medication for hair loss in men and women. While 5% minoxidil foam has been approved for men since 2006, Health Canada and the FDA only approved 5% minoxidil foam for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in 2014. Recent Phase III clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of once daily 5% minoxidil foam for treatment of FPHL, where a significant change from baseline in the target area hair count was observed compared to placebo. Similar changes in hair count for 5% foam and twice daily 2% minoxidil solution established noninferiority of the 5% foam formulation. Five percent minoxidil foam provides an additional option for women with FPHL and will soon be available in Canada.

  2. Iron Plays a Certain Role in Patterned Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song Youn; Na, Se Young; Kim, Jun Hwan; Cho, Soyun

    2013-01-01

    Role of iron in hair loss is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron and hair loss. Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and male pattern hair loss (MPHL). All patients underwent screening including serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CBC, ESR and thyroid function test. For normal healthy controls, age-sex matched subjects who had visited the hospital for a check-up with no serious disease were selected. A total 210 patients with FPHL (n = 113) and MPHL (n = 97) with 210 healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ferritin concentration (FC) was lower in patients with FPHL (49.27 ± 55.8 µg/L), compared with normal healthy women (77.89 ± 48.32 µg/L) (P < 0.001). Premenopausal FPHL patients turned out to show much lower serum ferritin than age/sex-matched controls (P < 0.001). Among MPHL patients, 22.7% of them showed serum FC lower than 70 µg/L, while no one had serum FC lower 70 µg/L in healthy age matched males. These results suggest that iron may play a certain role especially in premenopausal FPHL. The initial screening of iron status could be of help for hair loss patients. PMID:23772161

  3. Iron plays a certain role in patterned hair loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Youn; Na, Se Young; Kim, Jun Hwan; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Jong Hee

    2013-06-01

    Role of iron in hair loss is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron and hair loss. Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and male pattern hair loss (MPHL). All patients underwent screening including serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CBC, ESR and thyroid function test. For normal healthy controls, age-sex matched subjects who had visited the hospital for a check-up with no serious disease were selected. A total 210 patients with FPHL (n = 113) and MPHL (n = 97) with 210 healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ferritin concentration (FC) was lower in patients with FPHL (49.27 ± 55.8 µg/L), compared with normal healthy women (77.89 ± 48.32 µg/L) (P < 0.001). Premenopausal FPHL patients turned out to show much lower serum ferritin than age/sex-matched controls (P < 0.001). Among MPHL patients, 22.7% of them showed serum FC lower than 70 µg/L, while no one had serum FC lower 70 µg/L in healthy age matched males. These results suggest that iron may play a certain role especially in premenopausal FPHL. The initial screening of iron status could be of help for hair loss patients.

  4. Fractional photothermolysis laser treatment of male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk

    2011-01-01

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of male and female pattern hair loss in Maryborough.

    PubMed

    Gan, Desmond C C; Sinclair, Rodney D

    2005-12-01

    Maryborough, in central Victoria has an approximate population of 8000 and census data is well matched for Australia overall. Australia has compulsory voting and registration on the electoral roll. To determine the age-related prevalence of balding among men and women in Maryborough we conducted a postal survey of 5000 men and women aged 20 or older, and 427 were invited to attend for examination. Additional data was collected on dandruff, presence of gray hair. Supplementary questionnaires were sent to 340 children aged 5-9, attending a coeducational primary school. 1456 adults (34.1%) responded to the questionnaire. 396 attended for examination. The prevalence of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) increased with advancing age. 98.6% of men had bitemporal recession and severity was significantly associated with vertex and mid-frontal hair loss (p <0.01) but not age (p = 0.06). In all, 64.4% of women had bitemporal hair loss, and similar to men there was a significant association with mid-frontal hair loss (p =0.042) but not age (p =0.467). One hundred and forty children with completed questionnaires were examined. All 72 females and 68 males were assessed as stage 1 on the mid-line part and with no bitemporal recession (frequency stage 1 = 100%, 95% CI (confidence interval) 97.4%-100%). A significant but weak positive association existed between presence of gray hair and history of dandruff (p<0.01). The prevalence of mid-frontal hair loss increases with age and affects 57% of women and 73.5% of men aged 80 and over.

  6. Male frontal fibrosing alopecia with generalised hair loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenchieh; Kigitsidou, Evanthia; Prucha, Hanna; Ring, Johannes; Andres, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is regarded as a variant of lichen planopilaris. Male cases have rarely been reported. Here we describe a 66-year-old man with a typical receding fronto-temporal hair line in a form of scarring alopecia, which shows features of lichen planopilaris in histology. An extensive loss of body hair involving bilateral axillae, limbs and pubic area was also observed. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oura, Hajimu; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Tajima, Masahiro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Arase, Seiji; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2008-12-01

    Adenosine upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-7 in cultured dermal papilla cells. It has been shown that, in Japanese men, adenosine improves androgenetic alopecia due to the thickening of thin hair due to hair follicle miniaturization. To investigate the efficacy and safety of adenosine treatment to improve hair loss in women, 30 Japanese women with female pattern hair loss were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers used either 0.75% adenosine lotion or a placebo lotion topically twice daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists and by investigators and in phototrichograms. As a result, adenosine was significantly superior to the placebo according to assessments by dermatologists and investigators and by self-assessments. Adenosine significantly increased the anagen hair growth rate and the thick hair rate. No side-effects were encountered during the trial. Adenosine improved hair loss in Japanese women by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts. Adenosine is useful for treating female pattern hair loss in women as well as androgenetic alopecia in men.

  8. Frontal fibrosing alopecia associated with generalized hair loss.

    PubMed

    Armenores, Paul; Shirato, Kyoko; Reid, Catherine; Sidhu, Shireen

    2010-08-01

    We present six cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia, in which generalized hair loss is a feature. Although this variant of lichen planopilaris has been reported clinically in a number of patients, there is very little histological evidence that the condition exists in peripheral sites. We believe this pattern of involvement may be more common than is reported, and have provided histological evidence of lichen planopilaris being present at sites beyond the scalp and eyebrows.

  9. Low iron stores: a risk factor for excessive hair loss in non-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Deloche, Claire; Bastien, Philippe; Chadoutaud, Stéphanie; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; de Lacharrière, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been suspected to represent one of the possible causes of excessive hair loss in women. The aim of our study was to assess this relationship in a very large population of 5110 women aged between 35 and 60 years. Hair loss was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire sent to all volunteers. The iron status was assessed by a serum ferritin assay carried out in each volunteer. Multivariate analysis allowed us to identify three categories: "absence of hair loss" (43%), "moderate hair loss" (48%) and "excessive hair loss" (9%). Among the women affected by excessive hair loss, a larger proportion of women (59%) had low iron stores (< 40 microg/L) compared to the remainder of the population (48%). Analysis of variance and logistic regression show that a low iron store represents a risk factor for hair loss in non-menopausal women.

  10. Adult-onset hair loss in Chesapeake Bay retrievers: a clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; Mauldin, E A; Goldschmidt, M H; Beyerlein, S L; Refsal, K R; Oliver, J W

    2005-02-01

    Ten Chesapeake Bay retriever (CBRS) dogs with hair loss were recruited in collaboration with the American Chesapeake Club. All dogs had nonpruritic, noninflammatory, regionalized hair loss affecting the same areas of the body in male and female dogs. Hormonal investigations showed increased adrenal and sex steroid concentration in seven cases. Histopathology revealed follicular hyperkeratosis and plugging, follicular atrophy, and occasional melanin clumping with malformed hair shafts. This study suggests that hair loss in CBRS is a breed syndrome in which young adult dogs have hair loss characterized by unusual histological features and abnormal steroid production. A familial predisposition seems likely and selective breeding might reduce the occurrence of this condition.

  11. Hair loss and regeneration performed on animal models

    PubMed Central

    ORASAN, MEDA SANDRA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONEAC, ANDREI; MURESAN, ADRIANA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of reversal hair loss remains a challenging subject. As Minoxidil 2% or 5% and Finasteride are so far the only FDA approved topical treatments for inducing hair regrowth, research is necessary in order to improve therapeutical approach in alopecia. In vitro studies have focused on cultures of a cell type - dermal papilla or organ culture of isolated cell follicles. In vivo research on this topic was performed on mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, sheep and monkeys, taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model and the depilation options. Further studies are required not only to compare the efficiency of different therapies but more importantly to establish their long term safety. PMID:27547051

  12. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    2005-03-01

    It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic techniques (Canfield Scientific), and to identify clinical and histological parameters predictive of clinical response. For this single-centre, before-after, open intervention study, 80 women aged between 12 and 79 years, with FPHL and biopsy-confirmed hair follicle miniaturization [terminal/vellus (T/V) hair ratio < or = 4 : 1] were photographed at baseline and again after receiving a minimum of 12 months of oral antiandrogen therapy. Forty women received spironolactone 200 mg daily and 40 women received cyproterone acetate, either 50 mg daily or 100 mg for 10 days per month if premenopausal. Women using topical minoxidil were excluded. Standardized photographs of the midfrontal and vertex scalp were taken with the head positioned in a stereotactic device. Images were evaluated by a panel of three clinicians experienced in the assessment of FPHL, blinded to patient details and treatment and using a three-point scale. As there was no significant difference in the results or the trend between spironolactone and cyproterone acetate the results were combined. Thirty-five (44%) women had hair regrowth, 35 (44%) had no clear change in hair density before and after treatment, and 10 (12%) experienced continuing hair loss during the treatment period. Ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of response revealed no influence of patient age, menopause status, serum ferritin, serum hormone levels, clinical stage (Ludwig) or histological parameters such as T/V ratio or fibrosis. The only significant predictor was midscalp clinical grade, with higher-scale values associated with a greater response (P = 0.013). Eighty-eight percent of women receiving oral antiandrogens could expect to see no

  13. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. PMID:27660477

  14. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... After treatment Continue gentle hair care. Your new hair growth will be especially fragile and vulnerable to the ... sensitive scalp. Be patient. It's likely that your hair will come back slowly and that it might not look normal right away. But growth takes time, and it also takes time to ...

  15. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  16. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments.

  17. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    PubMed

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Hair Loss in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liwen; Liu, Kevin X.; Senna, Maryanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Common causes of alopecia in children and adolescents include alopecia areata, tinea capitis, androgenetic alopecia, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, hair cycle disturbances, and congenital alopecia conditions. Diagnostic tools for hair loss in children include a detailed history, physical examination with a focused evaluation of the child’s hair and scalp, fungal screens, hair pull and tug test, and if possible, light microscopy and/or trichoscopy. Management of alopecia requires a holistic approach including psychosocial support because treatments are only available for some hair loss conditions, and even the available treatments are not always effective. This review outlines the clinical presentations, presents a diagnostic algorithm, and discusses management of these various hair loss disorders. PMID:28791288

  19. Nourkrin: objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2006-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Nourkrin, a new natural agent for the treatment of hair loss based on marine proteins, and minerals and vitamins. Fifty-five subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments showed a significant positive effect of treatment on hair growth. Intake of the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a subjective further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. Nourkrin may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenetic alopecia.

  20. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    PubMed

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Emily G.; Cossman, Jack P.; Fournier, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. However, several dermatological manifestations, such as fragile skin, easy bruising, and reddish purple striae, are more discriminatory. Because uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome of any etiology is associated with substantial morbidity, including increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, it is important to make an early diagnosis. Unfortunately, median delays of 2 years to diagnosis have been reported. We report a case of a woman who had multiple dermatological findings, including facial plethora, easy bruising, violaceous striae, hirsutism, and acne, the latter 2 signs reflecting androgen excess. Of interest, our patient presented with a chief complaint of hair loss, a common complaint in the general population that occurs with a greater frequency in patients with Cushing's disease and is attributed to androgenetic alopecia, but it is rarely the presenting symptom. PMID:28413388

  2. A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Emily G; Cossman, Jack P; Fournier, John B

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. However, several dermatological manifestations, such as fragile skin, easy bruising, and reddish purple striae, are more discriminatory. Because uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome of any etiology is associated with substantial morbidity, including increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, it is important to make an early diagnosis. Unfortunately, median delays of 2 years to diagnosis have been reported. We report a case of a woman who had multiple dermatological findings, including facial plethora, easy bruising, violaceous striae, hirsutism, and acne, the latter 2 signs reflecting androgen excess. Of interest, our patient presented with a chief complaint of hair loss, a common complaint in the general population that occurs with a greater frequency in patients with Cushing's disease and is attributed to androgenetic alopecia, but it is rarely the presenting symptom.

  3. Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5α-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

  4. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  5. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  6. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Platelet rich plasma for the management of hair loss: Better alone or in combination?

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaén, Pedro; Navarro, Mª Rogelia

    2018-06-14

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous protein-based treatments have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for hair loss-related disorders including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. The safety and efficacy of repeated intradermal injections of PRP has proved to promote hair growth in a number of randomized clinical trials. Biologically active proteins and cytokines released upon platelet activation have shown to induce folliculogenesis and activate the anagen growing phase of dormant bulbs. Interestingly, further studies have revealed that combining PRP with other hair loss-related products may enhance the final performance of the treatment. These synergistic approaches include Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs such as finasteride or minoxidil, bioactive macromolecules and cell-based therapies. Here, recent research involving alone or combined therapy with platelet-rich plasma for the management of hair loss-related disorders are outlined and future prospects are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P < 0.001), and hair thickness also increased to 75 ± 13 μm (P < 0.001). Global photographs showed improvement in 24 (87.5%) of the 27 patients. Two patients (7.4%) reported mild pruritus after laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European

  9. Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Treatment of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Methods and Materials Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Results Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. Conclusion LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. PMID:23970445

  10. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taisuke

    2010-11-01

    Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu. In addition, the HF immune and hormonal systems may greatly affect skin immunobiology. Therefore, knowledge of HF immunobiology and hormonal aspects will lead to a better understanding of skin biology. The HF has a unique hair cycle (anagen, catagen and telogen) and contains stem cells in the bulge area. The HF is closely related to sebaceous glands and the nervous system. This article reviews the interaction between the endocrine/immune system and HFs, including the pathogenesis of alopecia areata associated with stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversal of the hair loss phenotype by modulating the estradiol-ANGPT2 axis in the mouse model of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yujiro; Obayashi, Yuko; Ono, Tomoji; Serizawa, Tetsushi; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2018-07-01

    Despite high demand for a remedy, the treatment options for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) are limited. FPHL is frequent in postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which lack β-estradiol (E2) and manifest hair loss mimicking FPHL, E2 supplementation has been shown to increase hair density. However, the mechanism by which E2 exhibits its biological activity remains elusive. To identify the downstream targets of E2 in the context of FPHL pathophysiology and discover a potential therapeutic agent for the E2-dependent subtype of FPHL. Human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were cultured with E2, and a microarray analysis was performed to identify the genes regulated by E2. Using OVX mice, the identified gene product was intradermally administered and then quantitative image analysis of hair density was conducted. In silico analysis to link E2 and the identified gene was performed. Global gene expression and bioinformatics analyses revealed that the genes associated with the angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) pathway were upregulated by E2 in hDPCs. ANGPT2 was significantly downregulated in OVX mice than in sham-operated mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, hair density was higher in OVX mice treated with ANGPT2 than in control mice (P < 0.05). In silico analysis showed DNA sequences with high possibility of estrogen receptor binding in the promoter region of ANGPT2. The E2-ANGPT2 axis is present in hair follicles. ANGPT2 provides a strategy for the management of E2-dependent and postmenopausal subsets of FPHL. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetics and other factors in the aetiology of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Redler, Silke; Messenger, Andrew G; Betz, Regina C

    2017-06-01

    Pattern hair loss is the most common form of hair loss in both women and men. Male pattern hair loss, also termed male androgenetic alopecia (M-AGA), is an androgen-dependent trait that is predominantly genetically determined. Androgen-mediated mechanisms are probably involved in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in some women but the evidence is less strong than in M-AGA; other non-androgenic pathways, including environmental influences, may contribute to the aetiology. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for M-AGA and have provided better insight into the underlying biology. However, the role of heritable factors in Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is largely unknown. Recently published studies have been restricted to candidate gene approaches and could not clearly identify any susceptibility locus/gene for FPHL but suggest that the aetiology differs substantially from that of M-AGA. Hypotheses about possible pathomechanisms of FPHL as well as the results of the genetic studies performed to date are summarized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Biotechnology in the Treatment of Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Foundations and Future of Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of the methodologies involved in the field of hair cell regeneration. First, a tutorial on the biotechnological foundations of this field will be provided in order to assist the reader in the comprehension and interpretation of the research involved in hair cell regeneration. Next, a review of stem cell and gene therapy will be presented and a critical appraisal of their application to hair cell regeneration will be provided. The methodologies used in these approaches will be highlighted. Method Narrative review of the fields of cellular, molecular, and developmental biology, tissue engineering, and stem cell and gene therapy using the PubMed database. Results The use of biotechnological approaches to the treatment of hearing loss, such as stem cell and gene therapy, has led to new methods of regenerating cochlear hair cells in mammals. Conclusions There have been incredible strides made in assembling important pieces of the puzzle that comprise hair cell regeneration. However, mammalian hair cell regeneration using stem cell and gene therapy are years if not decades away from being clinically feasible. If the goals of the biological approaches are met, these therapies may represent the future treatments for hearing loss. PMID:21386039

  15. Progressive hearing loss and degeneration of hair cell stereocilia in taperin gene knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Gang-Hua

    The TPRN gene encodes taperin, which is prominently present at the taper region of hair cell stereocilia. Mutations in TPRN have been reported to cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 79(DFNB 79). To investigate the role of taperin in pathogenesis of hearing loss, we generated TPRN knockout mice using TALEN technique. Sanger sequencing confirmed an 11 bp deletion at nucleotide 177–187 in exon 1 of TPRN, which results in a truncated form of taperin protein. Heterozygous TPRN{sup +/−} mice showed apparently normal auditory phenotypes to their wide-type (WT) littermates. Homozygous TPRN{sup −/−} mice exhibited progressive sensorineural hearing loss as reflected bymore » auditory brainstem response to both click and tone burst stimuli at postnatal days 15 (P15), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). Alex Fluor-594 phalloidin labeling showed no obvious difference in hair cell numbers in the cochlea between TPRN{sup −/−} mice and WT mice under light microscope. However, scanning electronic microscopy revealed progressive degeneration of inner hair cell stereocilia, from apparently normal at postnatal days 3 (P3) to scattered absence at P15 and further to substantial loss at P30. The outer hair cell stereocilia also showed progressive degeneration, though much less severe, Collectively, we conclude that taperin plays an important role in maintenance of hair cell stereocilia. Establishment of TPRN knockout mice enables further investigation into the function of this gene. - Highlights: • TPRN{sup −/−} mice were generated using TALEN technique. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice presented progressive hearing loss. • WT and TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed no difference in hair cell numbers. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed progressive degeneration of hair cell stereocilia.« less

  16. Serum ferritin and vitamin d in female hair loss: do they play a role?

    PubMed

    Rasheed, H; Mahgoub, D; Hegazy, R; El-Komy, M; Abdel Hay, R; Hamid, M A; Hamdy, E

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of serum ferritin and vitamin D levels in females with chronic telogen effluvium (TE) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL), in order to validate their role in these common hair loss diseases. Eighty females (18 to 45 years old) with hair loss, in the form of TE or FPHL, and 40 age-matched females with no hair loss were included in the study. Diagnosis was based upon clinical examination as well as trichogram and dermoscopy. Serum ferritin and vitamin D2 levels were determined for each participant. Serum ferritin levels in the TE (14.7 ± 22.1 μg/l) and FPHL (23.9 ± 38.5 μg/l) candidates were significantly lower than in controls (43.5 ± 20.4 μg/l). Serum vitamin D2 levels in females with TE (28.8 ± 10.5 nmol/l) and FPHL (29.1 ± 8.5 nmol/l) were significantly lower than in controls (118.2 ± 68.1 nmol/l; p < 0.001). These levels decreased with increased disease severity. Serum ferritin cut-off values for TE and FPHL were 27.5 and 29.4 μg/l, respectively, and those for vitamin D were 40.9 and 67.9 nmol/l. Low serum ferritin and vitamin D2 are associated with hair loss in females with TE and FPHL. Screening to establish these levels in cases of hair loss and supplementing with them when they are deficient may be beneficial in the treatment of disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. Results The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss. PMID:23394579

  18. A new technique for quantitative analysis of hair loss in mice using grayscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Gulati, Rohan; Gensure, Robert

    2015-03-09

    Alopecia is a common form of hair loss which can occur in many different conditions, including male-pattern hair loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and alopecia areata. Alopecia can also occur as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, our goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method to quantify hair loss in mice, which will allow investigators to accurately assess and compare new therapeutic approaches for these various forms of alopecia. The method utilizes a standard gel imager to obtain and process images of mice, measuring the light absorption, which occurs in rough proportion to the amount of black (or gray) hair on the mouse. Data that has been quantified in this fashion can then be analyzed using standard statistical techniques (i.e., ANOVA, T-test). This methodology was tested in mouse models of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, alopecia areata and alopecia from waxing. In this report, the detailed protocol is presented for performing these measurements, including validation data from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains of mice. This new technique offers a number of advantages, including relative simplicity of application, reliance on equipment which is readily available in most research laboratories, and applying an objective, quantitative assessment which is more robust than subjective evaluations. Improvements in quantification of hair growth in mice will improve study of alopecia models and facilitate evaluation of promising new therapies in preclinical studies.

  19. [Tiredness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, nausea and vomiting. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) type 2].

    PubMed

    Locher, Rebecca; Kohler, S; Schwanda, S; Schmid, C

    2010-10-06

    In this patient with tiredness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, chronic primary adrenal insufficiency (M. Addison) was diagnosed based on the clinical features, the typical electrolyte abnormalities and the reduced morning cortisol together with increased adrenocorticotropic hormone. The detection of autoantibodies against adrenal tissue and 21-hydroxylase revealed an auto-immune adrenalitis as the cause. The additional primary hypothyroidism (with positive thyreoperoxidase-anti-bodies, anti-TPO-antibodies) and the coeliac disease argued for a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2. Treatment with hydrocortisone and with mineralocorticoid and thyroxine later on showed a rapid improvement of clinical symptoms. In patients with Morbus Addison, a screening for associated endocrine disorders is warranted.

  20. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  1. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  2. Amyloidosis presented with whitening and loss of hair which improved after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S D; Yamamoto, R; Saito, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kuzuya, T; Ohba, S; Kobori, S; Saito, K

    1987-08-01

    A 67-year-old male patient presented with rapid progression of whitening and loss of hair in past 2 months was consulted due to the suspicion of hypothyroidism. He had been told to have cardiomegaly for 3 years. Thyroid function was within normal limit. Prostate biopsy was performed because of prostatic hypertrophy and mild elevation of serum acid phosphatase. Amyloid accumulation was observed in the biopsy specimen. Subsequent skin biopsies revealed the same result. The scalp hair and beard grew and turned to black gradually several months after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. These findings suggest that some of the manifestation of amyloidosis may respond to DMSO treatment.

  3. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  4. Iron deficiency in female pattern hair loss, chronic telogen effluvium, and control groups.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elise A; Reed, Katherine B; Cacchio, Patrick B; Caudill, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    The literature suggests that iron deficiency (ID) may play a role in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) or in chronic telogen effluvium (CTE). We sought to determine if ID is more common in women with FPHL and/or CTE than in control subjects without hair loss. This was a controlled study of 381 Caucasian women aged 18 years or older with FPHL or CTE seen in the Duke University Hair Disorders Clinic, Durham, NC, and 76 Caucasian women aged 18 years or older from the university environs who had no history or physical findings of hair loss (control subjects). All participants had to have at least a serum ferritin and hemoglobin reading and history of menopausal status. When ferritin less than or equal to 15 μg/L was used as the definition, ID occurred in 12.4%, 12.1%, and 29.8% of premenopausal women with FPHL (n = 170), CTE (n = 58), and control subjects (n = 47), respectively, and in 1.7%, 10.5%, and 6.9% of postmenopausal women with FPHL (n = 115), CTE (n = 38), and control subjects (n = 29), respectively. When ferritin less than or equal to 40 μg/L was used as the definition, ID occurred in 58.8%, 63.8%, and 72.3% of premenopausal women with FPHL, CTE, and control subjects, respectively, and in 26.1%, 36.8%, and 20.7% of postmenopausal women with FPHL, CTE, and control subjects, respectively. There was no statistically significant increase in the incidence of ID in premenopausal or postmenopausal women with FPHL or CTE versus control subjects. The effect of correction of ID on hair loss is unknown. ID is common in women but not increased in patients with FPHL or CTE compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between auditory thresholds, central spontaneous activity and hair cell loss after acoustic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mulders, W.H.A.M.; Ding, D.; Salvi, R.; Robertson, D.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic trauma caused by exposure to a very loud sound increases spontaneous activity in central auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus. This hyperactivity has been suggested as a neural substrate for tinnitus, a phantom hearing sensation. In previous studies we have described a tentative link between the frequency region of hearing impairment and the corresponding tonotopic regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. In this study we further investigated the relationship between cochlear compound action potential threshold loss, cochlear outer and inner hair cell loss and central hyperactivity in inferior colliculus of guinea pigs. Two weeks after a 10 kHz pure tone acoustic trauma, a tight relationship was demonstrated between the frequency region of compound action potential threshold loss and frequency regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. Extending the duration of the acoustic trauma from 1 to 2 h did not result in significant increases in final cochlear threshold loss, but did result in a further increase of spontaneous firing rates in the inferior colliculus. Interestingly, hair cell loss was not present in the frequency regions where elevated cochlear thresholds and central hyperactivity were measured, suggesting that subtle changes in hair cell or primary afferent neural function are sufficient for central hyperactivity to be triggered and maintained. PMID:21491427

  6. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  7. Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Neal, Christopher; Kennon-McGill, Stefanie; Freemyer, Andrea; Shum, Axel; Staecker, Hinrich; Durham, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to intense sound can damage or kill cochlear hair cells (HC). This loss of input typically manifests as noise induced hearing loss, but it can also be involved in the initiation of other auditory disorders such as tinnitus or hyperacusis. In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms. We exposed adult, anesthetized Long-Evans rats to a unilateral 16 kHz pure tone that varied in intensity (114 dB or 118 dB) and duration (1, 2, or 4 h) and sacrificed animals 2-4 weeks later. We compared two different methods of tissue preparation, plastic embedding/sectioning and whole mount dissection, for quantifying hair cell loss as a function of frequency. We found that the two methods of tissue preparation produced largely comparable cochleograms, with whole mount dissections allowing a more rapid evaluation of hair cell number. Both inner and outer hair cell loss was observed throughout the length of the cochlea irrespective of sound damage paradigm. Inner HC loss was either equal to or greater than outer HC loss. Increasing the duration of sound exposures resulted in more severe HC loss, which included all HC lesions observed in an analogous shorter duration exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential use of low-frequency tones to locate regions of outer hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Kamerer, Aryn M; Diaz, Francisco J; Peppi, Marcello; Chertoff, Mark E

    2016-12-01

    Current methods used to diagnose cochlear hearing loss are limited in their ability to determine the location and extent of anatomical damage to various cochlear structures. In previous experiments, we have used the electrical potential recorded at the round window -the cochlear response (CR) -to predict the location of damage to outer hair cells in the gerbil. In a follow-up experiment, we applied 10 mM ouabain to the round window niche to reduce neural activity in order to quantify the neural contribution to the CR. We concluded that a significant proportion of the CR to a 762 Hz tone originated from phase-locking activity of basal auditory nerve fibers, which could have contaminated our conclusions regarding outer hair cell health. However, at such high concentrations, ouabain may have also affected the responses from outer hair cells, exaggerating the effect we attributed to the auditory nerve. In this study, we lowered the concentration of ouabain to 1 mM and determined the physiologic effects on outer hair cells using distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. As well as quantifying the effects of 1 mM ouabain on the auditory nerve and outer hair cells, we attempted to reduce the neural contribution to the CR by using near-infrasonic stimulus frequencies of 45 and 85 Hz, and hypothesized that these low-frequency stimuli would generate a cumulative amplitude function (CAF) that could reflect damage to hair cells in the apex more accurately than the 762 stimuli. One hour after application of 1 mM ouabain, CR amplitudes significantly increased, but remained unchanged in the presence of high-pass filtered noise conditions, suggesting that basal auditory nerve fibers have a limited contribution to the CR at such low frequencies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Acute Loss of Apolipoprotein E Triggers an Autoimmune Response That Accelerates Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Centa, Monica; Prokopec, Kajsa E; Garimella, Manasa G; Habir, Katrin; Hofste, Lisa; Stark, Julian M; Dahdah, Albert; Tibbit, Chris A; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Gisterå, Anton; Johansson, Daniel K; Maeda, Nobuyo N; Hansson, Göran K; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Coquet, Jonathan M; Binder, Christoph J; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Malin, Stephen

    2018-06-07

    Dyslipidemia is a component of the metabolic syndrome, an established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and is also observed in various autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, there are limited opportunities to study the impact of acquired dyslipidemia on cardiovascular and immune pathology. We designed a model system that allows for the conversion to a state of acute hyperlipidemia in adult life, so that the consequences of such a transition could be observed, through conditionally deleting APOE (apolipoprotein E) in the adult mouse. The transition to hypercholesterolemia was accompanied by adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of T lymphocyte helper cell 1, T follicular helper cell, and T regulatory subsets and the formation of germinal centers. Unlike steady-state Apoe -deficientmice, abrupt loss of APOE induced rapid production of antibodies recognizing rheumatoid disease autoantigens. Genetic ablation of the germinal center reduced both autoimmunity and atherosclerosis, indicating that the immune response that follows loss of APOE is independent of atherosclerosis but nevertheless promotes plaque development. Our findings suggest that immune activation in response to hyperlipidemia could contribute to a wide range of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. [The experimental research of inner ear metabolism and electrical physiology of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Cao, Y; Hu, P

    1998-09-01

    Inquire into the mechanism of inner ear pathological physiology in autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). With the auditory electric-physiological techniques and enzyme-histochemical method, the change of inner ear hearing function and enzyme activity were observed. These animals, which threshold of auditory nerve compound active potential (CAP) and cochlear microphonic potential(CM) heightening evidently, showed that the amplitude of endolymphatic potential(EP) (include-EP) bring down in various degrees, which was related to the change of the active of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and SDH in vascularis stria and endolymphatic sac. The abnormality of enzymes metabolism in inner ear tissues, which following autoimmune inflammation damage, is the pathological foundation of hearing dysfunction.

  11. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  13. TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID PREVENTS HEARING LOSS AND HAIR CELL DEATH IN Cdh23erl/erl MICE

    PubMed Central

    HU, J.; XU, M.; YUAN, J.; LI, B.; Entenman, S.; YU, H.; ZHENG, Q.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cdh23 gene, Cdh23erl/erl, was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23erl/erl mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA’s otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12. PMID:26748055

  14. Coexistence of giant blue nevus of the scalp with hair loss and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Sachiko; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Murao, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Natsuko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Arase, Seiji

    2011-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a 13-year history of a grayish macule measuring 7 cm in diameter with sparse hairs on the vertex. Histopathological examination demonstrated two types of melanocytes, spindle-shaped and ovoid cells, with abundant melanin aggregated around the upper part of the pilosebaceous apparatus. Fibrous, thick collagen bundles were also seen surrounding the upper part of the small hair follicles. There was no infiltration of melanocytes or lymphocytes in the lower dermis or adipose tissue. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of blue nevus, cellular type, was made. Giant cellular blue nevi on the scalp are rare, and 11 cases reported in the published work have shown characteristic features such as hair loss and cranial invasion of nevus cells. It should be noted that melanocytes of giant blue nevi have a high potential to damage other organs such as underlying bone and hair follicles. The patient also showed a typical lesion of alopecia areata on the left temporal which was successfully treated with topical corticosteroid. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence.

  16. Loss of Roquin induces early death and immune deregulation but not autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Arianna; Aichinger, Martin; Sansonetti, Paola; Lech, Maciej; Neff, Frauke; Pal, Martin; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Klein, Ludger; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2011-08-29

    The substitution of one amino acid in the Roquin protein by the sanroque mutation induces a dramatic autoimmune syndrome in mice. This is believed to occur through ectopic expression of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) and unrestrained differentiation of follicular T helper cells, which induce spontaneous germinal center reactions to self-antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue-specific ablation of Roquin in T or B cells, in the entire hematopoietic system, or in epithelial cells of transplanted thymi did not cause autoimmunity. Loss of Roquin induced elevated expression of ICOS through T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms, which itself was not sufficient to break self-tolerance. Instead, ablation of Roquin in the hematopoietic system caused defined changes in immune homeostasis, including the expansion of macrophages, eosinophils, and T cell subsets, most dramatically CD8 effector-like T cells, through cell-autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms. Germline Roquin deficiency led to perinatal lethality, which was partially rescued on the genetic background of an outbred strain. However, not even complete absence of Roquin resulted in overt self-reactivity, suggesting that the sanroque mutation induces autoimmunity through an as yet unknown mechanism. © 2011 Bertossi et al.

  17. A Marine Protein-based Dietary Supplement for Subclinical Hair Thinning/Loss: Results of a Multisite, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rizer, Ronald L; Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Sperber, Brian R; Murphy, James; Ablon, Glynis R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since skin and hair quality are potent vitality signals, and hair growth deficiency can cause significant psychological morbidity. In addition to clearly-defined hair loss disorders, milder forms of hair thinning or hair loss appear to be increasingly common, with a suggestion that sub-optimal diets and stressful lifestyles may be involved. Methods: Here we assess the value of a dietary marine-extract based dietary supplement in premenopausal women with subclinical hair thinning or hair loss conditions. This multi-site, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with impact on hair shedding rate and hair fiber diameter (assessed by phototrichogram) as primary end points upon consumption of the oral supplement compared to a placebo. A total of 96 eligible female subjects were enrolled aged 21–55 years of age from Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic ethnic backgrounds. Results: This study showed that hair shedding was significantly reduced in the first 3–6 months of daily consumption of the oral supplement. Moreover, phototrichogram image analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in the mean vellus-like hair diameter after 6 months of supplement consumption, when compared to the mean vellus-like hair diameters measured at baseline. Discussion: These results support the view that a nutritional supplement approach may be useful for women in this age group to deal with subclinical hair thinning or hair loss conditions, and those components of this marine extract-based oral supplement may be a useful adjunct. PMID:26903744

  18. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    PubMed

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Productivity Losses and Costs in the Less-Common Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Natalie; Marra, Carlo A; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio

    2017-10-30

    We synthesised the literature on productivity losses and costs in the less-common systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: Sjogren's syndrome (SjS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and systemic vasculitides (SV). Of 29 studies located, 12 were published 2012 onwards (SSc = 6, SjS = 2, PM/DM = 2, SV = 2). In these, 25% of PM/DM, and 21-26% of SV, were work disabled, 22% of SSc stopped work within 3 years of diagnosis, and annual costs of absenteeism in SSc averaged $12,024 2017 USD. Very few studies reported on costs, presenteeism (working at reduced levels), or unpaid productivity loss. Across multiple systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs), major drivers of lost productivity were generalised items like pain, depression, and fatigue, rather than disease-specific factors. Evidence suggests that work disability is common in SSc and strikes quickly. However, in SSc and other SARDs, more comprehensive estimates are needed, which include absenteeism and presenteeism from paid and unpaid work, costs, and drivers of productivity loss.

  20. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... with covered rubber bands and try not to style it too tightly. Discontinue the use of harsh ... Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care ...

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of Hairgain in individuals with hair loss: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2001-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new agent for the treatment of hair loss, based on a marine protein, minerals and vitamins. Sixty subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments indicated that the treatment was effective and subjective assessments showed a statistically significant positive effect of treatment. Exposure to the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. The product investigated may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenic alopecia.

  2. Ethanol extract of Piper longum L. attenuates gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao Fei; Song, Jae-Jun; Hong, Seungug; Kim, Jihye

    2012-06-01

    Piper longum L. (PL), also as known as long pepper, a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, has been reported to exhibit wide spectrum activity including antioxidant activity. However, little information is available on its protective effect on gentamicin (GM) induced ototoxicity which is commonly regarded as being mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of PL ethanol extract on gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures. Cochlea cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice were used for analysis of the protective effects of PL against gentamicin-induced hair cell loss by phalloidin staining. E. coil cultures were used to determine whether PL interferes with the antibiotic activity of GM. Nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activity of PL was also measured in vitro. GM induced significant dose-dependent hair cell loss in cochlea cultures. However, without interfering with the antibiotic activity of GM, PL showed a significant and concentration-dependent protective effect against GM-induced hair cell loss, and hair cells retained their stereocilia well. In addition, PL expressed direct scavenging activity toward NO radical liberated within solution of sodium nitroprusside. These findings demonstrate the protective effect of PL on GM-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures, and suggest that it might be of therapeutic benefit for treatment of GM-induced ototoxicity.

  3. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Female pattern hair loss: a pilot study investigating combination therapy with low-dose oral minoxidil and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and spironolactone are oral antihypertensives known to stimulate hair growth. To report on a case series of women with pattern hair loss (PHL) treated with once daily minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. Women newly diagnosed with a Sinclair stage 2-5 PHL were scored for hair shedding and hair density before and after 12 months of treatment with oral minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. A total of 100 women were included in this observational pilot study. Mean age was 48.44 years (range 18-80). Mean hair loss severity at baseline was Sinclair 2.79 (range 2-5). Mean hair shedding score at baseline was 4.82. Mean duration of diagnosis was 6.5 years (range 0.5-30). Mean reduction in hair loss severity score was 0.85 at 6 months and 1.3 at 12 months. Mean reduction in hair shedding score was 2.3 at 6 months and 2.6 at 12 months. Mean change in blood pressure was -4.52 mmHg systolic and -6.48 mmHg diastolic. Side effects were seen in eight women but were generally mild. No patients developed hyperkalemia or any other blood test abnormality. Six of these women continued treatment, and two women who developed urticaria discontinued treatment. Prospective, uncontrolled, open-label observational study. Once daily capsules containing minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg appear to be safe and effective in the treatment of FPHL. Placebo-controlled studies to investigate this further are warranted. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Maternal hair selenium levels as a possible long-term nutritional indicator of recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of all couples trying to conceive will suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Nutritional deficiencies have been postulated as a possible cause of RPL and in particular, selenium deficiency has been associated with reproductive failure in animal studies and more recently, in some human studies. This study was undertaken to assess the maternal hair selenium levels in women with RPL without an identified cause and to compare these results with those of women with successful reproductive histories. Methods Twenty four patients with RPL and twenty four control subjects with at least one successful pregnancy and no pregnancy failures, who were matched for age and ethnicity, were recruited. A questionnaire was completed, which included demographic and social information and a dietary history. Hair samples were collected and analyzed for selenium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results The control subjects had a higher mean income and had completed more years of education compared with the RPL patients. There was no significant difference in the intake of selenium rich foods between the 2 groups. The patients, however, consumed significantly more fruit, cheese, potatoes and chocolate than the controls. The median (range) selenium content was 0.80 ppm (0.19-4.15) and 0.68 ppm (0.43-3.76) in patients and controls respectively (Mann Whitney U test 209.5 p = 0.74). Conclusions While there were significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to resources, education and diet our results show that hair selenium concentrations and dietary selenium intake, were similar in the two groups. Both groups had low levels of this important element. PMID:24148900

  6. Efficacy of three drugs for protecting against gentamicin-induced hair cell and hearing losses

    PubMed Central

    Bas, E; Van De Water, TR; Gupta, C; Dinh, J; Vu, L; Martínez-Soriano, F; Láinez, JM; Marco, J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Exposure to an ototoxic level of an aminoglycoside can result in hearing loss. In this we study investigated the otoprotective efficacy of dexamethasone (DXM), melatonin (MLT) and tacrolimus (TCR) in gentamicin (GM)-treated animals and cultures. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Wistar rats were divided into controls (treated with saline); exposed to GM only (GM); and three GM-exposed groups treated with either DXM, MLT or TCR. Auditory function and cochlear surface preparations were studied. In vitro studies of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, the MAPK pathway and caspase-3 activation were performed in organ of Corti explants from 3-day-old rats. KEY RESULTS DXM, MLT and TCR decreased levels of reactive oxygen species in GM-exposed explants. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and TNF-receptor type 1 were significantly reduced in GM + DXM and GM + MLT groups. Phospho-p38 MAPK levels decreased in GM + MLT and GM + TCR groups, while JNK phosphorylation was reduced in GM + DXM and GM + MLT groups. Caspase-3 activation decreased in GM + DXM, GM + MLT and GM + TCR groups. These results were consistent with in vivo results. Local treatment of GM-exposed rat cochleae with either DXM, MLT or TCR preserved auditory function and prevented auditory hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In organ of Corti explants, GM increased oxidative stress and initiated an inflammatory response that led to the activation of MAPKs and apoptosis of hair cells. The three compounds tested demonstrated otoprotective properties that could be beneficial in the treatment of ototoxicity-induced hearing loss. PMID:22320124

  7. Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of 5% minoxidil topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Hournaz; Nasrollahi, Saman Ahmad; Halavati, Nader; Saberi, Maryam; Firooz, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Male pattern hair loss is widespread around the world. Its prevalence indicates the importance of finding the best treatment modalities. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 5% topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction. This study was a before-and-after trial on 17 male patients with male pattern hair loss. Subjects were instructed to apply one capful (1 ml) of minoxidil 5% topical foam on the scalp daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed through hair counts, subject assessment, and global photographic review. Seventeen male volunteers were recruited, and three volunteers were withdrawn; 14 participated in the trial for 16 weeks, and 12 continued up to 24 weeks. The average hair count with a camera at week 16 (181.87 ± 52.42) and week 24 (194.58 ± 62.82) and with an eye count at week 16 (62.57 ± 15.28) and week 24 (69.91 ± 15.61) increased significantly compared to the baseline after intervention. This study confirmed that minoxidil 5% topical foam is a safe and effective treatment for MPHL. The effect of it is evident after 24 weeks of use.

  9. Selective inner hair cell loss in prematurity: a temporal bone study of infants from a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Amatuzzi, Monica; Liberman, M Charles; Northrop, Clarinda

    2011-10-01

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss in general and auditory neuropathy in particular. However, relatively little is known about the underlying causes, in part because there are so few relevant histopathological studies. Here, we report on the analysis of hair cell loss patterns in 54 temporal bones from premature infants and a control group of 46 bones from full-term infants, all of whom spent time in the neonatal intensive care unit at the Hospital de Niños in San Jose, Costa Rica, between 1977 and 1993. The prevalence of significant hair cell loss was higher in the preterm group than the full-term group (41% vs. 28%, respectively). The most striking finding was the frequency of selective inner hair cell loss, an extremely rare histopathological pattern, in the preterm vs. the full-term babies (27% vs. 3%, respectively). The findings suggest that a common cause of non-genetic auditory neuropathy is selective loss of inner hair cells rather than primary damage to the cochlear nerve.

  10. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; p<0.0001) and a statistically significantly (ANOVA; p<0.0005) slower growth rate in MPHL as compared with equally thick hairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  11. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: is loss of hair protective for infection?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Kerwat, Martina; Müller, Hans-Helge; Gohlke, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. It was recently observed during first-time shoulder surgery in healthy patients at a rate between 36% and 56%. Male gender and the anterolateral approach were reported risk factors. Because the skin biology greatly differs, we aimed to correlate skin complaints with P acnes-positive intraoperative cultures from different tissue layer samples in patients undergoing shoulder surgery for the first time. Intraoperative samples (1 skin, 1 superficial, 1 deep tissue, and 1 control sample) from 112 patients (70 men, 42 women; aged 59.2 years) were cultured. The association between the presence of P acnes in the deep or superficial tissue, or both, and 10 items of a validated preoperative questionnaire for skin pathology was explored. The cultures were positive for P acnes in 38.4% (n = 43) of the cases. Skin samples were positive for P acnes in 8% (n = 9), superficial samples were positive in 23% (n = 26), and deep samples were positive in 30% (n = 34). Self-reported "loss of hair" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of P acnes in the superficial or deep tissue sample (P = .00028). Patients who report having "loss of hair" show fewer P acnes-positive cultures in intraoperative tissue samples taken during open shoulder surgery. Whether this subgroup is at a lesser risk for P acnes infections remains to be substantiated. Basic Science Study; Microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Vitamins and Minerals in the Treatment of Hair Loss: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Dermatologists in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer

    2014-11-01

    Several controversies exist regarding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in treating hair loss. To explore practices, knowledge, and attitudes for using vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss among dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire containing 33 questions was distributed to 177 dermatologists attending a national dermatology conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Of the 177 attending dermatologists, 144 responded to the questionnaire (81% response rate). Vitamins and minerals were recommended for treating at least one type of hair loss by 60%. Vitamins and minerals were most commonly used for acute telogen effluvium (62%). The majority (72%) reported a good knowledge of vitamins and minerals toxicity. Although dermatologists in Saudi Arabia displayed positive believes in the usefulness of vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss, further research is needed to prove their role in the management of different hair loss disorders.

  13. Cochlear hair cell regeneration after noise-induced hearing loss: does regeneration follow development?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Zuo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) affects a large number of military personnel and civilians. Regenerating inner-ear cochlear hair cells (HCs) is a promising strategy to restore hearing after NIHL. In this review, we first summarize recent transcriptome profile analysis of zebrafish lateral lines and chick utricles where spontaneous HC regeneration occurs after HC damage. We then discuss recent studies in other mammalian regenerative systems such as pancreas, heart and central nervous system. Both spontaneous and forced HC regeneration occurs in mammalian cochleae in vivo involving proliferation and direct lineage conversion. However, both processes are inefficient and incomplete, and decline with age. For direct lineage conversion in vivo in cochleae and in other systems, further improvement requires multiple factors, including transcription, epigenetic and trophic factors, with appropriate stoichiometry in appropriate architectural niche. Increasing evidence from other systems indicates that the molecular paths of direct lineage conversion may be different from those of normal developmental lineages. We therefore hypothesize that HC regeneration does not have to follow HC development and that epigenetic memory of supporting cells influences the HC regeneration, which may be a key to successful cochlear HC regeneration. Finally, we discuss recent efforts in viral gene therapy and drug discovery for HC regeneration. We hope that combination therapy targeting multiple factors and epigenetic signaling pathways will provide promising avenues for HC regeneration in humans with NIHL and other types of hearing loss. PMID:28034617

  14. Model-based analysis of the torsional loss modulus in human hair and of the effects of cosmetic processing.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Franz J; Wortmann, Gabriele; Haake, Hans-Martin; Eisfeld, Wolf

    Torsional analysis of single human hairs is especially suited to determine the properties of the cuticle and its changes through cosmetic processing. The two primary parameters, which are obtained by free torsional oscillation using the torsional pendulum method, are storage ( G ') and loss modulus ( G ″). Based on previous work on G ', the current investigation focuses on G ″. The results show an increase of G ″ with a drop of G ' and vice versa , as is expected for a viscoelastic material well below its glass transition. The overall power of G ″ to discriminate between samples is quite low. This is attributed to the systematic decrease of the parameter values with increasing fiber diameter, with a pronounced correlation between G ″ and G '. Analyzing this effect on the basis of a core/shell model for the cortex/cuticle structure of hair by nonlinear regression leads to estimates for the loss moduli of cortex ( G ″ co ) and cuticle ( G ″ cu ). Although the values for G ″ co turn out to be physically not plausible, due to limitations of the applied model, those for G ″ cu are considered as generally realistic against relevant literature values. Significant differences between the loss moduli of the cuticle for the different samples provide insight into changes of the torsional energy loss due to the cosmetic processes and products, contributing toward a consistent view of torsional energy storage and loss, namely, in the cuticle of hair.

  15. Association between antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent fetal loss in women without autoimmune disease: a metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Opatrny, Lucie; David, Michéle; Kahn, Susan R; Shrier, Ian; Rey, Evelyne

    2006-11-01

    To assess the strength of association between recurrent fetal loss (RFL) and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in women without autoimmune disease, and to examine whether magnitude of association varies according to type or titer of antibody and timing of fetal loss. We searched Medline and Current Contents for articles published between 1975 and 2003 with terms denoting early (less than 13 weeks) and late (less than 24 weeks) RFL associated with various aPL. Published case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies rated moderate or strong were included in our metaanalysis. Pooled odds ratios with 95% CI were generated using the random-effects models with Cochrane Review Manager software. Our analysis included 25 studies. Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) was associated with late RFL (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.30-26.45); the association of LAC was stronger than that of any other aPL. IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), when combining all titers, were associated with both early (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.48-8.59) and late RFL (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.26-5.65). Restricting analysis to include only women with moderate to high titers increased the strength of association (OR 4.68, 95% CI 2.96-7.40). It was not possible to extract data on isolated low IgG aCL positivity. IgM aCL were associated with late RFL (OR 5.61, 95% CI 1.26-25.03). There was no association found between early RFL and anti-Beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.69-6.53). The magnitude of the association between aPL and RFL varies according to type of aPL. More data on the relationship between recurrent fetal loss and isolated IgM aCL as well as with low titer IgG aCL would be useful. The place of testing for anti-Beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies remains to be determined.

  16. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  17. Biotechnology in the Treatment of Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Foundations and Future of Hair Cell Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of the methodologies involved in the field of hair cell regeneration. First, the author provides a tutorial on the biotechnological foundations of this field to assist the reader in the comprehension and interpretation of the research involved in hair cell regeneration. Next, the author presents a review of stem…

  18. Prestin Regulation and Function in Residual Outer Hair Cells after Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Anping; Song, Yohan; Wang, Rosalie; Gao, Simon S.; Clifton, Will; Raphael, Patrick; Chao, Sung-il; Pereira, Fred A.; Groves, Andrew K.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein prestin is necessary for electromotility, which drives cochlear amplification and produces exquisitely sharp frequency tuning. TectaC1509G transgenic mice have hearing loss, and surprisingly have increased OHC prestin levels. We hypothesized, therefore, that prestin up-regulation may represent a generalized response to compensate for a state of hearing loss. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on prestin expression. After noise exposure, we performed cytocochleograms and observed OHC loss only in the basal region of the cochlea. Next, we patch clamped OHCs from the apical turn (9–12 kHz region), where no OHCs were lost, in noise-exposed and age-matched control mice. The non-linear capacitance was significantly higher in noise-exposed mice, consistent with higher functional prestin levels. We then measured prestin protein and mRNA levels in whole-cochlea specimens. Both Western blot and qPCR studies demonstrated increased prestin expression after noise exposure. Finally, we examined the effect of the prestin increase in vivo following noise damage. Immediately after noise exposure, ABR and DPOAE thresholds were elevated by 30–40 dB. While most of the temporary threshold shifts recovered within 3 days, there were additional improvements over the next month. However, DPOAE magnitudes, basilar membrane vibration, and CAP tuning curve measurements from the 9–12 kHz cochlear region demonstrated no differences between noise-exposed mice and control mice. Taken together, these data indicate that prestin is up-regulated by 32–58% in residual OHCs after noise exposure and that the prestin is functional. These findings are consistent with the notion that prestin increases in an attempt to partially compensate for reduced force production because of missing OHCs. However, in regions where there is no OHC loss, the cochlea is able to compensate for the excess prestin in order to

  19. Autoimmune gastritis.

    PubMed

    Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with destruction of parietal cells of the corpus and fundus of the stomach. The known consequence is vitamin B12 deficiency and, consequently, pernicious anemia. However, loss of parietal cells reduces secretion of gastric acid which is also required for absorption of inorganic iron; thus, iron deficiency is commonly found in patients with autoimmune gastritis. This usually precedes vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mainly in young women. Patients with chronic iron deficiency, especially those refractory to oral iron therapy, should therefore be evaluated for the presence of autoimmune gastritis.

  20. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of male-pattern and female-pattern hair loss, 2017 version.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Motomu; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Itami, Satoshi; Osada, Shin-Ichi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Ito, Taisuke; Inui, Shigeki; Ueki, Rie; Ohyama, Manabu; Kurata, Sotaro; Kono, Takeshi; Saito, Norimitsu; Sato, Akio; Shimomura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narusawa, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-06-04

    Male-pattern hair loss (MPHL, androgenetic alopecia) is a slowly progressive form of alopecia which begins after puberty. In 2010, we published the first Japanese edition of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MPHL. It achieved the original goal of providing physicians and patients in Japan with evidence-based information for choosing efficacious and safe therapy for MPHL. Subsequently, new therapeutic drugs and treatment methods have been developed, and women's perception of MPHL has undergone change and the term "female-pattern hair loss (FPHL)" is becoming more common internationally. Thus, here we report a revised version of the 2010 guidelines aimed at both MPHL and FPHL. In these guidelines, finasteride 1 mg daily, dutasteride 0.5 mg daily and topical 5% minoxidil twice daily for MPHL, and topical 1% minoxidil twice daily for FPHL, are recommended as the first-line treatments. Self-hair transplantation, irradiation by light-emitting diodes and low-level lasers, and topical application of adenosine for MPHL are recommended, whereas prosthetic hair transplantation and oral administration of minoxidil should not be performed. Oral administration of finasteride or dutasteride are contraindicated for FPHL. In addition, we have evaluated the effectiveness of topical application of carpronium chloride, t-flavanone, cytopurine, pentadecane and ketoconazole, and wearing a wig. Unapproved topical application of bimatoprost and latanoprost, and emerging hair regeneration treatments have also been addressed. We believe that the revised guidelines will improve further the diagnostic and treatment standards for MPHL add FPHL in Japan. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Protective effect of hexane and ethanol extract of piper longum L. On gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cultures.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SPL extract at a concentration of 1 µg/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 µg/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures.

  3. The Impact of 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Use for Male Pattern Hair Loss on Men's Health.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed A; Mehta, Akanksha

    2018-06-16

    Male pattern hair loss, mediated by dihydrotestosterone, is a common hair loss disorder, affecting over 50% of men over the age of 50. The 5-α reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, are Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for the treatment of this disorder. Several recent studies have reported adverse sexual and spermatogenic events among young men using 5-α reductase inhibitors, such as erectile dysfunction, decreased ejaculate volume, decreased libido, and infertility. In this review, we summarize and analyze the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of these medications, with an overall focus on men's health. Finasteride for the treatment of male pattern hair loss was considered safe according to many previous clinical trials. However, these trials have been recently criticized for inadequate safety reporting. Comprehensive review of the current literature reveals that there is a disproportionately high number of men with 5-α reductase inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction and infertility. Although uncommon, the use of 5-α reductase inhibitors is associated with serious and persistent sexual and reproductive side effects, such as erectile dysfunction, decreased ejaculate volume, decreased libido, and infertility.

  4. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  5. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    PubMed

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  6. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W; Stern, Emily; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-12-01

    Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Academic medical center. Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of SRD5A in men with persistent sexual symptoms after finasteride use

  7. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y.; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Context: Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. Objective: To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Participants: Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Outcomes: Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Setting: Academic medical center. Results: Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. Conclusions: We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of

  8. A Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is currently in use to stimulate hair growth and is quickly gaining in popularity due to the ease of use and absence of side effects. In 2015 alone, the number of LLLT devices with the Food and Drug Administration clearance has doubled. To consolidate evidence and establish which data are still required for the widespread acceptance of LLLT for hair loss therapy. A thorough search of the PubMed database was conducted to obtain studies investigating LLLT for androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Nine trials were identified for comb and helmet/cap devices, five of which were randomized controlled trials. Data comparison across LLLT trials and with traditional hair loss therapy (minoxidil, finasteride) was not straight forward because there was a lack of visual evidence, sample sizes were low, and there were large variations in study duration and efficacy measurements. There are a number of unanswered questions about the optimum treatment regimen, including maintenance treatment and the long-term consequences of LLLT use. Moving forward, protocols should be standardized across trials. Moreover, it is recommended that future trials include visual evidence and trial duration be expanded to 12 months.

  9. Fractional non-ablative laser-assisted drug delivery leads to improvement in male and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Ana Carina Junqueira; Vilarinho, Adriana; Junqueira, Ana Lúcia Ariano

    2018-02-16

    Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%. During all laser treatment sessions, eight passes were performed, at 7 mJ, 3-9% of coverage and density of 120 mzt/cm 2 . A positive response was observed in all of the four patients. Photographs taken 2 weeks after the last session showed improvement in hair regrowth and density. No significant side effects were observed.

  10. Hair Cell Loss, Spiral Ganglion Degeneration, and Progressive Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Mice with Targeted Deletion of Slc44a2/Ctl2.

    PubMed

    Kommareddi, Pavan; Nair, Thankam; Kakaraparthi, Bala Naveen; Galano, Maria M; Miller, Danielle; Laczkovich, Irina; Thomas, Trey; Lu, Lillian; Rule, Kelli; Kabara, Lisa; Kanicki, Ariane; Hughes, Elizabeth D; Jones, Julie M; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Fisher, Susan G; Altschuler, Richard A; Dolan, David; Kohrman, David C; Saunders, Thomas L; Carey, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    SLC44A2 (solute carrier 44a2), also known as CTL2 (choline transporter-like protein 2), is expressed in many supporting cell types in the cochlea and is implicated in hair cell survival and antibody-induced hearing loss. In mice with the mixed C57BL/6-129 background, homozygous deletion of Slc44a2 exons 3–10 (Slc44a2(Δ/Δ)resulted in high-frequency hearing loss and hair cell death. To reduce effects associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in these strains, mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele were backcrossed to the ARHL-resistant FVB/NJ strain and evaluated after backcross seven(N7) (99 % FVB). Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice produced abnormally spliced Slc44a2 transcripts that contain a frame shift and premature stop codons. Neither full-length SLC44A2 nor a putative truncated protein could be detected in Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a likely null allele. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) of mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele on an FVB/NJ genetic background were tested longitudinally between the ages of 2 and 10 months. By 6 months of age,Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice exhibited hearing loss at 32 kHz,but at 12 and 24 kHz had sound thresholds similar to those of wild-type Slc44a2(+/+) and heterozygous +/Slc44a2Δ mice. After 6 months of age, Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mutants exhibited progressive hearing loss at all frequencies and +/Slc44a2(Δ) mice exhibited moderate threshold elevations at high frequency. Histologic evaluation of Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice revealed extensive hair cell and spiral ganglion cell loss, especially in the basal turn of the cochlea. We conclude that Slc44a2 function is required for long-term hair cell survival and maintenance of hearing.

  11. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A pilot split-scalp study of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling and 5% topical minoxidil in treating male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-J; Luo, Y-J; Xu, X-G; Bao, L-L; Tian, T; Li, Z-X; Dong, Y-X; Li, Y-H

    2018-06-27

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL), but the outcomes often seem to be limited. Adjuvant therapies are urgently needed. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling (FRM) and 5% topical minoxidil in the treatment of male pattern hair loss. In total, 19 Chinese men were enrolled in this randomized, controlled, split-scalp trial. Participants received monotherapy with 5% topical minoxidil twice daily to one half of the scalp, while on the other half of the scalp the treatment with twice-daily 5% topical minoxidil was combined with five sessions of FRM at 4-week intervals. Mean hair count and hair thickness, global assessment by the investigators, subject self-assessment and adverse effects were assessed. After 5 months of treatment, mean hair count increased from 44.12 ± 21.58 to 73.14 ± 25.45 on the combined-therapy side and from 46.22 ± 18.77 to 63.21 ± 19.22 on the monotherapy side, while mean hair thickness increased from 53 ± 13 μm to 71 ± 15 μm and from 52 ± 16 μm to 66 ± 14 μm, respectively. Compared with the monotherapy side, the combined-therapy side had a higher degree of improvement in both hair count (P = 0.01) and hair thickness (P = 0.02). Combined treatment with fractional radiofrequency microneedle and 5% topical minoxidil could be an effective and safe treatment option for male pattern hair loss. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Factors associated with female pattern hair loss and its prevalence in Taiwanese women: a community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Li-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2013-08-01

    Although female pattern hair loss (FPHL) has been considered simply the female counterpart of male pattern hair loss in men, the risk factors may differ. We sought to evaluate factors associated with FPHL and to estimate its prevalence in women. In total, 26,226 subjects aged 30 years and older participated in a cross-sectional survey. Ludwig and Norwood classifications were used to assess the degree of hair loss. Information on possible risk factors for FPHL was collected using a questionnaire interview. The prevalence of FPHL (Ludwig grade >I) for all ages was 11.8% (95% CI 11.5%-12.2%), increasing with advancing age. After controlling for age and family history, statistically significant associations were noted between FPHL and high fasting glucose (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.28), fewer childbirths (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.38), breast-feeding (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.98), oral contraceptive use (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45), and ultraviolet exposure more than 16 hours per week (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22). The validity and reliability of FPHL classification may be not perfect in this survey and may need to be verified. Information on family history may be still subject to recall bias. Risk factors for FPHL and male androgenic alopecia may differ. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J E; Mauzerall, D; Tucker, E B

    1989-07-01

    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water.

  15. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole 1

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph E.; Mauzerall, David; Tucker, Edward B.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water. PMID:16666864

  16. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family. PMID:20637089

  17. NonScarring Diffuse Hair Loss in Women: a Clinico-Etiological Study from tertiary care center in North-West India.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Kavita; Thami, Gurvinder Pal; Bhalla, Mala; Jaiswal, Shivani; Sandhu, Jasleen

    2018-05-17

    Diffuse hair loss (DHL) is a common problem in adult women and has a major impact on quality of life. Ascertaining the etiological diagnosis is a challenging task in such patients. Satisfactory treatment can only be instituted after ascertaining the cause of hair loss. To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of nonscarring DHL in females and to ascertain its underlying etiological factors. Of a total of 110 females, who presented with nonscarring DHL to the outpatient dermatology department, 100 qualified for inclusion in the study. A detailed history, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations were performed in all the patients. Statistical analysis was performed on the data collected. Of 100 cases of DHL which were included in the study, commonest was chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) (62%), followed by female pattern hair loss (FPHL) (22%) and acute telogen effluvium (ATE) (16%). Incidence of hair loss was highest in 21-40 years age group. Psychological stress was seen to be a precipitating factor in 18 patients and found most commonly in women belong to CTE group (n-16, 25.8%). Hemoglobin levels ranged from 80 to 142 gm/L (mean: 119 ± 110). Low hemoglobin level (<120 gm/L) was observed in 57% patients. Total serum ferritin <10 ng/mL was seen in 20 patients, vitamin B12 < 211 pg/mL in 76 cases, vitamin D3 < 30 ng/mL in 81 cases. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 11% cases. Nonscarring DHL is a multifactorial condition with highest incidence in 21- to 40-year age group. Serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, and D3 levels seem to have a contributing role in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and their supplementation may be needed for a faster regrowth of hair in all cases of hair loss irrespective of the pattern. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Three Cases of Hair Loss Analyzed by the Point of View of the Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Ademir Carvalho; Katzer, Tatiele; Ramos, Denise Gimenez

    2017-01-01

    Psychotrichology is the science, which covers the psychosomatics applied to hair problems, i.e., body-psyche phenomena involving scalp and hair disorders. The approaches involving psychotricology are varied and may include psychiatric,[1] psychoanalytical,[23] and those involving knowledge related to analytical psychology.[4] An analysis from the analytical psychology point of view, a theory developed by the physician Carl Gustav Jung, favors a symbolic view to the disease, providing it attributions and meanings that go beyond those related to physical body signs and symptoms only. This paper aims to describe and analyze, under the analytical psychology view, three cases the psychic and clinical demonstrations of which relate to symbolic and historic aspects concerning life of patients as possibilities of cause and maintenance of hair problems. The first of them is related to an 8-year-old girl who witnessed a scene of physical aggression by her father against her mother and developed a case of total alopecia. The second case is related to a 43-year-old woman who developed self-inflicted scalp dermatitis due to severe anxiety; and at last, the case of a telogen effluvium in a 23-year-old woman who developed hyperprolactinemia after the death of her mother, having to substitute her in the care about her husband and brothers. Looking at the clinical history and symbolic matters of scalp and hair diseases enabled, in the aforementioned cases, a better understanding of patients' psychoemotional disorders that may be related to the beginning and maintenance of clinical cases presented by them. PMID:29118523

  19. Three Cases of Hair Loss Analyzed by the Point of View of the Analytical Psychology.

    PubMed

    Leite Júnior, Ademir Carvalho; Katzer, Tatiele; Ramos, Denise Gimenez

    2017-01-01

    Psychotrichology is the science, which covers the psychosomatics applied to hair problems, i.e., body-psyche phenomena involving scalp and hair disorders. The approaches involving psychotricology are varied and may include psychiatric,[1] psychoanalytical,[23] and those involving knowledge related to analytical psychology.[4] An analysis from the analytical psychology point of view, a theory developed by the physician Carl Gustav Jung, favors a symbolic view to the disease, providing it attributions and meanings that go beyond those related to physical body signs and symptoms only. This paper aims to describe and analyze, under the analytical psychology view, three cases the psychic and clinical demonstrations of which relate to symbolic and historic aspects concerning life of patients as possibilities of cause and maintenance of hair problems. The first of them is related to an 8-year-old girl who witnessed a scene of physical aggression by her father against her mother and developed a case of total alopecia. The second case is related to a 43-year-old woman who developed self-inflicted scalp dermatitis due to severe anxiety; and at last, the case of a telogen effluvium in a 23-year-old woman who developed hyperprolactinemia after the death of her mother, having to substitute her in the care about her husband and brothers. Looking at the clinical history and symbolic matters of scalp and hair diseases enabled, in the aforementioned cases, a better understanding of patients' psychoemotional disorders that may be related to the beginning and maintenance of clinical cases presented by them.

  20. Comparing the Effects of Zinc Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Their Combination and Minoxidil Solution Regimens on Controlling Hair Loss in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Tavakoli, Fereshteh; Mokhtari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of oral supplements with 2% minoxidil solution in four groups of women with hair loss. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to December 2016 in dermatology clinics affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 73, 15-45-year-old, women with hair loss participated in this 4-month study. Simple randomization using Random Allocation Software was done to put the participants in four groups to receive coadministration of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate, zinc sulfate, calcium pantothenate, and 2% minoxidil solution. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density and diameter measured by dermatoscope. Secondary endpoints included the researcher's evaluation, dermatologist's opinion - which was blinded to the study - from comparing the participants' photographs before and after treatment and finally, overall changes in hair density measured by participants' self-assessment. Seventy-three women participated in this study. Primary hair count and thickness were 118.5 ± 10 hairs/cm 2 and 58.8 ± 5.8 μ that changed to 124 ± 11 hairs/cm 2 and 62.3 ± 4.3 μ respectively ( P < 0.001) which in the zinc plus pantothenate group these changes were from 118.6 ± 9.9 hairs/cm 2 to 121.9 ± 11.1 hairs/cm 2 ( P = 0.042) and from 62.2 ± 6.6 μ to 64.0 ± 5.0 μ ( P = 0.126), respectively. Hair density increments were more obvious in the minoxidil group, and hair thickness increments were more obvious in pantothenate group. Participants' satisfaction was 85% in the combination therapy which was more than other groups. Participants' satisfaction, author's and blind dermatologist's opinion showed a significant correlation ( P = 0.0001). Based on the participants' satisfaction, the combination of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate when administered in a pulse therapy way could be a good choice for hair loss controlling in initial stages.

  1. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  3. The effect of plasma rich in growth factors combined with follicular unit extraction surgery for the treatment of hair loss: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Roge M; Pino, Ander; Martinez-Andres, Asunción; Molina, Consuelo; Martinez, Ana María; Martinez, Nahikari; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-10-26

    Hair transplant surgery using follicular unit extraction technique (FUE) is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of severe hair loss. Blood-derived autologous growth factors have also proved to promote hair regeneration in patients with different types of alopecia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology as an adjuvant therapy for FUE surgery in hair loss affected patients. The biologic potential of PRGF was firstly in vitro evaluated over follicular germinal matrix and dermal papilla cells. Afterward, fifteen patients were subjected to routine FUE procedure while 15 patients underwent FUE+PRGF therapy. PRGF group included intradermal injections of growth factors and follicular transfer unit (FTU) preservation in an autologous fibrin clot. Postsurgical patient satisfaction and clinical improvement were evaluated, and PRGF or saline-preserved hair grafts were histomorphometrically analyzed. Follicular cell proliferation and migration was induced after autologous growth factors treatment. PRGF-preserved FTUs presented higher bioactivity signals and improved integrity of perifollicular structures and extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and elastic fibers. PRGF not only reduced the postsurgical crust healing and hair fixation period, but also decreased the inflammatory pain and itching sensation. This preliminary data demonstrate that PRGF is able to minimize the postsurgical follicle loss and potentiate the performance of grafted hairs. The fibrin clot not only acts as a protective barrier against environmental factors, but also provides a biologically active scaffold that induces resident cell proliferation and maintains an optimal integrity of the grafted hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dietary vitamin A regulates wingless-related MMTV integration site signaling to alter the hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liye; Sundberg, John P; Everts, Helen B

    2015-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair loss disease caused by a cell-mediated immune attack of the lower portion of the cycling hair follicle. Feeding mice 3-7 times the recommended level of dietary vitamin A accelerated the progression of AA in the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA. In this study, we also found that dietary vitamin A, in a dose dependent manner, activated the hair follicle stem cells (SCs) to induce the development and growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen), which may have made the hair follicle more susceptible to autoimmune attack. Our purpose here is to determine the mechanism by which dietary vitamin A regulates the hair cycle. We found that vitamin A in a dose-dependent manner increased nuclear localized beta-catenin (CTNNB1; a marker of canonical wingless-type Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus integration site family (WNT) signaling) and levels of WNT7A within the hair follicle bulge in these C3H/HeJ mice. These findings suggest that feeding mice high levels of dietary vitamin A increases WNT signaling to activate hair follicle SCs. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Safety and efficacy analysis of liposomal insulin-like growth factor-1 in a fluid gel formulation for hair-loss treatment in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Castro, R F; Azzalis, L A; Feder, D; Perazzo, F F; Pereira, E C; Junqueira, V B C; Rocha, K C; Machado, C D'A; Paschoal, F C; Gnann, L A; Fonseca, F L A

    2012-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has shown some interesting results in studies examining its use as a hair-loss treatment. IGF-1 works by regulating cellular proliferation and migration during the development of hair follicles. Hepatotoxicity and myelotoxicity were evaluated in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) after topical application of the liquid gel vehicle (placebo), 1% IGF-1 or 3% IGF-1. No significant difference in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase was found between the control and treated groups. ELISA did not shown any increase in the plasma level of IGF-1. A haematopoietic niche was found, but it was not associated with myelotoxicity. Efficacy was determined by dermatoscopy analysis of hair density and microscopy analysis of hair diameter, with hair found to be thicker and with more rapid growth in the 3% group than in either the 1% group or the control group. These results strongly suggest that liposomal IGF-1 in a liquid gel formulation is a safe and efficient treatment for hair loss. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  7. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  8. Loss of Work Productivity and Quality of Life in Patients With Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Heelan, K; Hitzig, S L; Knowles, S; Drucker, A M; Mittmann, N; Walsh, S; Shear, N H

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about quality of life and work productivity in autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBDs). To determine the impact of AIBDs on quality of life and work productivity. An observational cross-sectional study took place between February and May 2013 at an AIBD tertiary referral centre. Ninety-four patients were included. All participants completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Specific Health Problem questionnaires. Responders to treatment had less impairment (P<.001) than nonresponders. Patients with severe AIBD had significantly more impairment that those with mild (P<.001) and moderate (P=.002) AIBD. Greater impairment was associated with higher percentage of work missed. Those with a higher Dermatology Life Quality Index score had greater work impairment and overall activity impairment (P=.041, P=.024). Nonresponders had increased impairment while working (P<.001), overall work impairment (P<.001), and activity impairment (P<.001). Severely affected patients had worse impairment in all Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire domains. AIBD has the potential to be a large burden on ability to work and quality of life. Larger studies are needed to clarify how these domains change over time and whether or not they improve with treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Case reports: alopecia universalis: hair growth following initiation of simvastatin and ezetimibe therapy.

    PubMed

    Robins, Douglas N

    2007-09-01

    Alopecia areata is an organ specific autoimmune disease in which hair is lost in various patterns. Its most extreme form, alopecia universalis, is the total loss of all scalp and body hair. This form of the condition is very resistant to treatment and spontaneous remission is quite rare. The following is a case of a 54-year-old male with longstanding alopecia universalis who began to grow dense hair on his scalp as well as patchy hair growth on his face, pubic and axillary areas one month after starting a course of simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily prescribed for his hyperlipidemia. For 2 years prior to starting the combination drug, he had taken simvastatin 40 mg alone without evidence of any hair growth. The combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe has previously demonstrated synergistic immunomodulatory effects, which most likely accounts for the clinical response in this case.

  11. Across-frequency behavioral estimates of the contribution of inner and outer hair cell dysfunction to individualized audiometric loss

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the multiple contributors to the audiometric loss of a hearing impaired (HI) listener at a particular frequency is becoming gradually more useful as new treatments are developed. Here, we infer the contribution of inner (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) dysfunction to the total audiometric loss in a sample of 68 hearing aid candidates with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, and for test frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz. It was assumed that the audiometric loss (HLTOTAL) at each test frequency was due to a combination of cochlear gain loss, or OHC dysfunction (HLOHC), and inefficient IHC processes (HLIHC), all of them in decibels. HLOHC and HLIHC were estimated from cochlear I/O curves inferred psychoacoustically using the temporal masking curve (TMC) method. 325 I/O curves were measured and 59% of them showed a compression threshold (CT). The analysis of these I/O curves suggests that (1) HLOHC and HLIHC account on average for 60–70 and 30–40% of HLTOTAL, respectively; (2) these percentages are roughly constant across frequencies; (3) across-listener variability is large; (4) residual cochlear gain is negatively correlated with hearing loss while residual compression is not correlated with hearing loss. Altogether, the present results support the conclusions from earlier studies and extend them to a wider range of test frequencies and hearing-loss ranges. Twenty-four percent of I/O curves were linear and suggested total cochlear gain loss. The number of linear I/O curves increased gradually with increasing frequency. The remaining 17% I/O curves suggested audiometric losses due mostly to IHC dysfunction and were more frequent at low (≤1 kHz) than at high frequencies. It is argued that in a majority of listeners, hearing loss is due to a common mechanism that concomitantly alters IHC and OHC function and that IHC processes may be more labile in the apex than in the base. PMID:25100940

  12. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  13. Noise-induced inner hair cell ribbon loss disturbs central arc mobilization: a novel molecular paradigm for understanding tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Jaumann, Mirko; Lee, Sze Chim; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Xiong, Hao; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Franz, Christoph; Geisler, Hyun-Soon; Köpschall, Iris; Rohbock, Karin; Varakina, Ksenya; Verpoorten, Sandrine; Reinbothe, Thomas; Schimmang, Thomas; Rüttiger, Lukas; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence shows that hearing loss is a risk factor for tinnitus and hyperacusis. Although both often coincide, a causal relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis has not been shown. Currently, tinnitus and hyperacusis are assumed to be caused by elevated responsiveness in subcortical circuits. We examined both the impact of different degrees of cochlear damage and the influence of stress priming on tinnitus induction. We used (1) a behavioral animal model for tinnitus designed to minimize stress, (2) ribbon synapses in inner hair cells (IHCs) as a measure for deafferentation, (3) the integrity of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to detect differences in stimulus-evoked neuronal activity, (4) the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein, Arc, to identify long-lasting changes in network activity within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1, and auditory cortex (AC), and (5) stress priming to investigate the influence of corticosteroid on trauma-induced brain responses. We observed that IHC ribbon loss (deafferentation) leads to tinnitus when ABR functions remain reduced and Arc is not mobilized in the hippocampal CA1 and AC. If, however, ABR waves are functionally restored and Arc is mobilized, tinnitus does not occur. Both central response patterns were found to be independent of a profound threshold loss and could be shifted by the corticosterone level at the time of trauma. We, therefore, discuss the findings in the context of a history of stress that can trigger either an adaptive or nonadaptive brain response following injury.

  14. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  15. Bone loss and aggravated autoimmune arthritis in HLA-DRβ1-bearing humanized mice following oral challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Indra; Karydis, Anastasios; Luo, Jiwen; Prislovsky, Amanda; Whittington, Karen B; Rosloniec, Edward F; Dong, Chen; Novack, Deborah V; Mydel, Piotr; Zheng, Song Guo; Radic, Marko Z; Brand, David D

    2016-10-26

    The linkage between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is well established. Commonalities among the two are that both are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by bone loss, an association with the shared epitope susceptibility allele, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. To explore immune mechanisms that may connect the two seemingly disparate disorders, we measured host immune responses including T-cell phenotype and anti-citrullinated protein antibody production in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 humanized C57BL/6 mice following exposure to the Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal disease pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We measured autoimmune arthritis disease expression in mice exposed to P. gingivalis, and also in arthritis-resistant mice by flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine-linked and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We also measured femoral bone density by microcomputed tomography and systemic cytokine production. Exposure of the gingiva of DR1 mice to P. gingivalis results in a transient increase in the percentage of Th17 cells, both in peripheral blood and cervical lymph nodes, a burst of systemic cytokine activity, a loss in femoral bone density, and the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Importantly, these antibodies are not produced in response to P. gingivalis treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and P. gingivalis exposure triggered expression of arthritis in arthritis-resistant mice. Exposure of gingival tissues to P. gingivalis has systemic effects that can result in disease pathology in tissues that are spatially removed from the initial site of infection, providing evidence for systemic effects of this periodontal pathogen. The elicitation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in an HLA-DR1-restricted fashion by mice exposed to P. gingivalis provides support for the role of the shared epitope in both periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of P. gingivalis to induce disease

  16. Defining the Cellular Environment in the Organ of Corti following Extensive Hair Cell Loss: A Basis for Future Sensory Cell Replacement in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ruth R.; Jagger, Daniel J.; Forge, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. Methodology/Principal Findings Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. Conclusions/Significance The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals resulting from genetic

  17. Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Sundberg, J P; Happle, R; McElwee, K J; Metz, S; Boggess, D; Hoffmann, R

    1999-07-01

    A type of hair loss closely resembling human alopecia areata has been described in C3H/HeJ mice. In order to test the assumed analogy with human alopecia areata, we investigated the efficacy of treatment with the contact allergen squaric acid dibutylester. In 12 C3H/HeJ mice with alopecia areata an allergic contact dermatitis was induced and elicited weekly on one side of the back by topical applications of squaric acid dibutylester. Overt hair regrowth was observed only on the treated side of the back in nine of 12 mice. Histopathologic examination revealed a change in the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate from a dense perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate around the mid and lower regions of hair follicles in untreated skin to a uniform presence in the upper dermis in treated skin. Immunohistomorphometric studies revealed that treatment with squaric acid dibutylester increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from approximately 1:2 in untreated alopecia areata to 1:1 in treated alopecia areata. Additional immunohistochemical investigations showed an aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I, major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on keratinocytes of the mid and lower parts of hair follicles in untreated alopecia areata. In successfully treated skin ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression was clearly reduced, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression showed only minor changes. In conclusion, alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice responded to treatment with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester analogous to human alopecia areata. Moreover, successful treatment changes the aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II in a way similar to that observed in human alopecia areata. These observations support the concept that alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice can be utilized as an appropriate model for the study of

  18. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  19. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  20. Fatal autoimmune hepatitis induced by concurrent loss of naturally arising regulatory T cells and PD-1-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Kido, Masahiro; Watanabe, Norihiko; Okazaki, Taku; Akamatsu, Takuji; Tanaka, Junya; Saga, Kazuyuki; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Honjo, Tasuku; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2008-10-01

    Because of the lack of animal models developing spontaneous autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of AIH are still unclear. This study aims to examine the regulatory roles of naturally arising CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)-mediated signaling in the development of AIH. To induce a concurrent loss of Treg cells and PD-1-mediated signaling, neonatal thymectomy (NTx), which severely reduces the number of Treg cells, was performed on PD-1(-/-) mice. After the NTx, we performed histologic examination, assessed autoantibody production and infiltrating cells in the liver, and conducted adoptive transfer experiments. In contrast to NTx mice and PD-1(-/-) mice, NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice produced antinuclear antibodies and developed fatal hepatitis characterized by a CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration invading the parenchyma with massive lobular necrosis. Induction of AIH in NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice was suppressed by transfer of Treg cells, even derived from PD-1(-/-) mice. Transfer of total but not CD4(+) T-cell-depleted splenocytes from NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice into RAG2(-/-) mice induced the development of severe hepatitis. In contrast, the transfer of CD8(+) T-cell-depleted splenocytes triggered only mononuclear infiltrates without massive necrosis of the parenchyma. NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice are the first mouse model of spontaneous fatal AIH. The concurrent loss of Treg cells and PD-1-mediated signaling can induce the development of fatal AIH. Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells are essential for induction of AIH, whereas CD8(+) T cells play an important role in progression to fatal hepatic damage.

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong

    2017-01-01

    Background A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. Objective This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Methods Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Results Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil (p<0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL. PMID:28566902

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong; Lee, Won-Soo

    2017-06-01

    A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil ( p <0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL.

  3. Deletion of SLC19A2, the high affinity thiamine transporter, causes selective inner hair cell loss and an auditory neuropathy phenotype.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M C; Tartaglini, E; Fleming, J C; Neufeld, E J

    2006-09-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the high-affinity thiamine transporter Slc19a2 underlie the clinical syndrome known as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) characterized by anemia, diabetes, and sensorineural hearing loss. To create a mouse model of this disease, a mutant line was created with targeted disruption of the gene. Cochlear function is normal in these mutants when maintained on a high-thiamine diet. When challenged with a low-thiamine diet, Slc19a2-null mice showed 40-60 dB threshold elevations by auditory brainstem response (ABR), but only 10-20 dB elevation by otoacoustic emission (OAE) measures. Wild-type mice retain normal hearing on either diet. Cochlear histological analysis showed a pattern uncommon for sensorineural hearing loss: selective loss of inner hair cells after 1-2 weeks on low thiamine and significantly greater inner than outer hair cell loss after longer low-thiamine challenges. Such a pattern is consistent with the observed discrepancy between ABR and OAE threshold shifts. The possible role of thiamine transport in other reported cases of selective inner hair cell loss is considered.

  4. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  5. A Phase III, Multicenter, Parallel-Design Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of 5% Minoxidil Foam Versus Vehicle in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma; Washenik, Ken; Callender, Valerie; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair disorder that affects millions of women. A new 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) formulation, which does not contain propylene glycol, has been developed.
    To compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily 5% MTF with vehicle foam for the treatment of FPHL.
    This was a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, international multicenter trial (17 sites) in women aged at least 18 years with FPHL (grade D3 to D6 on the Savin Density Scale), treated once daily with 5% MTF or vehicle foam for 24 weeks. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline at week 24 in target area hair count (TAHC) and subject assessment of scalp coverage. Also evaluated were TAHC at week 12, expert panel review of hair regrowth at week 24, and change from baseline in total unit area density (TUAD, sum of hair diameters/cm2) at weeks 12 and 24.
    A total of 404 women were enrolled. At 12 and 24 weeks, 5% MTF treatment resulted in regrowth of 10.9 hairs/cm2 and 9.1 hairs/cm2 more than vehicle foam, respectively (both P<.0001). Improved scalp coverage at week 24 was observed by both subject self-assessment (0.69-point improvement over vehicle foam; P<.0001) and expert panel review (0.36-point improvement over the vehicle foam; P<.0001). TUAD increased by 658 μm/cm2 and 644 μm/cm2 more with 5% MTF than with vehicle foam at weeks 12 and 24, respectively (both P<.0001). MTF was well tolerated. A low incidence of scalp irritation and facial hypertrichosis was observed, with no clinically significant differences between groups.
    Five percent MTF once daily for 24 weeks was well tolerated and promoted hair regrowth in women with FPHL, resulting in improved scalp coverage and increased hair density compared with vehicle foam. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: nCT01226459

  6. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  7. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  8. Conservation of hearing and protection of auditory hair cells against trauma-induced losses by local dexamethasone therapy: molecular and genetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Van De Water, Thomas R; Abi Hachem, Ralph N; Dinh, Christine T; Bas, Esperanza; Haake, Scott M; Hoosien, Gia; Vivero, Richard; Chan, Sherry; He, Jao; Eshraghi, Adrien A; Angeli, Simon I; Telischi, Fred F; Balkany, Thomas J

    2010-06-01

    Dexamethasone (DXM) protects hearing against trauma-induced loss. in vivo: A guinea pig model of electrode induced trauma (EIT)-induced hearing loss was used to locally deliver dexamethasone. In vitro: TNF-α-challenged organ of Corti explants treated with DXM or polymer-eluted DXM +/- PI3K/Akt/PkB/NFkB inhibitors were used for hair cells count and gene expression studies. in vivo: local DXM treatment of EIT-animals prevents trauma-induced loss of ABR thresholds that occurs in EIT-animals and EIT-animals treated with the carrier solution (i.e., AP), and prevented loss of auditory hair cells. In vitro: DXM and polymer-eluted DXM were equally effective in protecting hair cells from ototoxic levels of TNF-α Inhibitor treated explants demonstrated that DXM treatment requires both Akt/PKB and NFkB signalling for otoprotection. DXM treatment of explants showed up regulation of anti-apoptosis related genes (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-xl) and down regulation of pro-apoptosis related genes (i.e., Bax, TNFR-1). DXM exert its otoprotective action by activation of cell signal molecules (e.g., NFkB) that alter the expression of anti- and pro-apoptosis genes.

  9. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  10. Polymorphic CAG Repeat Numbers in the Androgen Receptor Gene of Female Pattern Hair Loss in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wenlong; Sheng, Youyu; Hu, Ruiming; Miao, Ying; Han, Yumei; Qi, Sisi; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Qinping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of CAG repeat numbers in the androgen receptor (AR) gene with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in a Chinese population. A total of 200 Han Chinese patients with FPHL (142 Ludwig II and 58 Ludwig III cases) and 200 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers was analyzed by the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism technique. The CAG biallelic mean length was 23.73 ± 2.04 repeats in Han Chinese FPHL patients and 23.90 ± 2.13 repeats in healthy controls, without any significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.481). In addition, neither the shorter nor the longer CAG repeat numbers were significantly different between FPHL and control subjects (p = 0.726, p = 0.383). The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers of the AR gene may not be the genetic marker of FPHL in a Chinese population. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  12. The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided. PMID:23650526

  13. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  15. Activation of miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling contributes to cochlear hair cell apoptosis: implications for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Pang, Jiaqi; Yang, Haidi; Dai, Min; Liu, Yimin; Ou, Yongkang; Huang, Qiuhong; Chen, Suijun; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Yaodong; Lai, Lan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related hearing loss are not fully understood, and currently, there is no treatment for this disorder. MicroRNAs have recently been reported to be increasingly associated with age-related diseases and are emerging as promising therapeutic targets. In this study, miR-34a/Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/p53 signaling was examined in cochlear hair cells during aging. MiR-34a, p53 acetylation, and apoptosis increased in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice with aging, whereas an age-related decrease in SIRT1 was observed. In the inner ear HEI-OC1 cell line, miR-34a overexpression inhibited SIRT1, leading to an increase in p53 acetylation and apoptosis. Moreover, miR-34a knockdown increased SIRT1 expression and diminished p53 acetylation, and apoptosis. Additionally, resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, significantly rescued miR-34a overexpression-induced HEI-OC1 cell death and significantly reduced hearing threshold shifts and hair cell loss in C57BL/6 mice after a 2-month administration. Our results support a link between age-related cochlear hair cell apoptosis and miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling, which may serve as a potential target for age-related hearing loss treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  18. Loss of β-arrestin 2 exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced number of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Chang; Wei, Bin; Pei, Gang

    2013-01-01

    β-Arrestins are well-known regulators and mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, and accumulating evidence reveals that they are functionally involved in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Of the two β-arrestins, β-arrestin 1 is documented to play regulatory roles in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas the role of β-arrestin 2 is less clear. Here, we show that β-arrestin 2-deficient mice displayed the exacerbated and sustained symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. At the cellular level, deficiency of β-arrestin 2 led to a decreased number of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral lymphoid organs of EAE mice. Consistently, our in vitro observations also revealed that loss of β-arrestin 2 impaired the conversion of Foxp3− CD4+ T cells into Foxp3+ CD4+ inducible Treg cells. Taken together, our data suggest that β-arrestin 2 plays a regulatory role in MS, that is opposite to that of β-arrestin 1, in autoimmune diseases such as MS, which is at least partially through regulation of iTreg cell differentiation. PMID:23859136

  19. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spring Meeting Meeting Feedback CME CME Attestation CME Disclosure CME Objectives CME Requirements OCC GME Training ACGME ... 2017 Foundation for Osteopathic Dermatology 7/6/2016 Disclosure to members regarding CME activities 4/3/2014 ...

  20. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  1. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest Policy Meeting Minutes Archive History Mission Statement Membership AOCD Membership Life Membership Membership Applications and Renewals Membership Benefits Fellows ...

  2. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  3. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  4. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration. PMID:27303264

  5. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  6. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  7. Structural study of the effects of mutations in proteins to identify the molecular basis of the loss of local structural fluidity leading to the onset of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ananya; Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2017-02-26

    Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) are crucial in most of the biological processes and PPI dysfunctions are known to be associated with the onsets of various diseases. One of such diseases is the auto-immune disease. Auto-immune diseases are one among the less studied group of diseases with very high mortality rates. Thus, we tried to correlate the appearances of mutations with their probable biochemical basis of the molecular mechanisms leading to the onset of the disease phenotypes. We compared the effects of the Single Amino Acid Variants (SAVs) in the wild type and mutated proteins to identify any structural deformities that might lead to altered PPIs leading ultimately to disease onset. For this we used Relative Solvent Accessibility (RSA) as a spatial parameter to compare the structural perturbation in mutated and wild type proteins. We observed that the mutations were capable to increase intra-chain PPIs whereas inter-chain PPIs would remain mostly unaltered. This might lead to more intra-molecular friction causing a deleterious alteration of protein's normal function. A Lyapunov exponent analysis, using the altered RSA values due to polymorphic and disease causing mutations, revealed polymorphic mutations have a positive mean value for the Lyapunov exponent while disease causing mutations have a negative mean value. Thus, local spatial stochasticity has been lost due to disease causing mutations, indicating a loss of structural fluidity. The amino acid conversion plot also showed a clear tendency of altered surface patch residue conversion propensity than polymorphic conversions. So far, this is the first report that compares the effects of different kinds of mutations (disease and non-disease causing polymorphic mutations) in the onset of autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural study of the effects of mutations in proteins to identify the molecular basis of the loss of local structural fluidity leading to the onset of autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Ananya; Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) are crucial in most of the biological processes and PPI dysfunctions are known to be associated with the onsets of various diseases. One of such diseases is the auto-immune disease. Auto-immune diseases are one among the less studied group of diseases with very high mortality rates. Thus, we tried to correlate the appearances of mutations with their probable biochemical basis of the molecular mechanisms leading to the onset of the disease phenotypes. We compared the effects of the Single Amino Acid Variants (SAVs) in the wild type and mutated proteins to identify any structural deformities that mightmore » lead to altered PPIs leading ultimately to disease onset. For this we used Relative Solvent Accessibility (RSA) as a spatial parameter to compare the structural perturbation in mutated and wild type proteins. We observed that the mutations were capable to increase intra-chain PPIs whereas inter-chain PPIs would remain mostly unaltered. This might lead to more intra-molecular friction causing a deleterious alteration of protein's normal function. A Lyapunov exponent analysis, using the altered RSA values due to polymorphic and disease causing mutations, revealed polymorphic mutations have a positive mean value for the Lyapunov exponent while disease causing mutations have a negative mean value. Thus, local spatial stochasticity has been lost due to disease causing mutations, indicating a loss of structural fluidity. The amino acid conversion plot also showed a clear tendency of altered surface patch residue conversion propensity than polymorphic conversions. So far, this is the first report that compares the effects of different kinds of mutations (disease and non-disease causing polymorphic mutations) in the onset of autoimmune diseases. - Highlights: • Protein-Protein Interaction. • Changes in Relative Solvent Accessibility (RSA). • Amino acid conversion matrix. • Polymorphic mutations. • Disease causing mutations.« less

  9. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy losses by increasing cellular immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kuniaki; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Han, Ae-Ra; Beaman, Kenneth; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Kwak-Kim, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Do women with recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL) and low vitamin D have increased prevalence of auto- and cellular immune abnormalities when compared with women with RPL who have normal vitamin D, and does vitamin D have any effect on cellular immunity in vitro? A high proportion of women with RPL have vitamin D deficiency and the risk of auto- and cellular immune abnormalities is increased in women with RPL and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is associated with increased risk of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, bacterial vaginosis associated preterm delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus and small-for-gestational age births. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 133 women with RPL who were enrolled in a 2-year period, together with laboratory experiments. Women with three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions prior to 20 weeks of gestation who were enrolled at the University clinic. Serum vitamin D level, cellular activity and autoimmune parameters in vivo and in vitro were measured. Sixty-three out of 133 women (47.4%) had low vitamin D (<30 ng/ml). The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibody (APA) was significantly higher in low vitamin D group (VDlow) (39.7%) than in the normal vitamin D group (VDnl) (22.9%) (P< 0.05) and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for APA in VDlow was 2.22 with the 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.0-4.7. The prevalence of antinuclear antigen antibody (VDlow versus VDnl; 23.8% versus 10.0%, OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.1-7.4), anti-ssDNA (19.0% versus 5.7%, OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.1-12.4) and thyroperoxidase antibody (33.3% versus 15.7%, OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.2-6.1) was significantly higher in VDlow than those of VDnl (P < 0.05 each). Peripheral blood CD19(+) B and CD56(+) NK cell levels and NK cytotoxicity at effector to target cell (E:T) ratio of 25:1 were significantly higher in VDlow when compared with those of VDnl (P < 0.05 each). Reduction (%) of NK cytotoxicity (at E:T ratio of 50:1 and 25:1) by IgG (12

  10. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Once-Daily Minoxidil Foam 5% Versus Twice-Daily Minoxidil Solution 2% in Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Phase III, Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Shapiro, Jerry; Messenger, Andrew G; Hordinsky, Maria K; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Olsen, Elise A

    2016-07-01

    A once-daily minoxidil topical foam (MTF) has been developed to treat female pattern hair loss.
    Determine noninferiority of once-daily 5% MTF versus twice-daily 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) based on the change from baseline in target area hair count (TAHC) at 24 weeks. In a randomized, phase III trial, women with female pattern hair loss received once-daily 5% MTF (n=161) or twice-daily 2% MTS (n=161) for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 24 weeks. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included change in total unit area density and change in overall scalp coverage.
    Once-daily 5% MTF increased TAHC from baseline (adjusted mean ± standard error) by 23.9 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. Twice-daily 2% MTS increased TAHC 24.2 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. The treatment difference was -0.3 hairs/cm2 (95% CI = -6.0, 5.4). Since the lower bound of the 95% CI was less than -5.0, the prespecified noninferiority goal was not met. Both treatments were well tolerated.
    Once-daily 5% MTF and twice-daily 2% MTS induced hair regrowth in female pattern hair loss, but prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met.
    ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145625

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):883-889.

  13. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Jofra Hernandez, Raisa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L.; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)–mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA−/− Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA–treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00598481/NCT00599781. PMID:22184407

  14. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha V; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-02-09

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA(-/-) Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA-treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID.

  15. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  16. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  18. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  19. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  20. Current practices for the prophylaxis against bone mineral density loss in patients with autoimmune blistering disease treated with corticosteroids: an expert survey.

    PubMed

    Amber, K T; Grando, S A

    2018-04-28

    Managing corticosteroid related comorbidities, including bone mineral density loss (BMDL), is an essential part of caring for the autoimmune blistering disease (AIBD) patient. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) issued an evidence-based BMDL prophylaxis guideline for patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. 2010 guidelines divided patients as low, medium, and high-risk. Accordingly, for patients greater than 50 and on corticosteroids for ≥3 months, low-risk patients should receive bisphosphonate prophylaxis if receiving ≥7.5mg of prednisone daily, while medium and high-risk patients should receive bisphosphonate prophylaxis regardless of dose. Supplementation with calcium and Vitamin D are recommended for all patients receiving corticosteroids, regardless of duration [1]. Patients with a history of fragility fractures if receiving ≥1 month of corticosteroids also should receive prophylaxis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical efficacy of oral administration of finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day in women with female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Won, Yong-Yon; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Sim, Woo-Young

    2018-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) presents with diffuse thinning over the mid-frontal scalp, for which various treatment modalities have been tried. Although currently, oral 5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride are being used, their clinical efficacy remains controversial. We retrospectively investigated 544 premenopausal or postmenopausal patients with FPHL who were prescribed finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day. Our study excluded patients with a follow-up period of < 3 months and patients who were prescribed other FPHL treatment modalities including topical minoxidil. Finally, 112 patients were evaluated based on their medical records and clinical photographs. Based on assessment using the Ludwig scale at the time of their initial visit, among 112 patients studied, 59 patients were classified as belonging to grade I, 47 were grade II, and 6 were grade III. Using global photographs, we found that 33 (29.5%) of the 112 patients studied showed slight improvement, 73 (65.2%) showed significant improvement, whereas no change was recorded in 6 (5.4%). We could demonstrate efficacy of administration of finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day for patients with FPHL and also found that finasteride has a better effect on hair growth when patients had a lower Ludwig score and an older age at onset. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  3. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Sreejith P; Ganguly, Taneeta; Consolo, Mary; Price, Vera; Mirmirani, Paradi; Honda, Kord; Karnik, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA) is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  4. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  5. Quality of life in women with female pattern hair loss and the impact of topical minoxidil treatment on quality of life in these patients.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao-Sheng; Zheng, You-You; Xu, Jia-Jia; Fan, Wei-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women and it may impact on the psychological and social activities of patients, thereby reducing their quality of life (QoL). Topical minoxidil has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with FPHL. The aim of this study was to assess the QoL of patients with FPHL and investigate whether topical minoxidil solution treatment improves the QoL of these patients. In this study, we enrolled 125 female patients aged 16-72 years to answer visual analog scale (VAS) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaires. Of these patients, 31 were recruited for the follow-up study after 12 months of treatment with 2% minoxidil. Each index and the change in QoL prior to and following treatment were statistically analyzed. There was identified to be a correlation between clinical severity and the values of the indices in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference between the VAS and DLQI scores prior to and following treatment with 2% minoxidil. A comparison between the good responders (n=23) and the poor responders (n=8) revealed no significant difference in the improvement of VAS and DLQI scores. The QoL of the patients was severely impaired by FPHL. The DLQI and VAS used in this study were validated as useful indices for the evaluation of QoL due to their high reliability, sensitivity and simplicity. This evaluation is recommended for the management of FPHL treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that topical minoxidil improved the QoL of the patients.

  6. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Symptoms Alopecia areata (Al-uh-PEE-shuh AR-ee-AYT-uh) The immune system attacks hair ... spine is involved. Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THREYE-tuhss) A disease in which the immune ...

  7. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... the thyroid or pancreas Joints Muscles Red blood cells Skin A person may have more than one ...

  8. Autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Newman, M P; Blum, S; Wong, R C W; Scott, J G; Prain, K; Wilson, R J; Gillis, D

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis has expanded with the emergence of several new clinicopathological entities. In particular, autoimmune encephalitis has recently been described in association with antibodies to surface receptors and ion channels on neurological tissues. Greater clinician awareness has resulted in autoimmune encephalitis being increasingly recognised in patients with unexplained neurological and psychiatric symptoms and signs. The clinical spectrum of presentations, as well as our understanding of disease mechanisms and treatment regimens, is rapidly developing. An understanding of these conditions is important to all subspecialties of Internal Medicine, including neurology and clinical immunology, psychiatry, intensive care and rehabilitation medicine. This review provides a contemporary overview of the aetiology, investigations and treatment of the most recently described autoimmune encephalitides. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  10. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  11. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  12. [When hair starts to fall out].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  13. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  14. Autoimmune encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of twelve autoimmune encephatilic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  15. Familial juvenile autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, obesity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hathout, Eba H; Janner, Donald; Hara, Manami; Donfack, Joseph; Bass, Joseph; Refetoff, Samuel

    2004-04-01

    The proband, a 9-year-old Hispanic female, presented with hair loss, strabismus, and weight gain. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) she was found to have severe primary hypothyroidism and a large pituitary mass. In addition, acanthosis nigricans, obesity, and hyperinsulinism were observed. Findings were similar in three of four siblings. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were detected in the father and three of four siblings. Although all family members were obese, and hyperinsulinemia with high proinsulin and C-peptide was found in all except one sibling, only the mother and one child had overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the unusual association of autoimmune thyroid disease, insulin resistance and obesity rather than insulin deficiency, we searched for possible genetic abnormalities. The HLA haplotypes did not cosegregate with autoimmune thyroid disease or insulin resistance. Mutational analysis of known obesity genes was done. Leptin was not deficient, and sequencing of the proband's DNA showed no mutations in the perixisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, PPAR-gamma(2), PPAR-alpha or melanocortin 4 receptor genes. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness was ruled out since no mutations were found in mitochondria DNA. Insulin receptor antibodies were not detected. In conclusion, the remarkably high incidence of childhood autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, insulin resistance and obesity in this family is not linked to known HLA types or known gene defects.

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  17. Autoimmune synaptopathies.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Sarah J; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Vincent, Angela

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies targeting proteins at the neuromuscular junction are known to cause several distinct myasthenic syndromes. Recently, autoantibodies targeting neurotransmitter receptors and associated proteins have also emerged as a cause of severe, but potentially treatable, diseases of the CNS. Here, we review the clinical evidence as well as in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that autoantibodies account for myasthenic syndromes and autoimmune disorders of the CNS by disrupting the functional or structural integrity of synapses. Studying neurological and psychiatric diseases of autoimmune origin may provide new insights into the cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying a broad range of CNS disorders.

  18. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  19. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, ... Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. ... Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George ...

  1. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  2. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  3. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    PubMed

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  4. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  5. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P.; Cole, Megan A.; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65 ± 5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1 ± 1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus −73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation. PMID:28216604

  6. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  7. Early alpha-lipoic acid therapy protects from degeneration of the inner retinal layers and vision loss in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-optic neuritis model.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael; Helling, Niklas; Hilla, Alexander; Heskamp, Annemarie; Issberner, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Kohne, Zippora; Küry, Patrick; Berndt, Carsten; Aktas, Orhan; Fischer, Dietmar; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Albrecht, Philipp

    2018-03-07

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), neurodegeneration is the main reason for chronic disability. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant which has recently been demonstrated to reduce the rate of brain atrophy in progressive MS. However, it remains uncertain if it is also beneficial in the early, more inflammatory-driven phases. As clinical studies are costly and time consuming, optic neuritis (ON) is often used for investigating neuroprotective or regenerative therapeutics. We aimed to investigate the prospect for success of a clinical ON trial using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-optic neuritis (EAE-ON) model with visual system readouts adaptable to a clinical ON trial. Using an in vitro cell culture model for endogenous oxidative stress, we compared the neuroprotective capacity of racemic LA with the R/S-enantiomers and its reduced form. In vivo, we analyzed retinal neurodegeneration using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the visual function by optokinetic response (OKR) in MOG 35-55 -induced EAE-ON in C57BL/6J mice. Ganglion cell counts, inflammation, and demyelination were assessed by immunohistological staining of retinae and optic nerves. All forms of LA provided equal neuroprotective capacities in vitro. In EAE-ON, prophylactic LA therapy attenuated the clinical EAE score and prevented the thinning of the inner retinal layer while therapeutic treatment was not protective on visual outcomes. A prophylactic LA treatment is necessary to protect from visual loss and retinal thinning in EAE-ON, suggesting that a clinical ON trial starting therapy after the onset of symptoms may not be successful.

  8. Water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 formulation (Q-ter) promotes outer hair cell survival in a guinea pig model of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL).

    PubMed

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Piacentini, Roberto; Fiorita, Antonella; Paludetti, Gaetano; Troiani, Diana

    2009-02-27

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) and anti-oxidants and free-radicals scavengers have been shown to attenuate the damage. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) or ubiquinone has a bioenergetic role as a component of the mithocondrial respiratory chain, it inhibits mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inducing ATP production and it is involved in ROS removal and prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. However the therapeutic application of CoQ(10) is limited by the lack of solubility and poor bio- availability, therefore it is a challenge to improve its water solubility in order to ameliorate the efficacy in tissues and fluids. This study was conducted in a model of acoustic trauma in the guinea pig where the effectiveness of CoQ(10) was compared with a soluble formulation of CoQ(10) (multicomposite CoQ(10) Terclatrate, Q-ter) given intraperitoneally 1 h before and once daily for 3 days after pure tone noise exposure (6 kHz for 1 h at 120 dB SPL). Functional and morphological studies were carried out by measuring auditory brainstem responses, scanning electron microscopy for hair cell loss count, active caspase 3 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP labelling assay in order to identify initial signs of apoptosis. Treatments decreased active caspase 3 expression and the number of apoptotic cells, but animals injected with Q-ter showed a greater degree of activity in preventing apoptosis and thus in improving hearing. These data confirm that solubility of Coenzyme Q(10) improves the ability of CoQ(10) in preventing oxidative injuries that result from mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  10. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  12. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  13. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  14. The Diagnostic Challenges of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kata; Angst, Eliane; Seidel, Stefan; Flury-Frei, Renata; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare but important differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer. This autoimmune disease can mimic pancreatic cancer by its clinical symptoms, including weight loss and jaundice. Furthermore imaging findings may include a mass of the pancreas. Here we present the case of a 67-year-old male patient diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis but showing the well-known symptoms of pancreatic cancer. This emphasizes the difficulties of histological findings and the importance of the correct diagnostic process. PMID:25802499

  15. SIALIC ACIDS AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vinay S.; Pillai, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    summary An important underlying mechanism that contributes to autoimmunity is the loss of inhibitory signaling in the immune system. Sialic acid-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins or Siglecs are a family of cell surface proteins largely expressed in hematopoietic cells. The majority of Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in immune cells that bind to sialic acid containing ligands and recruit SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases to their cytoplasmic tails. They deliver inhibitory signals that can contribute to the constraining of immune cells and thus protect the host from autoimmunity. The inhibitory functions of CD22/Siglec-2 and Siglec-G and their contributions to tolerance and autoimmunity, primarily in the B lymphocyte context, are considered in some detail in this review. The relevance to autoimmunity and unregulated inflammation of modified sialic acids, enzymes that modify sialic acid, and other sialic acid binding proteins are also reviewed. PMID:26683151

  16. Autoimmune chorea in adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Orna; Lennon, Vanda A.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Bower, James; Fealey, Robert; Lachance, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the characteristics of adult-onset autoimmune chorea, and compare paraneoplastic and idiopathic subgroups. Methods: Thirty-six adults with autoimmune chorea were identified at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1997 to 2012. Medical record and laboratory data were recorded. Nonparaneoplastic (n = 22) and paraneoplastic cases (n = 14) were compared. Results: Women accounted for 21 patients (58%). Median age at symptom onset was 67 years (range 18–87 years). We estimated the incidence for Olmsted County was 1.5 per million person-years. Symptom onset was subacute in all. Chorea was focal (20 patients) or generalized (16 patients). Although chorea predominated, other neurologic disorders frequently coexisted (29 patients); abnormal eye movements were uncommon (4 patients). No patient had NMDA receptor antibody or any immunoglobulin (Ig)G yielding a detectable immunofluorescence binding pattern restricted to basal ganglia. Two had synaptic IgG antibodies novel to the context of chorea (GAD65, 1; CASPR2, 1). In the paraneoplastic group, 14 patients had evidence of cancer. Of 13 with a histopathologically confirmed neoplasm, small-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were most common; 6 patients had a cancer-predictive paraneoplastic autoantibody, with CRMP-5–IgG and ANNA-1 being most common. In the idiopathic group, 19 of the 22 patients had a coexisting autoimmune disorder (most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome); autoantibodies were detected in 21 patients, most frequently lupus and phospholipid specificities (19 patients). The paraneoplastic group was older (p = 0.001), more frequently male (p = 0.006), had more frequent weight loss (p = 0.02), and frequently had peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Autoimmune chorea is a rare disorder with rapid onset. Male sex, older age, severe chorea, coexisting peripheral neuropathy, and weight loss increase the likelihood of cancer. PMID:23427325

  17. Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. PMID:23202051

  18. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  19. [Status of scalp hair and therapy of alopecia in men in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; de Viragh, P A

    2001-02-15

    A community-based interview and a questionnaire of men visiting the dermatologist for treatment of hair loss were conducted in Switzerland, to characterize the significance of scalp hair and self-perception of hair loss in Swiss men, and to evaluate current treatment of hair loss. 508 men, aged 15-74 years, regardless of the degree of hair loss, were interviewed by telephone, and 308 patient questionnaires were completed by 19 dermatologists. The questions addressed by the interview were: degree of self-rated hair loss, time invested for hair care, use or reasons for rejecting hair growing agents, relevant criteria for scalp hair, self-assessment with respect to different "hair communication types". The questionnaire analysed the causes of hair loss, prior and current treatment modalities, and follow-up at the dermatologist. Respondents rated their hair loss on a 5-point, textual scale that ranged from 'no hair loss' to 'bald areas'. 43% reported hair loss to some extent. For 42% a full head of hair was very important, especially for men under 29 years, who invested more time for hair care and had not lost hair. Of men with hair loss, 26% previously applied hair growing agents. Of men consulting the dermatologist for hair loss, 90% had androgenetic alopecia. 37% were previously treated: prior treatment was in 59% minoxidil, in 4% finasteride (Propecia), in 7% Aminexil, in 7% dietary supplements, and in 6% conducted by the hair dresser. In 79% treatment was switched to Propecia: of these, 73% adhered to the follow-up consultations at the dermatologist.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  1. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  2. Hair regrowth in alopecia areata patients following Stem Cell Educator therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjia; Yan, Baoyong; Wang, Hepeng; Li, Heng; Li, Quanhai; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Ye; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shanfeng; Shen, Jie; Li, Yunxiang; Guindi, Edward; Zhao, Yong

    2015-04-20

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and targets the hair follicles, with high impact on the quality of life and self-esteem of patients due to hair loss. Clinical management and outcomes are challenged by current limited immunosuppressive and immunomodulating regimens. We have developed a Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates mononuclear cells from the whole blood, allows the cells to briefly interact with adherent human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SC), and returns the "educated" autologous cells to the patient's circulation. In an open-label, phase 1/phase 2 study, patients (N = 9) with severe AA received one treatment with the Stem Cell Educator therapy. The median age was 20 years (median alopecic duration, 5 years). Clinical data demonstrated that patients with severe AA achieved improved hair regrowth and quality of life after receiving Stem Cell Educator therapy. Flow cytometry revealed the up-regulation of Th2 cytokines and restoration of balancing Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine production in the peripheral blood of AA subjects. Immunohistochemistry indicated the formation of a "ring of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)" around the hair follicles, leading to the restoration of immune privilege of hair follicles and the protection of newly generated hair follicles against autoimmune destruction. Mechanistic studies revealed that co-culture with CB-SC may up-regulate the expression of coinhibitory molecules B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) on CD8β(+)NKG2D(+) effector T cells and suppress their proliferation via herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) ligands and programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) on CB-SCs. Current clinical data demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Stem Cell Educator therapy for the treatment of AA. This innovative approach produced lasting improvement in hair regrowth in

  3. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  4. Autoimmune Associated Systemic Vasculitis as the Cause of Sudden onset Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Following Lassa Virus Exposure in a Cynomolgus Macaque Deafness Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-10

    and IL-15 has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and GPA (36, 41, 42...22(1):19-33. 41. Baslund B, et al. (2005) Targeting interleukin-15 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis : a proof-of-concept study. Arthritis Rheum...Berrettini S, et al. (1998) Progressive sensorineural hearing impairment in systemic vasculitides. Semin Arthritis Rheum 27(5):301-318. 27. Webb AA

  5. Efficacy and safety of 3% minoxidil versus combined 3% minoxidil / 0.1% finasteride in male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tanglertsampan, Chuchai

    2012-10-01

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride have been used to treat men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There are concerns about side effects of oral finasteride especially erectile dysfunction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the 24 weeks application of 3% minoxidil lotion (MNX) versus combined 3% minoxidil and 0.1% finasteride lotion (MFX) in men with AGA. Forty men with AGA were randomized treated with MNX or MFX. Efficacy was evaluated by hair counts and global photographic assessment. Safety assessment was performed by history and physical examination. At week 24, hair counts were increased from baseline in both groups. However paired t-test revealed statistical difference only in MFX group (p = 0.044). Unpaired t-test revealed no statistical difference between two groups with respect to change of hair counts at 24 weeks from baseline (p = 0.503). MFX showed significantly higher efficacy than MNX by global photographic assessment (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in side effects between both groups. Although change of hair counts was not statistically different between two groups, global photographic assessment showed significantly greater improvement in the MFX group than the MNX group. There was no sexual side effect. MFX may be a safe and effective treatment option.

  6. Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Amor, Karrie T; Rashid, Rashid M; Mirmirani, Paradi

    2010-02-15

    The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. We sought to evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair disorders. A MEDLINE search (1955-July 2009) was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss. The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair disorders and are a potential area of further study.

  7. Guidelines on Hair Restoration for East Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Joon; Jung, Jae Heon; Lee, Young-Ran; Kim, Jung Chul; Hwang, Sungjoo Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In East Asian countries, hair transplantation is a quite common procedure for treating pattern hair loss, cosmetically correcting the hairline, and correcting eyebrow and pubic hair defects. Although there are general guidelines concerning hair transplantation, certain factors need to be addressed to make the guidelines more specific and suitable to East Asian requirements. To provide guidelines for hairline design, donor harvesting, graft preparation and placement, and medical treatment that are appropriate for hair transplantation in East Asian patients. Recommendations are based on the experience of the authors, surgeons who perform hair transplantation, and a comprehensive review of the available literature on hair transplantation in East Asians. Data on hair thickness and graft density, hairline design, and graft creation and placement techniques have been collaboratively evaluated and used to establish overall guidelines. The use of the proposed guidelines by surgeons will hopefully enhance outcomes and bring greater consistency to hair transplantation procedures for East Asian patients.

  8. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  9. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  12. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  13. Immunofluorescence findings in rapid whitening of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Kumar, V; Petersen, B H

    1981-09-01

    Rapid whitening of scalp hair developed during a three-month period along with a diffuse, subtotal alopecia in a patient. Immunofluorescence microscopy of biopsy material showed prominent deposits of IgG and IgM in a granular pattern in the epithelium of the lower portions of hair follicles. Some return of the color and amount of scalp hair occurred within a year, but occasional bouts of hair loss continued to occur. It is theorized that the rapid graying was caused by a selective loss of pigmented hair, which was perhaps caused by an immunologic mechanism. Some of the findings suggest that the cause of this patient's loss of hair color may be different from those of patients who have been previously described as having rapid whitening of scalp hair because of alopecia areata or vitiligo.

  14. Deletion of PDZD7 disrupts the Usher syndrome type 2 protein complex in cochlear hair cells and causes hearing loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Junhuang; Zheng, Tihua; Ren, Chongyu; Askew, Charles; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bifeng; Holt, Jeffrey R; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) is the predominant form of USH, a leading genetic cause of combined deafness and blindness. PDZD7, a paralog of two USH causative genes, USH1C and USH2D (WHRN), was recently reported to be implicated in USH2 and non-syndromic deafness. It encodes a protein with multiple PDZ domains. To understand the biological function of PDZD7 and the pathogenic mechanism caused by PDZD7 mutations, we generated and thoroughly characterized a Pdzd7 knockout mouse model. The Pdzd7 knockout mice exhibit congenital profound deafness, as assessed by auditory brainstem response, distortion product otoacoustic emission and cochlear microphonics tests, and normal vestibular function, as assessed by their behaviors. Lack of PDZD7 leads to the disorganization of stereocilia bundles and a reduction in mechanotransduction currents and sensitivity in cochlear outer hair cells. At the molecular level, PDZD7 determines the localization of the USH2 protein complex, composed of USH2A, GPR98 and WHRN, to ankle links in developing cochlear hair cells, likely through its direct interactions with these three proteins. The localization of PDZD7 to the ankle links of cochlear hair bundles also relies on USH2 proteins. In photoreceptors of Pdzd7 knockout mice, the three USH2 proteins largely remain unchanged at the periciliary membrane complex. The electroretinogram responses of both rod and cone photoreceptors are normal in knockout mice at 1 month of age. Therefore, although the organization of the USH2 complex appears different in photoreceptors, it is clear that PDZD7 plays an essential role in organizing the USH2 complex at ankle links in developing cochlear hair cells. GenBank accession numbers: KF041446, KF041447, KF041448, KF041449, KF041450, KF041451.

  15. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  16. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Gordon Setters with Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy and Black Hair Follicular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bohnhorst, J Øvrebø; Hanssen, I; Moen, T

    2001-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were demonstrated in 3 out of 10 Gordon setters with symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and in 5 out of 13 Gordon setters with black hair follicular dysplasia. Two dogs showed both symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia, and one of these was ANA positive. The results suggest that symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia in the Gordon setter might be autoimmune diseases that are pathogenetically related, which might indicate a common genetic predisposition. PMID:11887392

  17. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  18. Persistent Pemphigus Vulgaris Showing Features of Tufted Hair Folliculitis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Dong Kyun; Chae, In Soo; Chung, Ki Hun; Chung, Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease that commonly involves the scalp. Lesions of pemphigus vulgaris that persist on the scalp for a long period may be accompanied by tufted hair folliculitis. Only two previous accounts of tufted hair folliculitis developing in a lesion of pemphigus vulgaris have been reported. We report a 51-year-old-man with erosions and clusters of hair on the scalp. The scalp lesion had persisted for about 20 years. A histopathological examination of the skin lesion on the scalp revealed separation of the epidermis and clusters of several adjacent hair follicles. The patient was diagnosed with persistent pemphigus vulgaris of the scalp showing features of tufted hair folliculitis. PMID:22148026

  19. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  20. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  1. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  2. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  3. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  4. Hair pull test: Evidence-based update and revision of guidelines.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine A; Shelley, Amanda J; Colantonio, Sophia; Beecker, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The hair pull test lacks validation and has unclear pretest guidelines. We sought to quantify normal hair pull test values and elucidate the effect of pretest hair washing and brushing. The impact of hair texture and lifestyle was also examined. Participants (n = 181) completed a questionnaire recording demographics, medications, and hair health/history. A single hair pull test (scalp vertex) was performed. The mean number of hairs removed per pull was 0.44 (SD 0.75). There was no significant difference in the mean number of hairs removed regardless of when participants washed (P = .20) or brushed (P = .25) their hair. Hair pull test values were similar between Caucasian-, Asian-, and Afro-textured hair. There was no significant difference in hair pull values between participants taking medications affecting hair loss and participants not taking these medications (P = .33). Tight hairstyles did not influence hair pull test values. Participant hair washing and brushing could not be controlled during the study, but this information was documented and analyzed. Normal values for the hair pull test should be reduced to 2 hairs or fewer (97.2% of participants). The current 5-day restriction on pretest hair washing can be reduced and brushing be made permissible. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  6. Contribution of hair density and hair diameter to the appearance and progression of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Ishino, A; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, J; Nakazawa, Y; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2014-11-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness in men. The balding process is associated with the gradual miniaturization of hair follicles and successive hair loss. However, the relative contributions of hair density and diameter to AGA are still unclear. Hair density and hair diameter were investigated in Japanese men with or without AGA to elucidate the importance of these factors in the balding process. Male Japanese subjects with or without AGA (n = 369) were included in this study. Hair appearance at the vertex was evaluated by comparison with a series of standard photographs. Hair density was measured using a phototrichogram-based videomicroscopy technique, and hair diameter was assessed by comparison with a series of calibrated threads on the phototrichogram image. All subjects with AGA were ≥ 25 years of age. The mean percentage of thick hairs (> 80 μm) in all subjects with AGA was significantly lower than that in subjects without AGA aged ≥ 25 years (P < 0·01), but the mean percentage of vellus hairs (< 40 μm) in subjects with AGA was significantly higher (P < 0·001). By contrast, the mean density of the hair in all patients with AGA did not significantly differ from the density of those without AGA aged ≥ 25 years. However, the mean density of the hair in subjects without AGA aged < 25 years was significantly higher than that of both subjects without AGA aged ≥ 25 years (P < 0·001) and all subjects with AGA. Hair loss in men with AGA results mainly from the miniaturization of hair follicles rather than the loss of hair (shedding), at least for individuals who are ≥ 25 years of age and present with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. LSD1 is Required for Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Cai, Chengfu; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays an important role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It has recently been demonstrated that during development, downregulation of LSD1 inhibits cell proliferation, modulates the expression of cell cycle regulators, and reduces hair cell formation in the zebrafish lateral line, which suggests that LSD1-mediated epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the development of hair cells. However, the role of LSD1 in hair cell regeneration after hair cell loss remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of LSD1 on hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced hair cell loss. We show that the LSD1 inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) significantly decreases the regeneration of hair cells in zebrafish after neomycin damage. In addition, immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that 2-PCPA administration suppresses supporting cell proliferation and alters cell cycle progression. Finally, in situ hybridization shows that 2-PCPA significantly downregulates the expression of genes related to Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf activation. Altogether, our data suggest that downregulation of LSD1 significantly decreases hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced hair cell loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus, LSD1 plays a critical role in hair cell regeneration and might represent a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hearing loss.

  8. Autoimmune mechanisms in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews recent findings on factors and mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and briefly summarizes data on therapies acting at various stages of the autoimmune process. Data published over the last year promise to improve understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying myasthenia gravis. Animal studies have at last shown that antimuscle-specific kinase (MuSK) autoantibodies, like antiacetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, are myasthenogenic. A new autoantigen, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), has been identified in variable proportions of otherwise seronegative patients. Anti-LRP4 antibodies may define a new myasthenia gravis subtype, supporting the concept that myasthenia gravis is not a single disease entity, and that different subtypes can differ in aetiology. Genetic and environmental factors are implicated in myasthenia gravis. The finding of persisting viral infection in the thymus of AChR-myasthenia gravis patients, combined with data on chronic inflammation, suggest that pathogens may favour intrathymic AChR-specific autosensitization and maintenance of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. Defective immunoregulatory mechanisms, involving pathogenic Th17 and regulatory T cells, contribute to tolerance loss and perpetuation of the autoimmune response in myasthenia gravis patients. The recent identification of mechanisms initiating and perpetuating autoimmunity in myasthenia gravis may stimulate the development of more effective therapies.

  9. Functional recovery in the avian ear after hair cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Smolders, J W

    1999-01-01

    Trauma to the inner ear in birds, due to acoustic overstimulation or ototoxic aminoglycosides, can lead to hair cell loss which is followed by regeneration of new hair cells. These processes are paralleled by hearing loss followed by significant functional recovery. After acoustic trauma, functional recovery is rapid and nearly complete. The early and major part of functional recovery after sound trauma occurs before regenerated hair cells become functional. Even very intense sound trauma causes loss of only a proportion of the hair cell population, mainly so-called short hair cells residing on the abneural mobile part of the avian basilar membrane. Uncoupling of the tectorial membrane from the hair cells during sound overexposure may serve as a protection mechanism. The rapid functional recovery after sound trauma appears not to be associated with regeneration of the lost hair cells, but with repair processes involving the surviving hair cells. Small residual functional deficits after recovery are most likely associated with the missing upper fibrous layer of the tectorial membrane which fails to regenerate after sound trauma. After aminoglycoside trauma, functional recovery is slower and parallels the structural regeneration more closely. Aminoglycosides cause damage to both types of hair cells, starting at the basal (high frequency) part of the basilar papilla. However, functional hearing loss and recovery also occur at lower frequencies, associated with areas of the papilla where hair cells survive. Functional recovery in these low frequency areas is complete, whereas functional recovery in high frequency areas with complete hair cell loss is incomplete, despite regeneration of the hair cells. Permanent residual functional deficits remain. This indicates that in low frequency regions functional recovery after aminoglycosides involves repair of nonlethal injury to hair cells and/or hair cell-neural synapses. In the high frequency regions functional recovery

  10. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  11. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  12. Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Felipe L; Gatto, Mariele; Bassi, Nicola; Luisetto, Roberto; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell–cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte–macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26142116

  13. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  15. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-02

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  16. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO®; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19–63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the MFSO® treatment group, indicating a much greater ability to increase the levels of unbroken hairs by reducing hair breakage. With respect to the mean percent improvements from baseline to Month 4 and Month 8, the MFSO® hair oil treatment group was better than each of the other two

  17. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Goodkin, Howard P

    2016-07-01

    The differential diagnosis of encephalitis in childhood is vast, and evaluation for an etiology is often unrevealing. Encephalitis by way of autoimmunity has long been suspected, as in cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; however, researchers have only recently reported evidence of antibody-mediated immune dysregulation resulting in clinical encephalitis. These pathologic autoantibodies, aimed at specific neuronal targets, can result in a broad spectrum of symptoms including psychosis, catatonia, behavioral changes, memory loss, autonomic dysregulation, seizures, and abnormal movements. Autoimmune encephalitis in childhood is often quite different from adult-onset autoimmune encephalitis in clinical presentation, frequency of tumor association, and ultimate prognosis. As many of the autoimmune encephalitides are sensitive to immunotherapy, prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are paramount. Here we review the currently recognized antibody-mediated encephalitides of childhood and will provide a framework for diagnosis and treatment considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  20. Changes in Chinese hair growth along a full year.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Yang, J; Qu, L; Gu, M; Liu, Y; Gao, J; Collaudin, C; Loussouarn, G

    2014-12-01

    To confirm the existence of seasonal hair growth cycle among Chinese subjects and objectivize the seasonal effect of hair loss; the hair growth parameters of Chinese volunteers were followed monthly for an entire year on the same area of vertex. The hair growth parameters of 41 Chinese volunteers (women and men), free from alopecia, were recorded monthly along an entire year using the phototrichogram technique. Results show an increased rate of telogen hairs (growing arrest) around August-September in the study group, as previously reported in European subjects albeit of a lower extent and remaining within the normal range of healthy head hair parameters. The possible effects of latitude and daylight duration are discussed. Data confirm that Chinese hairs present characteristics of the most developed and fast growing terminal fibres, as compared to other non-Asian ethnics. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  2. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  3. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  4. [Sick or made sick? Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, colitis, arthralgia and hair loss... a systemic disease or iatrogenic?].

    PubMed

    Woitzek, Katja; Dusemund, Frank; Müller, Beat

    2010-12-01

    Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, especially in the oral cavity, represent a high psychological and painful burden for the patient. If there in addition are symptoms of arthralgia and/or colitis, an autoimmune disease with vasculitis, particularly a Morbus Behçet has to be considered as a possible differential diagnosis. The therapy therefore would be an immunosuppressive one. Also a wide immunologic diagnostic process has to be started. Furthermore, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease has to be excluded by colonoscopic biopsy. An infectious etiology of the symptoms (viral/bacterial/parasitic) should be investigated by microbiological and laboratory tests. A thrush or a herpes-infection caused by immunosuppression (toxic or due to illness) has to be considered as a further differential diagnosis. Also a precise medical and drug history is very important because of possible toxic adverse effects. Until confirmation of a final diagnosis, only a symptomatic analgetic or antifungal or antiviral therapy in case of a positive thrush or herpes culture respectively should be initiated with respect to the very different kinds of treatment of the diseases included in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  6. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal

  8. The Autoimmune Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A.; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures – internal and external – across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied. PMID:27199979

  9. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  10. Effect of sinapic acid on hair growth promoting in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells via Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyunju; Lee, Seungjun; Kim, Seungbeom; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2017-07-01

    Hair loss known as alopecia is caused by abnormal hair follicle cycling including shortening of the anagen (growth) phase and changing of hair follicle morphology with miniaturization. In accordance with the life extension, the quality of life is considered to be a most important thing. The yearning for healthy and beautiful hair and low self esteem due to hair loss had negative influence on the quality of life with psychosocial maladjustment. The objective of this research was to identify new compound that can be used as a drug to promote hair growth. We investigated whether the function of sinapic acid (SA) is able to promote hair growth in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (hHFDPC). We showed that treatment of SA in hHFDPC could induce proliferation and the activation of Akt signaling in HFDPC. In addition, SA could stimulate the expressions of the several growth factors, insulin-like growth factor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor for hair growth. We showed that SA led to an increased level of phospho-GSK-3β and β-catenin accumulation in HFDPC. Finally, the promoting effect of SA in hHFDPC cell growth occurred by the induction of cell cycle progression. These results suggest that SA could be one of the potential candidate compounds for the treatment of alopecia by inducing hair growth through triggering the expressions of growth factors via activation of Akt and subsequent inactivation of GSK-3β /β-catenin pathway.

  11. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the hair cycle - is it the agonists or the antagonists that cause hair growth?

    PubMed

    Gensure, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote transition of hair follicles from anagen to catagen phase, which by itself would suggest that PTHrP blockade might prolong the anagen phase and promote hair growth. However, clinical trials with topically applied PTHrP antagonists have been disappointing, leading to a reconsideration of this model. Additional studies performed in mouse models where hair follicles are damaged (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia) suggest that PTHrP has effects early in the hair cycle as well, promoting hair follicles' entry into anagen phase and initiates the hair cycle. While the mechanism of this has yet to be elucidated, it may involve activation of the Wnt pathway. Thus, the overall effect of PTHrP is to stimulate and accelerate the hair cycle, and in the more clinically relevant models of hair loss where hair follicles have been damaged or become quiescent, it is the agonists, not the antagonists, which would be expected to promote hair growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Regrowth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Won-Soo; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development and hair regeneration in adults. We discovered that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis via an interaction with Dishevelled. CXXC5 was upregulated in miniaturized hair follicles and arrector pili muscles in human balding scalps. The inhibitory effects of CXXC5 on alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation were demonstrated using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, CXXC5 -/- mice displayed accelerated hair regrowth, and treatment with valproic acid, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, further induced hair regrowth in the CXXC5 -/- mice. Disrupting the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction with a competitor peptide activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and accelerated hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction is a potential target for the treatment of hair loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  14. Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Lopomo, Angela; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are the result of specific immune responses directed against structures of the self. In normal conditions, the molecules recognized as “self” are tolerated by immune system, but when the self-tolerance is lost, the immune system could react against molecules from the body, causing the loss of self-tolerance, and subsequently the onset of AID that differs for organ target and etiology. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is caused by the development of autoimmunity against thyroid antigens and comprises Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves disease. They are frequently associated with other organ or non-organ specific AIDs, such as myasthenia gravis (MG). In fact, ATD seems to be the most associated pathology to MG. The etiology of both diseases is multifactorial and it is due to genetic and environmental factors, and each of them has specific characteristics. The two pathologies show many commonalities, such as the organ-specificity with a clear pathogenic effect of antibodies, the pathological mechanisms, such as deregulation of the immune system and the implication of the genetic predisposition. They also show some differences, such as the mode of action of the antibodies and therapies. In this review that focuses on ATD and MG, the common features and the differences between the two diseases are discussed. PMID:28751878

  15. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

  17. Pain in autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Katherine A; Kerr, Bradley J

    2017-06-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are associated with pathological pain development. Autoimmune diseases with pathological pain include complex regional pain syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Guillian-Barré syndrome to name a few. The present Review explores research linking the immune system to the development of pathological pain in autoimmune diseases. Pathological pain has been linked to T-cell activation and the release of cytokines from activated microglia in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. New research on the role of autoantibodies in autoimmunity has generated insights into potential mechanisms of pain associated with autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies may act through various mechanisms in autoimmune disorders. These include the alteration of neuronal excitability via specific antigens such as the voltage-gated potassium channel complexes or by mediating bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Although more research must be done to understand better the role of autoantibodies in autoimmune disease related pain, this may be a promising area of research for new analgesic therapeutic targets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  20. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  1. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  2. [Non-autoimmune thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Leonardo F L; Mana, Daniela L; Bruno, Oscar D

    2014-01-01

    The term thyroiditis comprises a group of thyroid diseases characterized by the presence of inflammation, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune entities. It may manifest as an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis), and conditions in which the inflammation is not clinically evident evolving without pain and presenting primarily thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter (drug-induced thyroiditis and Riedel thyroiditis). The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on non-autoimmune thyroiditis and its clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  3. Autoimmunity and the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity. PMID:24900918

  4. [Microbiota and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the development and the maintenance of the host immune system. Since microbiota is important in the induction and the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells, growing evidence supports that microbiome affect the induction and the disease course of autoimmune disorders. In this review, we describe the recent studies on the involvement of microbes in animal models of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) using germ-free conditions, antibiotics treatment and gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, we introduce the studies on analysis of microbiota in human autoimmune diseases including RA and MS.

  5. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Detrixhe, A; Nikkels, A F; Dezfoulian, B

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is an exceptional condition affecting young women of childbearing age with a high prevalence during the third decade of life. The diagnosis should be confirmed using an intradermal skin test to progesterone, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. APD represents an early manifestation of autoimmune disease. A case of APD is presented who after curative treatment did not develop other autoimmune diseases during a 6-year follow-up. Dermatologists, gynecologists and obstetricians should be aware of this rare but highly invalidating entity.

  6. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  7. Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.

    PubMed

    Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-07-01

    The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C. tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C. tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sensory hair cell development and regeneration: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Patrick J.; Huarcaya Najarro, Elvis; Sayyid, Zahra N.; Cheng, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are mechanoreceptors of the auditory and vestibular systems and are crucial for hearing and balance. In adult mammals, auditory hair cells are unable to regenerate, and damage to these cells results in permanent hearing loss. By contrast, hair cells in the chick cochlea and the zebrafish lateral line are able to regenerate, prompting studies into the signaling pathways, morphogen gradients and transcription factors that regulate hair cell development and regeneration in various species. Here, we review these findings and discuss how various signaling pathways and factors function to modulate sensory hair cell development and regeneration. By comparing and contrasting development and regeneration, we also highlight the utility and limitations of using defined developmental cues to drive mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:25922522

  9. Selected variants of the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 and the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and PGR: no association with female pattern hair loss identified.

    PubMed

    Redler, Silke; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Drichel, Dmitriy; Birch, Mary P; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Dobson, Kathy; Giehl, Kathrin A; Refke, Melanie; Kluck, Nadine; Kruse, Roland; Lutz, Gerhard; Wolff, Hans; Böhm, Markus; Becker, Tim; Nöthen, Markus M; Betz, Regina C; Messenger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. Although understanding of its etiopathogenesis is incomplete, an interaction between genetic and hormonal factors is assumed to be important. The involvement of an androgen-dependent pathway and sex steroid hormones is the most likely hypothesis. We therefore selected a total of 21 variants from the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 (oestrogen receptor) and PGR (progesterone receptor) and genotyped these in a case-control sample of 198 patients (145 UK; 53 German patients) and 329 controls (179 UK; 150 German). None of these variants showed any significant association, either in the overall UK and German samples or in the subgroup analyses. In summary, the present results, while based on a limited selection of gene variants, do not point to the involvement of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2 or PGR in FPHL. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-04

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism.

  11. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Autoimmune diseases and vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry; Descotes, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The potential association between vaccination and autoimmune diseases has been largely questioned in the past few years, but this assumption has mostly been based on case reports. The available evidence derived from several negative epidemiological studies is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. However, there are still uncertainties as to whether a susceptible subpopulation may be at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune disease without causing an overall increase in the disease incidence. Based on selected examples, this review highlights the difficulties in assessing this issue. We suggest that a potential link between vaccines and autoimmune diseases cannot be definitely ruled out and should be carefully explored during the development of new candidate vaccines. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  13. Autoimmune phenomena following prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tweezer-Zaks, Nurit; Marai, Ibrahim; Livneh, Avi; Bank, Ilan; Langevitz, Pnina

    2005-09-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the most common benign tumor in males, resulting in prostatectomy in 20-30% of men who live to the age of 80. There are no data on the association of prostatectomy with autoimmune phenomena in the English-language medical literature. To report our experience with three patients who developed autoimmune disease following prostatectomy. Three patients presented awith autoimmune phenomenon soon after a prostectomy for BPH or prostatic carcinoma: one had clinically diagnosed temporal arteritis, one had leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and the third patient developed sensory Guillian-Barré syndrome following prostatectomy. In view of the temporal association between the removal of the prostate gland andthe autoimmune process, combined with previously known immunohistologic features of BPH, a cause-effect relationship probably exists.

  14. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongquan; Li, Kai; Wang, Youqiong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  16. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  17. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  18. Prolactin and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Vânia Vieira; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of PRL secretion due to either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the PRL inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between PRL, autoimmune diseases, and motherhood. PMID:29483903

  19. Prolactin and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Borba, Vânia Vieira; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-01-01

    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin (PRL) has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of PRL secretion due to either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the PRL inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represent a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between PRL, autoimmune diseases, and motherhood.

  20. Chapter 6: Hair collection

    Treesearch

    Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as humanity, but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for amplifying DNA became available. Prior to this time, keys were used to identify species through the microscopic analysis of hair shaft morphology (Moore et al. 1974; also see Raphael 1994...

  1. Long-term hair removal using a 3-millisecond alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K

    2000-04-01

    Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).

  2. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  3. Commensal microbiota influence systemic autoimmune responses

    PubMed Central

    Van Praet, Jens T; Donovan, Erin; Vanassche, Inge; Drennan, Michael B; Windels, Fien; Dendooven, Amélie; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A; van de Loo, Fons; Norris, Paula S; Kruglov, Andrey A; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Rabot, Sylvie; Tito, Raul; Raes, Jeroen; Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valerie; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Van de Wiele, Tom; Eberl, Gérard; Ware, Carl F; Elewaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of generalized autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. However, the processes underlying the loss of tolerance against nuclear self-constituents remain largely unresolved. Using mice deficient in lymphotoxin and Hox11, we report that approximately 25% of mice lacking secondary lymphoid organs spontaneously develop specific antinuclear antibodies. Interestingly, we find this phenotype is not caused by a defect in central tolerance. Rather, cell-specific deletion and in vivo lymphotoxin blockade link these systemic autoimmune responses to the formation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the neonatal period of life. We further demonstrate antinuclear antibody production is influenced by the presence of commensal gut flora, in particular increased colonization with segmented filamentous bacteria, and IL-17 receptor signaling. Together, these data indicate that neonatal colonization of gut microbiota influences generalized autoimmunity in adult life. PMID:25599993

  4. Autoimmune neuroretinopathy secondary to Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Burgueño-Montañés, C; Álvarez-Coronado, M; Colunga-Cueva, M

    2018-04-29

    A 40-year-old woman diagnosed with Zika virus infection 6 months before she arrived at this hospital. She referred to a progressive and painless vision loss, of 2 weeks onset after the infection diagnosis. She was treated with topical steroids. Previous visual acuity was recovered, but she still refers to reduced visual field and nyctalopia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed severe retinal sequels, compatible with autoimmune retinopathy. Based on the clinical features and the temporal relationship with Zika virus infection, non-para-neoplastic autoimmune retinopathy was diagnosed and managed with steroids and infliximab. Zika virus can trigger a non-para-neoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, and requires early immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  6. New multi-targeting strategy in hair growth promotion: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Marzani, Barbara; Pinto, Daniela; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2018-06-01

    Considering the importance of hair in our modern society and the impact of hair loss, the efforts of researchers are addressed to better understand the mechanisms behind the hair cycle regulation and dysregulation. Because hair loss is multifactorial, differenced and new approaches are required. In particular we addressed our attention to two recently identified targets in hair cycling and growth control: olfactory receptor and autophagy. The aim of the study was to evaluate: the possible pro-autophagic effect of N1-methylspermidine (a spermidine analogue) in vitro and, in a double blind clinical trial, the safety and efficacy of topical daily application of a lotion containing N1-methylspermidine and Sandalore®. Autophagic modulation by N1-methylspermidine was monitored in vitro by LC3 and p62 fluorescent signal cell line. Topical daily application of the lotion was tested in 60 male and female subjects with chronic telogen effluvium by means of non-invasive objective evaluation. The results obtained by in vitro tests showed the capacity of N1-methylspermidine to increase autophagic process while the clinical trials performed confirmed the safety and anti hair loss efficacy of the lotion reporting a reduction of hair loss (modified wash test) and hair growth stimulation as evaluated by hair density, hair shaft diameter, % of anagen hair and Hair Mass Index increase after 3 months of treatment. The lotion efficacy remained statistically significant for the above-mentioned parameters, with the exception of hair lost during wash, also 3 months after the end of treatment. Based on the obtained results, the daily use of the N1-methylspermidine and Sandalore®-based lotion is efficient to counteract hair loss and increase hair growth by a multifunctional targeting approach.

  7. Improvement in scalp hair growth in androgen-deficient women treated with testosterone: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, RL; Dimitrakakis, C; Messenger, AG

    2012-01-01

    Background Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. Objectives To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. Methods A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1 year with subcutaneous testosterone implants for symptoms of androgen deficiency, were asked to complete a survey that included questions on scalp and facial hair. Age, body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone levels were examined. Results Out of the 285 patients, 76 (27%) reported hair thinning prior to treatment; 48 of these patients (63%) reported hair regrowth on testosterone therapy (responders). Nonresponders (i.e. no reported hair regrowth on therapy) had significantly higher BMIs than responders (P = 0·05). Baseline serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in women reporting hair loss prior to therapy than in those who did not (P = 0·0001). There was no significant difference in serum testosterone levels, measured 4 weeks after testosterone implantation, between responders and nonresponders. No patient in this cohort reported scalp hair loss on testosterone therapy. A total of 262 women (92%) reported some increase in facial hair growth. Conclusions Subcutaneous testosterone therapy was found to have a beneficial effect on scalp hair growth in female patients treated for symptoms of androgen deficiency. We propose this is due to an anabolic effect of testosterone on hair growth. The fact that no subject complained of hair loss as a result of treatment casts doubt on the presumed role of testosterone in driving female scalp hair loss. These results need to be confirmed by formal measurements of hair growth. PMID:21967243

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 antagonizes hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rebecca M; Keller, Jesse J; Wan, Liangcai; Stone, Jennifer S

    2018-07-01

    Permanent hearing loss is often a result of damage to cochlear hair cells, which mammals are unable to regenerate. Non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds replace damaged hair cells and restore hearing function, but mechanisms controlling regeneration are not understood. The secreted protein bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) regulates inner ear morphogenesis and hair cell development. To investigate mechanisms controlling hair cell regeneration in birds, we examined expression and function of BMP4 in the auditory epithelia (basilar papillae) of chickens of either sex after hair cell destruction by ototoxic antibiotics. In mature basilar papillae, BMP4 mRNA is highly expressed in hair cells, but not in hair cell progenitors (supporting cells). Supporting cells transcribe genes encoding receptors for BMP4 (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) and effectors of BMP4 signaling (ID transcription factors). Following hair cell destruction, BMP4 transcripts are lost from the sensory epithelium. Using organotypic cultures, we demonstrate that treatments with BMP4 during hair cell destruction prevent supporting cells from upregulating expression of the pro-hair cell transcription factor ATOH1, entering the cell cycle, and fully transdifferentiating into hair cells, but they do not induce cell death. By contrast, noggin, a BMP4 inhibitor, increases numbers of regenerated hair cells. These findings demonstrate that BMP4 antagonizes hair cell regeneration in the chicken basilar papilla, at least in part by preventing accumulation of ATOH1 in hair cell precursors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otten, J.V.; Hashimoto, T.; Hertl, M.; Payne, A.S.; Sitaru, C.

    2014-01-01

    Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:24160488

  10. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  11. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Jerry D.; Rajadinakaran, Gopinath; Smith, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation vs. direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies. PMID:25954154

  12. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  13. Autoimmune diseases in asthma.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Amir; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Zimlichman, Eyal; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan

    2006-06-20

    Previous research has suggested an inverse relationship between T-helper 2-related atopic disorders, such as asthma, and T-helper 1-related autoimmune diseases. One controversial hypothesis postulates that asthma provides a protective effect for the development of autoimmune-related disorders. To assess the rate of newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders in a large cohort of young adults. Using cross-sectional data from the Israeli Defense Force database, the authors analyzed the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in asthmatic and nonasthmatic military personnel between 1980 and 2003. A follow-up study traced newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders among asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals from the time of enrollment in military service until discharge (22 and 36 months for women and men, respectively). General community. 307,367 male and 181,474 female soldiers in compulsory military service who were between 18 and 21 years of age. Cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Of 488,841 participants at enrollment, significantly more women than men had autoimmune disorders. Compared with asthmatic women, nonasthmatic women had a significantly higher prevalence of all autoimmune disorders except for the antiphospholipid syndrome. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, and rheumatoid arthritis were less prevalent in men with asthma than in those without. During the follow-up period, vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis were more frequently diagnosed in nonasthmatic persons of both sexes. There was a significantly higher incidence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, and the antiphospholipid syndrome in nonasthmatic women and a statistically significantly higher incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonasthmatic men. The study was limited to a population of young military recruits; therefore, its findings are not necessarily

  14. Curcumin and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Bright, John J

    2007-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host from microbial infection; nevertheless, a breakdown in the immune system often results in infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis, thyroiditis, uveitis, systemic lupus erythromatosis, and myasthenia gravis are organ-specific autoimmune diseases that afflict more than 5% of the population worldwide. Although the etiology is not known and a cure is still wanting, the use of herbal and dietary supplements is on the rise in patients with autoimmune diseases, mainly because they are effective, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa that has traditionally been used for pain and wound-healing. Recent studies have shown that curcumin ameliorates multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease in human or animal models. Curcumin inhibits these autoimmune diseases by regulating inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and associated JAK-STAT, AP-1, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in immune cells. Although the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals are traditionally achieved through dietary consumption at low levels for long periods of time, the use of purified active compounds such as curcumin at higher doses for therapeutic purposes needs extreme caution. A precise understanding of effective dose, safe regiment, and mechanism of action is required for the use of curcumin in the treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

  15. Autoimmune gastritis: Pathologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo

    2015-11-14

    Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.

  16. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis.

  17. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization.

  18. EBV and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2015-01-01

    Although a role of EBV in autoimmunity is biologically plausible and evidence of altered immune responses to EBV is abundant in several autoimmune diseases, inference on causality requires the determination that disease risk is higher in individuals infected with EBV than in those uninfected and that in the latter it increases following EBV infection. This determination has so far been possible only for multiple sclerosis (MS) and, to some extent, for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whereas evidence is either lacking or not supportive for other autoimmune conditions. In this chapter, we present the main epidemiological findings that justify the conclusion that EBV is a component cause of MS and SLE and possible mechanisms underlying these effects.

  19. Autoimmune encephalitis update

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group. These disorders include the classic paraneoplastic neurologic disorders and the more recently described autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors that occur with and without a cancer association. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. As early treatment speeds recovery, reduces disability, and decreases relapses that can occur in about 20% of cases, it is important that the immune pathogenesis of these disorders is recognized. PMID:24637228

  20. [MAIT cells in autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant TCRα chain: Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans and Vα19-Jα33 in mice. They are restricted by a nonpolymorphic MHC-related molecule-1 (MR1), and cells are selected in the thymus. Interestingly, MAIT cells require B cells as well as commensal flora for their peripheral expansion. MAIT cells display antimicrobial capacity. Recently, vitamin metabolites were demonstrated as antigens created by intestinal flora for MAIT cells. MAIT cells play a protective role against autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), wheras they play a pathogenic role in murine models of arthritis. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the frequency of MAIT cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced. The frequency of MAIT cells reflected the disease activity in MS patients, suggesting the involvement of MAIT cells in the regulation of autoimmune diseases.

  1. Novel Immunotherapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shamir; Bilodeau, Marc; Vincent, Catherine; Lapierre, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent. Lifelong immunosuppression is not without risks, especially in the pediatric population; 4% of patient with type 1 AIH will eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma with a 2.9% probability after 10 years of treatment. Therefore, future treatments should aim to restore tolerance to hepatic autoantigens and induce long-term remission. Promising new immunotherapies have been tested in experimental models of AIH including T and B cell depletion and regulatory CD4+ T cells infusion. Clinical studies on limited numbers of patients have also shown encouraging results using B-cell-depleting (rituximab) and anti-TNF-α (infliximab) antibodies. A better understanding of key molecular targets in AIH combined with effective site-specific immunotherapies could lead to long-term remission without blanket immunosuppression and with minimal deleterious side effects. PMID:28184367

  2. Bell's palsy and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Greco, A; Gallo, A; Fusconi, M; Marinelli, C; Macri, G F; de Vincentiis, M

    2012-12-01

    To review our current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of Bell's palsy, including viral infection or autoimmunity, and to discuss disease pathogenesis with respect to pharmacotherapy. Relevant publications on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and histopathology of Bell's palsy from 1975 to 2012 were analysed. Bell's palsy is an idiopathic peripheral nerve palsy involving the facial nerve. It accounts for 60 to 75% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The annual incidence of Bell's palsy is 15 to 30 per 100,000 people. The peak incidence occurs between the second and fourth decades (15 to 45 years). The aetiology of Bell's palsy is unknown but viral infection or autoimmune disease has been postulated as possible pathomechanisms. Bell's palsy may be caused when latent herpes viruses (herpes simplex, herpes zoster) are reactivated from cranial nerve ganglia. A cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism against a myelin basic protein has been suggested for the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy may be an autoimmune demyelinating cranial neuritis, and in most cases, it is a mononeuritic variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurologic disorder with recognised cell-mediated immunity against peripheral nerve myelin antigens. In Bell's palsy and GBS, a viral infection or the reactivation of a latent virus may provoke an autoimmune reaction against peripheral nerve myelin components, leading to the demyelination of cranial nerves, especially the facial nerve. Given the safety profile of acyclovir, valacyclovir, and short-course oral corticosteroids, patients who present within three days of the onset of symptoms should be offered combination therapy. However it seems logical that in fact, steroids exert their beneficial effect via immunosuppressive action, as is the case in some other autoimmune disorders. It is to be hoped that (monoclonal) antibodies and/or T-cell immunotherapy might provide more specific treatment guidelines in the

  3. Lgr5-Positive Supporting Cells Generate New Hair Cells in the Postnatal Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Bramhall, Naomi F.; Shi, Fuxin; Arnold, Katrin; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of hearing loss after damage to the mammalian cochlea has been thought to be due to a lack of spontaneous regeneration of hair cells, the primary receptor cells for sound. Here, we show that supporting cells, which surround hair cells in the normal cochlear epithelium, differentiate into new hair cells in the neonatal mouse following ototoxic damage. Using lineage tracing, we show that new hair cells, predominantly outer hair cells, arise from Lgr5-expressing inner pillar and third Deiters cells and that new hair cell generation is increased by pharmacological inhibition of Notch. These data suggest that the neonatal mammalian cochlea has some capacity for hair cell regeneration following damage alone and that Lgr5-positive cells act as hair cell progenitors in the cochlea. PMID:24672754

  4. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Roberta; Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO ® ; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19-63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO ® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the MFSO ® treatment group, indicating a much greater ability to increase the levels of unbroken hairs by reducing hair breakage. With respect to the mean percent improvements from baseline to Month 4 and Month 8, the MFSO ® hair oil treatment group was better than each of the other two

  5. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  6. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Obholzer, Nikolaus D.; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Megason, Sean G.; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:27351484

  7. Autoimmunity in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Rose, N R; Burek, C L

    1982-01-01

    The realization that autoimmunity underlies many endocrine disorders of previously unknown etiology has greatly broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. It has provided new explanations for their heredity and their association with particular HLA haplotypes. It has also offered new tools for diagnosing these diseases as well as monitoring their course or predicting their outcome. Finally, establishing the autoimmune basis of these diseases offers new potential for their treatment. The next quarter century of research into immunologic aspects of endocrine diseases promises to be as fruitful as the last.

  8. Epigenomics of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhawna; Hawkins, R David

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of largely unknown etiology. Genetic studies have identified a limited number of causal genes from a marginal number of individuals, and demonstrated a high degree of discordance in monozygotic twins. Studies have begun to reveal epigenetic contributions to these diseases, primarily through the study of DNA methylation, but chromatin and non-coding RNA changes are also emerging. Moving forward an integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, with the latter two coming from specific cell types, will provide an understanding that has been missed from genetics alone. We provide an overview of the current state of the field and vision for deriving the epigenomics of autoimmunity.

  9. Hormonal changes in menopause: do they contribute to a 'midlife hair crisis' in women?

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a common problem affecting a large number of women worldwide but beset by a paucity of research. The study of androgens has hitherto dominated the field of hair biology but there is increasing scientific and clinical data to suggest that nonandrogen signals can also affect the folliculosebaceous unit, especially in women. The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta has renewed and redefined prior concepts of oestrogen activity and signalling in hair biology. It is postulated that oestrogens modulate hair growth by their influence on a number of other hormones, growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines. The menopause is a period in which significant changes in oestrogen levels are recorded, and this review discusses studies that help to clarify the link between menopause and the perception of thinning hair. In a study of pre- and postmenopausal women without alopecia, menopausal status significantly influenced hair parameters, specifically hair growth rate, percentage anagen and hair diameter distributions, most notably in the frontal scalp. Hair density decreased with age, but was not correlated with menopausal status. Analyses of hair amount using a model of hair density and hair diameters suggest that the impact of changing hair parameters is most notable in the mid-forties for women. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Penile strangulation by hair.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2014-07-01

    To know the causes and results of treatment of complications from a penile strangulation by hair in seven boys. From April 2000 to December 2012, seven boys presenting serious penile complications by hair strangulation have been operated in two centers. All seven boys had transection of the urethra at the coronal level. And none of our patients were at the stage of necrosis or amputation of the glans. The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 34 to 134 months (mean 96 months). Four children presented urethrocutaneous fistulas (57% of cases), and the innervation and vascularization of the glans remained poor after repair in three patients. The penile strangulation by hair was due to a simple accident. However, several predisposing factors were discovered in our patients: lack of cleanliness; a moist environment with nocturnal enuresis; the presence of pubic hair in young children reported in the four children, and a coronal sulcus not covered by the foreskin in circumcised children.

  11. Hair phenotype in non-syndromic deafness.

    PubMed

    Volo, T; Sathiyaseelan, T; Astolfi, L; Guaran, V; Trevisi, P; Emanuelli, E; Martini, A

    2013-08-01

    The GJB2 gene is located on chromosome 13q12 and it encodes the connexin 26, a transmembrane protein involved in cell-cell attachment of almost all tissues. GJB2 mutations cause autosomal recessive (DFNB1) and sometimes dominant (DFNA3) non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that connexins are involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of epidermal tissues. Hence, mutations in GJB2 gene, which is responsible for non-syndromic deafness, may be associated with an abnormal skin and hair phenotype. We analyzed hair samples from 96 subjects: a study group of 42 patients with hearing impairments of genetic origin (38 with a non-syndromic form, 4 with a syndromic form), and a control group including 54 people, i.e. 43 patients with other, non-genetic hearing impairments and 11 healthy volunteers aged up to 10 years old. The surface structure of 49 hair samples was normal, whereas in 45 cases it was altered, with a damaged appearance. Two hair samples were considered unclassifiable: one from the patient heterozygotic for the pendrin mutation (Fig. 2C), the other from a patient from Ghana with a R134W mutation (Fig. 2D). Among the 43 altered hair samples, 31 belonged to patients with connexin mutations and the other 12 came from patients without connexin mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concise Review: Regeneration in Mammalian Cochlea Hair Cells: Help from Supporting Cells Transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bénédicte; Malgrange, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that mammalian cochlear cells do not regenerate. Therefore, if hair cells are lost following an injury, no recovery could occur. However, during the first postnatal week, mice harbor some progenitor cells that retain the ability to give rise to new hair cells. These progenitor cells are in fact supporting cells. Upon hair cells loss, those cells are able to generate new hair cells both by direct transdifferentiation or following cell cycle re-entry and differentiation. However, this property of supporting cells is progressively lost after birth. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that are involved in mammalian hair cell development and regeneration. Manipulating pathways used during development constitute good candidates for inducing hair cell regeneration after injury. Despite these promising studies, there is still no evidence for a recovery following hair cells loss in adult mammals. Stem Cells 2017;35:551-556. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Guided genetic screen to identify genes essential in the regeneration of hair cells and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Huang, Sunny C; Pettie, Kade; Idol, Jennifer; Rissone, Alberto; Jimenez, Erin; Sinclair, Jason W; Slevin, Claire; Varshney, Gaurav K; Jones, MaryPat; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Huang, Haigen; Sood, Raman; Lin, Shuo; Burgess, Shawn M

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise for both degenerative diseases and traumatic tissue injury which represent significant challenges to the health care system. Hearing loss, which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, is caused primarily by a permanent loss of the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear known as hair cells. This failure to regenerate hair cells after loss is limited to mammals, while all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested were able to completely regenerate these mechanosensory receptors after injury. To understand the mechanism of hair cell regeneration and its association with regeneration of other tissues, we performed a guided mutagenesis screen using zebrafish lateral line hair cells as a screening platform to identify genes that are essential for hair cell regeneration, and further investigated how genes essential for hair cell regeneration were involved in the regeneration of other tissues. We created genetic mutations either by retroviral insertion or CRISPR/Cas9 approaches, and developed a high-throughput screening pipeline for analyzing hair cell development and regeneration. We screened 254 gene mutations and identified 7 genes specifically affecting hair cell regeneration. These hair cell regeneration genes fell into distinct and somewhat surprising functional categories. By examining the regeneration of caudal fin and liver, we found these hair cell regeneration genes often also affected other types of tissue regeneration. Therefore, our results demonstrate guided screening is an effective approach to discover regeneration candidates, and hair cell regeneration is associated with other tissue regeneration.

  14. Hair cuttime on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-22

    Caption: ISS043E044174 (03/22/2015) --- Its haircut time onboard the International Space Station as Expedition 43 Commander and NASA astronaut Terry Virts handles the scissors while ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti holds the vacuum to immediately pull the fine hair strands into the safe container so they don't float away into the station. Hair trims are a regular occurrence during an astronaut's six month tour.

  15. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  16. Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Mehta, A D; Hudspeth, A J

    2000-10-24

    Hearing and balance rely on the ability of hair cells in the inner ear to sense miniscule mechanical stimuli. In each cell, sound or acceleration deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundle, a tuft of rigid stereocilia protruding from the cell's apical surface. By altering the tension in gating springs linked to mechanically sensitive transduction channels, this deflection changes the channels' open probability and elicits an electrical response. To detect weak stimuli despite energy losses caused by viscous dissipation, a hair cell can use active hair-bundle movement to amplify its mechanical inputs. This amplificatory process also yields spontaneous bundle oscillations. Using a displacement-clamp system to measure the mechanical properties of individual hair bundles from the bullfrog's ear, we found that an oscillatory bundle displays negative slope stiffness at the heart of its region of mechanosensitivity. Offsetting the hair bundle's position activates an adaptation process that shifts the region of negative stiffness along the displacement axis. Modeling indicates that the interplay between negative bundle stiffness and the motor responsible for mechanical adaptation produces bundle oscillation similar to that observed. Just as the negative resistance of electrically excitable cells and of tunnel diodes can be embedded in a biasing circuit to amplify electrical signals, negative stiffness can be harnessed to amplify mechanical stimuli in the ear.

  17. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface

    PubMed Central

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies. PMID:27881935

  18. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia A; Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies.

  19. Autoimmunity and autoimmune co-morbidities in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Furue, Kazuhisa; Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Kadono, Takafumi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2018-05-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by widespread scaly erythematous plaques that cause significant physical and psychological burdens for the affected individuals. Accelerated inflammation driven by the tumour necrosis factor-α/interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis is now known to be the major mechanism in the development of psoriasis. In addition, psoriasis has an autoimmune nature that manifests as autoreactive T cells and is co-morbid with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune bullous diseases, vitiligo, alopecia and thyroiditis. In this article, we review the recent topics on autoimmunity and autoimmune co-morbidities in psoriasis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  5. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  6. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  8. Effects of Shampoo and Water Washing on Hair Cortisol Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Amanda F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Methods Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Results Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Conclusions Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. PMID:21034727

  9. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  11. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  12. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner ( p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1  μ M minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group ( p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  13. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Hair Regrowth: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2015-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery, and preliminary evidence suggests that it might have a beneficial role in hair regrowth. Here, we report the results of a randomized, evaluator-blinded, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare, with the aid of computerized trichograms, hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo. The safety and clinical efficacy of autologous PRP injections for pattern hair loss were investigated. PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients' scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were administered to each patient at 30-day intervals. The endpoints were hair regrowth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 evaluation. Patients were followed for 2 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded. At the end of the 3 treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 33.6 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 45.9 hairs per cm² compared with baseline values. No side effects were noted during treatment. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles 2 weeks after the last PRP treatment compared with baseline value (p < .05). We also observed an increase of Ki67(+) keratinocytes in the epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells, and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared with baseline (p < .05). Relapse of androgenic alopecia was not evaluated in all patients until 12 months after the last treatment. After 12 months, 4 patients reported progressive hair loss; this was more evident 16 months after the last treatment. Those four patients were re-treated. Our data clearly highlight the positive effects of PRP

  14. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  15. Explosion of autoimmune diseases and the mosaic of old and novel factors

    PubMed Central

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Lian, Zhexiong; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, an enormous effort has been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Autoimmunity is a multifactorial process in which genetic, immunological, environmental and hormonal factors play in concert, together representing what was termed years ago the ‘mosaic of autoimmunity'. To date, more than 80 systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases have been defined, and their cumulative burden is substantial, both medically and financially. Furthermore, the burden of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases is rising, making these diseases a ubiquitous global phenomenon that is predicted to further increase in the coming decades. In this issue of the journal, additional aspects of autoimmunity are detailed. Immune dysregulation and loss of self-tolerance are the cornerstones of autoimmunity. PMID:21358666

  16. Bmi1 regulates auditory hair cell survival by maintaining redox balance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Li, L; Ni, W; Zhang, Y; Sun, S; Miao, D; Chai, R; Li, H

    2015-01-22

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation are involved in noise- and ototoxic drug-induced hair cell loss, which is the major cause of hearing loss. Bmi1 is a member of the Polycomb protein family and has been reported to regulate mitochondrial function and ROS level in thymocytes and neurons. In this study, we reported the expression of Bmi1 in mouse cochlea and investigated the role of Bmi1 in hair cell survival. Bmi1 expressed in hair cells and supporting cells in mouse cochlea. Bmi1(-/-) mice displayed severe hearing loss and patched outer hair cell loss from postnatal day 22. Ototoxic drug-induced hair cells loss dramatically increased in Bmi1(-/-) mice compared with that in wild-type controls both in vivo and in vitro, indicating Bmi1(-/-) hair cells were significantly more sensitive to ototoxic drug-induced damage. Cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL staining demonstrated that apoptosis was involved in the increased hair cell loss of Bmi1(-/-) mice. Aminophenyl fluorescein and MitoSOX Red staining showed the level of free radicals and mitochondrial ROS increased in Bmi1(-/-) hair cells due to the aggravated disequilibrium of antioxidant-prooxidant balance. Furthermore, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine rescued Bmi1(-/-) hair cells from neomycin injury both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that ROS accumulation was mainly responsible for the increased aminoglycosides sensitivity in Bmi1(-/-) hair cells. Our findings demonstrate that Bmi1 has an important role in hair cell survival by controlling redox balance and ROS level, thus suggesting that Bmi1 may work as a new therapeutic target for the prevention of hair cell death.

  17. Foxi3 deficiency compromises hair follicle stem cell specification and activation

    PubMed Central

    Shirokova, Vera; Biggs, Leah C.; Jussila, Maria; Ohyama, Takahiro; Groves, Andrew K.; Mikkola, Marja L.

    2017-01-01

    The hair follicle is an ideal system to study stem cell specification and homeostasis due to its well characterized morphogenesis and stereotypic cycles of stem cell activation upon each hair cycle to produce a new hair shaft. The adult hair follicle stem cell niche consists of two distinct populations, the bulge and the more activation-prone secondary hair germ. Hair follicle stem cells are set aside during early stages of morphogenesis. This process is known to depend on the Sox9 transcription factor, but otherwise the establishment of the hair follicle stem cell niche is poorly understood. Here we show that that mutation of Foxi3, a Forkhead family transcription factor mutated in several hairless dog breeds, compromises stem cell specification. Further, loss of Foxi3 impedes hair follicle downgrowth and progression of the hair cycle. Genome-wide profiling revealed a number of downstream effectors of Foxi3 including transcription factors with a recognized function in hair follicle stem cells such as Lhx2, Runx1, and Nfatc1, suggesting that the Foxi3 mutant phenotype results from simultaneous downregulation of several stem cell signature genes. We show that Foxi3 displays a highly dynamic expression pattern during hair morphogenesis and cycling, and identify Foxi3 as a novel secondary hair germ marker. Absence of Foxi3 results in poor hair regeneration upon hair plucking, and a sparse fur phenotype in unperturbed mice that exacerbates with age, caused by impaired secondary hair germ activation leading to progressive depletion of stem cells. Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. PMID:26992132

  18. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  20. Peptides Against Autoimmune Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Alexey; Lomakin, Yakov; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a nearly perfect defensive system polished by a hundred million years of evolution. Unique flexibility and adaptivity have created a virtually impenetrable barrier to numerous exogenous pathogens that are assaulting us every moment. Unfortunately, triggers that remain mostly enigmatic will sometimes persuade the immune system to retarget against self-antigens. This civil war remains underway, showing no mercy and taking no captives, eventually leading to irreversible pathological changes in the human body. Research that has emerged during the last two decades has given us hope that we may have a chance to overcome autoimmune diseases using a variety of techniques to "reset" the immune system. In this report, we summarize recent advances in utilizing short polypeptides - mostly fragments of autoantigens - in the treatment of autoimmune neurodegeneration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Autoimmunity in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonvalet, Melodie; Ollila, Hanna M; Ambati, Aditya; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Summarize the recent findings in narcolepsy focusing on the environmental and genetic risk factors in disease development. Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Recent studies suggest both humoral and cellular immune responses in the disease development. Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder, in which neurons producing orexin/hypocretin in the hypothalamus are destroyed. The core symptoms of narcolepsy are debilitating, extreme sleepiness, cataplexy, and abnormalities in the structure of sleep. Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Importantly, the highest environmental risk is seen with influenza-A infection and immunization. However, how the cells are destroyed is currently unknown. In this review we summarize the disease symptoms, and focus on the immunological findings in narcolepsy. We also discuss the environmental and genetic risk factors as well as propose a model for disease development.

  2. Autoimmune Neuromuscular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kraker, Jessica; Živković, Saša A

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune neuromuscular disorders affecting peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction or muscle have a wide clinical spectrum with diverse pathogenetic mechanisms. Peripheral nervous system may be targeted in the context of complex immune reactions involving different cytokines, antigen-presenting cells, B cells and different types of T cells. Various immunomodulating and cytotoxic treatments block proliferation or activation of immune cells by different mechanisms attempting to control the response of the immune system and limit target organ injury. Most treatment protocols for autoimmune neuromuscular disorders are based on the use of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, with cytotoxic agents mostly used as steroid-sparing medications. More recently, development of specific monoclonal antibodies targeting individual cell types allowed a different approach targeting specific immune pathways, but these new treatments are also associated with various adverse effects and their long-term efficacy is still unknown. PMID:22379454

  3. Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

  4. Epidermal Cadm1 expression promotes autoimmune alopecia via enhanced T cell adhesion and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Adam; Hoste, Esther; Takai, Yoshimi; Rosewell, Ian; Watt, Fiona M

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune alopecia is characterized by an extensive epidermal T cell infiltrate that mediates hair follicle destruction. We have investigated the role of cell adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1; Necl2) in this disease. Cadm1 is expressed by epidermal cells and mediates heterotypic adhesion to lymphocytes expressing class 1-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM). Using a murine autoimmune alopecia model, we observed an increase in early-activated cytotoxic (CD8-restricted, CRTAM-expressing) T cells, which preferentially associated with hair follicle keratinocytes expressing Cadm1. Coculture with Cadm1-transduced MHC-matched APCs stimulated alopecic lymph node cells to release IL-2 and IFN-γ. Overexpression of Cadm1 in cultured human keratinocytes did not promote cytokine secretion, but led to increased adhesion of alopecic cytotoxic T cells and enhanced T cell cytotoxicity in an MHC-independent manner. Epidermal overexpression of Cadm1 in transgenic mice led to increased autoimmune alopecia susceptibility relative to nontransgenic littermate controls. Our findings reveal that Cadm1 expression in the hair follicle plays a role in autoimmune alopecia.

  5. Autoimmunity in 2016.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    The number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2016 solar year and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word remained stable while gaining a minimal edge among the immunology articles. Nonetheless, the quality of the publications has been rising significantly and, importantly, acquisitions have become available through scientific journals dedicated to immunology or autoimmunity. Major discoveries have been made in the fields of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmunity of the central nervous system, vasculitis, and seronegative spondyloarthrithritides. Selected examples include the role of IL17-related genes and long noncoding RNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus or the effects of anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in the treatment of this paradigmatic autoimmune condition. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, there have been reports of the role of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) or fibrocytes and T cell interactions with exciting implications. The large number of studies dealing with neuroimmunology pointed to Th17 cells, CD56(bright) NK cells, and low-level TLR2 ligands as involved in multiple sclerosis, along with a high salt intake or the micriobiome-derived Lipid 654. Lastly, we focused on the rare vasculitides to which numerous studies were devoted and suggested that unsuspected cell populations, including monocytes, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, may be crucial to ANCA-associated manifestations. This brief and arbitrary discussion of the findings published in 2016 is representative of a promising background for developments that will enormously impact the work of laboratory scientists and physicians at an exponential rate.

  6. Autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Napier, Catherine; Pearce, Simon H S

    2012-12-01

    Addison's disease is a rare autoimmune disorder. In the developed world, autoimmune adrenalitis is the commonest cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, where the majority of patients have circulating antibodies against the key steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. A complex interplay of genetic, immunological and environmental factors culminates in symptomatic adrenocortical insufficiency, with symptoms typically developing over months to years. Biochemical evaluation and further targeted investigations must confirm primary adrenal failure and establish the underlying aetiology. The diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency will necessitate lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy, aiming to emulate physiological patterns of hormone secretion to achieve well-being and good quality of life. Education of patients and healthcare professionals is essential to minimise the risk of a life-threatening adrenal crisis, which must be promptly recognised and aggressively managed when it does occur. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of the natural history and underlying genetic and immunological basis of this condition. Future research may reveal novel therapeutic strategies for patient management. Until then, optimisation of pharmacological intervention and continued emphasis on education and empowerment of patients should underpin the management of individuals with autoimmune Addison's disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Cytokines and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, M G; Pozzilli, P; Thorpe, R

    1994-01-01

    Although the immunopathology of most autoimmune diseases has been well defined, the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of self-tolerance and which lead to the development of systemic and organ-specific autoaggression are still unclear. Evidence has accumulated which supports a role for a disregulated production of cytokines by leucocytes and possibly other cells in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. However, due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cytokine effects in the regulation of the immune response, it is difficult to determine whether abnormalities in the patterns of cytokine production are primary or secondary to the pathological process. Confusion is also caused by the fact that the biological activities of cytokines are multiple and often overlapping, and consequently it is difficult to focus on a unique effect of any one cytokine. Characterization of the potential and actual involvement of cytokines is important not only for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions, but particularly because of the implications for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of the diseases. PMID:8149655

  8. Complement in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Rawat, Amit; Sharma, Madhubala; Singh, Surjit

    2017-02-01

    The complement system is an ancient and evolutionary conserved element of the innate immune mechanism. It comprises of more than 20 serum proteins most of which are synthesized in the liver. These proteins are synthesized as inactive precursor proteins which are activated by appropriate stimuli. The activated forms of these proteins act as proteases and cleave other components successively in amplification pathways leading to exponential generation of final effectors. Three major pathways of complement pathways have been described, namely the classical, alternative and lectin pathways which are activated by different stimuli. However, all the 3 pathways converge on Complement C3. Cleavage of C3 and C5 successively leads to the production of the membrane attack complex which is final common effector. Excessive and uncontrolled activation of the complement has been implicated in the host of autoimmune diseases. But the complement has also been bemusedly described as the proverbial "double edged sword". On one hand, complement is the final effector of tissue injury in autoimmune diseases and on the other, deficiencies of some components of the complement can result in autoimmune diseases. Currently available tools such as enzyme based immunoassays for functional assessment of complement pathways, flow cytometry, next generation sequencing and proteomics-based approaches provide an exciting opportunity to study this ancient yet mysterious element of innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  10. Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ponto, Katharina A; Kahaly, George J

    2012-09-01

    Autoimmune thyrotoxicosis or Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States (full text available online: http://education.amjmed.com/pp1/249). GD occurs more often in women (ratio 5:1) and has a population prevalence of 1-2%. A genetic determinant to the susceptibility to GD is suspected because of familial clustering of the disease, a high sibling recurrence risk, and the familial occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies. GD is a systemic autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by the infiltration of immune effector cells and thyroid-antigen-specific T cells into the thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expressing tissues, i.e. orbit, skin, with the production of autoantibodies to well-defined thyroidal antigens. Stimulatory autoantibodies in GD activate the TSHR leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Diagnosis of GD is straightforward in a patient with a diffusely enlarged, heterogeneous, hypervascular (increased Doppler flow on neck ultrasound) thyroid gland, associated orbitopathy, biochemically confirmed thyrotoxicosis, positive TSHR autoantibodies, and often a family history of autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [MAIT cells in autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by a nonpolymorphic MHC-related molecule-1 (MR1), and express an invariant TCRα chain: Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans and Vα19-Jα33 in mice. MAIT cells are selected in the thymus, but, interestingly, MAIT cells require B cells as well as commensal flora for their peripheral expansion. Bourhis et al demonstrated that MAIT cells display antimicrobial capacity. Both human and mouse MAIT cells have been shown to be activated by Escherichia coli-infected antigen presenting cells in an MR1-dependent manner. MAIT cells show a protective role against Mycobacteriu abscessus or E. coli infections in mice. Human MAIT cells are capable of producing IFNγ and IL-17 and are found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lung tissues. Thus, MAIT cells play an antimicrobial function under these infectious conditions. MAIT cells play a protective role against autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas they play a pathogenic role in murine models of arthritis. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the frequency of MAIT cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced. The frequency of MAIT cells reflected the disease activity in MS patients, suggesting the involvement of MAIT cells in the regulation of autoimmune diseases.

  12. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  13. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  14. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  15. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  16. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  17. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  18. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-06

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

  19. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  20. A clinical trial to investigate the effect of Cynatine HNS on hair and nail parameters.

    PubMed

    Beer, Christina; Wood, Simon; Veghte, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22.

  1. Morphological changes of the hair roots in alopecia areata: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Ono, Fumitake; Ueda, Akihiro; Abe, Toshifumi; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory condition causing non-scarring patchy hair loss. Diagnosis of alopecia areata is made by clinical observations, hair pluck test and dermoscopic signs. However, because differentiation from other alopecia diseases is occasionally difficult, an invasive diagnostic method using a punch biopsy is performed. In this study, to develop a reliable, less invasive diagnostic method for alopecia areata, we performed scanning electron microscopy of the hair roots of alopecia areata patients. This study identified four patterns of hair morphology specific to alopecia areata: (I) long tapering structure with no accumulation of scales; (II) club-shaped hair root with fine scales; (III) proximal accumulation of scales; and (IV) sharp tapering of the proximal end of hair. On the basis of these results, we can distinguish alopecia areata by scanning electron microscopic observation of the proximal end of the hair shafts. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  4. Hair and cancer chemotherapy: consequences and nursing care--a literature study.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, D

    2001-09-01

    Hair is a body appendage that throughout history has been a symbol of the social, cultural and political climate, in addition to connoting religious affiliation. Hair loss on the other hand has been associated with a loss of attractiveness, individuality, a state of disgrace and illness, in addition to the ageing process, death and a loss of sexuality. One of the most common side-effects of chemotherapy is hair loss (alopecia). Alopecia can range from sporadic thinning of the hair to complete baldness. Several factors may contribute to the severity of hair loss including drug, dose and schedule as well as hair care practices. Prevention of alopecia has been a focus in the medical and nursing literature since the late 1960s. Mechanical, physical and biological measures have been used with varying success. The goal of prevention is primarily the reduction of patient distress caused by chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Patient reactions to alopecia vary and may be dependent on the individual importance of hair, prognosis, degree of expected hair loss, the amount of information and preparation given, and physical and psychological coping mechanisms. Nurses play an important role in assisting the patient to cope with alopecia by giving the needed information and teaching self-care strategies to minimize alopecia, cope with alopecia, and protect the skin and eyes following alopecia. These interventions are aimed at helping the patient move through a potentially devastating experience to a renewed sense of well-being.

  5. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of hair plucking in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus) in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Brand, Colin M; Marchant, Linda F

    2018-04-01

    When primates exhibit hair loss and are observed to engage in self or social hair plucking (a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection, and consumption) the altered appearance, and behavior patterns are thought to reflect individual physiological, and psychological well-being. Hair loss and hair plucking occur in many captive primate species, including all of the great apes. We present the first survey of this behavior among captive bonobos (N = 88; 50 females and 38 males) in seven zoos in the United States. We found that 43% of the population engaged in this behavior pattern and discounting youngsters (who are not observed to hair pluck until the age of five), 58% of individuals hair plucked. Of the individuals who hair plucked, 97% engaged in social plucking, whereas 46% engaged in self-directed plucking. We regressed the occurrence of hair plucking with multiple predictor variables using binary logistic regression and multimodel inference to determine which predictors best explained the prevalence of self-directed and social plucking. We also analyzed publicly available data on hair plucking in captive chimpanzees. We found that the occurrence of another abnormal behavior, age, origin, and pelage condition best explained self-directed plucking in bonobos. Social plucking was explained by age, origin, pelage, and sex. Our analysis of chimpanzee hair plucking revealed that plucking is strongly influenced by rearing and sex. This study demonstrates that hair plucking is more prevalent in captive bonobos compared to captive chimpanzees and gorillas, however, the covariates associated with hair plucking for each species are different. Our data suggest a potential link between self-directed plucking and well-being. However, the higher prevalence and etiology of social hair plucking is more difficult to explain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isohormonal therapy of endocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Schloot, N; Eisenbarth, G S

    1995-06-01

    For most autoimmune disorders, the site (if any) of chronic immunization required for perpetuation of autoimmunity is unknown. However, one possible site is the target organ itself. If this were the case, feedback regulation of target cell activity might influence autoimmunity. Here, Nanette Schloot and George Eisenbarth review several recent studies suggesting that therapies that inhibit hormonal secretion of target endocrine organs, and/or modulate immunity by therapy with the isohormone, are associated with disease suppression.

  8. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair tonic, give them water or milk right away, ...

  9. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair bleach, give them water or milk right away, ...

  10. Davis combs her hair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-28

    STS085-327-011 (7 - 19 August 1997) --- Astronaut N. Jan Davis spends a moment of her off-duty time aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery brushing her hair. Davis, payload commander, never strayed far from the payload operations checklist, seen attached to nearby mid-deck wall.

  11. The Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Arndtz, Katherine; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    Autoimmune liver disease (AILD) encompasses 3 main distinct clinical diseases: autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis (formally known as cirrhosis, PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). These conditions are an important, yet under-appreciated cause of patient morbidity and mortality with ongoing unmet needs for further research and clinical advances. There is observational evidence for genetic predisposition, with all 3 conditions being more common in first degree relatives. AILD is associated with the presence of auto-antibodies and higher risks of other non-hepatic auto-immune conditions. Genetic risk association studies have identified HLA and non-HLA risk loci for the development of disease, with some HLA loci providing prognostic information. This re-enforces the concept that genetic predisposition to autoimmunity is important, likely in the context of environmental exposures. Such environmental triggers are unclear but relevant risks include smoking, drug and xenobiotic exposure as well as the complexities of the microbiome. There is evidence for a loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens playing a part in the development of these conditions. In particular the IL-2 and IL-12 regulatory pathways have been implicated in pre-disposing to an unopposed inflammatory response within the liver. Main immunological themes revolve around loss of immune tolerance leading to T-cell mediated injury, imbalance in the regulation of immune cells and defective immune response to foreign antigens. For PBC and PSC, there is then the added complexity of the consequences of cholestasis on hepato-biliary injury, immune regulation and liver fibrosis. Whilst specific disease causes and triggers are still lacking, AILD arises on the background of collective genetic and environmental risk, leading to chronic and abnormal hepato-biliary immune responses. Effective and more rational therapy will ultimately be developed when the multiple pathways to liver injury are

  12. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  13. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  15. Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  16. A holistic review on the autoimmune disease vitiligo with emphasis on the causal factors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Haroon; Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2017-08-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic systemic autoimmune disease affecting skin, hair and oral mucosa. This genetic yet acquired disease characterized by melanin loss is a cause of morbidity across all races. Though thyroid disturbance has been recognized as a key trigger of this pathology, an array of other factors plays critical role in its manifestation. Multiple hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melatonin, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogen), genes (Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), Cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117), Estrogen receptor (ESR) 1, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Vitiligo-associated protein 1 (VIT1)), and lifestyle choices (stress, diet, cosmetic products, and medications) have been suspected as drivers of this disorder. The pathological mechanisms have been understood in recent times, with the aid of genomic studies; however a universally-effective therapy is yet to be achieved. This review discusses these under-investigated facets of vitiligo onset and progression; hence, it is expected to enrich vitiligo research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  18. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder. PMID:17536048

  20. Electrosmog and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Trevor G; Heil, Trudy J Rumann

    2017-02-01

    Studies in mice have shown that environmental electromagnetic waves tend to suppress the murine immune system with a potency similar to NSAIDs, yet the nature of any Electrosmog effects upon humans remains controversial. Previously, we reported how the human Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D (1,25-D), are associated with many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have shown how olmesartan, a drug marketed for mild hypertension, acts as a high-affinity partial agonist for the VDR, and that it seems to reverse disease activity resulting from VDR dysfunction. We here report that structural instability of the activated VDR becomes apparent when observing hydrogen bond behavior with molecular dynamics, revealing that the VDR pathway exhibits a susceptibility to Electrosmog. Further, we note that characteristic modes of instability lie in the microwave frequency range, which is currently populated by cellphone and WiFi communication signals, and that the susceptibility is ligand dependent. A case series of 64 patient-reported outcomes subsequent to use of a silver-threaded cap designed to protect the brain and brain stem from microwave Electrosmog resulted in 90 % reporting "definite" or "strong" changes in their disease symptoms. This is much higher than the 3-5 % rate reported for electromagnetic hypersensitivity in a healthy population and suggests that effective control of environmental Electrosmog immunomodulation may soon become necessary for successful therapy of autoimmune disease.

  1. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vera; Conde, Marta; Figueiredo, António; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Dias, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an impairment of lymphocyte apoptosis expressed by generalized non-malignant lymphoproliferation, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. This article describes a seven and 14 year old males. The first one was admitted at 3 years of age with fever, bicytopenia and generalized lymphadenopathy. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and marked paracortical expansion. He was readmitted three years later presenting herpes zoster and similar clinical features. High levels of IL-10 and increasing tendency of Fas-L in plasma and serum. The second child was admitted at 13 years of age presenting thigh and gluteus cellulitis, anemia and neutropenia. T lymphocytes aß+CD4-CD8- 3,1%. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Both children are treated with mycophenolate mofetil with good response. ALPS is an underestimated entity that must be considered in non malign lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and expansion of an unusual population of a/ßCD3+CD4-CD8-(double-negative T cells>1%).

  2. Calbindin and parvalbumin are early markers of non-mitotically regenerating hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyger, P. S.; Burton, M.; Hawkins, J. R.; Schuff, N. R.; Baird, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated hair cell regeneration in the absence of cell proliferation, and suggested that supporting cells could phenotypically convert into hair cells following hair cell loss. Because calcium-binding proteins are involved in gene up-regulation, cell growth, and cell differentiation, we wished to determine if these proteins were up-regulated in scar formations and regenerating hair cells following gentamicin treatment. Calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was examined in control or gentamicin-treated (GT) bullfrog saccular and utricular explants cultured for 3 days in amphibian culture medium or amphibian culture medium supplemented with aphidicolin, a blocker of nuclear DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In control cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeled the hair bundles and, less intensely, the cell bodies of mature hair cells. In GT or mitotically-blocked GT (MBGT) cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was also seen in the hair bundles, cuticular plates, and cell bodies of hair cells with immature hair bundles. Thus, these antigens were useful markers for both normal and regenerating hair cells. Supporting cell immunolabeling was not seen in control cultures nor in the majority of supporting cells in GT cultures. In MBGT cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was up-regulated in the cytosol of single supporting cells participating in scar formations and in supporting cells with hair cell-like characteristics. These data provide further evidence that non-mitotic hair cell regeneration in cultures can be accomplished by the conversion of supporting cells into hair cells.

  3. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    PubMed

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    Migraine headache is a primary neurologic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. As a consequence, quality of life is diminished, productivity suffers (through loss of work force), and treatment costs are substantial. The occurrence rate in the general population is quite high, with women accounting for 3 of every 4 cases. Between January 2011 and May 2012, a total of 221 patients received hair transplants. Another 590 patients underwent hair transplantation between June 2012 and December 2016. Initially (first interval), patients were not questioned on migraine headaches in preoperative visits, but questioning was regularly done thereafter. Overall, 150 patients given transplants in the first period were surveyed by phone regarding preoperative migraine headaches. Aside from the 1 incidental discovery, no other instances of migraine emerged. Headache origins were occipital-frontal in 2 patients, occipital-temporal in 2 patients, and occipital-temporal-frontal in the 2 others. Donor/receiver areas in hair transplantation and migraine trigger zones shared locations. Headache frequencies ranged from 4 to 8 days per month (average, 6 days), and pain scores were 5-8 (10 being highest). Duration of pain was 3-5 hours (average, 4 hours). All six patients had used various medications, such as triptans, ergot, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, before hair transplantation. The 1 female patient was a 32-year-old seeking treatment for alopecia, with a 6-year history of migraine headaches. The male patients presenting with androgenetic alopecia (grade 4-5 by Norwood classification) had 6- to 20-year migrainous histories. After hair transplantation, each migraine sufferer was checked once in the first month and then once every 3 months. Those who could not appear in person after the first year were evaluated by phone every 3 months. Migraine headaches had ceased in all 6 patients, none of whom used medical treatments for migraines thereafter. The postoperative

  4. Complex changes in the apoptotic and cell differentiation programs during initiation of the hair follicle response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharova, Tatyana Y; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Kondratiev, Nikita A; Aziz, Ahmar; Spiegel, Jeffrey H; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2014-12-01

    Chemotherapy has severe side effects in normal rapidly proliferating organs, such as hair follicles, and causes massive apoptosis in hair matrix keratinocytes followed by hair loss. To define the molecular signature of hair follicle response to chemotherapy, human scalp hair follicles cultured ex vivo were treated with doxorubicin (DXR), and global microarray analysis was performed 3 hours after treatment. Microarray data revealed changes in expression of 504 genes in DXR-treated hair follicles versus controls. Among these genes, upregulations of several tumor necrosis factor family of apoptotic receptors (FAS, TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptors 1/2), as well as of a large number of keratin-associated protein genes, were seen after DXR treatment. Hair follicle apoptosis induced by DXR was significantly inhibited by either TRAIL-neutralizing antibody or caspase-8 inhibitor, thus suggesting a previously unreported role for TRAIL receptor signaling in mediating DXR-induced hair loss. These data demonstrate that the early phase of the hair follicle response to DXR includes upregulation of apoptosis-associated markers, as well as substantial reorganization of the terminal differentiation programs in hair follicle keratinocytes. These data provide an important platform for further studies toward the design of effective approaches for the management of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

  5. Complex changes in the apoptotic and cell differentiation programs during initiation of the hair follicle response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Kondratiev, Nikita A.; Aziz, Ahmar; Spiegel, Jeffrey H.; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Sharov, Andrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy has severe side-effects for normal rapidly proliferating organs, such as hair follicle, and causes massive apoptosis in hair matrix keratinocytes followed by hair loss. To define the molecular signature of hair follicle response to chemotherapy, human scalp hair follicles cultured ex vivo were treated with doxorubicin and global microarray analysis was performed 3 hours after treatment. Microarray data revealed changes in expression of 504 genes in doxorubicin-treated hair follicles versus the controls. Among these genes, upregulations of several tumor necrosis factor family of apoptotic receptors (FAS, TRAIL receptors 1/2), as well as of a large number of the keratin-associated protein genes were seen after doxorubicin treatment. Hair follicle apoptosis induced by doxorubicin was significantly inhibited by either TRAIL neutralizing antibody or caspase 8 inhibitor, thus suggesting a novel role for TRAIL receptor signaling in mediating doxorubicin-induced hair loss. These data demonstrate that the early phase of the hair follicle response to doxorubicin includes upregulation of apoptosis-associated markers, as well as substantial re-organization of the terminal differentiation programs in hair follicle keratinocytes. These data provide an important platform for further studies towards the design of novel approaches for management of chemotherapy-induced hair loss. PMID:24999588

  6. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss. PMID:23487317

  7. The hair grooming practices of women of African descent in London, United Kingdom: findings of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, O E; Salam, A

    2016-06-01

    There is a lack of published data pertaining to the hair grooming practices of women of African descent in Europe. However, these data are important in facilitating culturally appropriate discussions on hair loss prevention. We sought to describe the hair grooming practices of adult women of African descent in London, UK. Analysis of pooled data collected from a questionnaire-based study exploring correlates of hair loss in women of African descent in London. A maximum of 242 subjects were included in the final data analysis. Subjects had a mean age of 41.1 years (CI: 39.3-42.9) and exhibited a diverse range of scalp hair phenotypes, although the majority (76.3%) had type 6, 7 or 8 hair. A percentage of 64.9 had more than five different hairstyles since childhood, with natural hairstyles being the most frequent current hairstyle (52.6%). The mean frequency of hair washing was 17.9 days (CI: 15.8-20.0), increasing to 32.8 days (28.6-37.0) when hair was braided or in a weave. The mean frequency of hair braiding/weaving was 63 days (CI: 56.3-69.7), whereas that for application of chemical relaxers was 88.6 days (CI: 75.6-101.6). While 59.2% of subjects avoided concurrent use of hair colours and chemical relaxers, only 46.3% avoided braiding chemically relaxed hair. The hair-care practices of women of African descent should be borne in mind when treating hair and scalp disorders in this group. Although the current trend is towards natural hairstyles, some adverse hair-care practices still persist which should be addressed through culturally appropriate public health messages on hair loss prevention. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  9. The impact of abnormal autoimmune function on reproduction: maternal and fetal consequences.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weiner, Rebecca; Vietzke, Mary

    2006-11-01

    The impact of abnormal autoimmune function on reproductive success has remained a highly controversial issue. This is, at least partially, due to the relative lack of demographic data from women with established autoimmune diseases. We, therefore, investigated 163 women with proven autoimmune diseases and 73 controls in a demographic study of reproductive success and impact of abnormal autoimmunity on pregnancy and offspring. Women with autoimmune diseases experienced fewer pregnancies overall (p=0.04) and fewer pregnancy losses (p=0.05). Offspring from women with autoimmune diseases demonstrated a significantly increased prevalence of confirmed autoimmune diseases (p=0.04; OR 3.759; 95%CL 1.04-1.27), which increased further if suspected, but not yet confirmed, cases were added (p=0.001; OR 8.592; 95%CL 1.05-55.0). Women with autoimmune diseases exhibited a trend towards lower cesarean section delivery during their own birth and a significantly increased prevalence of disease in vaginally delivered offspring (p=0.014; OR 6.041; 95%CL 1.32-38.22). Autoimmune diseases impair female fecundity even before the diseases become clinically overt. Offspring are at increased risk to develop autoimmune diseases, though they may differ from those of their mothers. This risk appears to correlate with mode of delivery and may be the consequence of varying cell traffic dynamics with vaginal and cesarean section deliveries.

  10. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  11. CD22 and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Dörner, Thomas; Shock, Anthony; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2012-10-01

    CD22 is a 140-kDa member of the Siglec family of cell surface proteins that is expressed by most mature B-cell lineages. As a co-receptor of the B-cell receptor (BCR), it is known to contribute to the sensitive control of the B-cell response to antigen. Cross-linking of CD22 and the BCR by antigen triggers the phosphorylation of CD22, which leads to activation of signaling molecules such as phosphatases. Signal transduction pathways involving CD22 have been explored in a number of mouse models, some of which have provided evidence that in the absence of functional CD22, B cells have a "hyperactivated" phenotype, and suggest that loss of CD22 function could contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Modulating CD22 activity has therefore been suggested as a possible therapeutic approach to such diseases. For example, the novel CD22-targeting monoclonal antibody epratuzumab is currently under investigation as a treatment for the connective tissue disorder systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  15. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Discussion: Changes in Vocal Production and Auditory Perception after Hair Cell Regeneration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A bird study found that with sufficient time and training after hair cell and hearing loss and hair cell regeneration, the mature avian auditory system can accommodate input from a newly regenerated periphery sufficiently to allow for recognition of previously familiar vocalizations and the learning of new complex acoustic classifications.…

  17. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  18. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  19. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated.

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  1. Immunoadsorption for autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, Cordula; Klingel, Reinhard; Köhler, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain. The discovery that several non-infectious forms of encephalitis are associated with autoantibodies was a breakthrough in the care of this previously untreatable group of patients. The correlation of antibody type and titer with pattern and severity of symptoms was essential for the initiation of immunotherapies. First line therapy consists of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange or immunoadsorption. Rapid elimination of autoantibodies using selective immunoadsorption and avoiding the disadvantage of plasma substitution is a pathophysiologically guided therapeutic approach, and has been proven to be an effective therapeutic option as part of multimodal immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Autoantibodies, tolerance and autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Pablo; Dighiero, Guillaume

    2003-07-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenum. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remain elusive.

  3. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  4. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan-nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-10

    Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  5. Notch Inhibition Induces Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration and Recovery of Hearing after Acoustic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mizutari, Kunio; Fujioka, Masato; Hosoya, Makoto; Bramhall, Naomi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Okano, Hideyuki; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hearing loss due to damage to auditory hair cells is normally irreversible because mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. Here, we show that new hair cells can be induced and can cause partial recovery of hearing in ears damaged by noise trauma, when Notch signaling is inhibited by a γ-secretase inhibitor selected for potency in stimulating hair cell differentiation from inner ear stem cells in vitro. Hair cell generation resulted from an increase in the level of bHLH transcription factor, Atoh1, in response to inhibition of Notch signaling. In vivo prospective labeling of Sox2-expressing cells with a Cre/lox system unambiguously demonstrated that hair cell generation resulted from transdifferentiation of supporting cells. Manipulating cell fate of cochlear sensory cells in vivo by pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling is thus a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of deafness. PMID:23312516

  6. Feathers and fins: non-mammalian models for hair cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Brignull, Heather R; Raible, David W; Stone, Jennifer S

    2009-06-24

    Death of mechanosensory cells in the inner ear results in two profound disabilities: hearing loss and balance disorders. Although mammals lack the capacity to regenerate hair cells, recent studies in mice and other rodents have offered valuable insight into strategies for stimulating hair cell regeneration in mammals. Investigations of model organisms that retain the ability to form new hair cells after embryogenesis, such as fish and birds, are equally important and have provided clues as to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may block hair cell regeneration in mammals. Here, we summarize studies on hair cell regeneration in the chicken and the zebrafish, discuss specific advantages of each model, and propose future directions for the use of non-mammalian models in understanding hair cell regeneration.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Uncombable hair syndrome Uncombable hair syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Uncombable hair syndrome is a condition that is characterized by ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a disorder of bone growth characterized ...

  9. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  11. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  13. Reprogramming of single-cell derived mesenchymal stem cells into hair cell-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhaoyu; Perez, Philip; Sun, Zhenyu; Liu, Jan-Jan; Shin, June Ho; Hyrc, Krzysztof L.; Samways, Damien; Egan, Terry; Holley, Matthew C.; Bao, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be converted into hair cell-like cells by transdetermination. Background Given the fundamental role sensory hair cells play in sound detection and the irreversibility of their loss in mammals, much research has focused on developing methods to generate new hair cells as a means of treating permanent hearing loss. Although MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, no efficient means of reprogramming them into sensory hair cells exists. Earlier work has shown that the transcription factor Atoh1 is necessary for early development of hair cells, but it is not clear whether Atoh1 can be used to convert MSCs into hair cells. Methods Clonal MSC cell lines were established and reprogrammed into hair cell-like cells by a combination of protein transfer, adenoviral based gene transfer and co-culture with neurons. During transdetermination, inner ear molecular markers were analyzed by RT-PCR, and cell structures were examined by immunocytochemistry. Results Atoh1 overexpression in MSCs failed to convert MSCs into hair cell-like cells, suggesting that the ability of Atoh1 to induce hair cell differentiation is context dependent. Because Atoh1 overexpression successfully transforms VOT-E36 cells into hair cell-like cells, we modified the cell context of MSCs by performing a total protein transfer from VOT-E36 cells prior to overexpressing Atoh1. The modified MSCs were transformed into hair cell-like cells and attracted contacts from spiral ganglion neurons in a co-culture model. Conclusion We established a new procedure, consisting of VOT-E36 protein transfer, Atoh1 overexpression, and co-culture with spiral ganglion neurons, which can transform MSCs into hair cell-like cells. PMID:23111404

  14. Cell proliferation during hair cell regeneration induced by Math1 in vestibular epithelia in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-bo; Ma, Rui; Yang, Juan-mei; Han, Zhao; Cong, Ning; Gao, Zhen; Ren, Dongdong; Wang, Jing; Chi, Fang-lu

    2018-01-01

    Hair cell regeneration is the fundamental method of correcting hearing loss and balance disorders caused by hair cell damage or loss. How to promote hair cell regeneration is a hot focus in current research. In mammals, cochlear hair cells cannot be regenerated and few vestibular hair cells can be renewed through spontaneous regeneration. However, Math1 gene transfer allows a few inner ear cells to be transformed into hair cells in vitro or in vivo. Hair cells can be renewed through two possible means in birds: supporting cell differentiation and transdifferentiation with or without cell division. Hair cell regeneration is strongly associated with cell proliferation. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between Math1-induced vestibular hair cell regeneration and cell division in mammals. The mouse vestibule was isolated to harvest vestibular epithelial cells. Ad-Math1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to track cell division during hair cell transformation. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to track cell proliferation at various time points. Immunocytochemistry was utilized to determine cell differentiation and proliferation. Results demonstrated that when epithelial cells were in a higher proliferative stage, more of these cells differentiated into hair cells by Math1 gene transfer. However, in the low proliferation stage, no BrdU-positive cells were seen after Math1 gene transfer. Cell division always occurred before Math1 transfection but not during or after Math1 transfection, when cells were labeled with BrdU before and after Ad-Math1-EGFP transfection. These results confirm that vestibular epithelial cells with high proliferative potential can differentiate into new hair cells by Math1 gene transfer, but this process is independent of cell proliferation. PMID:29623936

  15. A novel cosmetic approach to treat thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Davis, M G; Thomas, J H; van de Velde, S; Boissy, Y; Dawson, T L; Iveson, R; Sutton, K

    2011-12-01

    Many of today's treatments associated with 'thinning hair', such as female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, are focused on two of the key aspects of the condition. Over-the-counter or prescription medications are often focused on improving scalp hair density while high-quality cosmetic products work to prevent further hair damage and minimize mid-fibre breakage. Fibre diameter is another key contributor to thinning hair, but it is less often the focus of medical or cosmetic treatments. To examine the ability of a novel leave-on technology combination [caffeine, niacinamide, panthenol, dimethicone and an acrylate polymer (CNPDA)] to affect the diameter and behaviour of individual terminal scalp hair fibres as a new approach to counteract decreasing fibre diameters. Testing methodology included fibre diameter measures via laser scan micrometer, assessment of fibre mechanical and behavioural properties via tensile break stress and torsion pendulum testing, and mechanistic studies including cryoscanning electron microscopy and autoradiographic analysis. CNPDA significantly increased the diameter of individual, existing terminal scalp hair fibres by 2-5 μm, which yields an increase in the cross-sectional area of approximately 10%. Beyond the diameter increase, the CNPDA-thickened fibres demonstrated the altered mechanical properties characteristic of thicker fibres: increased suppleness/pliability (decreased shear modulus) and better ability to withstand force without breaking (increased break stress). Although cosmetic treatments will not reverse the condition, this new approach may help to mitigate the effects of thinning hair. © 2011 Procter & Gamble. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Hair cell regeneration in sensory epithelia from the inner ear of a urodele amphibian.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruth R; Forge, Andrew

    2005-03-28

    The capacity of urodele amphibians to regenerate a variety of body parts is providing insight into mechanisms of tissue regeneration in vertebrates. In this study the ability of the newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, to regenerate inner ear hair cells in vitro was examined. Intact otic capsules were maintained in organotypic culture. Incubation in 2 mM gentamicin for 48 hours resulted in ablation of all hair cells from the saccular maculae. Thus, any hair cell recovery was not due to repair of damaged hair cells. Immature hair cells were subsequently observed at approximately 12 days posttreatment. Their number increased over the following 7-14 days to reach approximately 30% of the normal number. Following incubation of damaged tissue with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), labeled nuclei were confined strictly within regions of hair cell loss, indicating that supporting cells entered S-phase. Double labeling of tissue with two different hair cell markers and three different antibodies to BrdU in various combinations, however, all showed that the nuclei of cells that labeled with hair cell markers did not label for BrdU. This suggested that the new hair cells were not derived from those cells that had undergone mitosis. When mitosis was blocked with aphidicolin, new hair cells were still generated. The results suggest that direct phenotypic conversion of supporting cells into hair cells without an intervening mitotic event is a major mechanism of hair cell regeneration in the newt. A similar mechanism has been proposed for the hair cell recovery phenomenon observed in the vestibular organs of mammals. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Bizbenzoquinoline Derivatives Protect Zebrafish Lateral Line Sensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Matthew; Boney, Robert; Ordoobadi, Alexander J; Sommers, Thomas F; Trapani, Josef G; Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20-30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment.

  19. Natural Bizbenzoquinoline Derivatives Protect Zebrafish Lateral Line Sensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Matthew; Boney, Robert; Ordoobadi, Alexander J.; Sommers, Thomas F.; Trapani, Josef G.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20–30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment. PMID:27065807

  20. Autoimmune encephalitis associated with vitiligo?

    PubMed

    Haitao, Ren; Huiqin, Liu; Tao, Qu; Xunzhe, Yang; Xiaoqiu, Shao; Wei, Li; Jiewen, Zhang; Liying, Cui; Hongzhi, Guan

    2017-09-15

    The autoimmune encephalitis can develop with or without an underlying tumor. For tumor-negative autoimmune encephalitis, the causes are still largely unknown. Here we presented three patients with autoimmune encephalitis accompanied with vitiligo. Among them, two patients suffered from anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis and one patient suffered from anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy. All of them received intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids as immunotherapy. The two patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis recovered and got a good prognosis. For the patient with anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy, he only got a moderate and transient improvement. Based on the above, we speculate that vitiligo may be a clue to an autoimmune cause for encephalitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Contact Us Who We Help Patients ARNet Research Survey AD Knowledge Base Autoimmune Disease List Common Thread ... Planned Giving Shop AARDA Volunteer Take Action ARNet Research Survey Voter Voice Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) ...

  2. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  3. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  4. [The pathogenesis and regulation of autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Sachiko

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of autoimmunity has been studied extensively using animal models and genome-wide genetic analysis. Moreover, recent advance in the therapy for the autoimmune diseases using molecular-targeted drugs has provided us a lot of information in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases. In this review, we overviewed the recent progress in the study of autoimmunity including central tolerance, regulatory cells and cytokines. Finally, we discuss the relationship of innate immunity and adoptive immunity in the context of autoimmunity.

  5. The hair root pattern after calcipotriol treatment for scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, A L; van Baar, H M; van Gasselt, M W; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1995-09-01

    Scalp psoriasis is associated with hair loss and an increased telogen/anagen ratio. Topical treatment of scalp psoriasis (with corticosteroids, dithranol or tar) results in decreased scaling, induration and erythema of the plaques. Calcipotriol is effective in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. However, the potent growth-inhibiting potential of this compound might theoretically induce hair loss. A study was designed to find out to what extent calcipotriol treatment modulates the percentage of anagen and telogen hair during treatment of scalp psoriasis. A group of 26 patients participated in a placebo-controlled dose-finding study on the efficacy of calcipotriol in scalp psoriasis. Hair plucks before and after treatment were taken. The telogen/anagen ratio remained unaffected during 6 weeks of calcipotriol treatment. No correlation was demonstrated between efficacy of treatment and quantification of telogen/anagen ratio. It can be concluded that the growth-inhibiting potential of calcipotriol is not reflected in the in vivo hair growth pattern during calcipotriol treatment.

  6. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  7. The autoimmune ecology: an update.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Restrepo-Jiménez, Paula; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina

    2018-07-01

    The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases. Carbamylation of proteins as well as NETosis have emerged as possible new pathophysiological mechanisms for rheumatoid arthritis. Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption seems to decrease the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and studies of vitamin have suggested a beneficial effect on these conditions. Coffee intake appears to be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis and a protective factor for multiple sclerosis and primary biliary cholangitis. Recent studies support the previously established positive associations between environmental factors and most of the autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, further studies from the perspective of metabolomics, proteomics and genomics will help to clarify the effect of environment on autoimmune diseases.

  8. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  9. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  10. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  11. Genuine cosmic hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner-de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  12. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Wesley H.; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune

  13. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Autoimmunity-Basics and link with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Mohindra, Kanika; Singla, Shifali

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune reactions reflect an imbalance between effector and regulatory immune responses, typically develop through stages of initiation and propagation, and often show phases of resolution (indicated by clinical remissions) and exacerbations (indicated by symptomatic flares). The fundamental underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is defective elimination and/or control of self-reactive lymphocytes. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth-supporting structures, which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidence of involvement of immunopathology has been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T-cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  16. New activators and inhibitors in the hair cycle clock: targeting stem cells’ state of competence

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The timing mechanism of the hair cycle remains poorly understood. However, it has become increasingly clear that the telogen-to-anagen transition is controlled jointly by at least the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways. New research shows that Fgf18 signaling in hair follicle stem cells synergizes BMP-mediated refractivity, whereas Tgf-β2 signaling counterbalances it. Loss of Fgf18 signaling markedly accelerates anagen initiation, whereas loss of Tgf-β2 signaling significantly delays it, supporting key roles for these pathways in hair cycle timekeeping. PMID:22499035

  17. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  18. Autoimmune liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    2003-03-01

    Autoimmune liver disorders are characterised by an inflammatory liver histology, circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the absence of a known aetiology. They respond to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). Two types of AIH are recognised according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1-positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalisation of biochemical parameters and decreased inflammatory activity on follow-up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress and there may be an evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. Whether the juvenile autoimmune form of sclerosing cholangitis and AIH are 2 distinct entities, or different aspects of the same condition, remains to be elucidated.

  19. Novel pebbles in the mosaic of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-04-04

    Almost 25 years ago, the concept of the 'mosaic of autoimmunity' was introduced to the scientific community, and since then this concept has continuously evolved, with new pebbles being added regularly. We are now looking at an era in which the players of autoimmunity have changed names and roles. In this issue of BMC Medicine, several aspects of autoimmunity have been addressed, suggesting that we are now at the forefront of autoimmunity science. Within the environmental factors generating autoimmunity are now included unsuspected molecules such as vitamin D and aluminum. Some adjuvants such as aluminum are recognized as causal factors in the development of the autoimmune response. An entirely new syndrome, the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), has been recently described. This is the new wind blowing within the branches of autoimmunity, adding knowledge to physicians for helping patients with autoimmune disease.

  20. A PAIR OF TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS ESSENTIAL FOR THE RETENTION AND PIGMENTATION OF HAIR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. PMID:22611050

  1. Blockade of S100A3 activity inhibits murine hair growth.

    PubMed

    Guan, W; Deng, Q; Yu, X L; Yuan, Y S; Gao, J; Li, J J; Zhou, L; Xia, P; Han, G Y Q; Han, W; Yu, Y

    2015-10-28

    Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we obtained dynamic expression profiles of the whole genome in a depilation-induced hair growth mouse model. S100A3 expression increased during the anagen phase and returned to normal during the telogen phase. The effects of S100A3 blockade on the hair growth cycle were examined in mice after subcutaneous injection of an anti-mouse S100A3 antibody. Protein localization of S100A3 was confined to the hair shafts during the anagen phase and the sebaceous glands during the telogen phase. S100A3 blockade delayed hair follicle entry into the anagen phase, decreased hair elongation, and reduced the number of hair follicles in the subcutis, which correlated with the downregulated expression of hair growth induction-related genes in vivo. The present study demonstrates that anti-S100A3 antibody inhibits mouse hair growth, suggesting that S100A3 can be used as a target for hair loss treatment.

  2. Why do hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea die during aging?

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Philip; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Age-related decline of cochlear function is mainly due to the loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Recent findings clearly indicate that survival of these two cell types during aging depends on genetic and environmental interactions, and this relationship is seen at the systemic, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. At cellular and molecular levels, age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs can occur independently, suggesting distinct mechanisms for the death of each during aging. This mechanistic independence is also observed in the loss of medial olivocochlear efferent innervation and outer hair cells during aging, pointing to a universal independent cellular mechanism for age-related neuronal death in the peripheral auditory system. While several molecular signaling pathways are implicated in the age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs, studies with the ability to locally modify gene expression in these cell types are needed to address whether these signaling pathways have direct effects on hair cells and SGNs during aging. Finally, the issue of whether age-related loss of these cells occurs via typical apoptotic pathways requires further examination. As new studies in the field of aging reshape the framework for exploring these underpinnings, understanding of the loss of hair cells and SGNs associated with age and the interventions that can treat and prevent these changes will result in dramatic benefits for an aging population. PMID:22396875

  3. Sensorineural hearing loss and ischemic injury: Development of animal models to assess vascular and oxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Olivetto, E; Simoni, E; Guaran, V; Astolfi, L; Martini, A

    2015-09-01

    Hearing loss may be genetic, associated with aging or exposure to noise or ototoxic substances. Its aetiology can be attributed to vascular injury, trauma, tumours, infections or autoimmune response. All these factors could be related to alterations in cochlear microcirculation resulting in hypoxia, which in turn may damage cochlear hair cells and neurons, leading to deafness. Hypoxia could underlie the aetiology of deafness, but very few data about it are presently available. The aim of this work is to develop animal models of hypoxia and ischemia suitable for study of cochlear vascular damage, characterizing them by electrophysiology and gene/protein expression analyses. The effects of hypoxia in infarction were mimicked in rat by partial permanent occlusion of the left coronary artery, and those of ischemia in thrombosis by complete temporary carotid occlusion. In our models both hypoxia and ischemia caused a small but significant hearing loss, localized at the cochlear apex. A slight induction of the coagulation cascade and of oxidative stress pathways was detected as cell survival mechanism, and cell damages were found on the cuticular plate of outer hair cells only after carotid ischemia. Based on these data, the two developed models appear suitable for in vivo studies of cochlear vascular damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of gene delivery and stem cell based therapies for regenerating inner ear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-09-13

    Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.

  5. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. Anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody accelerates telogen to anagen transition and attenuates apoptosis of the hair follicle in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wen; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Xia, Peng; Yuan, Yunsheng; Gao, Jin; Zhou, Liang; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Although hair loss or alopecia is a common disease, its exact mechanisms are not yet well understood. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the homeostatic regulation of genes during hair regeneration may participate in hair loss, based on the cyclicity of hair growth. A cluster of such genes was identified by an expression gene-array from the dorsal skin in a depilated mouse model, and CXCL4 was identified as a significantly regulated gene during the hair regeneration process. To elucidate the function of CXCL4 in hair growth, CXCL4 activity was blocked by the administration of an anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Histomorphometric analysis indicated that anti-CXCL4 mAb induced an earlier anagen phase and delayed hair follicle regression, in contrast with that in the control group. Moreover, CXCL4 mAb upregulated the transcription levels of several hair growth-related genes, including Lef1, Wnt10b, Bmp4 and Bmp2. In addition, CXCL4 mAb increased the levels of the proliferation-related protein PCNA and Bcl-2 during the anagen phase, while it reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3 during the catagen phase. These findings reveal that CXCL4 plays an important role in hair growth, and that blockade of CXCL4 activity promotes hair growth. PMID:28810552

  7. Anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody accelerates telogen to anagen transition and attenuates apoptosis of the hair follicle in mice.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wen; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Xia, Peng; Yuan, Yunsheng; Gao, Jin; Zhou, Liang; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Although hair loss or alopecia is a common disease, its exact mechanisms are not yet well understood. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the homeostatic regulation of genes during hair regeneration may participate in hair loss, based on the cyclicity of hair growth. A cluster of such genes was identified by an expression gene-array from the dorsal skin in a depilated mouse model, and CXCL4 was identified as a significantly regulated gene during the hair regeneration process. To elucidate the function of CXCL4 in hair growth, CXCL4 activity was blocked by the administration of an anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Histomorphometric analysis indicated that anti-CXCL4 mAb induced an earlier anagen phase and delayed hair follicle regression, in contrast with that in the control group. Moreover, CXCL4 mAb upregulated the transcription levels of several hair growth-related genes, including Lef1, Wnt10b, Bmp4 and Bmp2. In addition, CXCL4 mAb increased the levels of the proliferation-related protein PCNA and Bcl-2 during the anagen phase, while it reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3 during the catagen phase. These findings reveal that CXCL4 plays an important role in hair growth, and that blockade of CXCL4 activity promotes hair growth.

  8. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The moti