Sample records for automata linear rules

1. The Transition Rules of 2D Linear Cellular Automata Over Ternary Field and Self-Replicating Patterns

Sahin, Uḡur; Uguz, Selman; Akin, Hasan

In this paper we start with two-dimensional (2D) linear cellular automata (CA) in relation with basic mathematical structure. We investigate uniform linear 2D CA over ternary field, i.e. ℤ3. Present work is related to theoretical and imaginary investigations of 2D linear CA. Even though the basic construction of a CA is a discrete model, its macroscopic level behavior at large times and on large scales could be a close approximation to a continuous system. Considering some statistical properties, someone may also study geometrical aspects of patterns generated by cellular automaton evolution. After iteratively applying the linear rules, CA have been shown capable of producing interesting complex behaviors. Some examples of CA produce remarkably regular behavior on finite configurations. Using some simple initial configurations, the produced pattern can be self-replicating regarding some linear rules. Here we deal with the theory 2D uniform periodic, adiabatic and reflexive boundary CA (2D PB, AB and RB) over the ternary field ℤ3 and the applications of image processing for patterns generation. From the visual appearance of the patterns, it is seen that some rules display sensitive dependence on boundary conditions and their rule numbers.

2. Reversibility of a Symmetric Linear Cellular Automata

Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

The characterization of the size of the cellular space of a particular type of reversible symmetric linear cellular automata is introduced in this paper. Specifically, it is shown that those symmetric linear cellular with 2k + 1 cells, and whose transition matrix is a k-diagonal square band matrix with nonzero entries equal to 1 are reversible. Furthermore, in this case the inverse cellular automata are explicitly computed. Moreover, the reversibility condition is also studied for a general number of cells.

3. Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata

Martín Del Rey, Ángel

2014-12-01

In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.

4. Identifying patterns from one-rule-firing cellular automata.

PubMed

Shin, Jae Kyun

2011-01-01

A new firing scheme for cellular automata in which only one rule is fired at a time produces myriad patterns. In addition to geometric patterns, natural patterns such as flowers and snow crystals were also generated. This study proposes an efficient method identifying the patterns using a minimal number of digits. Complexity of the generated patterns is discussed in terms of the shapes and colors of the patterns.

5. Rule matrices, degree vectors, and preimages for cellular automata

SciTech Connect

Jen, E.

1989-01-01

Cellular automata are mathematical systems characterized by discreteness (in space, time, and state values), determinism, and local interaction. Few analytical techniques exist for such systems. The rule matrix and degree vectors of a cellular automaton -- both of which are determined a priori from the function defining the automaton, rather than a posteriori from simulations of its evolution -- are introduced here as tools for understanding certain qualitative features of automaton behavior. The rule matrix represents in convenient form the information contained in an automaton's rule table; the degree vectors are computed from the rule matrix, and reflect the extent to which the system is one-to-one'' versus many-to-one'' on restricted subspaces of the mapping. The rule matrix and degree vectors determine, for example, several aspects of the enumeration and prediction'' of preimages for spatial sequences evolving under the rule, where the preimages of a sequence S are defined to be the set of sequences mapped by the automaton rule onto S. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

6. Novel local rules of cellular automata applied to topology and size optimization

Bochenek, Bogdan; Tajs-Zielińska, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

Cellular automata are mathematical idealization of physical systems in which the design domains are divided into lattices of cells, states of which are updated synchronously in discrete time steps according to some local rules. The principle of the cellular automata is that global behaviour of the system is governed by cells that only interact with their neighbours. Because of its simplicity and versatility the method has been found as useful tool for structural design, especially that cellular automata methodology can be adopted for both optimal sizing and topology optimization. This article presents the application of the cellular automata concept to topology optimization of plane elastic structures. As to the optimal sizing, the design of columns exposed to loss of stability is also discussed. A new local update rule is proposed, selected optimal design problems are formulated, and finally the article is illustrated by results of numerical optimization.

7. Chaos of elementary cellular automata rule 42 of Wolfram's class II.

PubMed

Chen, Fang-Yue; Jin, Wei-Feng; Chen, Guan-Rong; Chen, Fang-Fang; Chen, Lin

2009-03-01

In this paper, the dynamics of elementary cellular automata rule 42 is investigated in the bi-infinite symbolic sequence space. Rule 42, a member of Wolfram's class II which was said to be simply as periodic before, actually defines a chaotic global attractor; that is, rule 42 is topologically mixing on its global attractor and possesses the positive topological entropy. Therefore, rule 42 is chaotic in the sense of both Li-Yorke and Devaney. Meanwhile, the characteristic function and the basin tree diagram of rule 42 are explored for some finite length of binary strings, which reveal its Bernoulli characteristics. The method presented in this work is also applicable to studying the dynamics of other rules, especially the 112 Bernoulli-shift rules of the elementary cellular automata.

8. Linear-Time Recognizable Classes of Tree Languages by Deterministic Linear Pushdown Tree Automata

Fujiyoshi, Akio

In this paper, we study deterministic linear pushdown tree automata (deterministic L-PDTAs) and some variations. Since recognition of an input tree by a deterministic L-PDTA can be done in linear time, deterministic L-PDTAs are applicable to many kinds of applications. A strict hierarchy will be shown among the classes of tree languages defined by a variety of deterministic L-PDTAs. It will be also shown that deterministic L-PDTAs are weakly equivalent to nondeterministic L-PDTAs.

9. Predicting nonlinear cellular automata quickly by decomposing them into linear ones

Moore, Cristopher

1998-01-01

We show that a wide variety of nonlinear cellular automata (CAs) can be decomposed into a quasidirect product of linear ones. These CAs can be predicted by parallel circuits of depth O(log 2t) using gates with binary inputs, or O(log t) depth if “sum mod p” gates with an unbounded number of inputs are allowed. Thus these CAs can be predicted by (idealized) parallel computers much faster than by explicit simulation, even though they are nonlinear. This class includes any CA whose rule, when written as an algebra, is a solvable group. We also show that CAs based on nilpotent groups can be predicted in depth O(log t) or O(1) by circuits with binary or “sum mod p” gates, respectively. We use these techniques to give an efficient algorithm for a CA rule which, like elementary CA rule 18, has diffusing defects that annihilate in pairs. This can be used to predict the motion of defects in rule 18 in O(log 2t) parallel time.

10. Characterization of one-dimensional cellular automata rules through topological network features

D'Alotto, Lou; Pizzuti, Clara

2016-10-01

The paper investigates the relationship between the classification schemes, defined by Wolfram and Gilman, of one-dimensional cellular automata through concepts coming from network theory. An automaton is represented with a network, generated from the elementary rule defining its behavior. Characteristic features of this graph are computed and machine learning classification models are built. Such models allow to classify automaton rules and to compare Wolfram's and Gilman's classes by comparing the classes predicted by these models.

11. A simple linearization of the self-shrinking generator by means of cellular automata.

PubMed

Fúster-Sabater, Amparo; Pazo-Robles, M Eugenia; Caballero-Gil, Pino

2010-04-01

In this work, it is shown that the output sequence of a well-known cryptographic generator, the so-called self-shrinking generator, can be obtained from a simple linear model based on cellular automata. In fact, such a cellular model is a linear version of a nonlinear keystream generator currently used in stream ciphers. The linearization procedure is immediate and is based on the concatenation of a basic structure. The obtained cellular automata can be easily implemented with FPGA logic. Linearity and symmetry properties in such automata can be advantageously exploited for the analysis and/or cryptanalysis of this particular type of sequence generator. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

12. A Cellular Automata-based Deterministic Inversion Algorithm for the Characterization of Linear Structural Heterogeneities

Jardani, A.; Fischer, P.; Lecoq, N.

2016-12-01

Inverse problem permits to map the subsurface properties from the data of a field investigation. The inverse problem can be physically constrained by a priori information on the properties distribution in order to limit the non-uniqueness of the solution. In this case, geostatistical information are often chosen as a priori information, because they are simple to incorporate as a covariance function and they produce realistic model in many cases. But when field properties present a spatial locally-distributed high variability, a geostatistical approach on the properties distribution becomes inefficient. Therefore, we propose a new method adapted for fields presenting linear structures (such as a fractured field). The Cellular Automata-based Deterministic Inversion (CADI) method is, as far as we know, the first inversion method which permits a deterministic inversion based on a Bayesian approach and using a dynamic optimization to generate different linear structures iteratively. The model is partitioned in cellular automaton subspaces, each one controlling a different zone of the model. A cellular automata subspace structures the properties of the model in two units (structure' and background') and control their dispensing direction and their values. The partitioning of the model in subspaces permit to monitor a large-scale structural model with only a few pilot-parameters and to generate linear structures with local direction changes. Thereby, the algorithm can easily handle with large-scale structures, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on these structural pilot-parameters, which permits to considerably accelerate the optimization process in order to find the best structural geometry to reproduce the data. The algorithm has been successfully tested on simple, to more complex, theoretical models with different inversion technics (linear, non-linear and joint inversion), by using seismic and hydraulic data.

13. A cellular automata-based deterministic inversion algorithm for the characterization of linear structural heterogeneities

Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Lecoq, N.

2017-03-01

Inverse problem permits to map the subsurface properties from a few observed data. The inverse problem can be physically constrained by a priori information on the property distribution in order to limit the nonuniqueness of the solution. The geostatistical information is often chosen as a priori information; however, when the field properties present a spatial locally distributed high variability, the geostatistical approach becomes inefficient. Therefore, we propose a new method adapted for fields presenting linear structures (such as a fractured field). The Cellular Automata-based Deterministic Inversion (CADI) method is, as far as we know when this paper is produced, the first inversion method which permits a deterministic inversion based on a Bayesian approach and using a dynamic optimization to generate different linear structures iteratively. The model is partitioned in cellular automaton subspaces, each one controlling a different zone of the model. A cellular automata subspace structures the properties of the model in two units ("structure" and "background") and control their dispensing direction and their values. The partitioning of the model in subspaces permits to monitor a large-scale structural model with only a few pilot-parameters and to generate linear structures with local direction changes. Thereby, the algorithm can easily handle with large-scale structures, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on these structural pilot-parameters, which permits to considerably accelerate the optimization process in order to find the best structural geometry. The algorithm has been successfully tested on simple, to more complex, theoretical models with different inversion techniques by using seismic and hydraulic data.

14. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

1996-01-01

Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

15. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

1996-01-01

Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

16. Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata

Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

2017-03-01

In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.

17. Optimal amnesic probabilistic automata or how to learn and classify proteins in linear time and space.

PubMed

Apostolico, A; Bejerano, G

2000-01-01

Statistical modeling of sequences is a central paradigm of machine learning that finds multiple uses in computational molecular biology and many other domains. The probabilistic automata typically built in these contexts are subtended by uniform, fixed-memory Markov models. In practice, such automata tend to be unnecessarily bulky and computationally imposing both during their synthesis and use. Recently, D. Ron, Y. Singer, and N. Tishby built much more compact, tree-shaped variants of probabilistic automata under the assumption of an underlying Markov process of variable memory length. These variants, called Probabilistic Suffix Trees (PSTs) were subsequently adapted by G. Bejerano and G. Yona and applied successfully to learning and prediction of protein families. The process of learning the automaton from a given training set S of sequences requires theta(Ln2) worst-case time, where n is the total length of the sequences in S and L is the length of a longest substring of S to be considered for a candidate state in the automaton. Once the automaton is built, predicting the likelihood of a query sequence of m characters may cost time theta(m2) in the worst case. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce automata equivalent to PSTs but having the following properties: Learning the automaton, for any L, takes O (n) time. Prediction of a string of m symbols by the automaton takes O (m) time. Along the way, the paper presents an evolving learning scheme and addresses notions of empirical probability and related efficient computation, which is a by-product possibly of more general interest.

18. Monitoring with Data Automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havelund, Klaus

2014-01-01

We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.

19. Monitoring with Data Automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havelund, Klaus

2014-01-01

We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.

20. Deriving urban dynamic evolution rules from self-adaptive cellular automata with multi-temporal remote sensing images

He, Yingqing; Ai, Bin; Yao, Yao; Zhong, Fajun

2015-06-01

Cellular automata (CA) have proven to be very effective for simulating and predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of complex geographical phenomena. Traditional methods generally pose problems in determining the structure and parameters of CA for a large, complex region or a long-term simulation. This study presents a self-adaptive CA model integrated with an artificial immune system to discover dynamic transition rules automatically. The model's parameters are allowed to be self-modified with the application of multi-temporal remote sensing images: that is, the CA can adapt itself to the changed and complex environment. Therefore, urban dynamic evolution rules over time can be efficiently retrieved by using this integrated model. The proposed AIS-based CA model was then used to simulate the rural-urban land conversion of Guangzhou city, located in the core of China's Pearl River Delta. The initial urban land was directly classified from TM satellite image in the year 1990. Urban land in the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2012 was correspondingly used as the observed data to calibrate the model's parameters. With the quantitative index figure of merit (FoM) and pattern similarity, the comparison was further performed between the AIS-based model and a Logistic CA model. The results indicate that the AIS-based CA model can perform better and with higher precision in simulating urban evolution, and the simulated spatial pattern is closer to the actual development situation.

1. Using economy of means to evolve transition rules within 2D cellular automata.

PubMed

Ripps, David L

2010-01-01

Running a cellular automaton (CA) on a rectangular lattice is a time-honored method for studying artificial life on a digital computer. Commonly, the researcher wishes to investigate some specific or general mode of behavior, say, the ability of a coherent pattern of points to glide within the lattice, or to generate copies of itself. This technique has a problem: how to design the transitions table-the set of distinct rules that specify the next content of a cell from its current content and that of its near neighbors. Often the table is painstakingly designed manually, rule by rule. The problem is exacerbated by the potentially vast number of individual rules that need be specified to cover all combinations of center and neighbors when there are several symbols in the alphabet of the CA. In this article a method is presented to have the set of rules evolve automatically while running the CA. The transition table is initially empty, with rules being added as the need arises. A novel principle drives the evolution: maximum economy of means-maximizing the reuse of rules introduced on previous cycles. This method may not be a panacea applicable to all CA studies. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently potent to evolve sets of rules and associated patterns of points that glide (periodically regenerate themselves at another location) and to generate gliding "children" that then "mate" by collision.

2. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

SciTech Connect

Nagel, K. |; Wolf, D.E. |; Wagner, P. |; Simon, P.

1997-11-05

Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

3. Probabilistic cellular automata.

PubMed

Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

2014-09-01

Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

4. Linear mixing rule in screened binary ionic mixtures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chabrier, G.; Ashcroft, N. W.

1990-01-01

The validity of the linear mixing rule is examined for the following two cases (1) when the response of the electron gas is taken into account in the effective ionic interaction and (2) when finite-temperature effects are included in the dielectric response of the electrons, i.e., when the ions interact with both temperature- and density-dependent screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that the linear mixing rule remains valid when the electron response is taken into account in the interionic potential at any density, even though the departure from linearity can reach a few percent for the asymmetric mixtures in the region of weak degeneracy for the electron gas. A physical explanation of this behavior is proposed which is based on a simple additional length scale.

5. Nonsynchronous updating in the multiverse of cellular automata

Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame

2015-04-01

In this paper we study updating effects on cellular automata rule space. We consider a subset of 6144 order-3 automata from the space of 262144 bidimensional outer-totalistic rules. We compare synchronous to asynchronous and sequential updatings. Focusing on two automata, we discuss how update changes destroy typical structures of these rules. Besides, we show that the first-order phase transition in the multiverse of synchronous cellular automata, revealed with the use of a recently introduced control parameter, seems to be robust not only to changes in update schema but also to different initial densities.

6. Nonsynchronous updating in the multiverse of cellular automata.

PubMed

Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame

2015-04-01

In this paper we study updating effects on cellular automata rule space. We consider a subset of 6144 order-3 automata from the space of 262144 bidimensional outer-totalistic rules. We compare synchronous to asynchronous and sequential updatings. Focusing on two automata, we discuss how update changes destroy typical structures of these rules. Besides, we show that the first-order phase transition in the multiverse of synchronous cellular automata, revealed with the use of a recently introduced control parameter, seems to be robust not only to changes in update schema but also to different initial densities.

7. Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

2017-02-01

In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.

8. Automata for subgroups

Heng, Fong Wan; Siang, Gan Yee; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

2014-06-01

Recently, the relation of automata and groups has been studied. It was shown that properties of groups can be studied using state diagrams of modified automata and modified Watson-Crick automata. In this work, we investigate the relation of subgroups with the modified finite and Watson-Crick automata. We also establish the conditions for the recognition of subgroups by using the modified automata.

9. Symmetry analysis of cellular automata

García-Morales, V.

2013-01-01

By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.

10. Actin Automata: Phenomenology and Localizations

Actin is a globular protein which forms long filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, whose roles in cell function include structural support, contractile activity to intracellular signaling. We model actin filaments as two chains of one-dimensional binary-state semi-totalistic automaton arrays to describe hypothetical signaling events therein. Each node of the actin automaton takes state "0" (resting) or "1" (excited) and updates its state in discrete time depending on its neighbor's states. We analyze the complete rule space of actin automata using integral characteristics of space-time configurations generated by these rules and compute state transition rules that support traveling and mobile localizations. Approaches towards selection of the localization supporting rules using the global characteristics are outlined. We find that some properties of actin automata rules may be predicted using Shannon entropy, activity and incoherence of excitation between the polymer chains. We also show that it is possible to infer whether a given rule supports traveling or stationary localizations by looking at ratios of excited neighbors that are essential for generations of the localizations. We conclude by applying biomolecular hypotheses to this model and discuss the significance of our findings in context with cell signaling and emergent behavior in cellular computation.

11. Quantum Features of Natural Cellular Automata

Elze, Hans-Thomas

We review the properties of discrete and integer-valued, hence "natural", cellular automata (CA), a particular class of which comprises "Hamiltonian CA" with equations of motion that bear strong similarities to Hamilton's equations, despite presenting discrete updating rules. The resulting dynamics is linear in the same sense as unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. Employing Shannon's Sampling Theorem, we construct an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. This leads to one-to-one correspondence of quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. In order to illuminate the all-important issue of linearity, we presently introduce an extension of the class of CA incorporating nonlinearities. We argue that these imply non-local effects in the continuous quantum mechanical description of intrinsically local discrete CA, enforcing locality entails linearity. We recall the construction of admissible CA observables and the existence of solutions of the modified dispersion relation for stationary states, besides discussing next steps of the deconstruction of quantum mechanical models in terms of deterministic CA.

12. Quantum models as classical cellular automata

Elze, Hans-Thomas

2017-05-01

A synopsis is offered of the properties of discrete and integer-valued, hence “natural”, cellular automata (CA). A particular class comprises the “Hamiltonian CA” with discrete updating rules that resemble Hamilton’s equations. The resulting dynamics is linear like the unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. Employing Shannon’s Sampling Theorem, we construct an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale l. Consequently, there is a one-to-one correspondence of quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. We discuss the important issue of linearity, recalling that nonlinearities imply nonlocal effects in the continuous quantum mechanical description of intrinsically local discrete CA - requiring locality entails linearity. The admissible CA observables and the existence of solutions of the l-dependent dispersion relation for stationary states are mentioned, besides the construction of multipartite CA obeying the Superposition Principle. We point out problems when trying to match the deterministic CA here to those envisioned in ‘t Hooft’s CA Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

13. Resolution scalable image coding with reversible cellular automata.

PubMed

Cappellari, Lorenzo; Milani, Simone; Cruz-Reyes, Carlos; Calvagno, Giancarlo

2011-05-01

In a resolution scalable image coding algorithm, a multiresolution representation of the data is often obtained using a linear filter bank. Reversible cellular automata have been recently proposed as simpler, nonlinear filter banks that produce a similar representation. The original image is decomposed into four subbands, such that one of them retains most of the features of the original image at a reduced scale. In this paper, we discuss the utilization of reversible cellular automata and arithmetic coding for scalable compression of binary and grayscale images. In the binary case, the proposed algorithm that uses simple local rules compares well with the JBIG compression standard, in particular for images where the foreground is made of a simple connected region. For complex images, more efficient local rules based upon the lifting principle have been designed. They provide compression performances very close to or even better than JBIG, depending upon the image characteristics. In the grayscale case, and in particular for smooth images such as depth maps, the proposed algorithm outperforms both the JBIG and the JPEG2000 standards under most coding conditions.

14. Genetic learning automata for function optimization.

PubMed

Howell, M N; Gordon, T J; Brandao, F V

2002-01-01

Stochastic learning automata and genetic algorithms (GAs) have previously been shown to have valuable global optimization properties. Learning automata have, however, been criticized for having a relatively slow rate of convergence. In this paper, these two techniques are combined to provide an increase in the rate of convergence for the learning automata and also to improve the chances of escaping local optima. The technique separates the genotype and phenotype properties of the GA and has the advantage that the degree of convergence can be quickly ascertained. It also provides the GA with a stopping rule. If the technique is applied to real-valued function optimization problems, then bounds on the range of the values within which the global optima is expected can be determined throughout the search process. The technique is demonstrated through a number of bit-based and real-valued function optimization examples.

15. Heuristic and Linear Models of Judgment: Matching Rules and Environments

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hogarth, Robin M.; Karelaia, Natalia

2007-01-01

Much research has highlighted incoherent implications of judgmental heuristics, yet other findings have demonstrated high correspondence between predictions and outcomes. At the same time, judgment has been well modeled in the form of as if linear models. Accepting the probabilistic nature of the environment, the authors use statistical tools to…

16. Automata representation for Abelian groups

Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

2013-04-01

A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.

17. Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis of one dimensional cellular automata.

PubMed

Estevez-Rams, E; Lora-Serrano, R; Nunes, C A J; Aragón-Fernández, B

2015-12-01

Lempel-Ziv complexity measure has been used to estimate the entropy density of a string. It is defined as the number of factors in a production factorization of a string. In this contribution, we show that its use can be extended, by using the normalized information distance, to study the spatiotemporal evolution of random initial configurations under cellular automata rules. In particular, the transfer information from time consecutive configurations is studied, as well as the sensitivity to perturbed initial conditions. The behavior of the cellular automata rules can be grouped in different classes, but no single grouping captures the whole nature of the involved rules. The analysis carried out is particularly appropriate for studying the computational processing capabilities of cellular automata rules.

18. Automata-Based Verification of Temporal Properties on Running Programs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus; Lan, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

This paper presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to Buchi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

19. Piecewise-linear neural networks and their relationship to rule extraction from data.

PubMed

Holena, Martin

2006-11-01

This article addresses the topic of extracting logical rules from data by means of artificial neural networks. The approach based on piecewise linear neural networks is revisited, which has already been used for the extraction of Boolean rules in the past, and it is shown that this approach can be important also for the extraction of fuzzy rules. Two important theoretical properties of piecewise-linear neural networks are proved, allowing an elaboration of the basic ideas of the approach into several variants of an algorithm for the extraction of Boolean rules. That algorithm has already been used in two real-world applications. Finally, a connection to the extraction of rules of the Łukasiewicz logic is established, relying on recent results about rational McNaughton functions. Based on one of the constructive proofs of the McNaughton theorem, an algorithm is formulated that in principle allows extracting a particular kind of formulas of the Łukasiewicz predicate logic from piecewise-linear neural networks trained with rational data.

20. Synchronization of Regular Automata

Caucal, Didier

Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.

1. Using cellular automata to generate image representation for biological sequences.

PubMed

Xiao, X; Shao, S; Ding, Y; Huang, Z; Chen, X; Chou, K-C

2005-02-01

A novel approach to visualize biological sequences is developed based on cellular automata (Wolfram, S. Nature 1984, 311, 419-424), a set of discrete dynamical systems in which space and time are discrete. By transforming the symbolic sequence codes into the digital codes, and using some optimal space-time evolvement rules of cellular automata, a biological sequence can be represented by a unique image, the so-called cellular automata image. Many important features, which are originally hidden in a long and complicated biological sequence, can be clearly revealed thru its cellular automata image. With biological sequences entering into databanks rapidly increasing in the post-genomic era, it is anticipated that the cellular automata image will become a very useful vehicle for investigation into their key features, identification of their function, as well as revelation of their "fingerprint". It is anticipated that by using the concept of the pseudo amino acid composition (Chou, K.C. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics, 2001, 43, 246-255), the cellular automata image approach can also be used to improve the quality of predicting protein attributes, such as structural class and subcellular location.

2. Data Automata in Scala

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havelund, Klaus

2014-01-01

The field of runtime verification has during the last decade seen a multitude of systems for monitoring event sequences (traces) emitted by a running system. The objective is to ensure correctness of a system by checking its execution traces against formal specifications representing requirements. A special challenge is data parameterized events, where monitors have to keep track of the combination of control states as well as data constraints, relating events and the data they carry across time points. This poses a challenge wrt. efficiency of monitors, as well as expressiveness of logics. Data automata is a form of automata where states are parameterized with data, supporting monitoring of data parameterized events. We describe the full details of a very simple API in the Scala programming language, an internal DSL (Domain-Specific Language), implementing data automata. The small implementation suggests a design pattern. Data automata allow transition conditions to refer to other states than the source state, and allow target states of transitions to be inlined, offering a temporal logic flavored notation. An embedding of a logic in a high-level language like Scala in addition allows monitors to be programmed using all of Scala's language constructs, offering the full flexibility of a programming language. The framework is demonstrated on an XML processing scenario previously addressed in related work.

3. Data Automata in Scala

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havelund, Klaus

2014-01-01

The field of runtime verification has during the last decade seen a multitude of systems for monitoring event sequences (traces) emitted by a running system. The objective is to ensure correctness of a system by checking its execution traces against formal specifications representing requirements. A special challenge is data parameterized events, where monitors have to keep track of the combination of control states as well as data constraints, relating events and the data they carry across time points. This poses a challenge wrt. efficiency of monitors, as well as expressiveness of logics. Data automata is a form of automata where states are parameterized with data, supporting monitoring of data parameterized events. We describe the full details of a very simple API in the Scala programming language, an internal DSL (Domain-Specific Language), implementing data automata. The small implementation suggests a design pattern. Data automata allow transition conditions to refer to other states than the source state, and allow target states of transitions to be inlined, offering a temporal logic flavored notation. An embedding of a logic in a high-level language like Scala in addition allows monitors to be programmed using all of Scala's language constructs, offering the full flexibility of a programming language. The framework is demonstrated on an XML processing scenario previously addressed in related work.

4. Symmetric Fractals Generated by Cellular Automata

DTIC Science & Technology

2000-01-01

configuration is, e.g., rotationally symmetric. If is a regular k-invariant of A0, then 6(E fiX j) gives anther top row of a 0-configuration of size kN; what...Technology and Culture (JUAP P4-02). References 1. J.-P. Allouche, F. von Haeseler, E. Lange, A. Petersen, G. Skordev. Linear cellular automata and

5. GARDENS OF EDEN OF ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATA.

SciTech Connect

Barrett, C. L.; Chen, W. Y. C.; Reidys, C. M.

2001-01-01

Using de Bruijn graphs, we give a characterization of elementary cellular automata on the linear lattice that do not have any Gardens of Eden. It turns out that one can easily recoginze a CA that does not have any Gardens of Eden by looking at its de Bruijn graph. We also present a sufficient condition for the set of words accepted by a CA not to constitute a finite-complement language.

6. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

7. Non-Condon nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule rates from the linearized semiclassical method

Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

2016-08-01

The nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule describes the transition between a photoexcited bright donor electronic state and a dark acceptor electronic state, when the nuclear degrees of freedom start out in a nonequilibrium state. In a previous paper [X. Sun and E. Geva, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 12, 2926 (2016)], we proposed a new expression for the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule within the framework of the linearized semiclassical approximation and based on the Condon approximation, according to which the electronic coupling between donor and acceptor is assumed constant. In this paper we propose a more general expression, which is applicable to the case of non-Condon electronic coupling. We test the accuracy of the new non-Condon nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule linearized semiclassical expression on a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering the following: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary-mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions, in both normal and inverted regions, and over a wide range of initial nonequilibrium states, temperatures, and frictions.

8. Assessing Performance of Multipurpose Reservoir System Using Two-Point Linear Hedging Rule

Sasireka, K.; Neelakantan, T. R.

2017-07-01

Reservoir operation is the one of the important filed of water resource management. Innovative techniques in water resource management are focussed at optimizing the available water and in decreasing the environmental impact of water utilization on the natural environment. In the operation of multi reservoir system, efficient regulation of the release to satisfy the demand for various purpose like domestic, irrigation and hydropower can lead to increase the benefit from the reservoir as well as significantly reduces the damage due to floods. Hedging rule is one of the emerging techniques in reservoir operation, which reduce the severity of drought by accepting number of smaller shortages. The key objective of this paper is to maximize the minimum power production and improve the reliability of water supply for municipal and irrigation purpose by using hedging rule. In this paper, Type II two-point linear hedging rule is attempted to improve the operation of Bargi reservoir in the Narmada basin in India. The results obtained from simulation of hedging rule is compared with results from Standard Operating Policy, the result shows that the application of hedging rule significantly improved the reliability of water supply and reliability of irrigation release and firm power production.

9. Modeling and Density Estimation of an Urban Freeway Network Based on Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata

PubMed Central

Chen, Yangzhou; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Ying

2017-01-01

In this paper, in order to describe complex network systems, we firstly propose a general modeling framework by combining a dynamic graph with hybrid automata and thus name it Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata (DGHA). Then we apply this framework to model traffic flow over an urban freeway network by embedding the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) into the DGHA. With a modeling procedure, we adopt a dual digraph of road network structure to describe the road topology, use linear hybrid automata to describe multi-modes of dynamic densities in road segments and transform the nonlinear expressions of the transmitted traffic flow between two road segments into piecewise linear functions in terms of multi-mode switchings. This modeling procedure is modularized and rule-based, and thus is easily-extensible with the help of a combination algorithm for the dynamics of traffic flow. It can describe the dynamics of traffic flow over an urban freeway network with arbitrary topology structures and sizes. Next we analyze mode types and number in the model of the whole freeway network, and deduce a Piecewise Affine Linear System (PWALS) model. Furthermore, based on the PWALS model, a multi-mode switched state observer is designed to estimate the traffic densities of the freeway network, where a set of observer gain matrices are computed by using the Lyapunov function approach. As an example, we utilize the PWALS model and the corresponding switched state observer to traffic flow over Beijing third ring road. In order to clearly interpret the principle of the proposed method and avoid computational complexity, we adopt a simplified version of Beijing third ring road. Practical application for a large-scale road network will be implemented by decentralized modeling approach and distributed observer designing in the future research. PMID:28353664

10. Modeling and Density Estimation of an Urban Freeway Network Based on Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata.

PubMed

Chen, Yangzhou; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Ying

2017-03-29

In this paper, in order to describe complex network systems, we firstly propose a general modeling framework by combining a dynamic graph with hybrid automata and thus name it Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata (DGHA). Then we apply this framework to model traffic flow over an urban freeway network by embedding the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) into the DGHA. With a modeling procedure, we adopt a dual digraph of road network structure to describe the road topology, use linear hybrid automata to describe multi-modes of dynamic densities in road segments and transform the nonlinear expressions of the transmitted traffic flow between two road segments into piecewise linear functions in terms of multi-mode switchings. This modeling procedure is modularized and rule-based, and thus is easily-extensible with the help of a combination algorithm for the dynamics of traffic flow. It can describe the dynamics of traffic flow over an urban freeway network with arbitrary topology structures and sizes. Next we analyze mode types and number in the model of the whole freeway network, and deduce a Piecewise Affine Linear System (PWALS) model. Furthermore, based on the PWALS model, a multi-mode switched state observer is designed to estimate the traffic densities of the freeway network, where a set of observer gain matrices are computed by using the Lyapunov function approach. As an example, we utilize the PWALS model and the corresponding switched state observer to traffic flow over Beijing third ring road. In order to clearly interpret the principle of the proposed method and avoid computational complexity, we adopt a simplified version of Beijing third ring road. Practical application for a large-scale road network will be implemented by decentralized modeling approach and distributed observer designing in the future research.

11. Predictability in cellular automata.

PubMed

Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

2014-01-01

Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.

12. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

USGS Publications Warehouse

Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

2003-01-01

We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

13. On Binary-State Phyllosilicate Automata

Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics the structure of phyllosilicate. A node of a binary state phyllosilicate automaton takes states 0 and 1. A node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon nodes) or six (oxygen nodes) closest neighbors. We phenomenologically select the main types of patterns generated by phyllosilicate automata based on their shape: convex and concave hulls, almost circularly growing patterns, octagonal patterns, and those with dendritic growth; and, the patterns' interior: disordered, solid, labyrinthine. We also present the rules exhibiting traveling localizations.

14. Application of the Cramer rule in the solution of sparse systems of linear algebraic equations

2001-11-01

In this work, the solution of a sparse system of linear algebraic equations is obtained by using the Cramer rule. The determinants are computed with the help of the numerical structure approach defined in Suchkov (Graphs of Gearing Machines, Leningrad, Quebec, 1983) in which only the non-zero elements are used. Cramer rule produces the solution directly without creating fill-in problem encountered in other direct methods. Moreover, the solution can be expressed exactly if all the entries, including the right-hand side, are integers and if all products do not exceed the size of the largest integer that can be represented in the arithmetic of the computer used. The usefulness of Suchkov numerical structure approach is shown by applying on seven examples. Obtained results are also compared with digraph approach described in Mittal and Kurdi (J. Comput. Math., to appear). It is shown that the performance of the numerical structure approach is better than that of digraph approach.

15. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

1991-01-01

For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

16. Mining Distance Based Outliers in Near Linear Time with Randomization and a Simple Pruning Rule

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bay, Stephen D.; Schwabacher, Mark

2003-01-01

Defining outliers by their distance to neighboring examples is a popular approach to finding unusual examples in a data set. Recently, much work has been conducted with the goal of finding fast algorithms for this task. We show that a simple nested loop algorithm that in the worst case is quadratic can give near linear time performance when the data is in random order and a simple pruning rule is used. We test our algorithm on real high-dimensional data sets with millions of examples and show that the near linear scaling holds over several orders of magnitude. Our average case analysis suggests that much of the efficiency is because the time to process non-outliers, which are the majority of examples, does not depend on the size of the data set.

17. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

2014-07-01

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

18. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

SciTech Connect

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

2014-07-10

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

19. Predictions of tensile strength of binary tablets using linear and power law mixing rules.

PubMed

Michrafy, A; Michrafy, M; Kadiri, M S; Dodds, J A

2007-03-21

There has recently been an increased interest in predicting the tensile strength of binary tablets from the properties of the individual components. In this paper, measurements are reported for tensile strength of tablets compressed from single-component and binary powder mixtures of lactose with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose with two types of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC and SMCC-HD), which are different in compressibility. Measurements show the tensile strength increases with the relative density for single powders, and both with the relative density and the mass fraction of cellulose in the mixtures. It was also observed, for binary mixtures compacted at 50 and 150 MPa, that there was a slight variation in porosity with the mass fraction of celluloses. The predictions of the tensile strength of binary tablets from the characteristics of the single-components was analysed with the extended Ryshkewitch-Duckworth model by assuming both linear and power law mixing rules for the determination of the parameters "tensile strength at zero porosity and bonding capacity constant". As consequence, four models were analysed and compared with measurements using criteria based on the standard deviation from the mean values. Results showed a good prediction using a linear mixing rule combined with the power law. However, as the predictions of these models depend on the powders and the porosity range for the characterization of single-components, none of them can be systematically considered as being the best to predict binary behaviour from data for individual powders.

20. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

1. Non-Condon equilibrium Fermi's golden rule electronic transition rate constants via the linearized semiclassical method.

PubMed

Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

2016-06-28

In this paper, we test the accuracy of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant for electronic transitions in the presence of non-Condon effects. We do so by performing a comparison with the exact quantum-mechanical result for a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions. The comparison is performed over a wide range of frictions and temperatures for model (1) and over a wide range of temperatures for model (2). The linearized semiclassical method is found to reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical result remarkably well for both models over the entire range of parameters under consideration. In contrast, more approximate expressions are observed to deviate considerably from the exact result in some regions of parameter space.

2. Non-Condon equilibrium Fermi's golden rule electronic transition rate constants via the linearized semiclassical method

Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

2016-06-01

In this paper, we test the accuracy of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant for electronic transitions in the presence of non-Condon effects. We do so by performing a comparison with the exact quantum-mechanical result for a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions. The comparison is performed over a wide range of frictions and temperatures for model (1) and over a wide range of temperatures for model (2). The linearized semiclassical method is found to reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical result remarkably well for both models over the entire range of parameters under consideration. In contrast, more approximate expressions are observed to deviate considerably from the exact result in some regions of parameter space.

3. Spectral Analysis of Transition Operators, Automata Groups and Translation in BBS

Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Zuk, Andrzej

2016-06-01

We give the automata that describe time evolution rules of the box-ball system with a carrier. It can be shown by use of tropical geometry that such systems are ultradiscrete analogues of KdV equation. We discuss their relation with the lamplighter group generated by an automaton. We present spectral analysis of the stochastic matrices induced by these automata and verify their spectral coincidence.

4. Efficient Translation of LTL Formulae into Buchi Automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Lerda, Flavio

2001-01-01

Model checking is a fully automated technique for checking that a system satisfies a set of required properties. With explicit-state model checkers, properties are typically defined in linear-time temporal logic (LTL), and are translated into B chi automata in order to be checked. This report presents how we have combined and improved existing techniques to obtain an efficient LTL to B chi automata translator. In particular, we optimize the core of existing tableau-based approaches to generate significantly smaller automata. Our approach has been implemented and is being released as part of the Java PathFinder software (JPF), an explicit state model checker under development at the NASA Ames Research Center.

5. Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata

SciTech Connect

Jen, E.; Das, R.; Beasley, C.E.

1999-06-03

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks.

6. Definition and evolution of quantum cellular automata with two qubits per cell

SciTech Connect

Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.

2004-10-01

Studies of quantum computer implementations suggest cellular quantum computer architectures. These architectures can simulate the evolution of quantum cellular automata, which can possibly simulate both quantum and classical physical systems and processes. It is however known that except for the trivial case, unitary evolution of one-dimensional homogeneous quantum cellular automata with one qubit per cell is not possible. Quantum cellular automata that comprise two qubits per cell are defined and their evolution is studied using a quantum computer simulator. The evolution is unitary and its linearity manifests itself as a periodic structure in the probability distribution patterns.

7. Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium

Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji

2015-04-01

The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.

8. Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI

Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone

2016-05-01

There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

9. An autonomous DNA model for finite state automata.

PubMed

Martinez-Perez, Israel M; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz; Ignatova, Zoya

2009-01-01

In this paper we introduce an autonomous DNA model for finite state automata. This model called sticker automaton model is based on the hybridisation of single stranded DNA molecules (stickers) encoding transition rules and input data. The computation is carried out in an autonomous manner by one enzyme which allows us to determine whether a resulting double-stranded DNA molecule belongs to the automaton's language or not.

10. Cellular Automata Methods in Mathematical Physics.

Smith, Mark Andrew

Cellular automata (CA) are fully discrete, spatially -distributed dynamical systems which can serve as an alternative framework for mathematical descriptions of physical systems. Furthermore, they constitute intrinsically parallel models of computation which can be efficiently realized with special-purpose cellular automata machines. The basic objective of this thesis is to determine techniques for using CA to model physical phenomena and to develop the associated mathematics. Results may take the form of simulations and calculations as well as proofs, and applications are suggested throughout. We begin by describing the structure, origins, and modeling categories of CA. A general method for incorporating dissipation in a reversible CA rule is suggested by a model of a lattice gas in the presence of an external potential well. Statistical forces are generated by coupling the gas to a low temperature heat bath. The equilibrium state of the coupled system is analyzed using the principle of maximum entropy. Continuous symmetries are important in field theory, whereas CA describe discrete fields. However, a novel CA rule for relativistic diffusion based on a random walk shows how Lorentz invariance can arise in a lattice model. Simple CA models based on the dynamics of abstract atoms are often capable of capturing the universal behaviors of complex systems. Consequently, parallel lattice Monte Carlo simulations of abstract polymers were devised to respect the steric constraints on polymer dynamics. The resulting double space algorithm is very efficient and correctly captures the static and dynamic scaling behavior characteristic of all polymers. Random numbers are important in stochastic computer simulations; for example, those that use the Metropolis algorithm. A technique for tuning random bits is presented to enable efficient utilization of randomness, especially in CA machines. Interesting areas for future CA research include network simulation, long-range forces

11. Efficient Algorithms for Handling Nondeterministic Automata

Vojnar, Tomáš

Finite (word, tree, or omega) automata play an important role in different areas of computer science, including, for instance, formal verification. Often, deterministic automata are used for which traditional algorithms for important operations such as minimisation and inclusion checking are available. However, the use of deterministic automata implies a need to determinise nondeterministic automata that often arise during various computations even when the computations start with deterministic automata. Unfortunately, determinisation is a very expensive step since deterministic automata may be exponentially bigger than the original nondeterministic automata. That is why, it appears advantageous to avoid determinisation and work directly with nondeterministic automata. This, however, brings a need to be able to implement operations traditionally done on deterministic automata on nondeterministic automata instead. In particular, this is the case of inclusion checking and minimisation (or rather reduction of the size of automata). In the talk, we review several recently proposed techniques for inclusion checking on nondeterministic finite word and tree automata as well as Büchi automata. These techniques are based on using the so called antichains, possibly combined with a use of suitable simulation relations (and, in the case of Büchi automata, the so called Ramsey-based or rank-based approaches). Further, we discuss techniques for reducing the size of nondeterministic word and tree automata using quotienting based on the recently proposed notion of mediated equivalences. The talk is based on several common works with Parosh Aziz Abdulla, Ahmed Bouajjani, Yu-Fang Chen, Peter Habermehl, Lisa Kaati, Richard Mayr, Tayssir Touili, Lorenzo Clemente, Lukáš Holík, and Chih-Duo Hong.

12. Cellular automata for simulating land use changes based on support vector machines

Yang, Qingsheng; Li, Xia; Shi, Xun

2008-06-01

Cellular automata (CA) have been increasingly used to simulate urban sprawl and land use dynamics. A major issue in CA is defining appropriate transition rules based on training data. Linear boundaries have been widely used to define the rules. However, urban land use dynamics and many other geographical phenomena are highly complex and require nonlinear boundaries for the rules. In this study, we tested the support vector machines (SVM) as a method for constructing nonlinear transition rules for CA. SVM is good at dealing with nonlinear complex relationships. Its basic idea is to project input vectors to a higher dimensional Hilbert feature space, in which an optimal classifying hyperplane can be constructed through structural risk minimization and margin maximization. The optimal hyperplane is unique and its optimality is global. The proposed SVM-CA model was implemented using Visual Basic, ArcObjects®, and OSU-SVM. A case study simulating the urban development in the Shenzhen City, China demonstrates that the proposed model can achieve high accuracy and overcome some limitations of existing CA models in simulating complex urban systems.

13. SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

SciTech Connect

CREUTZ,M.

2007-01-01

Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.

14. On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting

Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

15. Practical implementation of the double linear damage rule and damage curve approach for treating cumulative fatigue damage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

1980-01-01

Simple procedures are presented for treating cumulative fatigue damage under complex loading history using either the damage curve concept or the double linear damage rule. A single equation is provided for use with the damage curve approach; each loading event providing a fraction of damage until failure is presumed to occur when the damage sum becomes unity. For the double linear damage rule, analytical expressions are provided for determining the two phases of life. The procedure involves two steps, each similar to the conventional application of the commonly used linear damage rule. When the sum of cycle ratios based on phase 1 lives reaches unity, phase 1 is presumed complete, and further loadings are summed as cycle ratios on phase 2 lives. When the phase 2 sum reaches unity, failure is presumed to occur. No other physical properties or material constants than those normally used in a conventional linear damage rule analysis are required for application of either of the two cumulative damage methods described. Illustrations and comparisons of both methods are discussed.

16. Practical implementation of the double linear damage rule and damage curve approach for treating cumulative fatigue damage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

1981-01-01

Simple procedures are given for treating cumulative fatigue damage under complex loading history using either the damage curve concept or the double linear damage rule. A single equation is given for use with the damage curve approach; each loading event providing a fraction of damage until failure is presumed to occur when the damage sum becomes unity. For the double linear damage rule, analytical expressions are given for determining the two phases of life. The procedure comprises two steps, each similar to the conventional application of the commonly used linear damage rule. Once the sum of cycle ratios based on Phase I lives reaches unity, Phase I is presumed complete, and further loadings are summed as cycle ratios based on Phase II lives. When the Phase II sum attains unity, failure is presumed to occur. It is noted that no physical properties or material constants other than those normally used in a conventional linear damage rule analysis are required for application of either of the two cumulative damage methods described. Illustrations and comparisons are discussed for both methods.

17. Extensions of Born’s rule to non-linear quantum mechanics, some of which do not imply superluminal communication

Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

2017-08-01

Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, formulating a theory of quantum mechanics and gravity, and understanding the limits of standard quantum mechanics. However, certain non-linear theories have been experimentally tested and failed. More significantly, it has been shown that, in general, deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. We highlight another serious issue: the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the formulation of quantum mechanics. In other words, Born’s rule cannot be uniquely extended to non-linear quantum mechanics. We present these generalizations of Born’s rule, and then examine whether some exclude superluminal communication. We determine that a large class do not allow for superluminal communication, but many lack a consistent definition. Nonetheless, we find a single extension of Born’s rule with a sound operational definition, and that does not exhibit superluminal communication. The non-linear time-evolution leading to a certain measurement event is driven by the state conditioned on measurements that lie within the past light cone of that event.

18. Algebraic Systems and Pushdown Automata

Petre, Ion; Salomaa, Arto

We concentrate in this chapter on the core aspects of algebraic series, pushdown automata, and their relation to formal languages. We choose to follow here a presentation of their theory based on the concept of properness. We introduce in Sect. 2 some auxiliary notions and results needed throughout the chapter, in particular the notions of discrete convergence in semirings and C-cycle free infinite matrices. In Sect. 3 we introduce the algebraic power series in terms of algebraic systems of equations. We focus on interconnections with context-free grammars and on normal forms. We then conclude the section with a presentation of the theorems of Shamir and Chomsky-Schützenberger. We discuss in Sect. 4 the algebraic and the regulated rational transductions, as well as some representation results related to them. Section 5 is dedicated to pushdown automata and focuses on the interconnections with classical (non-weighted) pushdown automata and on the interconnections with algebraic systems. We then conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of some of the other topics related to algebraic systems and pushdown automata.

19. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gallo, Ernest

1994-01-01

The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

20. Long-range correlations in chaotic cellular automata

Eisele, Michael

1991-03-01

One-dimensional cellular automata of class 3 are studied as models for spatially extended, chaotic systems. Their irreversible dynamics can generate weak, but long-range spatial correlations. The one labelled 22 by Wolfram is treated in an exemplary way. Its stationary state is approximated by a Markov chain. The regular grammar underlying the Markov chain is chosen with care, so that it includes a maximum amount of information on the stationary state. The approximation can be performed without simulating the dynamics of the cellular automaton 22 and reproduces its long-range correlations qualitatively. Their origin is explained intuitively and they are argued to be a frequent feature of cellular automata with more complicated rules.

1. Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow.

PubMed

Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S C; Choi, Keechoo

2012-02-01

This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.

2. Speedy standing wave design, optimization, and scaling rules of simulated moving bed systems with linear isotherms.

PubMed

Weeden, George S; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

2017-04-14

Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) systems with linear adsorption isotherms have been used for many different separations, including large-scale sugar separations. While SMBs are much more efficient than batch operations, they are not widely used for large-scale production because there are two key barriers. The methods for design, optimization, and scale-up are complex for non-ideal systems. The Speedy Standing Wave Design (SSWD) is developed here to reduce these barriers. The productivity (PR) and the solvent efficiency (F/D) are explicitly related to seven material properties and 13 design parameters. For diffusion-controlled systems, the maximum PR or F/D is controlled by two key dimensionless material properties, the selectivity (α) and the effective diffusivity ratio (η), and two key dimensionless design parameters, the ratios of step time/diffusion time and pressure-limited convection time/diffusion time. The optimum column configuration for maximum PR or F/D is controlled by the weighted diffusivity ratio (η/α(2)). In general, high α and low η/α(2) favor high PR and F/D. The productivity is proportional to the ratio of the feed concentration to the diffusion time. Small particles and high diffusivities favor high productivity, but do not affect solvent efficiency. Simple scaling rules are derived from the two key dimensionless design parameters. The separation of acetic acid from glucose in biomass hydrolysate is used as an example to show how the productivity and the solvent efficiency are affected by the key dimensionless material and design parameters. Ten design parameters are optimized for maximum PR or minimum cost in one minute on a laptop computer. If the material properties are the same for different particle sizes and the dimensionless groups are kept constant, then lab-scale testing consumes less materials and can be done four times faster using particles with half the particle size.

3. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

2015-10-01

After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

4. The Effect of Adaptive, Advisement, and Linear CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael

This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of 47 low-achieving seventh grade students in remedial mathematics classes. The instructional task was a mathematics rule lesson concerning divisibility by the numbers two,…

5. Colour and constitution: linear free energy relationships and/or polymethinic colour rules?

Daehne, S.; Hoffmann, K.

1990-03-01

Model considerations of 1-donor-4-acceptor-substituted butadienes and benzenes, of 4-, and 5-substituted models of 2-nitroanilines, and of nitro-substituted methylene blue show that triad theory and its polymethinic colour rules reveal of physico-chemical background of LFERs as well as their limitations whereas, on the other hand, polymethinic colour rules can be quantified, and exceptions can be explained, by using results of LFERs.

6. Structure and Reversibility of 2D von Neumann Cellular Automata Over Triangular Lattice

Uguz, Selman; Redjepov, Shovkat; Acar, Ecem; Akin, Hasan

2017-06-01

Even though the fundamental main structure of cellular automata (CA) is a discrete special model, the global behaviors at many iterative times and on big scales could be a close, nearly a continuous, model system. CA theory is a very rich and useful phenomena of dynamical model that focuses on the local information being relayed to the neighboring cells to produce CA global behaviors. The mathematical points of the basic model imply the computable values of the mathematical structure of CA. After modeling the CA structure, an important problem is to be able to move forwards and backwards on CA to understand their behaviors in more elegant ways. A possible case is when CA is to be a reversible one. In this paper, we investigate the structure and the reversibility of two-dimensional (2D) finite, linear, triangular von Neumann CA with null boundary case. It is considered on ternary field ℤ3 (i.e. 3-state). We obtain their transition rule matrices for each special case. For given special triangular information (transition) rule matrices, we prove which triangular linear 2D von Neumann CAs are reversible or not. It is known that the reversibility cases of 2D CA are generally a much challenged problem. In the present study, the reversibility problem of 2D triangular, linear von Neumann CA with null boundary is resolved completely over ternary field. As far as we know, there is no structure and reversibility study of von Neumann 2D linear CA on triangular lattice in the literature. Due to the main CA structures being sufficiently simple to investigate in mathematical ways, and also very complex to obtain in chaotic systems, it is believed that the present construction can be applied to many areas related to these CA using any other transition rules.

7. Massive Cellular Automata in Geosimulation: Antarctica Ice Melting as Example

Lan, H.; Torrens, P.; Lin, J.; Han, R.

2015-12-01

One of the essential features of the cellular automata (CA) model is its high scalability: CA lattices can be theoretically run at gargantuan size to represent intricacies of complex phenomena. However, one barrier in the use of cellular automata for scientific simulations is the issue of scalability in terms of the number of cells, to either model phenomena at finer granularities or at larger scales. Some researchers have developed parallel CA algorithms using MapReduce to eke out efficiency, but MapReduce may not provide the ideal scheme to address messy parallelism in large CA when they require complex rule-sets and broker a lot of state exchange across large solution-space lattices. In this research, we take advantage of the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model of distributed computation, via the Giraph open-source implementation, to implement large-scale cellular automata simulations. Additionally, this study also describes a scientifically interesting example, in which ice dynamics in Antarctic is simulated using a melting model. Short-term and medium-term ice sheet dynamics are driven by a variety of forces. We do not fully understand what they might be and how they interplay, and simulation is an important medium for building the science to guide us in finding answers. In our experiments, using a voxel CA comprising 1 trillion cells—by far the largest scale voxel-based CA model reported in literature—which took only 2.48 minutes for per step for processing.

8. Unstable vicinal crystal growth from cellular automata

Krasteva, A.; Popova, H.; KrzyŻewski, F.; Załuska-Kotur, M.; Tonchev, V.

2016-03-01

In order to study the unstable step motion on vicinal crystal surfaces we devise vicinal Cellular Automata. Each cell from the colony has value equal to its height in the vicinal, initially the steps are regularly distributed. Another array keeps the adatoms, initially distributed randomly over the surface. The growth rule defines that each adatom at right nearest neighbor position to a (multi-) step attaches to it. The update of whole colony is performed at once and then time increases. This execution of the growth rule is followed by compensation of the consumed particles and by diffusional update(s) of the adatom population. Two principal sources of instability are employed - biased diffusion and infinite inverse Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier (iiSE). Since these factors are not opposed by step-step repulsion the formation of multi-steps is observed but in general the step bunches preserve a finite width. We monitor the developing surface patterns and quantify the observations by scaling laws with focus on the eventual transition from diffusion-limited to kinetics-limited phenomenon. The time-scaling exponent of the bunch size N is 1/2 for the case of biased diffusion and 1/3 for the case of iiSE. Additional distinction is possible based on the time-scaling exponents of the sizes of multi-step Nmulti, these are 0.36÷0.4 (for biased diffusion) and 1/4 (iiSE).

9. Xtoys: Cellular automata on xwindows

SciTech Connect

Creutz, M.

1995-08-15

Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.

10. Knot Invariants and Cellular Automata

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-05-04

lattice gases. Since our approach equates the spacetime evolution of a dynamical system with an equilibrium configuration of a statistical mechanics...model in one higher dimension, a model of ’t Hooft for two dimensional spacetime with discrete local coordinate invariance was a natural inspiration [5...thermodynamic equilibrium, as well as demonstrating the efficacy of constructing and analyzing lattice gas automata according to ( spacetime ) symmetry principles

11. Classifying cellular automata using grossone

D'Alotto, Louis

2016-10-01

This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.

12. Generalized information-lossless automata. I

SciTech Connect

Speranskii, D.V.

1995-01-01

Huffman and Even introduced classes of abstract automata, which they called respectively information-lossless automata (ILL) and information-lossless automata of finite order (ILLFO). The underlying property of these automata is the ability to reconstruct unknown input sequences from observations of the output response, assuming that the true initial state of the automaton is known. Similar classes of automata introduced in are called essentially information-lossless automata, and they are capable of reconstructing the unknown input word without knowledge of the initial state of the automaton. It is only assumed that the set of possible initial states of the automaton is the set of all automaton states. In this paper we analyze a structural analog of an abstract ILL-automaton whose set of initial states may be of arbitrary cardinality. This class of automata is thus a generalization of the classical ILL-automata, which allows not only for the structure of the input and output alphabets, but also for the configuration of the set of possible initial states.

13. Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model

Winarno, Nanang; Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu

2016-02-01

This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled "A New Kind of Science" discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram's investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.

14. Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model

SciTech Connect

Winarno, Nanang Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu

2016-02-08

This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.

15. Generic framework for mining cellular automata models on protein-folding simulations.

PubMed

Diaz, N; Tischer, I

2016-05-13

Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation. Dynamic rules obtained by the proposed approach are discussed, and future use for the new tool is outlined.

16. Color image encryption based on hybrid hyper-chaotic system and cellular automata

Yaghouti Niyat, Abolfazl; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein; Niazi Torshiz, Masood

2017-03-01

This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on Cellular Automata (CA). CA is a self-organizing structure with a set of cells in which each cell is updated by certain rules that are dependent on a limited number of neighboring cells. The major disadvantages of cellular automata in cryptography include limited number of reversal rules and inability to produce long sequences of states by these rules. In this paper, a non-uniform cellular automata framework is proposed to solve this problem. This proposed scheme consists of confusion and diffusion steps. In confusion step, the positions of the original image pixels are replaced by chaos mapping. Key image is created using non-uniform cellular automata and then the hyper-chaotic mapping is used to select random numbers from the image key for encryption. The main contribution of the paper is the application of hyper chaotic functions and non-uniform CA for robust key image generation. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method has a very large key space and is resistive against noise and attacks. The correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image is reduced and the amount of entropy is equal to 7.9991 which is very close to 8 which is ideal.

17. Towards a voxel-based geographic automata for the simulation of geospatial processes

Jjumba, Anthony; Dragićević, Suzana

2016-07-01

Many geographic processes evolve in a three dimensional space and time continuum. However, when they are represented with the aid of geographic information systems (GIS) or geosimulation models they are modelled in a framework of two-dimensional space with an added temporal component. The objective of this study is to propose the design and implementation of voxel-based automata as a methodological approach for representing spatial processes evolving in the four-dimensional (4D) space-time domain. Similar to geographic automata models which are developed to capture and forecast geospatial processes that change in a two-dimensional spatial framework using cells (raster geospatial data), voxel automata rely on the automata theory and use three-dimensional volumetric units (voxels). Transition rules have been developed to represent various spatial processes which range from the movement of an object in 3D to the diffusion of airborne particles and landslide simulation. In addition, the proposed 4D models demonstrate that complex processes can be readily reproduced from simple transition functions without complex methodological approaches. The voxel-based automata approach provides a unique basis to model geospatial processes in 4D for the purpose of improving representation, analysis and understanding their spatiotemporal dynamics. This study contributes to the advancement of the concepts and framework of 4D GIS.

18. Reversing subdivision rules: local linear conditions and observations on inner products

Bartels, Richard H.; Samavati, Faramarz F.

2000-07-01

In a previous work (Samavati and Bartels, Comput. Graphics Forum 18 (1998) 97-119) we investigated how to reverse subdivision rules using global least-squares fitting. This led to multiresolution structures that could be viewed as semiorthogonal wavelet systems whose inner product was that for finite-dimensional Cartesian vector space. We produced simple and sparse reconstruction filters, but had to appeal to matrix factorization to obtain an efficient, exact decomposition. We also made some observations on how the inner product that defines the semiorthogonality influences the sparsity of the reconstruction filters. In this work we carry the investigation further by studying biorthogonal systems based upon subdivision rules and local least-squares fitting problems that reverse the subdivision. We are able to produce multiresolution structures for some common univariate subdivision rules that have both sparse reconstruction and decomposition filters. Three will be presented here - for quadratic and cubic B-spline subdivision and for the four-point interpolatory subdivision of Dyn et al. We observe that each biorthogonal system we produce can be interpreted as a semiorthogonal system with an inner product induced on the multiresolution that is quite different from that normally used. Some examples of the use of this approach on images, curves, and surfaces are given.

19. Game level layout generation using evolved cellular automata

Pech, Andrew; Masek, Martin; Lam, Chiou-Peng; Hingston, Philip

2016-01-01

Design of level layouts typically involves the production of a set of levels which are different, yet display a consistent style based on the purpose of a particular level. In this paper, a new approach to the generation of unique level layouts, based on a target set of attributes, is presented. These attributes, which are learned automatically from an example layout, are used for the off-line evolution of a set of cellular automata rules. These rules can then be used for the real-time generation of level layouts that meet the target parameters. The approach is demonstrated on a set of maze-like level layouts. Results are presented to show the effect of various CA parameters and rule representation.

20. Linear low-dose extrapolation for noncancer heath effects is the exception, not the rule.

PubMed

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Goodman, Julie E; Haber, Lynne T; Dourson, Michael; Andersen, Melvin E; Klaunig, James E; Meek, Bette; Price, Paul S; McClellan, Roger O; Cohen, Samuel M

2011-01-01

The nature of the exposure-response relationship has a profound influence on risk analyses. Several arguments have been proffered as to why all exposure-response relationships for both cancer and noncarcinogenic endpoints should be assumed to be linear at low doses. We focused on three arguments that have been put forth for noncarcinogens. First, the general "additivity-to-background" argument proposes that if an agent enhances an already existing disease-causing process, then even small exposures increase disease incidence in a linear manner. This only holds if it is related to a specific mode of action that has nonuniversal properties-properties that would not be expected for most noncancer effects. Second, the "heterogeneity in the population" argument states that variations in sensitivity among members of the target population tend to "flatten out and linearize" the exposure-response curve, but this actually only tends to broaden, not linearize, the dose-response relationship. Third, it has been argued that a review of epidemiological evidence shows linear or no-threshold effects at low exposures in humans, despite nonlinear exposure-response in the experimental dose range in animal testing for similar endpoints. It is more likely that this is attributable to exposure measurement error rather than a true nonthreshold association. Assuming that every chemical is toxic at high exposures and linear at low exposures does not comport to modern-day scientific knowledge of biology. There is no compelling evidence-based justification for a general low-exposure linearity; rather, case-specific mechanistic arguments are needed.

1. Linear low-dose extrapolation for noncancer health effects is the exception, not the rule

PubMed Central

Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Goodman, Julie E; Haber, Lynne T; Dourson, Michael; Andersen, Melvin E; Klaunig, James E; Meek, Bette; Price, Paul S; McClellan, Roger O; Cohen, Samuel M

2011-01-01

The nature of the exposure-response relationship has a profound influence on risk analyses. Several arguments have been proffered as to why all exposure-response relationships for both cancer and noncarcinogenic end-points should be assumed to be linear at low doses. We focused on three arguments that have been put forth for noncarcinogens. First, the general “additivity-to-background” argument proposes that if an agent enhances an already existing disease-causing process, then even small exposures increase disease incidence in a linear manner. This only holds if it is related to a specific mode of action that has nonuniversal properties—properties that would not be expected for most noncancer effects. Second, the “heterogeneity in the population” argument states that variations in sensitivity among members ofthe target population tend to “flatten out and linearize” the exposure-response curve, but this actually only tends to broaden, not linearize, the dose-response relationship. Third, it has been argued that a review of epidemiological evidence shows linear or no-threshold effects at low exposures in humans, despite nonlinear exposure-response in the experimental dose range in animal testing for similar endpoints. It is more likely that this is attributable to exposure measurement error rather than a true non-threshold association. Assuming that every chemical is toxic at high exposures and linear at low exposures does not comport to modern-day scientific knowledge of biology. There is no compelling evidence-based justification for a general low-exposure linearity; rather, case-specific mechanistic arguments are needed. PMID:21226629

2. Equilibrium Fermi's Golden Rule Charge Transfer Rate Constants in the Condensed Phase: The Linearized Semiclassical Method vs Classical Marcus Theory.

PubMed

Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

2016-05-19

In this article, we present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant and the progression of more approximate expressions that lead to the classical Marcus expression. We do so within the context of the canonical Marcus model, where the donor and acceptor potential energy surface are parabolic and identical except for a shift in both the free energies and equilibrium geometries, and within the Condon region. The comparison is performed for two different spectral densities and over a wide range of frictions and temperatures, thereby providing a clear test for the validity, or lack thereof, of the more approximate expressions. We also comment on the computational cost and scaling associated with numerically calculating the linearized semiclassical expression for the rate constant and its dependence on the spectral density, temperature, and friction.

3. Cellular automata for traffic simulations

Wolf, Dietrich E.

1999-02-01

Traffic phenomena such as the transition from free to congested flow, lane inversion and platoon formation can be accurately reproduced using cellular automata. Being computationally extremely efficient, they simulate large traffic systems many times faster than real time so that predictions become feasible. A riview of recent results is given. The presence of metastable states at the jamming transition is discussed in detail. A simple new cellular automation is introduced, in which the interaction between cars is Galilei-invariant. It is shown that this type of interaction accounts for metastable states in a very natural way.

4. Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata.

PubMed

Adar, Rivka; Benenson, Yaakov; Linshiz, Gregory; Rosner, Amit; Tishby, Naftali; Shapiro, Ehud

2004-07-06

Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.

5. Material representations: from the genetic code to the evolution of cellular automata.

PubMed

Rocha, Luis Mateus; Hordijk, Wim

2005-01-01

We present a new definition of the concept of representation for cognitive science that is based on a study of the origin of structures that are used to store memory in evolving systems. This study consists of novel computer experiments in the evolution of cellular automata to perform nontrivial tasks as well as evidence from biology concerning genetic memory. Our key observation is that representations require inert structures to encode information used to construct appropriate dynamic configurations for the evolving system. We propose criteria to decide if a given structure is a representation by unpacking the idea of inert structures that can be used as memory for arbitrary dynamic configurations. Using a genetic algorithm, we evolved cellular automata rules that can perform nontrivial tasks related to the density task (or majority classification problem) commonly used in the literature. We present the particle catalogs of the new rules following the computational mechanics framework. We discuss if the evolved cellular automata particles may be seen as representations according to our criteria. We show that while they capture some of the essential characteristics of representations, they lack an essential one. Our goal is to show that artificial life can be used to shed new light on the computation-versus-dynamics debate in cognitive science, and indeed function as a constructive bridge between the two camps. Our definitions of representation and cellular automata experiments are proposed as a complementary approach, with both dynamics and informational modes of explanation.

6. A Cellular Automata-based Model for Simulating Restitution Property in a Single Heart Cell.

PubMed

2011-01-01

Ventricular fibrillation is the cause of the most sudden mortalities. Restitution is one of the specific properties of ventricular cell. The recent findings have clearly proved the correlation between the slope of restitution curve with ventricular fibrillation. This; therefore, mandates the modeling of cellular restitution to gain high importance. A cellular automaton is a powerful tool for simulating complex phenomena in a simple language. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells where the behavior of each cell is determined by the behavior of its neighboring cells as well as the automata rule. In this paper, a simple model is depicted for the simulation of the property of restitution in a single cardiac cell using cellular automata. At first, two state variables; action potential and recovery are introduced in the automata model. In second, automata rule is determined and then recovery variable is defined in such a way so that the restitution is developed. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the generated restitution curve in our study is compared with the restitution curves from the experimental findings of valid sources. Our findings indicate that the presented model is not only capable of simulating restitution in cardiac cell, but also possesses the capability of regulating the restitution curve.

7. A Decomposition Theorem for Finite Automata.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Santa Coloma, Teresa L.; Tucci, Ralph P.

1990-01-01

Described is automata theory which is a branch of theoretical computer science. A decomposition theorem is presented that is easier than the Krohn-Rhodes theorem. Included are the definitions, the theorem, and a proof. (KR)

8. Fuzzy automata and pattern matching

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.

1986-01-01

A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.

9. Incremental Learning of Cellular Automata for Parallel Recognition of Formal Languages

Parallel language recognition by cellular automata (CAs) is currently an important subject in computation theory. This paper describes incremental learning of one-dimensional, bounded, one-way, cellular automata (OCAs) that recognize formal languages from positive and negative sample strings. The objectives of this work are to develop automatic synthesis of parallel systems and to contribute to the theory of real-time recognition by cellular automata. We implemented methods to learn the rules of OCAs in the Occam system, which is based on grammatical inference of context-free grammars (CFGs) implemented in Synapse. An important feature of Occam is incremental learning by a rule generation mechanism called bridging and the search for rule sets. The bridging looks for and fills gaps in incomplete space-time transition diagrams for positive samples. Another feature of our approach is that the system synthesizes minimal or semi-minimal rule sets of CAs. This paper reports experimental results on learning several OCAs for fundamental formal languages including sets of balanced parentheses and palindromes as well as the set {a n b n c n | n ≥ 1}.

10. A novel chaotic based image encryption using a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid and cellular automata

Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

2015-08-01

Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.

11. On-line identification and reconstruction of finite automata with generalized recurrent neural networks.

PubMed

Gabrijel, Ivan; Dobnikar, Andrej

2003-01-01

In this paper finite automata are treated as general discrete dynamical systems from the viewpoint of systems theory. The unconditional on-line identification of an unknown finite automaton is the problem considered. A generalized architecture of recurrent neural networks with a corresponding on-line learning scheme is proposed as a solution to the problem. An on-line rule-extraction algorithm is further introduced. The architecture presented, the on-line learning scheme and the on-line rule-extraction method are tested on different, strongly connected automata, ranging from a very simple example with two states only to a more interesting and complex one with 64 states; the results of both training and extraction processes are very promising.

12. Cellular automata and integrodifferential equation models for cell renewal in mosaic tissues

PubMed Central

Bloomfield, J. M.; Sherratt, J. A.; Painter, K. J.; Landini, G.

2010-01-01

Mosaic tissues are composed of two or more genetically distinct cell types. They occur naturally, and are also a useful experimental method for exploring tissue growth and maintenance. By marking the different cell types, one can study the patterns formed by proliferation, renewal and migration. Here, we present mathematical modelling suggesting that small changes in the type of interaction that cells have with their local cellular environment can lead to very different outcomes for the composition of mosaics. In cell renewal, proliferation of each cell type may depend linearly or nonlinearly on the local proportion of cells of that type, and these two possibilities produce very different patterns. We study two variations of a cellular automaton model based on simple rules for renewal. We then propose an integrodifferential equation model, and again consider two different forms of cellular interaction. The results of the continuous and cellular automata models are qualitatively the same, and we observe that changes in local environment interaction affect the dynamics for both. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the models reproduce some of the patterns seen in actual mosaic tissues. In particular, our results suggest that the differing patterns seen in organ parenchymas may be driven purely by the process of cell replacement under different interaction scenarios. PMID:20375040

13. Cellular automata and integrodifferential equation models for cell renewal in mosaic tissues.

PubMed

Bloomfield, J M; Sherratt, J A; Painter, K J; Landini, G

2010-11-06

Mosaic tissues are composed of two or more genetically distinct cell types. They occur naturally, and are also a useful experimental method for exploring tissue growth and maintenance. By marking the different cell types, one can study the patterns formed by proliferation, renewal and migration. Here, we present mathematical modelling suggesting that small changes in the type of interaction that cells have with their local cellular environment can lead to very different outcomes for the composition of mosaics. In cell renewal, proliferation of each cell type may depend linearly or nonlinearly on the local proportion of cells of that type, and these two possibilities produce very different patterns. We study two variations of a cellular automaton model based on simple rules for renewal. We then propose an integrodifferential equation model, and again consider two different forms of cellular interaction. The results of the continuous and cellular automata models are qualitatively the same, and we observe that changes in local environment interaction affect the dynamics for both. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the models reproduce some of the patterns seen in actual mosaic tissues. In particular, our results suggest that the differing patterns seen in organ parenchymas may be driven purely by the process of cell replacement under different interaction scenarios.

14. Iterons, fractals and computations of automata

Siwak, Paweł

1999-03-01

Processing of strings by some automata, when viewed on space-time (ST) diagrams, reveals characteristic soliton-like coherent periodic objects. They are inherently associated with iterations of automata mappings thus we call them the iterons. In the paper we present two classes of one-dimensional iterons: particles and filtrons. The particles are typical for parallel (cellular) processing, while filtrons, introduced in (32) are specific for serial processing of strings. In general, the images of iterated automata mappings exhibit not only coherent entities but also the fractals, and quasi-periodic and chaotic dynamics. We show typical images of such computations: fractals, multiplication by a number, and addition of binary numbers defined by a Turing machine. Then, the particles are presented as iterons generated by cellular automata in three computations: B/U code conversion (13, 29), majority classification (9), and in discrete version of the FPU (Fermi-Pasta-Ulam) dynamics (7, 23). We disclose particles by a technique of combinational recoding of ST diagrams (as opposed to sequential recoding). Subsequently, we recall the recursive filters based on FCA (filter cellular automata) window operators, and considered by Park (26), Ablowitz (1), Fokas (11), Fuchssteiner (12), Bruschi (5) and Jiang (20). We present the automata equivalents to these filters (33). Some of them belong to the class of filter automata introduced in (30). We also define and illustrate some properties of filtrons. Contrary to particles, the filtrons interact nonlocally in the sense that distant symbols may influence one another. Thus their interactions are very unusual. Some examples have been given in (32). Here we show new examples of filtron phenomena: multifiltron solitonic collisions, attracting and repelling filtrons, trapped bouncing filtrons (which behave like a resonance cavity) and quasi filtrons.

15. A novel cellular automata based approach to storm sewer design

Guo, Y.; Walters, G. A.; Khu, S. T.; Keedwell, E.

2007-04-01

Optimal storm sewer design aims at minimizing capital investment on infrastructure whilst ensuring good system performance under specified design criteria. An innovative sewer design approach based on cellular automata (CA) principles is introduced in this paper. Cellular automata have been applied as computational simulation devices in various scientific fields. However, some recent research has indicated that CA can also be a viable and efficient optimization engine. This engine is heuristic and largely relies on the key properties of CA: locality, homogeneity, and parallelism. In the proposed approach, the CA-based optimizer is combined with a sewer hydraulic simulator, the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). At each optimization step, according to a set of transition rules, the optimizer updates all decision variables simultaneously based on the hydraulic situation within each neighbourhood. Two sewer networks (one small artificial network and one large real network) have been tested in this study. The CA optimizer demonstrated its ability to obtain near-optimal solutions in a remarkably small number of computational steps in a comparison of its performance with that of a genetic algorithm.

16. Simulating invasion with cellular automata: connecting cell-scale and population-scale properties.

PubMed

Simpson, Matthew J; Merrifield, Alistair; Landman, Kerry A; Hughes, Barry D

2007-08-01

Interpretive and predictive tools are needed to assist in the understanding of cell invasion processes. Cell invasion involves cell motility and proliferation, and is central to many biological processes including developmental morphogenesis and tumor invasion. Experimental data can be collected across a wide range of scales, from the population scale to the individual cell scale. Standard continuum or discrete models used in isolation are insufficient to capture this wide range of data. We develop a discrete cellular automata model of invasion with experimentally motivated rules. The cellular automata algorithm is applied to a narrow two-dimensional lattice and simulations reveal the formation of invasion waves moving with constant speed. The simulation results are averaged in one dimension-these data are used to identify the time history of the leading edge to characterize the population-scale wave speed. This allows the relationship between the population-scale wave speed and the cell-scale parameters to be determined. This relationship is analogous to well-known continuum results for Fisher's equation. The cellular automata algorithm also produces individual cell trajectories within the invasion wave that are analogous to cell trajectories obtained with new experimental techniques. Our approach allows both the cell-scale and population-scale properties of invasion to be predicted in a way that is consistent with multiscale experimental data. Furthermore we suggest that the cellular automata algorithm can be used in conjunction with individual data to overcome limitations associated with identifying cell motility mechanisms using continuum models alone.

17. Ship interaction in narrow water channels: A two-lane cellular automata approach

Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Zhonglong; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Jianfeng

2015-08-01

In narrow waterways, closed ships might interact due to hydrodynamic forces. To avoid clashes, different lane-changing rules are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to investigate the traffic flow patterns in narrow water channels. Numerical experiments show that ship interaction can form "lumps" in traffic flow which will significantly depress the flux. We suggest that the lane-changing frequency of fast ships should be limited.

18. Self-organized perturbations enhance class IV behavior and 1/f power spectrum in elementary cellular automata.

PubMed

Nakajima, Kohei; Haruna, Taichi

2011-09-01

In this paper, we propose a new class of cellular automata based on the modification of its state space. It is introduced to model a computation which is exposed to an environment. We formalized the computation as extension and projection processes of its state space and resulting misidentifications of the state. This is motivated to embed the role of an environment into the system itself, which naturally induces self-organized internal perturbations rather than the usual external perturbations. Implementing this structure into the elementary cellular automata, we characterized its effect by means of input entropy and power spectral analysis. As a result, the cellular automata with this structure showed robust class IV behavior and a 1/f power spectrum in a wide range of rule space comparative to the notion of the edge of chaos.

19. Physical modeling of traffic with stochastic cellular automata

SciTech Connect

Schreckenberg, M.; Nagel, K. |

1995-09-01

A new type of probabilistic cellular automaton for the physical description of single and multilane traffic is presented. In this model space, time and the velocity of the cars are represented by integer numbers (as usual in cellular automata) with local update rules for the velocity. The model is very efficient for both numerical simulations and analytical investigations. The numerical results from extensive simulations reproduce very well data taken from real traffic (e.g. fundamental diagrams). Several analytical results for the model are presented as well as new approximation schemes for stationary traffic. In addition the relation to continuum hydrodynamic theory (Lighthill-Whitham) and the follow-the-leader models is discussed. The model is part of an interdisciplinary research program in Northrhine-Westfalia (NRW Forschungsverbund Verkehrssimulation) for the construction of a large scale microsimulation model for network traffic, supported by the government of NRW.

20. An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility

Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito

The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.

1. Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus

2001-01-01

This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

2. Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus

2001-01-01

This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

3. Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution

Lo, Shih-Ching

2009-08-01

Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.

4. Cellular automata and complex dynamics of driven elastic media

SciTech Connect

Coppersmith, S.N.; Littlewodd, P.B.; Sibani, P.

1995-12-01

Several systems of importance in condensed matter physics can be modelled as an elastic medium in a disordered environment and driven by an external force. In the simplest cases, the equation of motion involves competition between a local non-linear potential (fluctuating in space) and elastic coupling, as well as relaxational (inertialess) dynamics. Despite a simple mathematical description, the interactions between many degrees of freedom lead to the emergence of time and length scales much longer than those set by the microscopic dynamics. Extensive computations have improved the understanding of the behavior of such models, but full solutions of the equations of motion for very large systems are time-consuming and may obscure important physical principles in a massive volume of output. The development of cellular automata models has been crucial, both in conceptual simplification and in allowing the collection of data on many replicas of very large systems. We will discuss how the marriage of cellular automata models and parallel computation on a MasPar MP-1216 computer has helped to elucidate the dynamical properties of these many-degree-of-freedom systems.

5. Computing cellular automata spectra under fixed boundary conditions via limit graphs

Ruivo, Eurico L. P.; de Oliveira, Pedro P. B.

2016-01-01

Cellular automata are fully discrete complex systems with parallel and homogeneous behavior studied both from the theoretical and modeling viewpoints. The limit behaviors of such systems are of particular interest, as they give insight into their emerging properties. One possible approach to investigate such limit behaviors is the analysis of the growth of graphs describing the finite time behavior of a rule in order to infer its limit behavior. Another possibility is to study the Fourier spectrum describing the average limit configurations obtained by a rule. While the former approach gives the characterization of the limit configurations of a rule, the latter yields a qualitative and quantitative characterisation of how often particular blocks of states are present in these limit configurations. Since both approaches are closely related, it is tempting to use one to obtain information about the other. Here, limit graphs are automatically adjusted by configurations directly generated by their respective rules, and use the graphs to compute the spectra of their rules. We rely on a set of elementary cellular automata rules, on lattices with fixed boundary condition, and show that our approach is a more reliable alternative to a previously described method from the literature.

6. Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Snider, Gregory

2000-03-01

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) [1] is a promising architecture which employs quantum dots for digital computation. It is a revolutionary approach that holds the promise of high device density and low power dissipation. A basic QCA cell consists of four quantum dots coupled capacitively and by tunnel barriers. The cell is biased to contain two excess electrons within the four dots, which are forced to opposite "corners" of the four-dot cell by mutual Coulomb repulsion. These two possible polarization states of the cell will represent logic "0" and "1". Properly arranged, arrays of these basic cells can implement Boolean logic functions. Experimental results from functional QCA devices built of nanoscale metal dots defined by tunnel barriers will be presented. The experimental devices to be presented consist of Al islands, which we will call quantum dots, interconnected by tunnel junctions and lithographically defined capacitors. Aluminum/ aluminum-oxide/aluminum tunnel junctions were fabricated using a standard e-beam lithography and shadow evaporation technique. The experiments were performed in a dilution refrigerator at a temperature of 70 mK. The operation of a cell is evaluated by direct measurements of the charge state of dots within a cell as the input voltage is changed. The experimental demonstration of a functioning cell will be presented. A line of three cells demonstrates that there are no metastable switching states in a line of cells. A QCA majority gate will also be presented, which is a programmable AND/OR gate and represents the basic building block of QCA systems. The results of recent experiments will be presented. 1. C.S. Lent, P.D. Tougaw, W. Porod, and G.H. Bernstein, Nanotechnology, 4, 49 (1993).

7. Image Segmentation Based on Learning Cellular Automata Using Soft Computing Approach

Das, Debasis; Ray, Abhishek

2010-10-01

Image Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. The goal of segmentation is to simplify and change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex system using simple rule. It divides the problem space into number of cells and each cell can be in one or several final states. Cells are affected by its neighbor's to the simple rule. Learning Cellular Automata (LCA) is a variant of automata that interact with random environment having as goal to improve its behavior. This paper proposes an image segmentation technique based on LCA using soft computing approach. This proposed method works in two steps, the first step is called as soft segmentation where the input image(s) is/are analyzed through LCA and the second step is called as soft computing approach where the analyzed image is segmented through fuzzy C-means algorithm.

8. Fuzzy cellular automata models in immunology

SciTech Connect

Ahmed, E.

1996-10-01

The self-nonself character of antigens is considered to be fuzzy. The Chowdhury et al. cellular automata model is generalized accordingly. New steady states are found. The first corresponds to a below-normal help and suppression and is proposed to be related to autoimmune diseases. The second corresponds to a below-normal B-cell level.

9. Maximizing the Adjacent Possible in Automata Chemistries.

PubMed

Hickinbotham, Simon; Clark, Edward; Nellis, Adam; Stepney, Susan; Clarke, Tim; Young, Peter

2016-01-01

Automata chemistries are good vehicles for experimentation in open-ended evolution, but they are by necessity complex systems whose low-level properties require careful design. To aid the process of designing automata chemistries, we develop an abstract model that classifies the features of a chemistry from a physical (bottom up) perspective and from a biological (top down) perspective. There are two levels: things that can evolve, and things that cannot. We equate the evolving level with biology and the non-evolving level with physics. We design our initial organisms in the biology, so they can evolve. We design the physics to facilitate evolvable biologies. This architecture leads to a set of design principles that should be observed when creating an instantiation of the architecture. These principles are Everything Evolves, Everything's Soft, and Everything Dies. To evaluate these ideas, we present experiments in the recently developed Stringmol automata chemistry. We examine the properties of Stringmol with respect to the principles, and so demonstrate the usefulness of the principles in designing automata chemistries.

10. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai

2015-10-01

This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model.

11. A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization

Zheng, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Ji-Ye

2015-05-01

Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow-density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172247, 61273021, 61373009, and 61100118).

12. a Predator-Prey Model Based on the Fully Parallel Cellular Automata

He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang

We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.

13. Selective networks and recognition automata.

PubMed

Reeke, G N; Edelman, G M

1984-01-01

The results we have presented demonstrate that a network based on a selective principle can function in the absence of forced learning or an a priori program to give recognition, classification, generalization, and association. While Darwin II is not a model of any actual nervous system, it does set out to solve one of the same problems that evolution had to solve--the need to form categories in a bottom-up manner from information in the environment, without incorporating the assumptions of any particular observer. The key features of the model that make this possible are (1) Darwin II incorporates selective networks whose initial specificities enable them to respond without instruction to unfamiliar stimuli; (2) degeneracy provides multiple possibilities of response to any one stimulus, at the same time providing functional redundancy against component failure; (3) the output of Darwin II is a pattern of response, making use of the simultaneous responses of multiple degenerate groups to avoid the need for very high specificity and the combinatorial disaster that would imply; (4) reentry within individual networks vitiates the limitations described by Minsky and Papert for a class of perceptual automata lacking such connections; and (5) reentry between intercommunicating networks with different functions gives rise to new functions, such as association, that either one alone could not display. The two kinds of network are roughly analogous to the two kinds of category formation that people use: Darwin, corresponding to the exemplar description of categories, and Wallace, corresponding to the probabilistic matching description of categories. These principles lead to a new class of pattern-recognizing machine of which Darwin II is just an example. There are a number of obvious extensions to this work that we are pursuing. These include giving Darwin II the capability to deal with stimuli that are in motion, an ability that probably precedes the ability of biological

14. Evolving Localizations in Reaction-Diffusion Cellular Automata

Adamatzky, Andrew; Bull, Larry; Collet, Pierre; Sapin, Emmanuel

We consider hexagonal cellular automata with immediate cell neighbourhood and three cell-states. Every cell calculates its next state depending on the integral representation of states in its neighbourhood, i.e., how many neighbours are in each one state. We employ evolutionary algorithms to breed local transition functions that support mobile localizations (gliders), and characterize sets of the functions selected in terms of quasi-chemical systems. Analysis of the set of functions evolved allows to speculate that mobile localizations are likely to emerge in the quasi-chemical systems with limited diffusion of one reagent, a small number of molecules are required for amplification of travelling localizations, and reactions leading to stationary localizations involve relatively equal amount of quasi-chemical species. Techniques developed can be applied in cascading signals in nature-inspired spatially extended computing devices, and phenomenological studies and classification of non-linear discrete systems.

15. Simulation of abrasive water jet cutting process: Part 2. Cellular automata approach

Orbanic, Henri; Junkar, Mihael

2004-11-01

A new two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting process is presented. The CA calculates the shape of the cutting front, which can be used as an estimation of the surface quality. The cutting front is formed based on material removal rules and AWJ propagation rules. The material removal rule calculates when a particular part of the material will be removed with regard to the energy of AWJ. The AWJ propagation rule calculates the distribution of AWJ energy through CA by using a weighted average. The modelling with CA also provides a visual narrative of the moving of the cutting front, which is hard to observe in real process. The algorithm is fast and has been successfully tested in comparison to cutting fronts obtained with cutting experiments of aluminium alloy.

16. Unambiguous Finite Automata over a Unary Alphabet

Okhotin, Alexander

Nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) with at most one accepting computation on every input string are known as unambiguous finite automata (UFA). This paper considers UFAs over a unary alphabet, and determines the exact number of states in DFAs needed to represent unary languages recognized by n-state UFAs: the growth rate of this function is e^{Θ(sqrt[3]{n ln^2 n})}. The conversion of an n-state unary NFA to a UFA requires UFAs with g(n)+O(n^2)=e^{sqrt{n ln n}(1+o(1))} states, where g(n) is Landau's function. In addition, it is shown that the complement of n-state unary UFAs requires up to at least n 2 - o(1) states in an NFA, while the Kleene star requires up to exactly (n - 1)2 + 1 states.

17. Chaos automata: iterated function systems with memory

Ashlock, Dan; Golden, Jim

2003-07-01

Transforming biological sequences into fractals in order to visualize them is a long standing technique, in the form of the traditional four-cornered chaos game. In this paper we give a generalization of the standard chaos game visualization for DNA sequences. It incorporates iterated function systems that are called under the control of a finite state automaton, yielding a DNA to fractal transformation system with memory. We term these fractal visualizers chaos automata. The use of memory enables association of widely separated sequence events in the drawing of the fractal, finessing the “forgetfulness” of other fractal visualization methods. We use a genetic algorithm to train chaos automata to distinguish introns and exons in Zea mays (corn). A substantial issue treated here is the creation of a fitness function that leads to good visual separation of distinct data types.

18. Cellular Automata Model of Cardiac Pacemaker

Makowiec, D.

2008-05-01

A network of Greenberg-Hasting cellular automata with cyclic intrinsic dynamics F rightarrow R rightarrow A rightarrow F rightarrow ... is shown to be a reliable approximation to the cardiac pacemaker. The three possible cell's states F, R, A are characterized by fixed timings { nF, nR, nA } -- time steps spent in each state. Dynamical properties of a simple line network are found to be critical with respect to the relation between nF and nR. The properties of a network arisen from a square lattice where some edges are rewired (locally and with the preference to link to cells which are more connected to other cells) are also studied. The resulted system evolves rhythmically with the period determined by timings. The emergence of a small group of neighboring automata where the whole system activity initiates is observed. The dominant evolution is accompanied with other rhythms, characterized by longer periods.

19. Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.

PubMed

Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh

2015-08-01

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25% and accuracy of 93.48%.

20. An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata

Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba

2013-06-01

This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.

1. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

PubMed

Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

2016-10-31

We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

2. Cellular automata model for citrus variegated chlorosis.

PubMed

Martins, M L; Ceotto, G; Alves, S G; Bufon, C C; Silva, J M; Laranjeira, F F

2000-11-01

A cellular automata model is proposed to analyze the progress of citrus variegated chlorosis epidemics in São Paulo orange plantations. In this model epidemiological and environmental features, such as motility of sharpshooter vectors that perform Lévy flights, level of plant hydric and nutritional stress, and seasonal climatic effects, are included. The observed epidemic data were quantitatively reproduced by the proposed model on varying the parameters controlling vector motility, plant stress, and initial population of diseased plants.

3. Dynamical Behavior of Multi-Robot Systems Using Lattice Gas Automata

SciTech Connect

Cameron, S.M.; Robinett, R.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

1999-03-11

Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of autonomous, multi-agent systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi-robotic and multi-agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-ten-sin Lunar Exploration Rover-class vehicles). Overall design methodology is to evolve complex collective behaviors realized through simple interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence to enable real-time operational responses to emerging threats. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems using the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's deformation rate, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent non-linearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, development of stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots that maneuvers past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with knowledge, the

4. Modeling biological pathway dynamics with timed automata.

PubMed

Schivo, Stefano; Scholma, Jetse; Wanders, Brend; Urquidi Camacho, Ricardo A; van der Vet, Paul E; Karperien, Marcel; Langerak, Rom; van de Pol, Jaco; Post, Janine N

2014-05-01

Living cells are constantly subjected to a plethora of environmental stimuli that require integration into an appropriate cellular response. This integration takes place through signal transduction events that form tightly interconnected networks. The understanding of these networks requires capturing their dynamics through computational support and models. ANIMO (analysis of Networks with Interactive Modeling) is a tool that enables the construction and exploration of executable models of biological networks, helping to derive hypotheses and to plan wet-lab experiments. The tool is based on the formalism of Timed Automata, which can be analyzed via the UPPAAL model checker. Thanks to Timed Automata, we can provide a formal semantics for the domain-specific language used to represent signaling networks. This enforces precision and uniformity in the definition of signaling pathways, contributing to the integration of isolated signaling events into complex network models. We propose an approach to discretization of reaction kinetics that allows us to efficiently use UPPAAL as the computational engine to explore the dynamic behavior of the network of interest. A user-friendly interface hides the use of Timed Automata from the user, while keeping the expressive power intact. Abstraction to single-parameter kinetics speeds up construction of models that remain faithful enough to provide meaningful insight. The resulting dynamic behavior of the network components is displayed graphically, allowing for an intuitive and interactive modeling experience.

5. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

PubMed

Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

2011-10-01

We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

6. Addressing population heterogeneity and distribution in epidemics models using a cellular automata approach.

PubMed

López, Leonardo; Burguerner, Germán; Giovanini, Leonardo

2014-04-12

The spread of an infectious disease is determined by biological and social factors. Models based on cellular automata are adequate to describe such natural systems consisting of a massive collection of simple interacting objects. They characterize the time evolution of the global system as the emergent behaviour resulting from the interaction of the objects, whose behaviour is defined through a set of simple rules that encode the individual behaviour and the transmission dynamic. An epidemic is characterized trough an individual-based-model built upon cellular automata. In the proposed model, each individual of the population is represented by a cell of the automata. This way of modeling an epidemic situation allows to individually define the characteristic of each individual, establish different scenarios and implement control strategies. A cellular automata model to study the time evolution of a heterogeneous populations through the various stages of disease was proposed, allowing the inclusion of individual heterogeneity, geographical characteristics and social factors that determine the dynamic of the desease. Different assumptions made to built the classical model were evaluated, leading to following results: i) for low contact rate (like in quarantine process or low density population areas) the number of infective individuals is lower than other areas where the contact rate is higher, and ii) for different initial spacial distributions of infected individuals different epidemic dynamics are obtained due to its influence on the transition rate and the reproductive ratio of disease. The contact rate and spatial distributions have a central role in the spread of a disease. For low density populations the spread is very low and the number of infected individuals is lower than in highly populated areas. The spacial distribution of the population and the disease focus as well as the geographical characteristic of the area play a central role in the dynamics of the

7. Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model

Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran

2014-09-01

Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.

8. Addressing population heterogeneity and distribution in epidemics models using a cellular automata approach

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Background The spread of an infectious disease is determined by biological and social factors. Models based on cellular automata are adequate to describe such natural systems consisting of a massive collection of simple interacting objects. They characterize the time evolution of the global system as the emergent behaviour resulting from the interaction of the objects, whose behaviour is defined through a set of simple rules that encode the individual behaviour and the transmission dynamic. Methods An epidemic is characterized trough an individual–based–model built upon cellular automata. In the proposed model, each individual of the population is represented by a cell of the automata. This way of modeling an epidemic situation allows to individually define the characteristic of each individual, establish different scenarios and implement control strategies. Results A cellular automata model to study the time evolution of a heterogeneous populations through the various stages of disease was proposed, allowing the inclusion of individual heterogeneity, geographical characteristics and social factors that determine the dynamic of the desease. Different assumptions made to built the classical model were evaluated, leading to following results: i) for low contact rate (like in quarantine process or low density population areas) the number of infective individuals is lower than other areas where the contact rate is higher, and ii) for different initial spacial distributions of infected individuals different epidemic dynamics are obtained due to its influence on the transition rate and the reproductive ratio of disease. Conclusions The contact rate and spatial distributions have a central role in the spread of a disease. For low density populations the spread is very low and the number of infected individuals is lower than in highly populated areas. The spacial distribution of the population and the disease focus as well as the geographical characteristic of the area

9. A new simulation system of traffic flow based on cellular automata principle

Shan, Junru

2017-05-01

Traffic flow is a complex system of multi-behavior so it is difficult to give a specific mathematical equation to express it. With the rapid development of computer technology, it is an important method to study the complex traffic behavior by simulating the interaction mechanism between vehicles and reproduce complex traffic behavior. Using the preset of multiple operating rules, cellular automata is a kind of power system which has discrete time and space. It can be a good simulation of the real traffic process and a good way to solve the traffic problems.

10. Simple derivation of the Weyl and Dirac quantum cellular automata

Raynal, Philippe

2017-06-01

We consider quantum cellular automata on a body-centered cubic lattice and provide a simple derivation of the only two homogenous, local, isotropic, and unitary two-dimensional automata [G. M. D'Ariano and P. Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90, 062106 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062106]. Our derivation relies on the notion of Gram matrix and emphasizes the link between the transition matrices that characterize the automata and the body-centered cubic lattice: The transition matrices essentially are the matrix representation of the vertices of the lattice's primitive cell. As expected, the dynamics of these two automata reduce to the Weyl equation in the limit of small wave vectors and continuous time. We also briefly examine the four-dimensional case, where we find two one-parameter families of automata that reduce to the Dirac equation in a suitable limit.

11. Application of local linearization and the transonic equivalence rule to the flow about slender analytic bodies at Mach numbers near 1.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tyson, R. W.; Muraca, R. J.

1975-01-01

The local linearization method for axisymmetric flow is combined with the transonic equivalence rule to calculate pressure distribution on slender bodies at free-stream Mach numbers from .8 to 1.2. This is an approximate solution to the transonic flow problem which yields results applicable during the preliminary design stages of a configuration development. The method can be used to determine the aerodynamic loads on parabolic arc bodies having either circular or elliptical cross sections. It is particularly useful in predicting pressure distributions and normal force distributions along the body at small angles of attack. The equations discussed may be extended to include wing-body combinations.

12. Scalable asynchronous execution of cellular automata

Folino, Gianluigi; Giordano, Andrea; Mastroianni, Carlo

2016-10-01

The performance and scalability of cellular automata, when executed on parallel/distributed machines, are limited by the necessity of synchronizing all the nodes at each time step, i.e., a node can execute only after the execution of the previous step at all the other nodes. However, these synchronization requirements can be relaxed: a node can execute one step after synchronizing only with the adjacent nodes. In this fashion, different nodes can execute different time steps. This can be a notable advantageous in many novel and increasingly popular applications of cellular automata, such as smart city applications, simulation of natural phenomena, etc., in which the execution times can be different and variable, due to the heterogeneity of machines and/or data and/or executed functions. Indeed, a longer execution time at a node does not slow down the execution at all the other nodes but only at the neighboring nodes. This is particularly advantageous when the nodes that act as bottlenecks vary during the application execution. The goal of the paper is to analyze the benefits that can be achieved with the described asynchronous implementation of cellular automata, when compared to the classical all-to-all synchronization pattern. The performance and scalability have been evaluated through a Petri net model, as this model is very useful to represent the synchronization barrier among nodes. We examined the usual case in which the territory is partitioned into a number of regions, and the computation associated with a region is assigned to a computing node. We considered both the cases of mono-dimensional and two-dimensional partitioning. The results show that the advantage obtained through the asynchronous execution, when compared to the all-to-all synchronous approach is notable, and it can be as large as 90% in terms of speedup.

13. Scaling behavior in probabilistic neuronal cellular automata.

PubMed

Manchanda, Kaustubh; Yadav, Avinash Chand; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

2013-01-01

We study a neural network model of interacting stochastic discrete two-state cellular automata on a regular lattice. The system is externally tuned to a critical point which varies with the degree of stochasticity (or the effective temperature). There are avalanches of neuronal activity, namely, spatially and temporally contiguous sites of activity; a detailed numerical study of these activity avalanches is presented, and single, joint, and marginal probability distributions are computed. At the critical point, we find that the scaling exponents for the variables are in good agreement with a mean-field theory.

14. Modelling robot's behaviour using finite automata

Janošek, Michal; Žáček, Jaroslav

2017-07-01

This paper proposes a model of a robot's behaviour described by finite automata. We split robot's knowledge into several knowledge bases which are used by the inference mechanism of the robot's expert system to make a logic deduction. Each knowledgebase is dedicated to the particular behaviour domain and the finite automaton helps us switching among these knowledge bases with the respect of actual situation. Our goal is to simplify and reduce complexity of one big knowledgebase splitting it into several pieces. The advantage of this model is that we can easily add new behaviour by adding new knowledgebase and add this behaviour into the finite automaton and define necessary states and transitions.

15. Modeling the Sinoatrial Node by Cellular Automata with Irregular Topology

Makowiec, Danuta

The role of irregularity in intercellular connections is studied in the first natural human pacemaker called the sinoatrial node by modeling with the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. Facts from modern physiology about the sinoatrial node drive modeling. Heterogeneity between cell connections is reproduced by a rewiring procedure applied to a square lattice. The Greenberg-Hastings rule, representing the intrinsic cellular dynamics, is modified to imitate self-excitation of each pacemaker cell. Moreover, interactions with nearest neighbors are changed to heterogeneous ones by enhancing horizontal connections. Stationary states of the modeled system emerge as self-organized robust oscillatory states. Since the sinoatrial node role relies on a single cell cyclic activity, properties of single cells are studied. It appears that the strength and diversity of cellular oscillations depend directly on properties of intrinsic cellular dynamics. But these oscillations also depend on the underlying topology. Moderate nonuniformity of intercellular connections are found vital for proper function of the sinoatrial node, namely, for producing robust oscillatory states that are able to respond effectively to the autonomic system control.

16. Modeling Second-Order Chemical Reactions using Cellular Automata

Hunter, N. E.; Barton, C. C.; Seybold, P. G.; Rizki, M. M.

2012-12-01

Cellular automata (CA) are discrete, agent-based, dynamic, iterated, mathematical computational models used to describe complex physical, biological, and chemical systems. Unlike the more computationally demanding molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo approaches, which use "force fields" to model molecular interactions, CA models employ a set of local rules. The traditional approach for modeling chemical reactions is to solve a set of simultaneous differential rate equations to give deterministic outcomes. CA models yield statistical outcomes for a finite number of ingredients. The deterministic solutions appear as limiting cases for conditions such as a large number of ingredients or a finite number of ingredients and many trials. Here we present a 2-dimensional, probabilistic CA model of a second-order gas phase reaction A + B → C, using a MATLAB basis. Beginning with a random distribution of ingredients A and B, formation of C emerges as the system evolves. The reaction rate can be varied based on the probability of favorable collisions of the reagents A and B. The model permits visualization of the conversion of reagents to products, and allows one to plot concentration vs. time for A, B and C. We test hypothetical reaction conditions such as: limiting reagents, the effects of reaction probabilities, and reagent concentrations on the reaction kinetics. The deterministic solutions of the reactions emerge as statistical averages in the limit of the large number of cells in the array. Modeling results for dynamic processes in the atmosphere will be presented.

17. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach.

PubMed

2012-10-09

Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time

18. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of

19. Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.

PubMed

Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M

2012-08-01

The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

20. Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell Quantum Cellular Automata

Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

2015-10-01

Recent advances on quantum foundations achieved the derivation of free quantum field theory from general principles, without referring to mechanical notions and relativistic invariance. From the aforementioned principles a quantum cellular automata (QCA) theory follows, whose relativistic limit of small wave-vector provides the free dynamics of quantum field theory. The QCA theory can be regarded as an extended quantum field theory that describes in a unified way all scales ranging from an hypothetical discrete Planck scale up to the usual Fermi scale. The present paper reviews the automaton theory for the Weyl field, and the composite automata for Dirac and Maxwell fields. We then give a simple analysis of the dynamics in the momentum space in terms of a dispersive differential equation for narrowband wave-packets. We then review the phenomenology of the free-field automaton and consider possible visible effects arising from the discreteness of the framework. We conclude introducing the consequences of the automaton dispersion relation, leading to a deformed Lorentz covariance and to possible effects on the thermodynamics of ideal gases.

1. A cellular automata model of bone formation.

PubMed

Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia

2017-04-01

Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model.

2. Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata

Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M.

2012-08-01

The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.

3. Probabilistic arithmetic automata and their applications.

PubMed

Marschall, Tobias; Herms, Inke; Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Rahmann, Sven

2012-01-01

We present a comprehensive review on probabilistic arithmetic automata (PAAs), a general model to describe chains of operations whose operands depend on chance, along with two algorithms to numerically compute the distribution of the results of such probabilistic calculations. PAAs provide a unifying framework to approach many problems arising in computational biology and elsewhere. We present five different applications, namely 1) pattern matching statistics on random texts, including the computation of the distribution of occurrence counts, waiting times, and clump sizes under hidden Markov background models; 2) exact analysis of window-based pattern matching algorithms; 3) sensitivity of filtration seeds used to detect candidate sequence alignments; 4) length and mass statistics of peptide fragments resulting from enzymatic cleavage reactions; and 5) read length statistics of 454 and IonTorrent sequencing reads. The diversity of these applications indicates the flexibility and unifying character of the presented framework. While the construction of a PAA depends on the particular application, we single out a frequently applicable construction method: We introduce deterministic arithmetic automata (DAAs) to model deterministic calculations on sequences, and demonstrate how to construct a PAA from a given DAA and a finite-memory random text model. This procedure is used for all five discussed applications and greatly simplifies the construction of PAAs. Implementations are available as part of the MoSDi package. Its application programming interface facilitates the rapid development of new applications based on the PAA framework.

4. The Neurona at Home project: Simulating a large-scale cellular automata brain in a distributed computing environment

Acedo, L.; Villanueva-Oller, J.; Moraño, J. A.; Villanueva, R.-J.

2013-01-01

The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) has become the standard open source solution for grid computing in the Internet. Volunteers use their computers to complete an small part of the task assigned by a dedicated server. We have developed a BOINC project called Neurona@Home whose objective is to simulate a cellular automata random network with, at least, one million neurons. We consider a cellular automata version of the integrate-and-fire model in which excitatory and inhibitory nodes can activate or deactivate neighbor nodes according to a set of probabilistic rules. Our aim is to determine the phase diagram of the model and its behaviour and to compare it with the electroencephalographic signals measured in real brains.

5. PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.

PubMed

Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold

2016-01-21

The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two.

6. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

1992-01-01

The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

7. Evolving cellular automata for diversity generation and pattern recognition: deterministic versus random strategy

Argollo de Menezes, Marcio; Brigatti, Edgardo; Schwämmle, Veit

2013-08-01

Microbiological systems evolve to fulfil their tasks with maximal efficiency. The immune system is a remarkable example, where the distinction between self and non-self is made by means of molecular interaction between self-proteins and antigens, triggering affinity-dependent systemic actions. Specificity of this binding and the infinitude of potential antigenic patterns call for novel mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Inspired by this problem, we develop a genetic algorithm where agents evolve their strings in the presence of random antigenic strings and reproduce with affinity-dependent rates. We ask what is the best strategy to generate diversity if agents can rearrange their strings a finite number of times. We find that endowing each agent with an inheritable cellular automaton rule for performing rearrangements makes the system more efficient in pattern-matching than if transformations are totally random. In the former implementation, the population evolves to a stationary state where agents with different automata rules coexist.

8. Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata

SciTech Connect

Barkalov, A.A.

1995-03-01

Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.

9. Partially Ordered Two-Way Büchi Automata

Kufleitner, Manfred; Lauser, Alexander

We introduce partially ordered two-way Büchi automata over infinite words. As for finite words, the nondeterministic variant recognizes the fragment Σ2 of first-order logic FO[<] and the deterministic version yields the Δ2-definable ω-languages. As a byproduct of our results, we show that deterministic partially ordered two-way Büchi automata are effectively closed under Boolean operations.

10. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER): 'rules of thumb' for Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm estimation and use in aquatic toxicology

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hickey, James P.

1996-01-01

This chapter provides a listing of the increasing variety of organic moieties and heteroatom group for which Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) values are available, and the LSER variable estimation rules. The listings include values for typical nitrogen-, sulfur- and phosphorus-containing moieties, and general organosilicon and organotin groups. The contributions by an ion pair situation to the LSER values are also offered in Table 1, allowing estimation of parameters for salts and zwitterions. The guidelines permit quick estimation of values for the four primary LSER variables Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm by summing the contribtuions from its components. The use of guidelines and Table 1 significantly simplifies computation of values for the LSER variables for most possible organic comppounds in the environment, including the larger compounds of environmental and biological interest.

11. Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata

SciTech Connect

Nagel, K. |; Schreckenberg, M.

1995-09-01

Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterers hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.

12. Automata Learning with Automated Alphabet Abstraction Refinement

Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik

on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.

13. Chua's Nonlinear Dynamics Perspective of Cellular Automata

Pazienza, Giovanni E.

2013-01-01

Chua's Nonlinear Dynamics Perspective of Cellular Automata' represents a genuine breakthrough in this area and it has had a major impact on the recent scientific literature. His results have been accurately described in a series of fourteen papers appeared over the course of eight years but there is no compendious introduction to his work. Therefore, here for the first time, we present Chua's main ideas as well as a few unpublished results that have not been included in his previous papers. This overview illustrates the essence of Chua's work by using a clear terminology and a consistent notation, and it is aimed at those who want to approach this subject through a concise but thorough exposition.

14. Cellular automata model based on GIS and urban sprawl dynamics simulation

Mu, Fengyun; Zhang, Zengxiang

2005-10-01

The simulation of land use change process needs the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other relative technologies. While the present commercial GIS lack capabilities of distribution, prediction, and simulation of spatial-temporal data. Cellular automata (CA) provide dynamically modeling "from bottom-to-top" framework and posses the capability of modeling spatial-temporal evolvement process of a complicated geographical system, which is composed of a fourfold: cells, states, neighbors and rules. The simplicity and flexibility make CA have the ability to simulate a variety of behaviors of complex systems. One of the most potentially useful applications of cellular automata from the point of view of spatial planning is their use in simulations of urban sprawl at local and regional level. The paper firstly introduces the principles and characters of the cellular automata, and then discusses three methods of the integration of CA and GIS. The paper analyses from a practical point of view the factors that effect urban activities in the science of spatial decision-making. The status of using CA to dynamic simulates of urban expansion at home and abroad is analyzed. Finally, the problems and tendencies that exist in the application of CA model are detailed discussed, such as the quality of the data that the CA needs, the self-organization of the CA roots in the mutual function among the elements of the system, the partition of the space scale, the time calibration of the CA and the integration of the CA with other modular such as artificial nerve net modular and population modular etc.

15. Linear programming for learning in neural networks

Raghavan, Raghu

1991-08-01

The authors have previously proposed a network of probabilistic cellular automata (PCAs) as part of an image recognition system designed to integrate model-based and data-driven approaches in a connectionist framework. The PCA arises from some natural requirements on the system which include incorporation of prior knowledge such as in inference rules, locality of inferences, and full parallelism. This network has been applied to recognize objects in both synthetic and in real data. This approach achieves recognition through the short-, rather than the long-time behavior of the dynamics of the PCA. In this paper, some methods are developed for learning the connection strengths by solving linear inequalities: the figures of merit are tendencies or directions of movement of the dynamical system. These 'dynamical' figures of merit result in inequality constraints on the connection strengths which are solved by linear (LP) or quadratic programs (QP). An algorithm is described for processing a large number of samples to determine weights for the PCA. The work may be regarded as either pointing out another application for constrained optimization, or as pointing out the need to extend the perceptron and similar methods for learning. The extension is needed because the neural network operates on a different principle from that for which the perceptron method was devised.

16. Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal

Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos

2017-04-01

Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the

17. A Cellular Automata-Based Mathematical Model for Thymocyte Development

PubMed Central

Souza-e-Silva, Hallan; Savino, Wilson; Feijóo, Raúl A.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2009-01-01

Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the thymus in diseases

18. Dynamic behavior of multirobot systems using lattice gas automata

Stantz, Keith M.; Cameron, Stewart M.; Robinett, Rush D., III; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.

1999-07-01

Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems (or swarms). Our group has been studying the collective, autonomous behavior of these such systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi- agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover- class vehicles) that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis. An overall design methodology evolves complex collective behaviors realized through local interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence. Learning objectives incorporate real-time operational responses to environmental changes. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems according to the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's rate of deformation, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots maneuvering past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with

19. Verifying Safety Properties Using Non-Deterministic Infinite-State Automata

DTIC Science & Technology

1989-09-08

automata [18]. Sistla proved that the verifi- cation problem for unbounded non-deterministic automata is II -completeJ [15]. For languages over...restrain stuttering and allow time-bounded and unbounded stuttering when needed, we prefer these automata. Using a similar approach as in [1], Sistla ...Concurrent Programs by V-automata. Proc. Fourteenth Symp. on the Principles of Programming Languages, ACM, 1987, pp. 1-12. [15] Sistla , A.P. On Verifying

20. An evolving algebra approach to formal description of a class of automata networks

Severyanov, V. M.

2003-04-01

The Automata Networks considered here and called Hyperbolic Cellular Automata are based on Iterated Function Systems and can be considered as a generalization of Cellular Automata. The Evolving Algebras have been proposed by Yuri Gurevich to be the models for arbitrary computational processes. They provide a formal method for executable specifications. In the paper, an evolving algebra approach to formal description of Hyperbolic Cellular Automata is presented.

1. Density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata solving the relaxed density classification problem

Wolnik, Barbara; Dembowski, Marcin; Bołt, Witold; Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

2017-08-01

The focus of this paper is on the density classification problem in the context of affine continuous cellular automata. Although such cellular automata cannot solve this problem in the classical sense, most density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata with a unit neighborhood radius are valid solutions of a slightly relaxed version of this problem. This result follows from a detailed study of the dynamics of the density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata that we introduce.

2. A Cellular Automata Based Model for Simulating Surface Hydrological Processes in Catchments

Shao, Qi; Baumgartl, Thomas; Huang, Longbin; Weatherley, Dion

2014-05-01

The Runoff Model Based on Cellular Automata (RunCA) has been developed to simulate the surface hydrological processes at the catchment scale by integrating basic cellular automata (CA) rules with fundamental measureable hydraulic properties. In this model, a two-dimensional lattice composed of a series of rectangular cells was employed to cover the study area. Runoff production within each cell was simulated by determining its water depth based on the rainfall, interception, infiltration and the balance between inflows and outflows. Particularly different infiltration equations were incorporated to make the model applicable for both single rainfall event (short term simulation) and multiple rainfall events (long term simulation). The distribution of water flow among cells was determined by applying CA transition rules based on the improved minimization-of-difference algorithm and the calculated spatially and temporally varied flow velocities according to the Manning's equation. RunCA was tested and validated at two catchments (Pine Glen Basin and Snow Shoe Basin, USA) with data taken from literature. The predicted hydrographs agreed well with the measured results. Simulated flow maps also demonstrated the model capability in capturing both the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff process. Model sensitivity analysis results showed that the simulated hydrographs were mostly influenced by the input parameters that represent the final steady infiltration rate, as well as the model settings of time step and cell size. Compared to some conventional distributed hydrologic models that calculate the runoff routing process by solving complex continuity equations, this model integrates a novel method and is expected to be more computationally efficient as it is based on simple CA transition rules when determining the flow distribution.

3. Cells as strain-cued automata

Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.

2016-02-01

We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as strain-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while strain waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the strains they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the strain fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in

4. On the topological sensitivity of cellular automata.

PubMed

Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard

2011-06-01

Ever since the conceptualization of cellular automata (CA), much attention has been paid to the dynamical properties of these discrete dynamical systems, and, more in particular, to their sensitivity to the initial condition from which they are evolved. Yet, the sensitivity of CA to the topology upon which they are based has received only minor attention, such that a clear insight in this dependence is still lacking and, furthermore, a quantification of this so-called topological sensitivity has not yet been proposed. The lack of attention for this issue is rather surprising since CA are spatially explicit, which means that their dynamics is directly affected by their topology. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose topological Lyapunov exponents that measure the divergence of two close trajectories in phase space originating from a topological perturbation, and we relate them to a measure grasping the sensitivity of CA to their topology that relies on the concept of topological derivatives, which is introduced in this paper. The validity of the proposed methodology is illustrated for the 256 elementary CA and for a family of two-state irregular totalistic CA.

5. On the topological sensitivity of cellular automata

Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

2011-06-01

Ever since the conceptualization of cellular automata (CA), much attention has been paid to the dynamical properties of these discrete dynamical systems, and, more in particular, to their sensitivity to the initial condition from which they are evolved. Yet, the sensitivity of CA to the topology upon which they are based has received only minor attention, such that a clear insight in this dependence is still lacking and, furthermore, a quantification of this so-called topological sensitivity has not yet been proposed. The lack of attention for this issue is rather surprising since CA are spatially explicit, which means that their dynamics is directly affected by their topology. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose topological Lyapunov exponents that measure the divergence of two close trajectories in phase space originating from a topological perturbation, and we relate them to a measure grasping the sensitivity of CA to their topology that relies on the concept of topological derivatives, which is introduced in this paper. The validity of the proposed methodology is illustrated for the 256 elementary CA and for a family of two-state irregular totalistic CA.

6. Programmable DNA-Based Finite Automata

Ratner, Tamar; Keinan, Ehud

Computation using DNA has many advantages, including the potential for massive parallelism that allows for large number of operations per second, the direct interface between the computation process and a biological output, and the miniaturization of the computing devices to a molecular scale. In 2001, we reported on the first DNA-based, programmable finite automaton (2-symbol-2-state) capable of computing autonomously with all its hardware, software, input, and output being soluble biomolecules mixed in solution. Later, using similar principles, we developed advanced 3-symbol-3-state automata. We have also shown that real-time detection of the output signal, as well as real-time monitoring of all the computation intermediates, can be achieved by the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. More recently, we have shown that it is possible to achieve a biologically relevant output, such as specific gene expression, by using a reporter-gene as an output-readout. We cloned the input into circular plasmids, and thereby achieved control over gene expression by a programmable sequence of computation events. Further efforts are currently directed to immobilization of the input molecules onto a solid chip to enable parallel computation, where the location of the input on the chip represents specific tagging.

7. Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata

Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.

2013-12-01

Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.

8. Optimal placement of fast cut back units based on the theory of cellular automata and agent

Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng

2017-06-01

The thermal power generation units with the function of fast cut back could serve power for auxiliary system and keep island operation after a major blackout, so they are excellent substitute for the traditional black-start power sources. Different placement schemes for FCB units have different influence on the subsequent restoration process. Considering the locality of the emergency dispatching rules, the unpredictability of specific dispatching instructions and unexpected situations like failure of transmission line energization, a novel deduction model for network reconfiguration based on the theory of cellular automata and agent is established. Several indexes are then defined for evaluating the placement schemes for FCB units. The attribute weights determination method based on subjective and objective integration and grey relational analysis are combinatorically used to determine the optimal placement scheme for FCB unit. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the test results on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system.

9. Simulation of interdiffusion and voids growth based on cellular automata

Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Boyan; Zhang, Nan; Du, Haishun; Zhang, Xinhong

2017-02-01

In the interdiffusion of two solid-state materials, if the diffusion coefficients of the two materials are not the same, the interface of the two materials will shift to the material with the lower diffusion coefficient. This effect is known as the Kirkendall effect. The Kirkendall effect leads to Kirkendall porosity. The pores act as sinks for vacancies and become voids. In this paper, the movement of the Kirkendall plane at interdiffusion is simulated based on cellular automata. The number of vacancies, the critical radius of voids nucleation and the nucleation rate are analysed. The vacancies diffusion, vacancies aggregation and voids growth are also simulated based on cellular automata.

10. Modeling and analyzing mixed reality applications using timed automata

Didier, Jean-Yves; Djafri, Bachir; Klaudel, Hanna

2008-06-01

We propose a compositional modeling framework for Mixed Reality (MR) software architectures in order to express, simulate and validate formally the real-time properties of such systems. Our approach is first based on a functional decomposition of such systems into generic components. The obtained elements as well as their typical interactions give rise to generic representations in terms of timed automata. A whole application is then obtained as a composition of such defined components. The approach is illustrated on a case study modeled by timed automata synchronizing through channels and including a large number of time constraints. This system has been simulated in UPPAAL and checked against basic behavioral properties.

11. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

2014-04-01

The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

12. Preliminary cellular-automata forecast of permit activity from 1998 to 2010, Idaho and Western Montana

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raines, G.L.; Zientek, M.L.; Causey, J.D.; Boleneus, D.E.

2002-01-01

For public land management in Idaho and western Montana, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) predict where mineral-related activity will occur in the next decade. Cellular automata provide an approach to simulation of this human activity. Cellular automata (CA) are defined by an array of cells, which evolve by a simple transition rule, the automaton. Based on exploration trends, we assume that future exploration will focus in areas of past exploration. Spatial-temporal information about mineral-related activity, that is permits issued by USFS and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the last decade, and spatial information about undiscovered resources, provide a basis to calibrate a CA. The CA implemented is a modified annealed voting rule that simulates mineral-related activity with spatial and temporal resolution of 1 mi2 and 1 year based on activity from 1989 to 1998. For this CA, the state of the economy and exploration technology is assumed constant for the next decade. The calibrated CA reproduces the 1989-1998-permit activity with an agreement of 94%, which increases to 98% within one year. Analysis of the confusion matrix and kappa correlation statistics indicates that the CA underestimates high activity and overestimates low activity. Spatially, the major differences between the actual and calculated activity are that the calculated activity occurs in a slightly larger number of small patches and is slightly more uneven than the actual activity. Using the calibrated CA in a Monte Carlo simulation projecting from 1998 to 2010, an estimate of the probability of mineral activity shows high levels of activity in Boise, Caribou, Elmore, Lincoln, and western Valley counties in Idaho and Beaverhead, Madison, and Stillwater counties in Montana, and generally low activity elsewhere. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

13. A new cellular automata model of traffic flow with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential

Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye

2016-10-01

With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).

14. An Efficient Translation Method from Timed Petri Nets to Timed Automata

Nakano, Shota; Yamaguchi, Shingo

There are various existing methods translating timed Petri nets to timed automata. However, there is a trade-off between the amount of description and the size of state space. The amount of description and the size of state space affect the feasibility of modeling and analysis like model checking. In this paper, we propose a new translation method from timed Petri nets to timed automata. Our method translates from a timed Petri net to an automaton with the following features: (i) The number of location is 1; (ii) Each edge represents the firing of transition; (iii) Each state implemented as clocks and variables represents a state of the timed Petri net one-to-one correspondingly. Through these features, the amount of description is linear order and the size of state space is the same order as that of the Petri net. We applied our method to three Petri net models of signaling pathways and compared our method with existing methods from the view points of the amount of description and the size of state space. And the comparison results show that our method keeps a good balance between the amount of description and the size of state space. These results also show that our method is effective when checking properties of timed Petri nets.

15. Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Siwak, Pawel P.

1985-01-01

Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)

16. Project RAMA: Reconstructing Asteroids Into Mechanical Automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dunn, Jason; Fagin, Max; Snyder, Michael; Joyce, Eric

2017-01-01

Many interesting ideas have been conceived for building space-based infrastructure in cislunar space. From O'Neill's space colonies, to solar power satellite farms, and even prospecting retrieved near earth asteroids. In all the scenarios, one thing remained fixed - the need for space resources at the outpost. To satisfy this need, O'Neill suggested an electromagnetic railgun to deliver resources from the lunar surface, while NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission called for a solar electric tug to deliver asteroid materials from interplanetary space. At Made In Space, we propose an entirely new concept. One which is scalable, cost effective, and ensures that the abundant material wealth of the inner solar system becomes readily available to humankind in a nearly automated fashion. We propose the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-contained spacecraft capable of moving themselves back to cislunar space. The RAMA architecture is just as capable of transporting conventional-sized asteroids on the 10-meter length scale as transporting asteroids 100 meters or larger, making it the most versatile asteroid retrieval architecture in terms of retrieved-mass capability. This report describes the results of the Phase I study funded by the NASA NIAC program for Made In Space to establish the concept feasibility of using space manufacturing to convert asteroids into autonomous, mechanical spacecraft. Project RAMA, Reconstituting Asteroids into Mechanical Automata, is designed to leverage the future advances of additive manufacturing (AM), in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and in-situ manufacturing (ISM) to realize enormous efficiencies in repeated asteroid redirect missions. A team of engineers at Made In Space performed the study work with consultation from the asteroid mining industry, academia, and NASA. Previous studies for asteroid retrieval have been constrained to studying only asteroids that are both large enough to be discovered, and small enough to be

17. Immune Responses: Getting Close to Experimental Results with Cellular Automata Models

Dos Santos, Rita Maria Zorzenon

Cellular automata approaches are powerful tools to model local and nonlocal interactions generating cooperative behavior. In the last decade, the question of whether cellular automata could embed realistic assumptions about the interactions among cells and molecules of the immune system was quite controversial. Recent results have shown that it is possible to use cellular automata approaches to describe realistically the interactions between the elements of the immune system. The first models using cellular automata approaches, boolean and threshold or window automata, were based on experimental evidence and were mainly used to understand the logic of global immune responses like immunization, tolerance, paralysis, etc. Recently, new classes of cellular automata models which include time delay, stochasticity or adaptation have lead to results that can be compared with in vivo experimental data.

18. A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata.

PubMed

Schüle, Martin; Stoop, Ruedi

2012-12-01

Cellular automata are both computational and dynamical systems. We give a complete classification of the dynamic behaviour of elementary cellular automata (ECA) in terms of fundamental dynamic system notions such as sensitivity and chaoticity. The "complex" ECA emerge to be sensitive, but not chaotic and not eventually weakly periodic. Based on this classification, we conjecture that elementary cellular automata capable of carrying out complex computations, such as needed for Turing-universality, are at the "edge of chaos."

19. Checking Timed Büchi Automata Emptiness Using LU-Abstractions

Li, Guangyuan

This paper shows that the zone-based LU-extrapolation of Behrmann et al, that preserves reachability of timed automata, also preserves emptiness of timed Büchi automata. This improves the previous results by Tripakis et al who showed that the k-extrapolation preserves timed Büchi automata emptiness. The LU-extrapolation is coarser than k-extrapolation, allowing better state space reductions. A tool with LU-extrapolation for emptiness checking of timed Büchi automata has been implemented, and some experiments are reported.

20. Cellular automata models for diffusion of information and highway traffic flow

Fuks, Henryk

In the first part of this work we study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents degree of 'anticipatory driving'. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: 'conservative' driving with high speed limit and 'anticipatory' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered. For rule 184, we present exact calculations of the order parameter in a transition from the moving phase to the jammed phase using the method of preimage counting, and use this result to construct a solution to the density classification problem. In the second part we propose a probabilistic cellular automaton model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc., in a social system. We start from simple deterministic models, for which exact expressions for the density of adopters are derived. For a more realistic model, based on probabilistic cellular automata, we study the influence of a range of interaction R on the shape of the adoption curve. When the probability of adoption is proportional to the local density of adopters, and individuals can drop the innovation with some probability p, the system exhibits a second order phase transition. Critical line separating regions of parameter space in which asymptotic density of adopters is positive from the region where it is equal to zero converges toward the mean-field line when the range of the interaction increases. In a region between R=1 critical line and the mean-field line asymptotic density of adopters depends on R, becoming zero if R is too small (smaller than some critical value). This result demonstrates the importance of connectivity in

1. On the secure obfuscation of deterministic finite automata.

SciTech Connect

Anderson, William Erik

2008-06-01

In this paper, we show how to construct secure obfuscation for Deterministic Finite Automata, assuming non-uniformly strong one-way functions exist. We revisit the software protection approaches originally proposed by [5, 10, 12, 17] and revise them to the current obfuscation setting of Barak et al. [2]. Under this model, we introduce an efficient oracle that retains some 'small' secret about the original program. Using this secret, we can construct an obfuscator and two-party protocol that securely obfuscates Deterministic Finite Automata against malicious adversaries. The security of this model retains the strong 'virtual black box' property originally proposed in [2] while incorporating the stronger condition of dependent auxiliary inputs in [15]. Additionally, we show that our techniques remain secure under concurrent self-composition with adaptive inputs and that Turing machines are obfuscatable under this model.

2. Cellular automata and its applications in protein bioinformatics.

PubMed

Xiao, Xuan; Wang, Pu; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2011-09-01

With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic era, it is highly desirable to develop high-throughput tools for rapidly and reliably identifying various attributes of uncharacterized proteins based on their sequence information alone. The knowledge thus obtained can help us timely utilize these newly found protein sequences for both basic research and drug discovery. Many bioinformatics tools have been developed by means of machine learning methods. This review is focused on the applications of a new kind of science (cellular automata) in protein bioinformatics. A cellular automaton (CA) is an open, flexible and discrete dynamic model that holds enormous potentials in modeling complex systems, in spite of the simplicity of the model itself. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have utilized cellular automata for visualizing protein sequences, investigating their evolution processes, and predicting their various attributes. Owing to its impressive power, intuitiveness and relative simplicity, the CA approach has great potential for use as a tool for bioinformatics.

3. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

4. Electrical substation service-area estimation using Cellular Automata: An initial report

SciTech Connect

Fenwick, J.W.; Dowell, L.J.

1998-07-01

The service areas for electric power substations can be estimated using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA model is a discrete, iterative process whereby substations acquire service area by claiming neighboring cells. The service area expands from a substation until a neighboring substation service area is met or the substations total capacity or other constraints are reached. The CA-model output is dependent on the rule set that defines cell interactions. The rule set is based on a hierarchy of quantitative metrics that represent real-world factors such as land use and population density. Together, the metrics determine the rate of cell acquisition and the upper bound for service area size. Assessing the CA-model accuracy requires comparisons to actual service areas. These actual service areas can be extracted from distribution maps. Quantitative assessment of the CA-model accuracy can be accomplished by a number of methods. Some are as simple as finding the percentage of cells predicted correctly, while others assess a penalty based on the distance from an incorrectly predicted cell to its correct service area. This is an initial report of a work in progress.

5. Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata revisited: evolution of cooperation under environmental pressure

Alonso, J.; Fernández, A.; Fort, H.

2006-06-01

We propose an extension of the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata, introduced by Nowak and May (1992 Nature 359 826), in which the pressure of the environment is taken into account. This is implemented by requiring that individuals need to collect a minimum score Umin, representing indispensable resources (nutrients, energy, money, etc) to prosper in this environment. So the agents, instead of evolving just by adopting the behaviour of the most successful neighbour (who got Umsn), also take into account if Umsn is above or below the threshold Umin. If Umsnrule (as happens, for example, when the sucker's payoff is much worse than the punishment for mutual defection). We also analyse a more sophisticated version of this model in which the selective rule is supplemented with a 'win-stay, lose-shift' criterion. The cluster structure is analysed, and for this more complex version we found power-law scaling for a restricted region in the parameter space.

6. On the Computation of the Relative Entropy of Probabilistic Automata

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-01-17

intersection automata. Further, let N(q) denote the number of times a state q is inserted in the queue. Then, using the Fibonacci heap with a shortest first...volume A–B. Academic Press, 1974–1976. Jason Eisner. Expectation Semirings: Flexible EM for Finite-State Transducers . In Proceedings of the ESSLLI...Finite-State Transducers in Language and Speech Processing. Computational Linguistics, 23(2), 1997. Mehryar Mohri. Generic Epsilon-Removal and Input

7. Origin of complexity and conditional predictability in cellular automata.

PubMed

2013-10-01

A simple mechanism for the emergence of complexity in cellular automata out of predictable dynamics is described. This leads to introduce the concept of conditional predictability for systems whose trajectory can only be piecewise known. The mechanism is used to construct a cellular automaton model for discrete chimeralike states, where synchrony and incoherence in an ensemble of identical oscillators coexist. The incoherent region is shown to have a periodicity that is three orders of magnitude longer than the period of the synchronous oscillation.

8. Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications

Lahaye, Sébastien; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, Jean-Louis

2015-12-01

In this paper, supervisory control of (max,+) automata is studied. The synthesis of maximally permissive and just-in-time supervisor, as well as the synthesis of minimally permissive and just-after-time supervisor, are proposed. Results are also specialised to non-decreasing solutions, because only such supervisors can be realised in practice. The inherent issue of rationality raised recently is discussed. An illustration of concepts and results is presented through an example of a flexible manufacturing system.

9. A class of cellular automata modeling winnerless competition

Afraimovich, V.; Ordaz, F. C.; Urías, J.

2002-06-01

Neural units introduced by Rabinovich et al. ("Sensory coding with dynamically competitive networks," UCSD and CIT, February 1999) motivate a class of cellular automata (CA) where spatio-temporal encoding is feasible. The spatio-temporal information capacity of a CA is estimated by the information capacity of the attractor set, which happens to be finitely specified. Two-dimensional CA are studied in detail. An example is given for which the attractor is not a subshift.

10. Physics of Cellular Automata and Quantum Dots Workshop

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-11-02

Office of Naval Research Workshop The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a select group of physicists and computer ’ scientists to discuss...methods of domesticating quantum ’ dots-’for computational purposes. There are a variety of ways of constructing with modern lithography two- dimensional...case, the arrays to date have been limited to two dimensions, or planar technology. Cellular automata provide a computing paradigm where uniform arrays

11. The adaptive cruise control vehicles in the cellular automata model

Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

2006-11-01

This Letter presented a cellular automata model where the adaptive cruise control vehicles are modelled. In this model, the constant time headway policy is adopted. The fundamental diagram is presented. The simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical ones. The mixture of ACC vehicles with manually driven vehicles is investigated. It is shown that with the introduction of ACC vehicles, the jam can be suppressed.

12. Anticipating the Filtrons of Automata by Complex Discrete Systems Analysis

Siwak, Pawel

2002-09-01

Filtrons of automata are coherent structures (discrete solitons) supported by iterated automata maps (IAMs). They differ from signals of cellular automata. The signals emerge during parallel processing of strings, while IAMs transform strings in serial. We relate the filtron and its supporting automaton with a particular complex discrete system (CDS). This CDS has the form of a processing ring net. Its computation is characterized by four components: instructions of processing nodes (I), inter-processor communication constraints (C), initial data (D), and synchronization (S). We present an analysis of a computation performed within this CDS. It is useful in the problems of searching for any of the mentioned four components assuming that remaining three are known. We give a technique of anticipating the filtrons with a desired parameter C when I, S and D are given. We show how to decide the synchronization S when I, C and D are assumed, and how to determine instructions I when the desired filtron is described by known C, D and S.

13. Efficient Deterministic Finite Automata Minimization Based on Backward Depth Information

PubMed Central

Liu, Desheng; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng; Guo, Xiaojun; Su, Shaojing

2016-01-01

Obtaining a minimal automaton is a fundamental issue in the theory and practical implementation of deterministic finite automatons (DFAs). A minimization algorithm is presented in this paper that consists of two main phases. In the first phase, the backward depth information is built, and the state set of the DFA is partitioned into many blocks. In the second phase, the state set is refined using a hash table. The minimization algorithm has a lower time complexity O(n) than a naive comparison of transitions O(n2). Few states need to be refined by the hash table, because most states have been partitioned by the backward depth information in the coarse partition. This method achieves greater generality than previous methods because building the backward depth information is independent of the topological complexity of the DFA. The proposed algorithm can be applied not only to the minimization of acyclic automata or simple cyclic automata, but also to automata with high topological complexity. Overall, the proposal has three advantages: lower time complexity, greater generality, and scalability. A comparison to Hopcroft’s algorithm demonstrates experimentally that the algorithm runs faster than traditional algorithms. PMID:27806102

14. Emergence of linguistic-like structures in one-dimensional cellular automata

Bertacchini, Francesca; Bilotta, Eleonora; Caldarola, Fabio; Pantano, Pietro; Bustamante, Leonardo Renteria

2016-10-01

In this paper we give a summary of some empirical investigations which show high analogies between Cellular Automata and linguistic structures. In particular we show as coupling regular domains of Cellular Automata we find complex emerging structures similar to combination of words, phonemes and morphemes in natural languages.

15. Self-organisation in Cellular Automata with Coalescent Particles: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

Hellouin de Menibus, Benjamin; Sablik, Mathieu

2017-06-01

This article introduces new tools to study self-organisation in a family of simple cellular automata which contain some particle-like objects with good collision properties (coalescence) in their time evolution. We draw an initial configuration at random according to some initial shift-ergodic measure, and use the limit measure to describe the asymptotic behaviour of the automata. We first take a qualitative approach, i.e. we obtain information on the limit measure(s). We prove that only particles moving in one particular direction can persist asymptotically. This provides some previously unknown information on the limit measures of various deterministic and probabilistic cellular automata: 3 and 4-cyclic cellular automata [introduced by Fisch (J Theor Probab 3(2):311-338, 1990; Phys D 45(1-3):19-25, 1990)], one-sided captive cellular automata [introduced by Theyssier (Captive Cellular Automata, 2004)], the majority-traffic cellular automaton, a self stabilisation process towards a discrete line [introduced by Regnault and Rémila (in: Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015—40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, Proceedings, Part I, 2015)]. In a second time we restrict our study to a subclass, the gliders cellular automata. For this class we show quantitative results, consisting in the asymptotic law of some parameters: the entry times [generalising K ůrka et al. (in: Proceedings of AUTOMATA, 2011)], the density of particles and the rate of convergence to the limit measure.

16. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

PubMed

Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

2013-09-01

Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

17. Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision

Rothstein, Jerome

1988-02-01

Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.

18. Noisy Quantum Cellular Automata for Quantum versus Classical Excitation Transfer

Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio

2014-05-01

We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.

19. Noisy quantum cellular automata for quantum versus classical excitation transfer.

PubMed

Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio

2014-05-02

We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.

20. A Cellular Automata Model of Infection Control on Medical Implants.

PubMed

Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Kojouharov, Hristo; Chen-Charpentier, Benito; Tang, Liping

2011-06-01

S. epidermidis infections on medically implanted devices are a common problem in modern medicine due to the abundance of the bacteria. Once inside the body, S. epidermidis gather in communities called biofilms and can become extremely hard to eradicate, causing the patient serious complications. We simulate the complex S. epidermidis-Neutrophils interactions in order to determine the optimum conditions for the immune system to be able to contain the infection and avoid implant rejection. Our cellular automata model can also be used as a tool for determining the optimal amount of antibiotics for combating biofilm formation on medical implants.

1. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

SciTech Connect

Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

1992-05-01

Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

2. The Complexity of Finding Reset Words in Finite Automata

Olschewski, Jörg; Ummels, Michael

We study several problems related to finding reset words in deterministic finite automata. In particular, we establish that the problem of deciding whether a shortest reset word has length k is complete for the complexity class DP. This result answers a question posed by Volkov. For the search problems of finding a shortest reset word and the length of a shortest reset word, we establish membership in the complexity classes FPNP and FPNP[log], respectively. Moreover, we show that both these problems are hard for FPNP[log]. Finally, we observe that computing a reset word of a given length is FNP-complete.

3. Modeling STOCK Market Based on Genetic Cellular Automata

Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Wang, Bing-Hong; Tang, Zi-Nan; Liu, Jun

An artificial stock market is established with the modeling method and ideas of cellular automata. Cells are used to represent stockholders, who have the capability of self-teaching and are affected by the investing history of the neighboring ones. The neighborhood relationship among the stockholders is the expanded Von Neumann relationship, and the interaction among them is realized through selection operator and crossover operator. Experiment shows that the large events are frequent in the fluctuations of the stock price generated by the artificial stock market when compared with a normal process and the price returns distribution is a Lévy distribution in the central part followed by an approximately exponential truncation.

4. All-DNA finite-state automata with finite memory

PubMed Central

Wang, Zhen-Gang; Elbaz, Johann; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.; Willner, Itamar

2010-01-01

Biomolecular logic devices can be applied for sensing and nano-medicine. We built three DNA tweezers that are activated by the inputs H+/OH-; ; nucleic acid linker/complementary antilinker to yield a 16-states finite-state automaton. The outputs of the automata are the configuration of the respective tweezers (opened or closed) determined by observing fluorescence from a fluorophore/quencher pair at the end of the arms of the tweezers. The system exhibits a memory because each current state and output depend not only on the source configuration but also on past states and inputs. PMID:21135212

5. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

2010-06-01

Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

6. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

SciTech Connect

Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

1992-01-01

Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

7. All-DNA finite-state automata with finite memory.

PubMed

Wang, Zhen-Gang; Elbaz, Johann; Remacle, F; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar

2010-12-21

Biomolecular logic devices can be applied for sensing and nano-medicine. We built three DNA tweezers that are activated by the inputs H(+)/OH(-); ; nucleic acid linker/complementary antilinker to yield a 16-states finite-state automaton. The outputs of the automata are the configuration of the respective tweezers (opened or closed) determined by observing fluorescence from a fluorophore/quencher pair at the end of the arms of the tweezers. The system exhibits a memory because each current state and output depend not only on the source configuration but also on past states and inputs.

8. Simulation of bi-direction pedestrian movement using a cellular automata model

Weifeng, Fang; Lizhong, Yang; Weicheng, Fan

2003-04-01

A cellular automata model is presented to simulate the bi-direction pedestrian movement. The pedestrian movement is more complex than vehicular flow for the reason that people are more flexible than cars. Some special technique is introduced considering simple human judgment to make the rules more reasonable. Also the custom in the countries where the pedestrian prefer to walk on the right-hand side of the road are highlighted. By using the model to simulate the bi-direction pedestrian movement, the phase transition phenomena in pedestrian counter flow is presented. Furthermore, the introduction of back stepping breaks the deadlock at the relatively low pedestrian density. By studying the critical density of changing from freely moving state to jammed state with different system sizes and different probabilities of back stepping, we find the critical density increases as the probability of back stepping increases at the same system size. And with the increasing system size, the critical density decreases at the same probability of back stepping according to the scope of system size studied in this paper.

9. Reasoning about real-time systems with temporal interval logic constraints on multi-state automata

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gabrielian, Armen

1991-01-01

Models of real-time systems using a single paradigm often turn out to be inadequate, whether the paradigm is based on states, rules, event sequences, or logic. A model-based approach to reasoning about real-time systems is presented in which a temporal interval logic called TIL is employed to define constraints on a new type of high level automata. The combination, called hierarchical multi-state (HMS) machines, can be used to model formally a real-time system, a dynamic set of requirements, the environment, heuristic knowledge about planning-related problem solving, and the computational states of the reasoning mechanism. In this framework, mathematical techniques were developed for: (1) proving the correctness of a representation; (2) planning of concurrent tasks to achieve goals; and (3) scheduling of plans to satisfy complex temporal constraints. HMS machines allow reasoning about a real-time system from a model of how truth arises instead of merely depending of what is true in a system.

10. Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street

Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu

2016-11-01

In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.

11. Studies of vehicle lane-changing to avoid pedestrians with cellular automata

Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

2015-11-01

This paper presents studies of interactions between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. A cellular automata system model of the traffic is developed, which includes a number of subsystem models such as the single-lane vehicle model, pedestrian model, interaction model and lane-changing model. The random street crossings of pedestrians are modeled as a Poisson process. The drivers of the passing vehicles are assumed to follow a safety-rule in order not to hit the pedestrians. The results of both single and multiple car simulations are presented. We have found that in general, the traffic can benefit from vehicle lane-changing to avoid road-crossing pedestrians. The traffic flow and average vehicle speed can be increased, which leads to higher traffic efficiency. The interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are reduced, which results in shorter vehicle decelerating time due to pedestrians and less switches of the driving mode, thus leads to the better energy economy. The traffic safety can be improved in the perspective of both vehicles and pedestrians. Finally, pedestrians can cross road faster. The negative effect of lane-changing is that pedestrians have to stay longer between the lanes in the crossing.

12. Development of a Bacteria Computer: From in silico Finite Automata to in vitro and in vivo

Sakakibara, Yasubumi

We overview a series of our research on implementing finite automata in vitro and in vivo in the framework of DNA-based computing [1,2]. First, we employ the length-encoding technique proposed and presented in [3,4] to implement finite automata in test tube. In the length-encoding method, the states and state transition functions of a target finite automaton are effectively encoded into DNA sequences, a computation (accepting) process of finite automata is accomplished by self-assembly of encoded complementary DNA strands, and the acceptance of an input string is determined by the detection of a completely hybridized double-strand DNA. Second, we report our intensive in vitro experiments in which we have implemented and executed several finite-state automata in test tube. We have designed and developed practical laboratory protocols which combine several in vitro operations such as annealing, ligation, PCR, and streptavidin-biotin bonding to execute in vitro finite automata based on the length-encoding technique. We have carried laboratory experiments on various finite automata with 2 up to 6 states for several input strings. Third, we present a novel framework to develop a programmable and autonomous in vivo computer using Escherichia coli (E. coli), and implement in vivo finite-state automata based on the framework by employing the protein-synthesis mechanism of E. coli. We show some successful experiments to run an in vivo finite-state automaton on E. coli.

13. Optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composites using cellular automata

Setoodeh, Shahriar

The growing number of applications of composite materials in aerospace and naval structures along with advancements in manufacturing technologies demand continuous innovations in the design of composite structures. In the traditional design of composite laminates, fiber orientation angles are constant for each layer and are usually limited to 0, 90, and +/-45 degrees. To fully benefit from the directional properties of composite laminates, such limitations have to be removed. The concept of variable-stiffness laminates allows the stiffness properties to vary spatially over the laminate. Through tailoring of fiber orientations and laminate thickness spatially in an optimal fashion, mechanical properties of a part can be improved. In this thesis, the optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composite laminates is studied using an emerging numerical engineering optimization scheme based on the cellular automata paradigm. A cellular automaton (CA) based design scheme uses local update rule for both field variables (displacements) and design variables (lay-up configuration and laminate density measure) in an iterative fashion to convergence to an optimal design. In the present work, the displacements are updated based on the principle of local equilibrium and the design variables are updated according to the optimality criteria for minimum compliance design. A closed form displacement update rule for constant thickness isotropic continua is derived, while for the general anisotropic continua with variable thickness a numeric update rule is used. Combined lay-up and topology design of variable-stiffness flat laminates is performed under the action of in-plane loads and bending loads. An optimality criteria based formulation is used to obtain local design rules for minimum compliance design subject to a volume constraint. It is shown that the design rule splits into a two step application. In the first step an optimal lay-up configuration is computed and in

14. Quantifying a cellular automata simulation of electric vehicles

Hill, Graeme; Bell, Margaret; Blythe, Phil

2014-12-01

Within this work the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata is used to simulate a basic cyclic road network. Results from SwitchEV, a real world Electric Vehicle trial which has collected more than two years of detailed electric vehicle data, are used to quantify the results of the NS automata, demonstrating similar power consumption behavior to that observed in the experimental results. In particular the efficiency of the electric vehicles reduces as the vehicle density increases, due in part to the reduced efficiency of EVs at low speeds, but also due to the energy consumption inherent in changing speeds. Further work shows the results from introducing spatially restricted speed restriction. In general it can be seen that induced congestion from spatially transient events propagates back through the road network and alters the energy and efficiency profile of the simulated vehicles, both before and after the speed restriction. Vehicles upstream from the restriction show a reduced energy usage and an increased efficiency, and vehicles downstream show an initial large increase in energy usage as they accelerate away from the speed restriction.

15. Estimation of daily Snow Cover Area combining MODIS and LANDSAT information by using cellular automata

Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

2016-04-01

The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.

16. A cellular automata approach for modeling surface water runoff

Jozefik, Zoltan; Nanu Frechen, Tobias; Hinz, Christoph; Schmidt, Heiko

2015-04-01

This abstract reports the development and application of a two-dimensional cellular automata based model, which couples the dynamics of overland flow, infiltration processes and surface evolution through sediment transport. The natural hill slopes are represented by their topographic elevation and spatially varying soil properties infiltration rates and surface roughness coefficients. This model allows modeling of Hortonian overland flow and infiltration during complex rainfall events. An advantage of the cellular automata approach over the kinematic wave equations is that wet/dry interfaces that often appear with rainfall overland flows can be accurately captured and are not a source of numerical instabilities. An adaptive explicit time stepping scheme allows for rainfall events to be adequately resolved in time, while large time steps are taken during dry periods to provide for simulation run time efficiency. The time step is constrained by the CFL condition and mass conservation considerations. The spatial discretization is shown to be first-order accurate. For validation purposes, hydrographs for non-infiltrating and infiltrating plates are compared to the kinematic wave analytic solutions and data taken from literature [1,2]. Results show that our cellular automata model quantitatively accurately reproduces hydrograph patterns. However, recent works have showed that even through the hydrograph is satisfyingly reproduced, the flow field within the plot might be inaccurate [3]. For a more stringent validation, we compare steady state velocity, water flux, and water depth fields to rainfall simulation experiments conducted in Thies, Senegal [3]. Comparisons show that our model is able to accurately capture these flow properties. Currently, a sediment transport and deposition module is being implemented and tested. [1] M. Rousseau, O. Cerdan, O. Delestre, F. Dupros, F. James, S. Cordier. Overland flow modeling with the Shallow Water Equation using a well balanced

17. Early warning of illegal development for protected areas by integrating cellular automata with neural networks.

PubMed

Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian

2013-11-30

Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Image encryption and compression based on kronecker compressed sensing and elementary cellular automata scrambling

Chen, Tinghuan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Jianhui; Yuen, Chau; Tong, You

2016-10-01

Because of simple encryption and compression procedure in single step, compressed sensing (CS) is utilized to encrypt and compress an image. Difference of sparsity levels among blocks of the sparsely transformed image degrades compression performance. In this paper, motivated by this difference of sparsity levels, we propose an encryption and compression approach combining Kronecker CS (KCS) with elementary cellular automata (ECA). In the first stage of encryption, ECA is adopted to scramble the sparsely transformed image in order to uniformize sparsity levels. A simple approximate evaluation method is introduced to test the sparsity uniformity. Due to low computational complexity and storage, in the second stage of encryption, KCS is adopted to encrypt and compress the scrambled and sparsely transformed image, where the measurement matrix with a small size is constructed from the piece-wise linear chaotic map. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our proposed scrambling method based on ECA has great performance in terms of scrambling and uniformity of sparsity levels. And the proposed encryption and compression method can achieve better secrecy, compression performance and flexibility.

19. Flow improvement caused by agents who ignore traffic rules.

PubMed

Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Choi, Kweon; Kim, Beom Jun

2009-07-01

A system of agents moving along a road in both directions is studied numerically within a cellular-automata formulation. An agent steps to the right with probability q or to the left with 1-q when encountering other agents. Our model is restricted to two agent types, traffic-rule abiders (q=1) and traffic-rule ignorers (q=1/2) , and the traffic flow, resulting from the interaction between these two types of agents, which is obtained as a function of density and relative fraction. The risk for jamming at a fixed density, when starting from a disordered situation, is smaller when every agent abides by a traffic rule than when all agents ignore the rule. Nevertheless, the absolute minimum occurs when a small fraction of ignorers are present within a majority of abiders. The characteristic features for the spatial structure of the flow pattern are obtained and discussed.

20. LAHS: A novel harmony search algorithm based on learning automata

Enayatifar, Rasul; Yousefi, Moslem; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Darus, Amer Nordin

2013-12-01

This study presents a learning automata-based harmony search (LAHS) for unconstrained optimization of continuous problems. The harmony search (HS) algorithm performance strongly depends on the fine tuning of its parameters, including the harmony consideration rate (HMCR), pitch adjustment rate (PAR) and bandwidth (bw). Inspired by the spur-in-time responses in the musical improvisation process, learning capabilities are employed in the HS to select these parameters based on spontaneous reactions. An extensive numerical investigation is conducted on several well-known test functions, and the results are compared with the HS algorithm and its prominent variants, including the improved harmony search (IHS), global-best harmony search (GHS) and self-adaptive global-best harmony search (SGHS). The numerical results indicate that the LAHS is more efficient in finding optimum solutions and outperforms the existing HS algorithm variants.

1. Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata

Avalle, Michele; Genoni, Marco G.; Serafini, Alessio

2015-05-01

We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario.

2. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

SciTech Connect

Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu

2014-12-15

Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

3. Reversible Flip-Flops in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

2017-09-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata is a new technology to design the efficient combinational and sequential circuits at the nano-scale. This technology has many desirable advantages compared to the CMOS technology such as low power consumption, less occupation area and low latency. These features make it suitable for use in flip-flop design. In this paper, with knowing the characteristics of reversible logic, we design new structures for flip-flops. The operations of these structures are evaluated with QCADesigner Version 2.0.3 simulator. In addition, we calculate the power dissipation of these structures by QCAPro tool. The results illustrated that proposed structures are efficient compared to the previous ones.

4. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

2012-04-01

As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

5. Modeling Evacuation of Emergency Vehicles by Cellular Automata Models

Moussa, Najem

An evacuation of the emergency vehicle (EV) from an origin point (e.g., accident location) to a destination point (e.g., hospital) in lower and higher congestions is simulated using city cellular automata models. We find that the mean speed of the EV and its arrival time all depend enormously on the cars density, the route length of the EV and the turn capability of the cars. Dangerous situations that occurred during the evacuation of the EV are also investigated. By allowing high turning capabilities to cars, considerable improvements are obtained. Indeed, the EV mean speed is enhanced and its arrival time is optimized. Moreover, at relatively high density, a significant reduction of the risk of accident is expected.

6. Cellular automata simulation of medication-induced autoimmune diseases

Stauffer, Dietrich; Proykova, Ana

2004-01-01

We implement the cellular automata model proposed by Stauffer and Weisbuch in 1992 to describe the response of the immune system to antigens in the presence of medications. The model contains two thresholds, θ1 and θ2, suggested by de Boer, Segel, and Perelson to present the minimum field needed to stimulate the proliferation of the receptors and to suppress it, respectively. The influence of the drug is mimicked by increasing the second threshold, thus enhancing the immune response. If this increase is too strong, the immune response is triggered in the whole immune repertoire, causing it to attack the own body. This effect is seen in our simulations to depend both on the ratio of the thresholds and on their absolute values.

7. What can we hope for from cellular automata?

Doolen, Gary

Although the idea of using discrete methods for modeling partial differential equations occured very early, the actual statement that cellular automata techniques can approximate the solutions of hydrodynamic partial differential equations was first discovered by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. Their description of the derivation, which assumes the validity of the Boltzmann equation, appeared in the Physical Review Letters in April 1986. It is the intent of this article to provide a description of the simplest lattice gas model and to examine the successes and inadequacies of a lattice gas calculation of flow in a two-dimensional channel. Some comments will summarize a recent result of a lattice gas simulation of flow through porous media, a problem which is ideal for the lattice gas method. Finally, some remarks will be focused on the impressive speeds which could be obtained from a dedicated lattice gas computer.

8. Evolution of cellular automata with memory: The Density Classification Task.

PubMed

Stone, Christopher; Bull, Larry

2009-08-01

The Density Classification Task is a well known test problem for two-state discrete dynamical systems. For many years researchers have used a variety of evolutionary computation approaches to evolve solutions to this problem. In this paper, we investigate the evolvability of solutions when the underlying Cellular Automaton is augmented with a type of memory based on the Least Mean Square algorithm. To obtain high performance solutions using a simple non-hybrid genetic algorithm, we design a novel representation based on the ternary representation used for Learning Classifier Systems. The new representation is found able to produce superior performance to the bit string traditionally used for representing Cellular automata. Moreover, memory is shown to improve evolvability of solutions and appropriate memory settings are able to be evolved as a component part of these solutions.

9. Robustness enhancement for image hiding algorithm in cellular automata domain

Li, Xiaowei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

2015-12-01

In this paper, we present a cellular automata (CA)-domain image hiding scheme that embedding a secret image into a gray-level image, in which an effective image preprocessor technique is introduced to improve the robustness of the secret image. The image preprocessor works by transforming a secret image into many elemental images based on the lensless integral imaging technique. The properties of data redundancy and distributed memory of the elemental images reinforce the ability to resist some data loss attacks. Besides, we study an improved pixel-wise masking model to optimize the imperceptibility of the stego-image. Experiments verify that the imperceptibility and robustness requirements of the image hiding are both satisfied excellently in the proposed image hiding system.

10. Fault-Tolerant Nanocomputers Based on Asynchronous Cellular Automata

Isokawa, Teijiro; Abo, Fukutaro; Peper, Ferdinand; Adachi, Susumu; Lee, Jia; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Shinro

Cellular Automata (CA) are a promising architecture for computers with nanometer-scale sized components, because their regular structure potentially allows chemical manufacturing techniques based on self-organization. With the increase in integration density, however, comes a decrease in the reliability of the components from which such computers will be built. This paper employs BCH error-correcting codes to construct CA with improved reliability. We construct an asynchronous CA of which a quarter of the (ternary) bits storing a cell's state information may be corrupted without affecting the CA's operations, provided errors are evenly distributed over a cell's bits (no burst errors allowed). Under the same condition, the corruption of half of a cell's bits can be detected.

11. Towards Time Automata and Multi-Agent Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hutzler, G.; Klaudel, H.; Wang, D. Y.

2004-01-01

The design of reactive systems must comply with logical correctness (the system does what it is supposed to do) and timeliness (the system has to satisfy a set of temporal constraints) criteria. In this paper, we propose a global approach for the design of adaptive reactive systems, i.e., systems that dynamically adapt their architecture depending on the context. We use the timed automata formalism for the design of the agents' behavior. This allows evaluating beforehand the properties of the system (regarding logical correctness and timeliness), thanks to model-checking and simulation techniques. This model is enhanced with tools that we developed for the automatic generation of code, allowing to produce very quickly a running multi-agent prototype satisfying the properties of the model.

12. Dynamics of HIV infection on 2D cellular automata

Benyoussef, A.; HafidAllah, N. El; ElKenz, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Loulidi, M.

2003-05-01

We use a cellular automata approach to describe the interactions of the immune system with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We study the evolution of HIV infection, particularly in the clinical latency period. The results we have obtained show the existence of four different behaviours in the plane of death rate of virus-death rate of infected T cell. These regions meet at a critical point, where the virus density and the infected T cell density remain invariant during the evolution of disease. We have introduced two kinds of treatments, the protease inhibitors and the RT inhibitors, in order to study their effects on the evolution of HIV infection. These treatments are powerful in decreasing the density of the virus in the blood and the delay of the AIDS onset.

13. Reversible Flip-Flops in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

2017-07-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata is a new technology to design the efficient combinational and sequential circuits at the nano-scale. This technology has many desirable advantages compared to the CMOS technology such as low power consumption, less occupation area and low latency. These features make it suitable for use in flip-flop design. In this paper, with knowing the characteristics of reversible logic, we design new structures for flip-flops. The operations of these structures are evaluated with QCADesigner Version 2.0.3 simulator. In addition, we calculate the power dissipation of these structures by QCAPro tool. The results illustrated that proposed structures are efficient compared to the previous ones.

14. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

2016-02-01

In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

15. Simple Derivation of Some Basic Selection Rules.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sannigrahi, A. B.; Das, Ranjan

1980-01-01

Presents the selection rules for all four quantum numbers of the hydrogen atom and for a linear harmonic oscillator. Suggests that these rules deserve special mention in an elementary course of quantum chemistry. (Author/JN)

16. Simple Derivation of Some Basic Selection Rules.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sannigrahi, A. B.; Das, Ranjan

1980-01-01

Presents the selection rules for all four quantum numbers of the hydrogen atom and for a linear harmonic oscillator. Suggests that these rules deserve special mention in an elementary course of quantum chemistry. (Author/JN)

17. Simulations of living cell origins using a cellular automata model.

PubMed

Ishida, Takeshi

2014-04-01

Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.

18. Evolving cellular automata to perform computations. Final technical report

SciTech Connect

Crutchfield, J.P.; Mitchell, M.

1998-04-01

The overall goals of the project are to determine the usefulness of genetic algorithms (GAs) in designing spatially extended parallel systems to perform computational tasks and to develop theoretical frameworks both for understanding the computation in the systems evolved by the GA and for understanding the evolutionary process which successful systems are designed. In the original proposal the authors scheduled the first year of the project to be devoted to experimental grounding. During the first year they developed the simulation and graphics software necessary for doing experiments and analysis on one dimensional cellular automata (CAs), and they performed extensive experiments and analysis concerning two computational tasks--density classification and synchronization. Details of these experiments and results, and a list of resulting publications, were given in the 1994--1995 report. The authors scheduled the second year to be devoted to theoretical development. (A third year, to be funded by the National Science Foundation, will be devoted to applications.) Accordingly, most of the effort during the second year was spent on theory, both of GAs and of the CAs that they evolve. A central notion is that of the computational strategy of a CA, which they formalize in terms of domains, particles, and particle interactions. This formalization builds on the computational mechanics framework developed by Crutchfield and Hanson for understanding intrinsic computation in spatially extended dynamical systems. They have made significant progress in the following areas: (1) statistical dynamics of GAs; (2) formalizing particle based computation in cellular automata; and (3) computation in two-dimensional CAs.

19. Simulations of Living Cell Origins Using a Cellular Automata Model

Ishida, Takeshi

2014-04-01

Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.

20. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

PubMed

Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

2016-07-01

1. Cramer's Rule Revisited

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ayoub, Ayoub B.

2005-01-01

In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

2. Development and Evaluation of a Cellular Automata Model for Simulating Tillage Erosion in the Presence of Obstacles

Vanwalleghem, T.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Giráldez, J. V.; Laguna, A.

2009-04-01

The process of tillage translocation is well studied and can be described adequately by different existing models. Nevertheless, in complex environments such as olive orchards, characterized by numerous obstacles, application of such conventional tillage erosion models is not straightforward. However, these obstacles have important effects on the spatial pattern of soil redistribution and on resulting soil properties. In this kind of environment, cellular automata could provide a valuable alternative. This study aims at developing a cellular automata model for tillage translocation (CATT) that can take into account such obstacles and at exploring its possibilities and limitations. A simple model was developed, which main parameters are tillage direction, speed and depth. Firstly, the modeĺs outcome was tested against existing 137Cs inventories for a study site in the Belgian loam belt. The observed spatial soil redistribution patterns could be adequately represented by the CATT model. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the effect of input uncertainty on several selected model outputs. The variance-based extended FAST method was used to determine first and total order sensitivity indices. Tillage depth was identified as the input parameter that determined most of the output variance, followed respectively by tillage direction and speed. The difference between the total and first-order sensitivity indices, between 0.8 and 2, indicated that, in spite of the simple model structure, the model behaves non-linearly with respect to some of the model output variables. Higher-order interactions were especially important for determining the proportion of eroding and deposition cells. Finally, simulations were performed to analyse the model behaviour in complex landscapes, applying it to a field with protruding obstacles (e.g. olive trees). The model adequately represented some morphological features observed in the olive orchards, such as mounds around

3. Conway's Game of Life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata.

PubMed

Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame

2014-05-01

Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ = 0) and an active phase density, with ρ = 0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ(2D) ≈ 0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."

4. Conway's game of life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata

Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame

2014-05-01

Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ =0) and an active phase density, with ρ =0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ2D≈0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."

5. Quantum Dot Cellular Automata: Computing with Coupled Quantum-Dot Molecules

Porod, Wolfgang

1998-05-01

We have recently proposed a scheme of using coupled quantum dots to realize digital computing elements.(C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, W. Porod, and G. H. Bernstein, Nanotechnology 4, 49 (1993); C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, and W. Porod, Applied Physics Letters 62, 714 (1993).) Our scheme was inspired by recent work on nanometer-scale lithography in semiconductors which has permitted the construction of quantum dots which may be viewed as artificial atoms; furthermore, the principle of dot-dot coupling has also been demonstrated, thus realizing artificial semiconductor molecules. This talk will review the work of the Notre Dame group on the theory and modeling of cellular arrays of coupled quantum-dot molecules, which we refer to as quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). We consider inhomogeneous arrays of quantum-dot molecules, where each molecule forms the basic unit in a cellular automaton-type array architecture. These cells (molecules) consists of four or five quantum dots in close enough proximity to enable electron tunneling between dots. Coulomb repulsion between electrons in the cell results in a bistable ground state whose configuration is determined by the configuration of neighboring cells. The electrons tend to occupy antipodal sites in one of two ground-state configurations which may be used to encode binary information. We have demonstrated that Boolean logic gates can be constructed, and simple design rules permit the fabrication of any logic function. The basic principle of QCA operation was demonstrated in recent experiments.(A. O. Orlov, I. Amlani, G. H. Bernstein, C. S. Lent, and G. L. Snider, Science 277, 928, (1997).)

6. Association Rules

Höppner, Frank

Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

7. Developing a web-based cellular automata model for urban growth simulation

Liu, Yan; He, Jin

2009-10-01

Cellular automata as an emerging technology have been adapted increasingly by geographers and planners to simulate the spatial and temporal processes of urban growth. While the literature reports many applications of cellular automata models for urban studies, in practice, the operation of the models as well as the configuration and calibration of relevant parameters used in the models were only known to the model builders. This is largely due to the constraint that most cellular automata models were developed based on desktop computer programs, either by incorporating the model within a desktop GIS environment, or developing the model independent of a desktop GIS. Consequently, there is little input from the user to test or visualise the actual operation or evaluate the applicability of the model under different conditions. This paper presents a methodology to implement a fuzzy constrained cellular automata model of urban growth within a web-based GIS environment, using the actual urban growth of Metropolitan Sydney, Australia from 1976 to 2006 as a case study. With the web-based cellular automata model, users can visualise and test the operation of the model; they can also modify or calibrate the model's parameters to evaluate its simulation accuracies, or even feed the model with various 'what-if' conditions to generate alterative outcomes. Such a web-based modelling platform provides a useful and effective channel for government authority and stakeholders to evaluate different urban growth scenarios. It also provides an interactive environment that can foster public participation in urban planning and management.

8. Application for adding cyclic linear differential automata theory to control delay model

Guo, Manze; Yuan, Zhenzhou; Yang, Yang; Cao, Danni; Peng, Yongxin

2017-05-01

In order to make the simulation software system for the evaluation of the level of road service is more accurately, combining the concept of intelligent transportation evaluation model to it. To modify the traditional T-intersection delay model that is used to calculate the road service level(LOS). The fixed cycle model is changed to dynamic cycle in real time, also the formation of other indicators used to calculate the delay of the new model. The analysis of typical T-intersection in Elizabeth, the area of the United States, CO, is applied to the new model. Compared the data with the original model made in simulation software system and the data in new model. The results show that the new model is more practical than using in traditional software which both comparing evaluating indicators with the current situation.

9. Max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding rule for the simplex method

Tipawanna, Monsicha; Sinapiromsaran, Krung

2014-03-01

The simplex method is used to solve linear programming problem by improving the current basic feasible solution. It uses a pivot rule to guide the search in the feasible region. The pivot rule is used to select an entering index in simplex method. Nowadays, many pivot rule have been presented, but no pivot rule shows superior performance than other. Therefore, this is still an active research in linear programming. In this research, we present the max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding for simplex method. This rule is based on maximum improvement of objective value of the current basic feasible point similar to the Dantzig's rule. We can illustrate by Klee and Minty problems that our rule outperforms that of Dantzig's rule by the number of iterations for solving linear programming problems.

10. Topometry optimization of sheet metal structures for crashworthiness design using hybrid cellular automata

Mozumder, Chandan K.

The objective in crashworthiness design is to generate plastically deformable energy absorbing structures which can satisfy the prescribed force-displacement (FD) response. The FD behavior determines the reaction force, displacement and the internal energy that the structure should withstand. However, attempts to include this requirement in structural optimization problems remain scarce. The existing commercial optimization tools utilize models under static loading conditions because of the complexities associated with dynamic/impact loading. Due to the complexity of a crash event and the consequent time required to numerically analyze the dynamic response of the structure, classical methods (i.e., gradient-based and direct) are not well developed to solve this undertaking. This work presents an approach under the framework of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method to solve the above challenge. The HCA method has been successfully applied to nonlinear transient topology optimization for crashworthiness design. In this work, the HCA algorithm has been utilized to develop an efficient methodology for synthesizing shell-based sheet metal structures with optimal material thickness distribution under a dynamic loading event using topometry optimization. This method utilizes the cellular automata (CA) computing paradigm and nonlinear transient finite element analysis (FEA) via ls-dyna. In this method, a set field variables is driven to their target states by changing a convenient set of design variables (e.g., thickness). These rules operate locally in cells within a lattice that only know local conditions. The field variables associated with the cells are driven to a setpoint to obtain the desired structure. This methodology is used to design for structures with controlled energy absorption with specified buckling zones. The peak reaction force and the maximum displacement are also constrained to meet the desired safety level according to passenger safety

11. Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions

María, Elena Lárraga; Luis, Alvarez-Icaza

2014-05-01

In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model.

12. Devising an unconventional formal logic for bioinspired spacefaring automata

Santoli, Salvatore

2011-03-01

The field of robotics is increasingly moving from robots confined to factory floors and assembly lines and bound to perform the same tasks over and over in an uncertainty-free, well foreseeable environment, to robots designed for operating in highly dynamic and uncertainty domains, like those of interest in space exploration. According to an idea of a "new system of formal logic less rigid than past and present formal logic" advocated by von Neumann for building a powerful theory of automata, such system should be "closer to another discipline which has been little linked in the past with logic, i.e. thermodynamics, primarily in the form it was received by Boltzmann". Following that idea, which is particularly interesting now with the emerging computational nano-sciences, it is stressed here that a full set of isomorphisms can be established between the fundamental logical principles and the information flows, Hamiltonian or dissipative, in phase space. This form of logic, dubbed here kinetic logic, takes standard formal logic out of the field of combinatorics and into the field of the Boltzmannian form of thermodynamics, i.e. kinetics.

13. Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius

Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.

14. Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments

PubMed Central

Horng, Gwo-Jiun

2014-01-01

In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671

15. Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.

PubMed

Horng, Gwo-Jiun

2014-01-01

In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space.

16. Correlation velocities in heterogeneous bidirectional cellular automata traffic flow

Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

2015-12-01

Traffic flow behavior and velocity correlation in a bidirectional two lanes road are studied using Cellular Automata (CA) model within a mixture of fast and slow vehicles. The behaviors of the Inter-lane and Intra-lane Velocity Correlation Coefficients (V.C.C.) due to the interactions between vehicles in the same lane and the opposite lane as a function of the density are investigated. It is shown that high densities in one lane lead to large cluster in the second one, which decreases the Intra-lane velocity correlations and thereby form clusters in the opposite lane. Moreover, we have found that there is a critical density over which the Inter-lane V.C.C. occurs, but below which no Inter-lane V.C.C. happens. The spatiotemporal diagrams correspond to those regions are derived numerically. Furthermore, the effect of the overtaking probability in one lane on the Intra-lane V.C.C. in the other lane is also investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the overtaking probability in one lane decreases slightly the Intra-lane V.C.C. at intermediate density regimes in the other lane, which improves the current, as well as the Inter-lane V.C.C. decreases.

17. A novel time series link prediction method: Learning automata approach

2017-09-01

18. Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics

Bartolozzi, M.; Thomas, A. W.

2004-04-01

In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, σi (t)=+1 , or sell, σi (t)=-1 , a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, σi (t)=0 . The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P500 index.

19. Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics.

PubMed

Bartolozzi, M; Thomas, A W

2004-04-01

In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, sigma(i) (t)=+1, or sell, sigma(i) (t)=-1, a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, sigma(i) (t)=0. The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P 500 index.

20. A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata

Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng

2013-11-01

In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.

1. Modelling of the cellular automata space deformation within the RCAFE framework

2016-10-01

Development of the innovative approach to micro scale cellular automata (CA) space deformation during dynamic recrystallization process (DRX) is the main goal of the present paper. Major assumptions of the developed CA DRX model as well as novel space deformation algorithm, which is based on the random cellular automata concept and FE method, are described. Algorithms and methods to transfer input/output data between FE and CA are presented in detail. Visualization tool to analyze progress of deformation in the irregular CA space is also highlighted. Finally, initial results in the form of deformed and recrystallized microstructures are presented and discussed.

2. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings.

PubMed

Bajec, Iztok Lebar; Pečar, Primož

2012-04-16

: Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay.

3. A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata

SciTech Connect

Umamahesvari, H. E-mail: ajithavijay1@gmail.com; Ajitha, D. E-mail: ajithavijay1@gmail.com

2015-06-24

This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore’s law, so called “beyond CMOS technology”. There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs.

4. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

PubMed Central

Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

2013-01-01

Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

5. A three-dimensional cellular automata model coupled with finite element method and thermodynamic database for alloy solidification

Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.

2013-08-01

A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.

6. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

PubMed

Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

2013-01-01

Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

7. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

2015-08-01

This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

8. A Three-Dimensional Cellular Automata Model Coupling Energy and Curvature-Driven Mechanisms for Austenitic Grain Growth

Wang, Min; Zhou, Jianxin; Yin, Yajun; Nan, Hai; Zhang, Dongqiao; Tu, Zhixin

2017-10-01

A 3D cellular automata model is used to simulate normal austenitic grain growth in this study. The proposed model considers both the curvature- and thermodynamics-driven mechanisms of growth. The 3D grain growth kinetics shows good agreement with the Beck equation. Moreover, the growth exponent and grain size distribution calculated by the proposed model coincides well with experimental and simulation results from other researchers. A linear relationship is found between the average relative grain size and the grain face number. More specifically, for average relative grain sizes exceeding 0.5, the number of faces increases linearly with relative grain size. For average relative grain sizes <0.5, this relationship is changed. Results simulated by the proposed model are translated to physical meaning by adjusting the actual temperature, space, and time for austenitic grain growth. The calibrated results are found to be in agreement with the simulation results from other research as well as the experimental results. By means of calibration of the proposed model, we can reliably predict the grain size in actual grain growth.

9. Hamilton's rule.

PubMed

van Veelen, Matthijs; Allen, Benjamin; Hoffman, Moshe; Simon, Burton; Veller, Carl

2017-02-07

This paper reviews and addresses a variety of issues relating to inclusive fitness. The main question is: are there limits to the generality of inclusive fitness, and if so, what are the perimeters of the domain within which inclusive fitness works? This question is addressed using two well-known tools from evolutionary theory: the replicator dynamics, and adaptive dynamics. Both are combined with population structure. How generally Hamilton's rule applies depends on how costs and benefits are defined. We therefore consider costs and benefits following from Karlin and Matessi's (1983) "counterfactual method", and costs and benefits as defined by the "regression method" (Gardner et al., 2011). With the latter definition of costs and benefits, Hamilton's rule always indicates the direction of selection correctly, and with the former it does not. How these two definitions can meaningfully be interpreted is also discussed. We also consider cases where the qualitative claim that relatedness fosters cooperation holds, even if Hamilton's rule as a quantitative prediction does not. We furthermore find out what the relation is between Hamilton's rule and Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. We also consider cancellation effects - which is the most important deepening of our understanding of when altruism is selected for. Finally we also explore the remarkable (im)possibilities for empirical testing with either definition of costs and benefits in Hamilton's rule.

10. A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata

Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.

2012-12-01

Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in

11. Modeling pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents using cellular automata

Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Ning; Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhenbao; Feng, Guochen

2015-08-01

Compared to vehicular flow, pedestrian flow is more complicated as it is free from the restriction of the lane and more flexible. Due to the lack of modeling pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents (incidents which attract pedestrians around to gather), this paper proposes a new cellular automata model aiming to reproduce the behaviors induced by such attracting incidents. When attracting incidents occur, the proposed model will classify pedestrians around the incidents into three groups: the "unaffected" type, the "stopped" type and the "onlooking" type. The "unaffected" type represents the pedestrians who are not interested in the attracting incidents and its dynamics are the same as that under normal circumstances which are the main target in the previous works. The "stopped" type represents the pedestrians are somewhat interested in the attracting incidents, but unwilling to move close to the venues. Its dynamics are determined by "stopped" utility which can make the pedestrians stop for a while. The "onlooking" type represents the pedestrians who show strong interest in the attracting incidents and intend to move close to the venues to gain more information. The "onlooking" pedestrians will take a series of reactions to attracting incidents, such as approaching to the venues, stopping and watching the attracting incidents, leaving the venues, which have all been considered in the proposed model. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can capture the macro-characteristics of pedestrian traffic flow under normal circumstances and possesses the fundamental characteristics of the pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents around which a torus-shaped crowd is typically formed.

12. Ripple Clock Schemes for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata Circuits

Purohit, Prafull

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging technology for building digital circuits at nano-scale. It is considered as an alternative to widely used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology because of its key features, which include low power operation, high density and high operating frequency. Unlike conventional logic circuits in which information is transferred by electrical current, QCA operates with the help of coulomb interaction between two adjacent QCA cells. A QCA cell is a set of four quantum-dots that are placed near the corners of a square. Due to the fact that clocking provides power and control of data flow in QCA, it is considered to be the backbone of QCA operation. This thesis presents the design and simulation of a ripple clock scheme and an enhanced ripple clock scheme for QCA circuits. In the past, different clock schemes were proposed and studied which were focused on data flow in particular direction or reducing delay. This proposed thesis will study the design and simulation of new clock schemes which are more realistic for implementation, give a freedom to propagate logic in all directions, suitable for both combinational and sequential circuits and has potential to support testing and reconfiguration up to some extent. A variety of digital circuits including a 2--to--1 multiplexer, a 1--bit memory, an RS latch, a full adder, a 4--bit adder and a 2--to--4 decoder are implemented and simulated using these clock schemes. A 2--to--4 decoder is used to demonstrate the testing capabilities of these clock schemes. All QCA layouts are drawn and simulated in QCADesigner.

13. Validating Cellular Automata Lava Flow Emplacement Algorithms with Standard Benchmarks

Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.

2015-12-01

A major existing need in assessing lava flow simulators is a common set of validation benchmark tests. We propose three levels of benchmarks which test model output against increasingly complex standards. First, imulated lava flows should be morphologically identical, given changes in parameter space that should be inconsequential, such as slope direction. Second, lava flows simulated in simple parameter spaces can be tested against analytical solutions or empirical relationships seen in Bingham fluids. For instance, a lava flow simulated on a flat surface should produce a circular outline. Third, lava flows simulated over real world topography can be compared to recent real world lava flows, such as those at Tolbachik, Russia, and Fogo, Cape Verde. Success or failure of emplacement algorithms in these validation benchmarks can be determined using a Bayesian approach, which directly tests the ability of an emplacement algorithm to correctly forecast lava inundation. Here we focus on two posterior metrics, P(A|B) and P(¬A|¬B), which describe the positive and negative predictive value of flow algorithms. This is an improvement on less direct statistics such as model sensitivity and the Jaccard fitness coefficient. We have performed these validation benchmarks on a new, modular lava flow emplacement simulator that we have developed. This simulator, which we call MOLASSES, follows a Cellular Automata (CA) method. The code is developed in several interchangeable modules, which enables quick modification of the distribution algorithm from cell locations to their neighbors. By assessing several different distribution schemes with the benchmark tests, we have improved the performance of MOLASSES to correctly match early stages of the 2012-3 Tolbachik Flow, Kamchakta Russia, to 80%. We also can evaluate model performance given uncertain input parameters using a Monte Carlo setup. This illuminates sensitivity to model uncertainty.

14. Identification of the neighborhood and CA rules from spatio-temporal CA patterns.

PubMed

Billings, S A; Yang, Yingxu

2003-01-01

Extracting the rules from spatio-temporal patterns generated by the evolution of cellular automata (CA) usually produces a CA rule table without providing a clear understanding of the structure of the neighborhood or the CA rule. In this paper, a new identification method based on using a modified orthogonal least squares or CA-OLS algorithm to detect the neighborhood structure and the underlying polynomial form of the CA rules is proposed. The Quine-McCluskey method is then applied to extract minimum Boolean expressions from the polynomials. Spatio-temporal patterns produced by the evolution of 1D, 2D, and higher dimensional binary CAs are used to illustrate the new algorithm, and simulation results show that the CA-OLS algorithm can quickly select both the correct neighborhood structure and the corresponding rule.

15. Stimulus-Response Theory of Finite Automata, Technical Report No. 133.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suppes, Patrick

The central aim of this paper and its projected successors is to prove in detail that stimulus-response theory, or at least a mathematically precise version, can give an account of the learning of many phrase-structure grammars. Section 2 is concerned with standard notions of finite and probabilistic automata. An automaton is defined as a device…

16. A cellular automata model of land cover change to integrate urban growth with open space conservation

EPA Science Inventory

The preservation of riparian zones and other environmentally sensitive areas has long been recognized as one of the most cost-effective methods of managing stormwater and providing a broad range of ecosystem services. In this research, a cellular automata (CA)—Markov chain model ...

17. Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata.

PubMed

Bahar, Ali Newaz; Rahman, Mohammad Maksudur; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Hassan, Md Kamrul

2017-02-01

This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.

18. A cellular automata model of land cover change to integrate urban growth with open space conservation

EPA Science Inventory

The preservation of riparian zones and other environmentally sensitive areas has long been recognized as one of the most cost-effective methods of managing stormwater and providing a broad range of ecosystem services. In this research, a cellular automata (CA)—Markov chain model ...

19. Probabilistic Büchi Automata with Non-extremal Acceptance Thresholds

This paper investigates the power of Probabilistic Büchi Automata (PBA) when the threshold probability of acceptance is non-extremal, i.e., is a value strictly between 0 and 1. Many practical randomized algorithms are designed to work under non-extremal threshold probabilities and thus it is important to study power of PBAs for such cases.

20. Applications of automata and graphs: Labeling operators in Hilbert space. II

SciTech Connect

Cho, Ilwoo; Jorgensen, Palle E. T.

2009-06-15

We introduced a family of infinite graphs directly associated with a class of von Neumann automaton model A{sub G}. These are finite state models used in symbolic dynamics: stimuli models and in control theory. In the context of groupoid von Neumann algebras, and an associated fractal group, we prove a classification theorem for representations of automata.

1. Cellular automata with object-oriented features for parallel molecular network modeling.

PubMed

Zhu, Hao; Wu, Yinghui; Huang, Sui; Sun, Yan; Dhar, Pawan

2005-06-01

Cellular automata are an important modeling paradigm for studying the dynamics of large, parallel systems composed of multiple, interacting components. However, to model biological systems, cellular automata need to be extended beyond the large-scale parallelism and intensive communication in order to capture two fundamental properties characteristic of complex biological systems: hierarchy and heterogeneity. This paper proposes extensions to a cellular automata language, Cellang, to meet this purpose. The extended language, with object-oriented features, can be used to describe the structure and activity of parallel molecular networks within cells. Capabilities of this new programming language include object structure to define molecular programs within a cell, floating-point data type and mathematical functions to perform quantitative computation, message passing capability to describe molecular interactions, as well as new operators, statements, and built-in functions. We discuss relevant programming issues of these features, including the object-oriented description of molecular interactions with molecule encapsulation, message passing, and the description of heterogeneity and anisotropy at the cell and molecule levels. By enabling the integration of modeling at the molecular level with system behavior at cell, tissue, organ, or even organism levels, the program will help improve our understanding of how complex and dynamic biological activities are generated and controlled by parallel functioning of molecular networks. Index Terms-Cellular automata, modeling, molecular network, object-oriented.

2. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations.

PubMed

Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong

2017-09-11

The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

3. Perceptions of teaching and learning automata theory in a college-level computer science course

Weidmann, Phoebe Kay

This dissertation identifies and describes student and instructor perceptions that contribute to effective teaching and learning of Automata Theory in a competitive college-level Computer Science program. Effective teaching is the ability to create an appropriate learning environment in order to provide effective learning. We define effective learning as the ability of a student to meet instructor set learning objectives, demonstrating this by passing the course, while reporting a good learning experience. We conducted our investigation through a detailed qualitative case study of two sections (118 students) of Automata Theory (CS 341) at The University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Lily Quilt. Because Automata Theory has a fixed curriculum in the sense that many curricula and textbooks agree on what Automata Theory contains, differences being depth and amount of material to cover in a single course, a case study would allow for generalizable findings. Automata Theory is especially problematic in a Computer Science curriculum since students are not experienced in abstract thinking before taking this course, fail to understand the relevance of the theory, and prefer classes with more concrete activities such as programming. This creates a special challenge for any instructor of Automata Theory as motivation becomes critical for student learning. Through the use of student surveys, instructor interviews, classroom observation, material and course grade analysis we sought to understand what students perceived, what instructors expected of students, and how those perceptions played out in the classroom in terms of structure and instruction. Our goal was to create suggestions that would lead to a better designed course and thus a higher student success rate in Automata Theory. We created a unique theoretical basis, pedagogical positivism, on which to study college-level courses. Pedagogical positivism states that through examining instructor and student perceptions

4. Fast discovery of simple rules

SciTech Connect

Domingos, P.

1996-12-31

The recent emergence of data mining as a major application of machine learning has led to increased interest in fast rule induction algorithms. These are able to efficiently process large numbers of examples, under the constraint of still achieving good accuracy. If e is the number of examples, many rule learners have {Theta}(e{sup 4}) asymptotic time complexity in noisy domains, and C4.5RULES has been empirically observed to sometimes require {Theta}(e{sup 4}) time. Recent advances have brought this bound down to {Theta}(e log{sup 2} e), while maintaining accuracy at the level of C4.5RULESs. Ideally, we would like to have an algorithm capable of inducing accurate rules in time linear in e, without becoming too expensive in other factors. This extended abstract presents such an algorithm.

5. Simulation of the 1992 Tessina landslide by a cellular automata model and future hazard scenarios

Avolio, MV; Di Gregorio, Salvatore; Mantovani, Franco; Pasuto, Alessandro; Rongo, Rocco; Silvano, Sandro; Spataro, William

Cellular Automata are a powerful tool for modelling natural and artificial systems, which can be described in terms of local interactions of their constituent parts. Some types of landslides, such as debris/mud flows, match these requirements. The 1992 Tessina landslide has characteristics (slow mud flows) which make it appropriate for modelling by means of Cellular Automata, except for the initial phase of detachment, which is caused by a rotational movement that has no effect on the mud flow path. This paper presents the Cellular Automata approach for modelling slow mud/debris flows, the results of simulation of the 1992 Tessina landslide and future hazard scenarios based on the volumes of masses that could be mobilised in the future. They were obtained by adapting the Cellular Automata Model called SCIDDICA, which has been validated for very fast landslides. SCIDDICA was applied by modifying the general model to the peculiarities of the Tessina landslide. The simulations obtained by this initial model were satisfactory for forecasting the surface covered by mud. Calibration of the model, which was obtained from simulation of the 1992 event, was used for forecasting flow expansion during possible future reactivation. For this purpose two simulations concerning the collapse of about 1 million m 3 of material were tested. In one of these, the presence of a containment wall built in 1992 for the protection of the Tarcogna hamlet was inserted. The results obtained identified the conditions of high risk affecting the villages of Funes and Lamosano and show that this Cellular Automata approach can have a wide range of applications for different types of mud/debris flows.

6. Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling

Kozelov, B. V.; Kozelova, T. V.

2003-09-01

We propose a cellular automata model (CAM) to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail) with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth) is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between ionosphere and magnetospheric tail is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF), frozen into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions) and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the Earth . When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some threshold value, the

7. Effects of crab halophytic plant interactions on creek growth in a S.W. Atlantic salt marsh: A Cellular Automata model

Minkoff, Darío R.; Escapa, Mauricio; Ferramola, Félix E.; Maraschín, Silvio D.; Pierini, Jorge O.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Delrieux, Claudio

2006-09-01

The Bahía Blanca Estuary (38° 50' S, and 62° 30' W) presents salt marshes where interactions between the local flora ( Sarcocornia perennis) and fauna ( Chasmagnathus granulatus) generate some kind of salt pans that alter the normal water circulation and condition its flow and course towards tidal creeks. The crab-vegetation dynamics in the salt marsh presents variations that cannot be quantified in a reasonable period of time. The interaction between S. perennis plant and C. granulatus crab is based on simple laws, but its result is a complex biological mechanism that causes an erosive process on the salt marsh and favors the formation of tidal creeks. To study it, a Cellular Automata model is proposed, based on the laws deduced from the observation of these phenomena in the field, and then verified with measurable data within macroscale time units. Therefore, the objective of this article is to model how the interaction between C. granulatus and S. perennis modifies the landscape of the salt marsh and influences the path of tidal creeks. The model copies the basic laws that rule the problem based on purely biological factors. The Cellular Automata model proved capable of reproducing the effects of the interaction between plants and crabs in the salt marsh. A study of the water drainage of the basins showed that this interaction does indeed modify the development of tidal creeks. Model dynamics would likewise follow different laws, which would provide a different formula for the probability of patch dilation. The patch shape can be obtained changing the pattern that dilates.

8. Comparing Linear Conjunctive Languages to Subfamilies of the Context-Free Languages

Okhotin, Alexander

Linear conjunctive grammars define the same family of languages as one-way real-time cellular automata (Okhotin, "On the equivalence of linear conjunctive grammars to trellis automata", RAIRO ITA, 2004), and this family is known to be incomparable to the context-free languages (Terrier, "On real-time one-way cellular array", Theoret. Comput. Sci., 1995). This paper investigates subclasses of the context-free languages for possible containment in this class. It is shown that every visibly pushdown automaton (Alur, Madhusudan, "Visibly pushdown languages", STOC 2004) can be simulated by a one-way real-time cellular automaton, but already for LL(1) context-free languages and for one-counter DPDAs no simulation is possible.

9. Collaboration rules.

PubMed

Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

2005-01-01

Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

10. Classifying elementary cellular automata using compressibility, diversity and sensitivity measures

2014-10-01

An elementary cellular automaton (ECA) is a one-dimensional, synchronous, binary automaton, where each cell update depends on its own state and states of its two closest neighbors. We attempt to uncover correlations between the following measures of ECA behavior: compressibility, sensitivity and diversity. The compressibility of ECA configurations is calculated using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression algorithm LZ78. The sensitivity of ECA rules to initial conditions and perturbations is evaluated using Derrida coefficients. The generative morphological diversity shows how many different neighborhood states are produced from a single nonquiescent cell. We found no significant correlation between sensitivity and compressibility. There is a substantial correlation between generative diversity and compressibility. Using sensitivity, compressibility and diversity, we uncover and characterize novel groupings of rules.

11. A growth model of human papillomavirus type 16 designed from cellular automata and agent-based models.

PubMed

Escobar Ospina, María Elena; Perdomo, Jonatan Gómez

2013-01-01

This paper presents a conceptual model that is developed upon a characterization of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) which is used to build a simulation prototype of the HPV16 growth process. The human papillomavirus type 16 is the principal virus detected in invasive lesions of cervical cancer, and associated with the greater persistence and prevalence in pre-malignant and malignant lesions. The probability of acquiring an infection with HPV16 is extremely high in sexually active individuals. However, an HPV16 infection can disappear after becoming a histological confirmed case. According to the characterization of HPV16 proposed in this paper, cells as compared to a society behaves as a complex system, i.e., cells behave in a cooperative manner, following a set of rules defined by local interactions among them. Such complex system is defined by combining a cellular automaton and agent-based models. In this way, the behavior of the HPV16 is simulated by allowing the cellular automaton to follow such parameterized behavior rules. Both cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate that HPV16 infection persistence increase the risk of high-grade CIN, as observed in the results provided by the growth simulation model of HPV16. The average growth rate extrapolated over 52 weeks (12 months) and calculated by the model showed a 37.87% growth for CIN1, 35.53% for CIN2 and 16.92% for CIN3. Remarkably, these results are similar to the results obtained and reported by clinical studies. For example, the results obtained using the proposed model for CIN2 and the results obtained by Östör [36], have a differential of 0.53 percentage points while have a differential of 2.23 percentage points with the results obtained by Insinga et al. [51]. Also, for the CIN3, the results obtained using the proposed model, have a differential of 2.92 percentage points with the Insinga et al. [52], results. Through the specification of parameterized behavior rules for HPV16 that are

12. CarboCAT: A cellular automata model of heterogeneous carbonate strata

Burgess, Peter M.

2013-04-01

CarboCAT is a new numerical model of carbonate deposystems that uses a cellular automata to calculate lithofacies spatial distributions and hence to calculate the accumulation of heterogeneous carbonate strata in three dimensions. CarboCAT includes various geological processes, including tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea-level oscillations, water depth-dependent carbonate production rates in multiple carbonate factories, lateral migration of carbonate lithofacies bodies, and a simple representation of sediment transport. Results from the model show stratigraphically interesting phenomena such as heterogeneous strata with complex stacking patterns, laterally discontinuous subaerial exposure surfaces, nonexponential lithofacies thickness distributions, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions whereby small changes in the model initial conditions have a large effect on the final model outcome. More work is required to fully assess CarboCAT, but these initial results suggest that a cellular automata approach to modeling carbonate strata is likely to be a useful tool for investigating the nature and origins of heterogeneity in carbonate strata.

13. Efficient process development for bulk silicon etching using cellular automata simulation techniques

Marchetti, James; He, Yie; Than, Olaf; Akkaraju, Sandeep

1998-09-01

This paper describes cellular automata simulation techniques used to predict the anisotropic etching of single-crystal silicon. In particular, this paper will focus on the application of wet etching of silicon wafers using typical anisotropic etchants such as KOH, TMAH, and EDP. Achieving a desired final 3D geometry of etch silicon wafers often is difficult without requiring a number of fabrication design iterations. The result is wasted time and resources. AnisE, a tool to simulate anisotropic etching of silicon wafers using cellular automata simulation, was developed in order to efficiently prototype and manufacture MEMS devices. AnisE has been shown to effectively decrease device development time and costs by up to 50% and 60%, respectively.

14. Distributed learning automata-based algorithm for community detection in complex networks

2016-03-01

Community structure is an important and universal topological property of many complex networks such as social and information networks. The detection of communities of a network is a significant technique for understanding the structure and function of networks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on distributed learning automata for community detection (DLACD) in complex networks. In the proposed algorithm, each vertex of network is equipped with a learning automation. According to the cooperation among network of learning automata and updating action probabilities of each automaton, the algorithm interactively tries to identify high-density local communities. The performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated through a number of simulations on popular synthetic and real networks. Experimental results in comparison with popular community detection algorithms such as walk trap, Danon greedy optimization, Fuzzy community detection, Multi-resolution community detection and label propagation demonstrated the superiority of DLACD in terms of modularity, NMI, performance, min-max-cut and coverage.

15. A cellular automata traffic flow model considering the heterogeneity of acceleration and delay probability

Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong

2016-08-01

This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.

16. Three-dimensional cellular automata as a model of a seismic fault

Gálvez, G.; Muñoz, A.

2017-01-01

The Earth's crust is broken into a series of plates, whose borders are the seismic fault lines and it is where most of the earthquakes occur. This plating system can in principle be described by a set of nonlinear coupled equations describing the motion of the plates, its stresses, strains and other characteristics. Such a system of equations is very difficult to solve, and nonlinear parts leads to a chaotic behavior, which is not predictable. In 1989, Bak and Tang presented an earthquake model based on the sand pile cellular automata. The model though simple, provides similar results to those observed in actual earthquakes. In this work the cellular automata in three dimensions is proposed as a best model to approximate a seismic fault. It is noted that the three-dimensional model reproduces similar properties to those observed in real seismicity, especially, the Gutenberg-Richter law.

17. Simulation of elastic wave propagation using cellular automata and peridynamics, and comparison with experiments

DOE PAGES

Nishawala, Vinesh V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Leamy, Michael J.; ...

2015-09-10

Peridynamics is a non-local continuum mechanics formulation that can handle spatial discontinuities as the governing equations are integro-differential equations which do not involve gradients such as strains and deformation rates. This paper employs bond-based peridynamics. Cellular Automata is a local computational method which, in its rectangular variant on interior domains, is mathematically equivalent to the central difference finite difference method. However, cellular automata does not require the derivation of the governing partial differential equations and provides for common boundary conditions based on physical reasoning. Both methodologies are used to solve a half-space subjected to a normal load, known as Lamb’smore » Problem. The results are compared with theoretical solution from classical elasticity and experimental results. Furthermore, this paper is used to validate our implementation of these methods.« less

18. Simulation of elastic wave propagation using cellular automata and peridynamics, and comparison with experiments

SciTech Connect

Nishawala, Vinesh V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Leamy, Michael J.; Demmie, Paul N.

2015-09-10

Peridynamics is a non-local continuum mechanics formulation that can handle spatial discontinuities as the governing equations are integro-differential equations which do not involve gradients such as strains and deformation rates. This paper employs bond-based peridynamics. Cellular Automata is a local computational method which, in its rectangular variant on interior domains, is mathematically equivalent to the central difference finite difference method. However, cellular automata does not require the derivation of the governing partial differential equations and provides for common boundary conditions based on physical reasoning. Both methodologies are used to solve a half-space subjected to a normal load, known as Lamb’s Problem. The results are compared with theoretical solution from classical elasticity and experimental results. Furthermore, this paper is used to validate our implementation of these methods.

19. Modeling of urban growth using cellular automata (CA) optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

Khalilnia, M. H.; Ghaemirad, T.; Abbaspour, R. A.

2013-09-01

In this paper, two satellite images of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, which were taken by TM and ETM+ for years 1988 and 2010 are used as the base information layers to study the changes in urban patterns of this metropolis. The patterns of urban growth for the city of Tehran are extracted in a period of twelve years using cellular automata setting the logistic regression functions as transition functions. Furthermore, the weighting coefficients of parameters affecting the urban growth, i.e. distance from urban centers, distance from rural centers, distance from agricultural centers, and neighborhood effects were selected using PSO. In order to evaluate the results of the prediction, the percent correct match index is calculated. According to the results, by combining optimization techniques with cellular automata model, the urban growth patterns can be predicted with accuracy up to 75 %.

20. From QCA (Quantum Cellular Automata) to Organocatalytic Reactions with Stabilized Carbenium Ions.

PubMed

Gualandi, Andrea; Mengozzi, Luca; Manoni, Elisabetta; Giorgio Cozzi, Pier

2016-06-01

What do quantum cellular automata (QCA), "on water" reactions, and SN 1-type organocatalytic transformations have in common? The link between these distant arguments is the practical access to useful intermediates and key products through the use of stabilized carbenium ions. Over 10 years, starting with a carbenium ion bearing a ferrocenyl group, to the 1,3-benzodithiolylium carbenium ion, our group has exploited the use of these intermediates in useful and practical synthetic transformations. In particular, we have applied the use of carbenium ions to stereoselective organocatalytic alkylation reactions, showing a possible solution for the "holy grail of organocatalysis". Examples of the use of these quite stabilized intermediates are now also considered in organometallic chemistry. On the other hand, the stable carbenium ions are also applied to tailored molecules adapted to quantum cellular automata, a new possible paradigm for computation. Carbenium ions are not a problem, they can be a/the solution!

1. Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma impact on porous low-K dielectric

Rezvanov, Askar; Matyushkin, Igor V.; Gutshin, Oleg P.; Gornev, Evgeny S.

2016-12-01

Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma influence on the integral properties of porous low-K dielectric is studied. The present work investigates the imitative simulation of this process. In our model we consider one isolated pore, which is simulated by cylinder with length L=200 nm and radius 1 nm ignoring the curvature factor. The simulation was performed for 2 million automata steps that correspond to 2 seconds in the real process time. Extrapolating the data to the longer time shows that more and more •CH3 groups will be replaced by the •OH groups, and over time almost all methyl groups will leave the pore surface (there is not more than 20% of the initial methyl groups amount on the first low-K dielectric 40nm after 2 seconds simulation).

2. Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

PubMed

Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M

2013-01-01

We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.

3. Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.

PubMed

Sulis, William H

2016-04-01

Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.

4. Canalization and Control in Automata Networks: Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

PubMed Central

Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M.

2013-01-01

We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics – a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity – with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues ‘compute’. PMID:23520449

5. A model for electrical tree growth in solid insulating materials using cellular automata

SciTech Connect

Danikas, M.G.; Karafyllidis, I.; Thanailakis, A.; Bruning, A.M.

1996-12-31

Models proposed to explain the breakdown mechanisms of the solid insulating materials are based, among others, on electromagnetic theory, avalanche theory and fractals. In this paper the breakdown of insulating materials is simulated using von Neumanns Cellular Automata (CAs). An algorithm for solid dielectric breakdown simulation based on CAs is presented with a point/plane electrode arrangement. The algorithm is also used to simulate breakdown in a solid dielectric having a spherical void.

6. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

2015-05-01

A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

7. Cellular automata model for human articular chondrocytes migration, proliferation and cell death: An in vitro validation.

PubMed

Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Guevara, J M; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

2016-01-07

Articular cartilage is characterized by low cell density of only one cell type, chondrocytes, and has limited self-healing properties. When articular cartilage is affected by traumatic injuries, a therapeutic strategy such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is usually proposed for its treatment. This approach requires in vitro chondrocyte expansion to yield high cell number for cell transplantation. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, it is necessary to assess cell dynamics such as migration, proliferation and cell death during culture. Computational models such as cellular automata can be used to simulate cell dynamics in order to enhance the result of cell culture procedures. This methodology has been implemented for several cell types; however, an experimental validation is required for each one. For this reason, in this research a cellular automata model, based on random-walk theory, was devised in order to predict articular chondrocyte behavior in monolayer culture during cell expansion. Results demonstrated that the cellular automata model corresponded to cell dynamics and computed-accurate quantitative results. Moreover, it was possible to observe that cell dynamics depend on weighted probabilities derived from experimental data and cell behavior varies according to the cell culture period. Thus, depending on whether cells were just seeded or proliferated exponentially, culture time probabilities differed in percentages in the CA model. Furthermore, in the experimental assessment a decreased chondrocyte proliferation was observed along with increased passage number. This approach is expected to having other uses as in enhancing articular cartilage therapies based on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

8. On the derivation of approximations to cellular automata models and the assumption of independence.

PubMed

Davies, K J; Green, J E F; Bean, N G; Binder, B J; Ross, J V

2014-07-01

Cellular automata are discrete agent-based models, generally used in cell-based applications. There is much interest in obtaining continuum models that describe the mean behaviour of the agents in these models. Previously, continuum models have been derived for agents undergoing motility and proliferation processes, however, these models only hold under restricted conditions. In order to narrow down the reason for these restrictions, we explore three possible sources of error in deriving the model. These sources are the choice of limiting arguments, the use of a discrete-time model as opposed to a continuous-time model and the assumption of independence between the state of sites. We present a rigorous analysis in order to gain a greater understanding of the significance of these three issues. By finding a limiting regime that accurately approximates the conservation equation for the cellular automata, we are able to conclude that the inaccuracy between our approximation and the cellular automata is completely based on the assumption of independence.

9. Regulation Effects by Programmed Molecules for Transcription-Based Diagnostic Automata towards Therapeutic Use

Hirabayashi, Miki; Ohashi, Hirotada; Kubo, Tai

We have presented experimental analysis on the controllability of our transcription-based diagnostic biomolecular automata by programmed molecules. Focusing on the noninvasive transcriptome diagnosis by salivary mRNAs, we already proposed the novel concept of diagnostic device using DNA computation. This system consists of the main computational element which has a stem shaped promoter region and a pseudo-loop shaped read-only memory region for transcription regulation through the conformation change caused by the recognition of disease-related biomarkers. We utilize the transcription of malachite green aptamer sequence triggered by the target recognition for observation of detection. This algorithm makes it possible to release RNA-aptamer drugs multiply, different from the digestion-based systems by the restriction enzyme which was proposed previously, for the in-vivo use, however, the controllability of aptamer release is not enough at the previous stage. In this paper, we verified the regulation effect on aptamer transcription by programmed molecules in basic conditions towards the developm! ent of therapeutic automata. These results would bring us one step closer to the realization of new intelligent diagnostic and therapeutic automata based on molecular circuits.

10. Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach.

PubMed

Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng

2015-11-01

Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges.

11. The use of hybrid automata for fault-tolerant vibration control for parametric failures

Byreddy, Chakradhar; Frampton, Kenneth D.; Yongmin, Kim

2006-03-01

The purpose of this work is to make use of hybrid automata for vibration control reconfiguration under system failures. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters are used to monitor an active vibration control system. When system failures occur (specifically parametric faults) the FDI filters detect and identify the specific failure. In this work we are specifically interested in parametric faults such as changes in system physical parameters; however this approach works equally well with additive faults such as sensor or actuator failures. The FDI filter output is used to drive a hybrid automaton, which selects the appropriate controller and FDI filter from a library. The hybrid automata also implements switching between controllers and filters in order to maintain optimal performance under faulty operating conditions. The biggest challenge in developing this system is managing the switching and in maintaining stability during the discontinuous switches. Therefore, in addition to vibration control, the stability associated with switching compensators and FDI filters is studied. Furthermore, the performance of two types of FDI filters is compared: filters based on parameter estimation methods and so called "Beard-Jones" filters. Finally, these simulations help in understanding the use of hybrid automata for fault-tolerant control.

12. A Conceptual Data Model for Flood Based on Cellular Automata Using Moving Object Data Model

Rachmatullah, R. S.; Azizah, F. N.

2017-01-01

Flood is considered as the costliest natural disaster in Indonesia due to its frequent occurrences as well as the extensive damage that it causes. Several studies provide different flood prediction models based on various hydrological factors. A lot of these models use grid-to-grid approach, making them suitable to be modelled as cellular automata. This paper presents a conceptual data model for flood based on cellular automata model using spatio-temporal data model, especially the moving object data model, as the modelling approach. The conceptual data model serves as the model of data structures within an environment for flood prediction simulation. We describe two conceptual data models as the alternatives to model the data structures of flood model. We create the data model based on the study to the factors that constitute the flood models. The first conceptual data model alternative focuses on the cell/grid as the main entity type. The changes of the states of the cells are stored as moving integer. The second alternative emphasizes on flood as the main entity type. The changes of the flood area are stored as moving region. Both alternatives introduce some advantages and disadvantages and the choice rely on the purpose of the use of the data model. We present a proposal of the architecture of a flood prediction system using cellular automata as the modelling approach. As the continuation of this work, further design and implementation details must be provided.

13. Disorder effects in cellular automata for two-lane traffic

Knospe, Wolfgang; Santen, Ludger; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael

For single-lane traffic models it is well known that particle disorder leads to platoon formation at low densities. Here we discuss the effect of slow cars in two-lane systems. Surprisingly, even a small number of slow cars can initiate the formation of platoons at low densities. The robustness of this phenomenon is investigated for different variants of the lane-changing rules as well as for different variants on the single-lane dynamics. It is shown that anticipation of drivers reduces the influence of slow cars drastically.

14. Understanding the complex dynamics of stock markets through cellular automata

Qiu, G.; Kandhai, D.; Sloot, P. M. A.

2007-04-01

We present a cellular automaton (CA) model for simulating the complex dynamics of stock markets. Within this model, a stock market is represented by a two-dimensional lattice, of which each vertex stands for a trader. According to typical trading behavior in real stock markets, agents of only two types are adopted: fundamentalists and imitators. Our CA model is based on local interactions, adopting simple rules for representing the behavior of traders and a simple rule for price updating. This model can reproduce, in a simple and robust manner, the main characteristics observed in empirical financial time series. Heavy-tailed return distributions due to large price variations can be generated through the imitating behavior of agents. In contrast to other microscopic simulation (MS) models, our results suggest that it is not necessary to assume a certain network topology in which agents group together, e.g., a random graph or a percolation network. That is, long-range interactions can emerge from local interactions. Volatility clustering, which also leads to heavy tails, seems to be related to the combined effect of a fast and a slow process: the evolution of the influence of news and the evolution of agents’ activity, respectively. In a general sense, these causes of heavy tails and volatility clustering appear to be common among some notable MS models that can confirm the main characteristics of financial markets.

15. Linear Accelerators

Sidorin, Anatoly

2010-01-01

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

16. Linear Accelerators

SciTech Connect

Sidorin, Anatoly

2010-01-05

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

17. Synchronized traffic flow simulating with cellular automata model

Tian, Jun-fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-gang; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Xiao-mei; Gao, Zi-you

2009-12-01

The synchronized flow traffic phase of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory can be well reproduced by the model proposed by Jiang and Wu [R. Jiang, Q.S. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 381]. But in the Jiang and Wu model, the rule for brake light-after switching on, the brake light will not set off until the vehicle accelerates-is obviously unrealistic. Thus we improved the model by considering the difference in accelerating and decelerating performance under different driving conditions. The fundamental diagram and spatial-temporal diagrams are analyzed. We confirmed that the new model could reproduce the synchronized flow by two methods, i.e. the traffic flow interruption effect and performing microscopic analysis of time series data. Simulation results show that the decelerating difference is an important factor to reproduce the synchronized flow. We expect that our work could make contributions to understanding the mechanism of the synchronized flow.

18. Urban Growth Modeling Using Cellular Automata with Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images Calibrated by the Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm.

PubMed

Naghibi, Fereydoun; Delavar, Mahmoud Reza; Pijanowski, Bryan

2016-12-14

Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most common techniques used to simulate the urbanization process. CA-based urban models use transition rules to deliver spatial patterns of urban growth and urban dynamics over time. Determining the optimum transition rules of the CA is a critical step because of the heterogeneity and nonlinearities existing among urban growth driving forces. Recently, new CA models integrated with optimization methods based on swarm intelligence algorithms were proposed to overcome this drawback. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an advanced meta-heuristic swarm intelligence-based algorithm. Here, we propose a novel CA-based urban change model that uses the ABC algorithm to extract optimum transition rules. We applied the proposed ABC-CA model to simulate future urban growth in Urmia (Iran) with multi-temporal Landsat images from 1997, 2006 and 2015. Validation of the simulation results was made through statistical methods such as overall accuracy, the figure of merit and total operating characteristics (TOC). Additionally, we calibrated the CA model by ant colony optimization (ACO) to assess the performance of our proposed model versus similar swarm intelligence algorithm methods. We showed that the overall accuracy and the figure of merit of the ABC-CA model are 90.1% and 51.7%, which are 2.9% and 8.8% higher than those of the ACO-CA model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement of the simulation results for the ABC-CA model is 9.9%, which is 2.9% less than that of the ACO-CA model. Finally, the ABC-CA model also outperforms the ACO-CA model with fewer quantity and allocation errors and slightly more hits.

19. Urban Growth Modeling Using Cellular Automata with Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images Calibrated by the Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

PubMed Central

Naghibi, Fereydoun; Delavar, Mahmoud Reza; Pijanowski, Bryan

2016-01-01

Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most common techniques used to simulate the urbanization process. CA-based urban models use transition rules to deliver spatial patterns of urban growth and urban dynamics over time. Determining the optimum transition rules of the CA is a critical step because of the heterogeneity and nonlinearities existing among urban growth driving forces. Recently, new CA models integrated with optimization methods based on swarm intelligence algorithms were proposed to overcome this drawback. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an advanced meta-heuristic swarm intelligence-based algorithm. Here, we propose a novel CA-based urban change model that uses the ABC algorithm to extract optimum transition rules. We applied the proposed ABC-CA model to simulate future urban growth in Urmia (Iran) with multi-temporal Landsat images from 1997, 2006 and 2015. Validation of the simulation results was made through statistical methods such as overall accuracy, the figure of merit and total operating characteristics (TOC). Additionally, we calibrated the CA model by ant colony optimization (ACO) to assess the performance of our proposed model versus similar swarm intelligence algorithm methods. We showed that the overall accuracy and the figure of merit of the ABC-CA model are 90.1% and 51.7%, which are 2.9% and 8.8% higher than those of the ACO-CA model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement of the simulation results for the ABC-CA model is 9.9%, which is 2.9% less than that of the ACO-CA model. Finally, the ABC-CA model also outperforms the ACO-CA model with fewer quantity and allocation errors and slightly more hits. PMID:27983633

20. Robust thermal boundary conditions applicable to a wall along which temperature varies in lattice-gas cellular automata.

PubMed

Shim, Jae Wan; Gatignol, Renée

2010-04-01

We show that the heat exchange between fluid particles and boundary walls can be achieved by controlling the velocity change rate following the particles' collision with a wall in discrete kinetic theory, such as the lattice-gas cellular automata and the lattice Boltzmann method. We derive a relation between the velocity change rate and temperature so that we can control the velocity change rate according to a given temperature boundary condition. This relation enables us to deal with the thermal boundary whose temperature varies along a wall in contrast to the previous works of the lattice-gas cellular automata. In addition, we present simulation results to compare our method to the existing and give an example in a microchannel with a high temperature gradient boundary condition by the lattice-gas cellular automata.

1. Finding and defining the natural automata acting in living plants: Toward the synthetic biology for robotics and informatics in vivo

PubMed Central

Kawano, Tomonori; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano

2012-01-01

The automata theory is the mathematical study of abstract machines commonly studied in the theoretical computer science and highly interdisciplinary fields that combine the natural sciences and the theoretical computer science. In the present review article, as the chemical and biological basis for natural computing or informatics, some plants, plant cells or plant-derived molecules involved in signaling are listed and classified as natural sequential machines (namely, the Mealy machines or Moore machines) or finite state automata. By defining the actions (states and transition functions) of these natural automata, the similarity between the computational data processing and plant decision-making processes became obvious. Finally, their putative roles as the parts for plant-based computing or robotic systems are discussed. PMID:23336016

2. Modelling and analyzing the watershed dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model - A geo-information based approach

Behera, Mukunda D.; Borate, Santosh N.; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Behera, Priti R.; Roy, Partha S.

2012-08-01

Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model and predicted the future LULC scenario, in terms of magnitude and direction, based on past trend in a hydrological unit, Choudwar watershed, India. By analyzing the LULC pattern during 1972, 1990, 1999 and 2005 using satellite-derived maps, we observed that the biophysical and socio-economic drivers including residential/industrial development, road-rail and settlement proximity have influenced the spatial pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of increase from 1972 to 2004 in agriculture land, settlement was observed to be 181.96, 9.89 ha/year, respectively, while decrease in forest, wetland and marshy land were 91.22, 27.56 and 39.52 ha/year, respectively. Transition probability and transition area matrix derived using inputs of (i) residential/industrial development and (ii) proximity to transportation network as the major causes. The predicted LULC scenario for the year 2014, with reasonably good accuracy would provide useful inputs to the LULC planners for effective management of the watershed. The study is a maiden attempt that revealed agricultural expansion is the main driving force for loss of forest, wetland and marshy land in the Choudwar watershed and has the potential to continue in future. The forest in lower slopes has been converted to agricultural land and may soon take a call on forests occurring on higher slopes. Our study utilizes three time period changes to better account for the trend and the modelling exercise; thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC alternations.

3. Input-dependent wave propagations in asymmetric cellular automata: possible behaviors of feed-forward loop in biological reaction network.

PubMed

Awazu, Akinori

2008-07-01

Dynamical aspects of the asymmetric cellular automata were investigated to consider the signaling processes in biological systems. As a meta-model of the cascade of feed-forward loop type network motifs in biological reaction networks, we consider the one dimensional asymmetric cellular automata where the state of each cell is controlled by a trio of cells, the cell itself, the nearest upstream cell and the next nearest upstream cell. Through the systematic simulations, some novel input-dependent wave propagations were found in certain asymmetric CA, which may be useful for the signaling processes like the distinction, the filtering and the memory of external stimuli.

4. Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.

PubMed

Yilmaz, Ozgur

2015-12-01

This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air?

5. A verification strategy for web services composition using enhanced stacked automata model.

PubMed

Nagamouttou, Danapaquiame; Egambaram, Ilavarasan; Krishnan, Muthumanickam; Narasingam, Poonkuzhali

2015-01-01

6. Sequential and Mixed Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata (SGALA, MGALA) for Feature Selection in QSAR.

PubMed

2017-01-01

Feature selection is of great importance in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis. This problem has been solved using some meta-heuristic algorithms such as GA, PSO, ACO and so on. In this work two novel hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms i.e. Sequential GA and LA (SGALA) and Mixed GA and LA (MGALA), which are based on Genetic algorithm and learning automata for QSAR feature selection are proposed. SGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic algorithm and Learning Automata sequentially and the MGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata simultaneously. We applied our proposed algorithms to select the minimum possible number of features from three different datasets and also we observed that the MGALA and SGALA algorithms had the best outcome independently and in average compared to other feature selection algorithms. Through comparison of our proposed algorithms, we deduced that the rate of convergence to optimal result in MGALA and SGALA algorithms were better than the rate of GA, ACO, PSO and LA algorithms. In the end, the results of GA, ACO, PSO, LA, SGALA, and MGALA algorithms were applied as the input of LS-SVR model and the results from LS-SVR models showed that the LS-SVR model had more predictive ability with the input from SGALA and MGALA algorithms than the input from all other mentioned algorithms. Therefore, the results have corroborated that not only is the predictive efficiency of proposed algorithms better, but their rate of convergence is also superior to the all other mentioned algorithms.

7. Sequential and Mixed Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata (SGALA, MGALA) for Feature Selection in QSAR

PubMed Central

2017-01-01

Feature selection is of great importance in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis. This problem has been solved using some meta-heuristic algorithms such as GA, PSO, ACO and so on. In this work two novel hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms i.e. Sequential GA and LA (SGALA) and Mixed GA and LA (MGALA), which are based on Genetic algorithm and learning automata for QSAR feature selection are proposed. SGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic algorithm and Learning Automata sequentially and the MGALA algorithm uses advantages of Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata simultaneously. We applied our proposed algorithms to select the minimum possible number of features from three different datasets and also we observed that the MGALA and SGALA algorithms had the best outcome independently and in average compared to other feature selection algorithms. Through comparison of our proposed algorithms, we deduced that the rate of convergence to optimal result in MGALA and SGALA algorithms were better than the rate of GA, ACO, PSO and LA algorithms. In the end, the results of GA, ACO, PSO, LA, SGALA, and MGALA algorithms were applied as the input of LS-SVR model and the results from LS-SVR models showed that the LS-SVR model had more predictive ability with the input from SGALA and MGALA algorithms than the input from all other mentioned algorithms. Therefore, the results have corroborated that not only is the predictive efficiency of proposed algorithms better, but their rate of convergence is also superior to the all other mentioned algorithms. PMID:28979308

8. Analysis of information gain and Kolmogorov complexity for structural evaluation of cellular automata configurations

2016-04-01

Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.

9. Electrical Treeing Propagation in Nanocomposites and the Role of Nanofillers: Simulationwith the Aid of Cellular Automata

Pitsa, Despoina; Vardakis, George; Danikas, Michael G.; Kozako, Masahiro

2010-03-01

In this paper the propagation of electrical treeing in nanodielectrics using the DIMET (Dielectric Inhomogeneity Model for Electrical Treeing) is studied. The DIMET is a model which simulates the growth of electrical treeing based on theory of Cellular Automata. Epoxy/glass nanocomposites are used as samples between a needle-plane electrode arrangement. The diameter of nanofillers is 100 nm. The electric treeing, which starts from the needle electrode, is examined. The treeing growth seems to be stopped by the nanofillers. The latter act as elementary barriers to the treeing propagation.

10. The Design of Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Armstrong, C. Duane; Humphreys, William M.; Fijany, Amir

2002-01-01

As transistor geometries are reduced, quantum effects begin to dominate device performance. At some point, transistors cease to have the properties that make them useful computational components. New computing elements must be developed in order to keep pace with Moore s Law. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) represent an alternative paradigm to transistor-based logic. QCA architectures that are robust to manufacturing tolerances and defects must be developed. We are developing software that allows the exploration of fault tolerant QCA gate architectures by automating the specification, simulation, analysis and documentation processes.

11. A Three-Layer Full Adder/Subtractor Structure in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Barughi, Yashar Zirak; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

2017-09-01

Nowadays, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the paramount modern technologies for designing logical structures at the nano-scale. This technology is being used in molecular levels and it is based on QCA cells. High speed data transfer and low consumable power are the advantages of this technology. In this paper, we are designing and simulating a fulladder/subtractor with minimum number of cells and complexities in three layers. QCA designer software has been used to simulate the proposed design.

12. The two populations’ cellular automata model with predation based on the Penna model

He, Mingfeng; Lin, Jing; Jiang, Heng; Liu, Xin

2002-09-01

In Penna's single-species asexual bit-string model of biological ageing, the Verhulst factor has too strong a restraining effect on the development of the population. Danuta Makowiec gave an improved model based on the lattice, where the restraining factor of the four neighbours take the place of the Verhulst factor. Here, we discuss the two populations’ Penna model with predation on the planar lattice of two dimensions. A cellular automata model containing movable wolves and sheep has been built. The results show that both the quantity of the wolves and the sheep fluctuate in accordance with the law that one quantity increases while the other one decreases.

13. Stochastic modeling for dynamics of HIV-1 infection using cellular automata: A review.

PubMed

Precharattana, Monamorn

2016-02-01

Recently, the description of immune response by discrete models has emerged to play an important role to study the problems in the area of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, leading to AIDS. As infection of target immune cells by HIV-1 mainly takes place in the lymphoid tissue, cellular automata (CA) models thus represent a significant step in understanding when the infected population is dispersed. Motivated by these, the studies of the dynamics of HIV-1 infection using CA in memory have been presented to recognize how CA have been developed for HIV-1 dynamics, which issues have been studied already and which issues still are objectives in future studies.

14. Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.

PubMed

Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern

2014-09-20

A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding.

15. Stability of Cellular Automata Trajectories Revisited: Branching Walks and Lyapunov Profiles

Baetens, Jan M.; Gravner, Janko

2016-10-01

We study non-equilibrium defect accumulation dynamics on a cellular automaton trajectory: a branching walk process in which a defect creates a successor on any neighborhood site whose update it affects. On an infinite lattice, defects accumulate at different exponential rates in different directions, giving rise to the Lyapunov profile. This profile quantifies instability of a cellular automaton evolution and is connected to the theory of large deviations. We rigorously and empirically study Lyapunov profiles generated from random initial states. We also introduce explicit and computationally feasible variational methods to compute the Lyapunov profiles for periodic configurations, thus developing an analog of Floquet theory for cellular automata.

16. Open boundaries in a cellular automata model for synchronized flow: effects of nonmonotonicity.

PubMed

Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

2003-08-01

In this paper, we have discussed the traffic situations arising from the open boundary conditions (OBC) of a cellular automata model that can reproduce the synchronized flow. The model is different from the slow-to-start (STS) model in that the upper branch of the fundamental diagram in the periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is not monotonous but has an extremum. The phase diagram and the fundamental diagram of the model in the OBC are investigated. The results are compared with those of the STS model and those in the PBC. The current in the OBC as well as the density profiles in the different phases is also investigated.

17. Cellular Automata as a Computational Model for Low-Level Vision

Broggi, Alberto; D'Andrea, Vincenzo; Destri, Giulio

In this paper we discuss the use of the Cellular Automata (CA) computational model in computer vision applications on massively parallel architectures. Motivations and guidelines of this approach to low-level vision in the frame of the PROMETHEUS project are discussed. The hard real-time requirement of actual application can be only satisfied using an ad hoc VLSI massively parallel architecture (PAPRICA). The hardware solutions and the specific algorithms can be efficiently verified and tested only using, as a simulator, a general purpose machine with a parent architecture (CM-2). An example of application related to feature extraction is discussed.

18. A New Cellular Automata Model Considering Finite Deceleration and Braking Distance

Yamg, Meng-Long; Liu, Yi-Guang; You, Zhi-Sheng

2007-10-01

We present a new cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow. In this model, we consider the driver prejudgment according to the state of the leading car. We also consider that the vehicle deceleration capability is finite and the braking distance of the high-speed running cars cannot be ignored, which is not considered in most models. Furthermore, comfortable driving is considered, too. Using computer simulations we obtain some basic qualitative results and the fundamental diagram of the proposed model. In comparison with the known models, we find that the fundamental diagram of the proposed model is more realistic than that of the known models.

19. A Three-Layer Full Adder/Subtractor Structure in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Barughi, Yashar Zirak; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

2017-06-01

Nowadays, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the paramount modern technologies for designing logical structures at the nano-scale. This technology is being used in molecular levels and it is based on QCA cells. High speed data transfer and low consumable power are the advantages of this technology. In this paper, we are designing and simulating a fulladder/subtractor with minimum number of cells and complexities in three layers. QCA designer software has been used to simulate the proposed design.

20. The Development of Design Tools for Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Armstrong, Curtis D.; Humphreys, William M.

2003-01-01

We are developing software to explore the fault tolerance of quantum dot cellular automata gate architectures in the presence of manufacturing variations and device defects. The Topology Optimization Methodology using Applied Statistics (TOMAS) framework extends the capabilities of the A Quantum Interconnected Network Array Simulator (AQUINAS) by adding front-end and back-end software and creating an environment that integrates all of these components. The front-end tools establish all simulation parameters, configure the simulation system, automate the Monte Carlo generation of simulation files, and execute the simulation of these files. The back-end tools perform automated data parsing, statistical analysis and report generation.

1. Extracting cellular automaton rules from physical Langevin equation models for single and collective cell migration.

PubMed

Nava-Sedeño, J M; Hatzikirou, H; Peruani, F; Deutsch, A

2017-02-27

Cellular automata (CA) are discrete time, space, and state models which are extensively used for modeling biological phenomena. CA are "on-lattice" models with low computational demands. In particular, lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) have been introduced as models of single and collective cell migration. The interaction rule dictates the behavior of a cellular automaton model and is critical to the model's biological relevance. The LGCA model's interaction rule has been typically chosen phenomenologically. In this paper, we introduce a method to obtain lattice-gas cellular automaton interaction rules from physically-motivated "off-lattice" Langevin equation models for migrating cells. In particular, we consider Langevin equations related to single cell movement (movement of cells independent of each other) and collective cell migration (movement influenced by cell-cell interactions). As examples of collective cell migration, two different alignment mechanisms are studied: polar and nematic alignment. Both kinds of alignment have been observed in biological systems such as swarms of amoebae and myxobacteria. Polar alignment causes cells to align their velocities parallel to each other, whereas nematic alignment drives cells to align either parallel or antiparallel to each other. Under appropriate assumptions, we have derived the LGCA transition probability rule from the steady-state distribution of the off-lattice Fokker-Planck equation. Comparing alignment order parameters between the original Langevin model and the derived LGCA for both mechanisms, we found different areas of agreement in the parameter space. Finally, we discuss potential reasons for model disagreement and propose extensions to the CA rule derivation methodology.

2. The 5-Second Rule

MedlinePlus

... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A en español La regla ... drop it, he or she might have yelled, "5-second rule!" This so-called rule says food is OK ...

3. Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks

PubMed Central

Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

2016-01-01

Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability. PMID:27874024

4. Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks

Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

2016-11-01

Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability.

5. Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences

Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Peter, B. Luh

2015-06-01

As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB719705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91224008, 91024032, and 71373139).

6. Nanochaos and quantum information for a physical theory of evolvable semantic automata

Santoli, Salvatore

2000-05-01

The concept of "automaton" in its historical development, from the earlier attempts to mimic motions of men and animals to the recent ambitious goals of designing and building biomimetic, i.e., evolvable and self-reproducing machines, is very briefly outlined to stress the physical and logical differences between such conceptions and the main features through which we are able at present to identify and describe biosystems. It is argued that the merely "syntactic" aspect of information processing that is shared by all such approaches can hardly be considered biomimetic on the basis of evolutionary physics of biosystems and of their "semantic" and "pragmatic" information processing capabilities, that can stem from their structure-function (i.e., hardware-software) hierarchical dynamics from the nanometre (classical and quantum) up to the macroscopic (thermodynamic) level and make set-theoretic logic and Shannon-like information two stumbling blocks for a physical interpretation of life, evolution and biological intelligence. A classical and quantum nanoscale approach to the biophysical problem of describing the biosystems structure-function solidarity and its evolutionary properties beyond Gödelian and self-reference paradoxes is discussed as a path toward a physical theory of biomimetic evolvable automata which is based on nanochaos information processing through Hamiltonian and dissipative nonlinear dynamics, and on quantum coherence/entanglement. The envisaged nanostructured hierarchical "extralogical" and logical sequential architectures of such evolvable automata would be implemented through the emerging nanotechnological (nanoelectronic/supramolecular and nano-mechanical) miniaturization capabilities.

7. Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks.

PubMed

Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

2016-11-22

Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability.

8. Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata

Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xi-Qun; Leng, Biao; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Neng

2012-12-01

We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.

9. Dynamic and quantitative method of analyzing service consistency evolution based on extended hierarchical finite state automata.

PubMed

Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian

2014-01-01

This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.

10. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

11. Dynamic and Quantitative Method of Analyzing Service Consistency Evolution Based on Extended Hierarchical Finite State Automata

PubMed Central

Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian

2014-01-01

This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA. PMID:24772033

12. Calibrating Cellular Automata of Land Use/cover Change Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

Mas, J. F.; Soares-Filho, B.; Rodrigues, H.

2015-08-01

Spatially explicit land use / land cover (LUCC) models aim at simulating the patterns of change on the landscape. In order to simulate landscape structure, the simulation procedures of most computational LUCC models use a cellular automata to replicate the land use / cover patches. Generally, model evaluation is based on assessing the location of the simulated changes in comparison to the true locations but landscapes metrics can also be used to assess landscape structure. As model complexity increases, the need to improve calibration and assessment techniques also increases. In this study, we applied a genetic algorithm tool to optimize cellular automata's parameters to simulate deforestation in a region of the Brazilian Amazon. We found that the genetic algorithm was able to calibrate the model to simulate more realistic landscape in term of connectivity. Results show also that more realistic simulated landscapes are often obtained at the expense of the location coincidence. However, when considering processes such as the fragmentation impacts on biodiversity, the simulation of more realistic landscape structure should be preferred to spatial coincidence performance.

13. Simple and Flexible Self-Reproducing Structures in Asynchronous Cellular Automata and Their Dynamics

Huang, Xin; Lee, Jia; Yang, Rui-Long; Zhu, Qing-Sheng

2013-03-01

Self-reproduction on asynchronous cellular automata (ACAs) has attracted wide attention due to the evident artifacts induced by synchronous updating. Asynchronous updating, which allows cells to undergo transitions independently at random times, might be more compatible with the natural processes occurring at micro-scale, but the dark side of the coin is the increment in the complexity of an ACA in order to accomplish stable self-reproduction. This paper proposes a novel model of self-timed cellular automata (STCAs), a special type of ACAs, where unsheathed loops are able to duplicate themselves reliably in parallel. The removal of sheath cannot only allow various loops with more flexible and compact structures to replicate themselves, but also reduce the number of cell states of the STCA as compared to the previous model adopting sheathed loops [Y. Takada, T. Isokawa, F. Peper and N. Matsui, Physica D227, 26 (2007)]. The lack of sheath, on the other hand, often tends to cause much more complicated interactions among loops, when all of them struggle independently to stretch out their constructing arms at the same time. In particular, such intense collisions may even cause the emergence of a mess of twisted constructing arms in the cellular space. By using a simple and natural method, our self-reproducing loops (SRLs) are able to retract their arms successively, thereby disentangling from the mess successfully.

14. Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory.

Sikora, Paweł

2016-12-01

In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.

15. Algebraic properties of automata associated to Petri nets and applications to computation in biological systems.

PubMed

Egri-Nagy, Attila; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

2008-01-01

Biochemical and genetic regulatory networks are often modeled by Petri nets. We study the algebraic structure of the computations carried out by Petri nets from the viewpoint of algebraic automata theory. Petri nets comprise a formalized graphical modeling language, often used to describe computation occurring within biochemical and genetic regulatory networks, but the semantics may be interpreted in different ways in the realm of automata. Therefore, there are several different ways to turn a Petri net into a state-transition automaton. Here, we systematically investigate different conversion methods and describe cases where they may yield radically different algebraic structures. We focus on the existence of group components of the corresponding transformation semigroups, as these reflect symmetries of the computation occurring within the biological system under study. Results are illustrated by applications to the Petri net modelling of intermediary metabolism. Petri nets with inhibition are shown to be computationally rich, regardless of the particular interpretation method. Along these lines we provide a mathematical argument suggesting a reason for the apparent all-pervasiveness of inhibitory connections in living systems.

16. A cardiac electrical activity model based on a cellular automata system in comparison with neural network model.

PubMed

2016-03-01

Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle.

17. Stochastic cellular automata model of cell migration, proliferation and differentiation: validation with in vitro cultures of muscle satellite cells.

PubMed

Garijo, N; Manzano, R; Osta, R; Perez, M A

2012-12-07

Cell migration and proliferation has been modelled in the literature as a process similar to diffusion. However, using diffusion models to simulate the proliferation and migration of cells tends to create a homogeneous distribution in the cell density that does not correlate to empirical observations. In fact, the mechanism of cell dispersal is not diffusion. Cells disperse by crawling or proliferation, or are transported in a moving ﬂuid. The use of cellular automata, particle models or cell-based models can overcome this limitation. This paper presents a stochastic cellular automata model to simulate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. These processes are considered as completely stochastic as well as discrete. The model developed was applied to predict the behaviour of in vitro cell cultures performed with adult muscle satellite cells. Moreover, non homogeneous distribution of cells has been observed inside the culture well and, using the above mentioned stochastic cellular automata model, we have been able to predict this heterogeneous cell distribution and compute accurate quantitative results. Differentiation was also incorporated into the computational simulation. The results predicted the myotube formation that typically occurs with adult muscle satellite cells. In conclusion, we have shown how a stochastic cellular automata model can be implemented and is capable of reproducing the in vitro behaviour of adult muscle satellite cells.

18. Knot invariants and the thermodynamics of lattice gas automata. Final technical report, April 15, 1991--July 14, 1995

SciTech Connect

Meyer, D.A.

1995-12-01

The goal of this project has been to build on the understanding of the connections between knot invariants, exactly solvable statistical mechanics models and discrete dynamical systems gained in earlier work, toward an answer to the question of how early and robust thermodynamic behavior appears in lattice gas automata. These investigations have recently become relevant, unanticipatedly, to crucial issues in quantum computation.

19. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

1959-02-17

Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

20. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

1. Learning and Tuning of Fuzzy Rules

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Berenji, Hamid R.

1997-01-01

In this chapter, we review some of the current techniques for learning and tuning fuzzy rules. For clarity, we refer to the process of generating rules from data as the learning problem and distinguish it from tuning an already existing set of fuzzy rules. For learning, we touch on unsupervised learning techniques such as fuzzy c-means, fuzzy decision tree systems, fuzzy genetic algorithms, and linear fuzzy rules generation methods. For tuning, we discuss Jang's ANFIS architecture, Berenji-Khedkar's GARIC architecture and its extensions in GARIC-Q. We show that the hybrid techniques capable of learning and tuning fuzzy rules, such as CART-ANFIS, RNN-FLCS, and GARIC-RB, are desirable in development of a number of future intelligent systems.

2. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response

SciTech Connect

Tsukerblat, Boris E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Palii, Andrew E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

2015-10-07

Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

3. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response.

PubMed

Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

2015-10-07

Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

4. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response

Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

2015-10-01

Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between the

5. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

PubMed

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

6. Simulation of changes in heavy metal contamination in farmland soils of a typical manufacturing center through logistic-based cellular automata modeling.

PubMed

Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

2016-01-01

A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios <1) included elevation, distance from the road, distance from the key polluting enterprises, distance from the town center, soil pH, and distance from bodies of water. Categorical variables, including soil type, parent material type, organic content grade, and land use type, also significantly influenced HMC according to Wald statistics. The relative operating characteristic and kappa coefficients were 0.91 and 0.64, respectively, which proved the validity and accuracy of the model. The scenario simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.

7. Two Rules for Communication

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hamilton, Mark R.

2005-01-01

One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…

8. A Better Budget Rule

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

2009-01-01

Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

9. Modifying Intramural Rules.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rokosz, Francis M.

1981-01-01

Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

10. A Better Budget Rule

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

2009-01-01

Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

11. 5-Second Rule

MedlinePlus

... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Teens > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Almost everyone ... wanted to eat it. Some people apply the "5-second rule" — that random saying about how food ...

12. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

13. Cellular automata traffic flow behavior at the intersection of two roads

Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

2014-06-01

The control of vehicles in urban traffic is a requirement to maximize the flow and to ensure the safety of traffic. Using the cellular automata Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model within a parallel dynamic update, we studied the effect of the intersection of two symmetrical roads, with typical periodic boundary conditions. It is found that the fundamental diagram depends strongly on the probability P of priority and the probability P1 of changing the road at the intersection. Beside the free flow, the platoon and the jamming phases, the fundamental diagram exhibits a fourth new phase occurring for any value of P ≠ 0.5, which disappears gradually as one increases the probability P, and disappears completely for P = 0.5. The effects of the braking probability Pb on the fundamental diagram and space time structures are also computed for different values of maximal velocities.

14. Modeling and Simulation for Urban Rail Traffic Problem Based on Cellular Automata

Xu, Yan; Cao, Cheng-Xun; Li, Ming-Hua; Luo, Jin-Long

2012-12-01

Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the urban rail traffic flow under moving block system and present a new minimum instantaneous distance formula under pure moving block. We also analyze the characteristics of the urban rail traffic flow under the influence of train density, station dwell times, the length of train, and the train velocity. Train delays can be decreased effectively through flexible departure intervals according to the preceding train type before its departure. The results demonstrate that a suitable adjustment of the current train velocity based on the following train velocity can greatly shorten the minimum departure intervals and then increase the capacity of rail transit.

15. Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab

Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.

2015-11-01

The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.

16. Modeling Immune Network Through Cellular Automata:. a Unified Mechanism of Immunological Memory

Chowdhury, Debashish; Deshpande, Varsha; Stauffer, Dietrich

The populations of the various types of immunocompetent cells in the immune system are described as cellular automata and the population dynamics of these cells are formulated in terms of dynamical maps in discrete time. Both intra-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to the same clone) and inter-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to different clones) are included in the models proposed here. While the intra-clonal interactions are shown to play a crucial role in the primary response of some clones and in the formation of the immunological memory, the inter-clonal interactions are responsible for retaining the memory through a dynamical process driven by the mutual stimulation of the clones. We present the results for two different types of connectivity, namely, a “necklace” network and a network in “shape space”.

17. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study †

PubMed Central

Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L.; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J.; Pardo, Luis M.

2016-01-01

Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent’s actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches. PMID:27347956

18. Simulation of wastewater treatment by aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor based on cellular automata.

PubMed

Benzhai, Hai; Lei, Liu; Ge, Qin; Yuwan, Peng; Ping, Li; Qingxiang, Yang; Hailei, Wang

2014-10-01

In the present paper, aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using synthetic wastewater, and 81 % of granular rate was obtained after 15-day cultivation. Aerobic granules have a 96 % BOD removal to the wastewater, and the reactor harbors a mount of biomass including bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In view of the complexity of kinetic behaviors of sludge and biological mechanisms of the granular SBR, a cellular automata model was established to simulate the process of wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the model not only visualized the complex adsorption and degradation process of aerobic granules, but also well described the BOD removal of wastewater and microbial growth in the reactor. Thus, CA model is suitable for simulation of synthetic wastewater treatment. This is the first report about dynamical and visual simulation of treatment process of synthetic wastewater in a granular SBR.

19. Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM.

PubMed

Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke

2015-07-01

The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location.

20. A testable parity conservative gate in quantum-dot cellular automata

Karkaj, Ehsan Taher; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

2017-01-01

There are important challenges in current VLSI technology such as feature size. New technologies are emerging to overcome these challenges. One of these technologies is quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) but it also has some disadvantages. One of the very important challenges in QCA is the occurrence of faults due to its very small area. There are different ways to overcome this challenge, one of which is the testable logic gate. There are two types of testable gate; reversible gate, and conservative gate. We propose a new testable parity conservative gate in this paper. This gate is simulated with QCADesigner and compared with previous structures. Power dissipation of proposed gate investigated using QCAPro simulator as an accurate power estimator tool.

1. Quantum complexity: Quantum mutual information, complex networks, and emergent phenomena in quantum cellular automata

Vargas, David L.

Emerging quantum simulator technologies provide a new challenge to quantum many body theory. Quantifying the emergent order in and predicting the dynamics of such complex quantum systems requires a new approach. We develop such an approach based on complex network analysis of quantum mutual information. First, we establish the usefulness of quantum mutual information complex networks by reproducing the phase diagrams of transverse Ising and Bose-Hubbard models. By quantifying the complexity of quantum cellular automata we then demonstrate the applicability of complex network theory to non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. We conclude with a study of student collaboration networks, correlating a student's role in a collaboration network with their grades. This work thus initiates a quantitative theory of quantum complexity and provides a new tool for physics education research. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

2. New insights into discretization effects in cellular automata models for pedestrian evacuation

Guo, Ren-Yong

2014-04-01

We develop a cellular automata model with finer discretization of space and higher walking velocities more than one cell. The model is used to simulate the evacuation process of pedestrians from a room with an exit. By simulation experiments, we find subtle effects of the discretization degree and walking velocities on the shape of the crowd near the exit, the evacuation time of each individual at different locations, and the evacuation efficiency of pedestrians formulated by two time indicators. We also investigate the relations between the exit flow and the exit width, formulated by the model, and compare the flow-width relations with those obtained by laboratory experiments in the existing literatures. This study is helpful for the validation and calibration of microscopic pedestrian models with discrete space representation and further narrowing the gap between these models’ theory and their application to engineering.

3. A novel FPGA-programmable switch matrix interconnection element in quantum-dot cellular automata

Hashemi, Sara; Rahimi Azghadi, Mostafa; Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Navi, Keivan

2015-04-01

The Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel nanotechnology, promising extra low-power, extremely dense and very high-speed structure for the construction of logical circuits at a nanoscale. In this paper, initially previous works on QCA-based FPGA's routing elements are investigated, and then an efficient, symmetric and reliable QCA programmable switch matrix (PSM) interconnection element is introduced. This element has a simple structure and offers a complete routing capability. It is implemented using a bottom-up design approach that starts from a dense and high-speed 2:1 multiplexer and utilise it to build the target PSM interconnection element. In this study, simulations of the proposed circuits are carried out using QCAdesigner, a layout and simulation tool for QCA circuits. The results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed designs in QCA-based FPGA routing.

4. Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM

PubMed Central

Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke

2016-01-01

The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location. PMID:27789918

5. Hybrid automata models of cardiac ventricular electrophysiology for real-time computational applications.

PubMed

Andalam, Sidharta; Ramanna, Harshavardhan; Malik, Avinash; Roop, Parthasarathi; Patel, Nitish; Trew, Mark L

2016-08-01

Virtual heart models have been proposed for closed loop validation of safety-critical embedded medical devices, such as pacemakers. These models must react in real-time to off-the-shelf medical devices. Real-time performance can be obtained by implementing models in computer hardware, and methods of compiling classes of Hybrid Automata (HA) onto FPGA have been developed. Models of ventricular cardiac cell electrophysiology have been described using HA which capture the complex nonlinear behavior of biological systems. However, many models that have been used for closed-loop validation of pacemakers are highly abstract and do not capture important characteristics of the dynamic rate response. We developed a new HA model of cardiac cells which captures dynamic behavior and we implemented the model in hardware. This potentially enables modeling the heart with over 1 million dynamic cells, making the approach ideal for closed loop testing of medical devices.

6. Traffic Cellular Automata Simulation of a Congested Round-About in Mauritius

Fowdur, S. C.; Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.

In this paper a Traffic Cellular Automata (TCA) simulation of a highly congested round-about in Mauritius is performed. The simulations are performed using a multi-cell model that includes anticipation and probability randomization. The simulation model is first calibrated to match actual traffic count statistics taken at the round-about. The topology of the round-about is then modified and the TCA model is used to predict the impact on the congestion level of different changes made. The simulation results enable the assessment of the impact on the traffic density and travel time of the different modifications made. It has been found that the construction of a flyover bridge at the round-about will be the most convenient solution to alleviate congestion and improve the flux significantly.

7. Structural distortions in molecular-based quantum cellular automata: a minimal model based study.

PubMed

Bonilla, Alejandro Santana; Gutierrez, Rafael; Sandonas, Leonardo Medrano; Nozaki, Daijiro; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

2014-09-07

Molecular-based quantum cellular automata (m-QCA), as an extension of quantum-dot QCAs, offer a novel alternative in which binary information can be encoded in the molecular charge configuration of a cell and propagated via nearest-neighbor Coulombic cell-cell interactions. Appropriate functionality of m-QCAs involves a complex relationship between quantum mechanical effects, such as electron transfer processes within the molecular building blocks, and electrostatic interactions between cells. The influence of structural distortions of single m-QCA are addressed in this paper within a minimal model using an diabatic-to-adiabatic transformation. We show that even small changes of the classical square geometry between driver and target cells, such as those induced by distance variations or shape distortions, can make cells respond to interactions in a far less symmetric fashion, modifying and potentially impairing the expected computational behavior of the m-QCA.

8. [Allelopathy of invasive weeds: a simulation study with cellular automata model].

PubMed

Liu, Yinghu; Xie, Li; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Shi; Zeng, Rensen

2006-02-01

Cellular automata model is a simulation approach to describe the complicate behavior of a system, and suitable to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant community. In this paper, the model was used to simulate the different sensitivity toall invasion process of an allelochemicals-containing exotic species to the community of two native species with different sensitivity to allelochemicals, and the spatial and temporal dynamics of native and invasive species. The simulation was conducted by biological response and negative exponential distribution models, and the results showed that exotic species could successfully invade the community of two native species with different sensitivity to allelochemicals, but only coexist with one sensitive and one resistant species. The resistance of plant community to invasive weeds depended on its species function structure.

9. Monadic structures over an ordered universal random graph and finite automata

Dudakov, Sergey M.

2011-10-01

We continue the investigation of the expressive power of the language of predicate logic for finite algebraic systems embedded in infinite systems. This investigation stems from papers of M. A. Taitslin, M. Benedikt and L. Libkin, among others. We study the properties of a finite monadic system which can be expressed by formulae if such a system is embedded in a random graph that is totally ordered in an arbitrary way. The Büchi representation is used to connect monadic structures and formal languages. It is shown that, if one restricts attention to formulae that are -invariant in totally ordered random graphs, then these formulae correspond to finite automata. We show that =-invariant formulae expressing the properties of the embedded system itself can express only Boolean combinations of properties of the form the cardinality of an intersection of one-place predicates belongs to one of finitely many fixed finite or infinite arithmetic progressions'.

10. On Diversity of Configurations Generated by Excitable Cellular Automata with Dynamical Excitation Intervals

2012-11-01

Excitable cellular automata with dynamical excitation interval exhibit a wide range of space-time dynamics based on an interplay between propagating excitation patterns which modify excitability of the automaton cells. Such interactions leads to formation of standing domains of excitation, stationary waves and localized excitations. We analyzed morphological and generative diversities of the functions studied and characterized the functions with highest values of the diversities. Amongst other intriguing discoveries we found that upper boundary of excitation interval more significantly affects morphological diversity of configurations generated than lower boundary of the interval does and there is no match between functions which produce configurations of excitation with highest morphological diversity and configurations of interval boundaries with highest morphological diversity. Potential directions of future studies of excitable media with dynamically changing excitability may focus on relations of the automaton model with living excitable media, e.g. neural tissue and muscles, novel materials with memristive properties and networks of conductive polymers.

11. Occupants’ behavior of going with the crowd based on cellular automata occupant evacuation model

Zhao, Daoliang; Yang, Lizhong; Li, Jian

2008-06-01

Occupant behavior which is very complex affects evacuation efficiency and route choice a lot. The psychology and behavior of going with the crowd is very common in daily life and also in occupant evacuation. In this paper, a two-dimensional Cellular Automata model is applied to simulate the process of evacuation considering the psychology of going with the crowd with different room structure or occupant density. The psychology of going with the crowd (the abbreviation is GWC) is classified into directional GWC ( DGWC) and spatial GWC ( SGWC). The influence of two such kinds of psychology on occupant evacuation is discussed in order to provide some useful guidance on the emergency management of evacuation.

12. Parallelism on the Intel 860 Hypercube:. Ising Magnets, Hydrodynamical Cellular Automata and Neural Networks

Kohring, G. A.; Stauffer, D.

Geometric parallelization was tested on the Intel Hypercube with 32 MIMD processors of 1860 type, each with 16 Mbytes of distributed memory. We applied it to Ising models in two and three dimensions as well as to neural networks and two-dimensional hydrodynamic cellular automata. For system sizes suited to this machine, up to 60960*60960 and 1410*1410*1408 Ising spins, we found nearly hundred percent parallel efficiency in spite of the needed inter-processor communications. For small systems, the observed deviations from full efficiency were compared with the scaling concepts of Heermann and Burkitt and of Jakobs and Gerling. For Ising models, we determined the Glauber kinetic exponent z≃2.18 in two dimensions and confirmed the stretched exponential relaxation of the magnetization towards the spontaneous magnetization below Tc. For three dimensions we found z≃2.09 and simple exponential relaxation.

13. On Detection and Isolation of Defective Cells in Self-Timed Cellular Automata

Defect-tolerance, the ability to overcome unreliability of components in a system, will be essential to realize computers built by nanotechnology. This paper reviews two approaches to defect-tolerance for nanocomputers that are based on self-timed cellular automata, a type of asynchronous cellular automaton, where the cells' defects are assumed to be of the stuck-at fault type. One approach for detecting and isolating defective components (cells) is in a so-called off-line manner, i.e., through isolating defective cells and laying out circuits in the cellular space. In the other approach, defective cells can be detected and isolated while computation takes place, i.e., in an on-line manner. We show how to cope with defects in the cellular space in a self-contained way, while a computation task is conducted on it.

14. Learning to construct pushdown automata for accepting deterministic context-free languages

Sen, Sandip; Janakiraman, Janani

1992-03-01

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of probabilistic optimization algorithms which utilize ideas from natural genetics. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to a difficult machine learning problem, viz., to learn the description of pushdown automata (PDA) to accept a context-free language (CFL), given legal and illegal sentences of the language. Previous work has involved the use of GAs in learning descriptions for finite state machines for accepting regular languages. CFLs are known to properly include regular languages, and hence, the learning problem addressed here is of a greater complexity. The ability to accept context free languages can be applied to a number of practical problems like text processing, speech recognition, etc.

15. Emergency evacuation models based on cellular automata with route changes and group fields

Pereira, L. A.; Burgarelli, D.; Duczmal, L. H.; Cruz, F. R. B.

2017-05-01

In this paper, we propose an extension of cellular automata models applied to emergency evacuation pedestrian dynamics. The new extensions are the route change probabilities and group fields. The first extension allows for pedestrians to change direction when necessary to access an alternate exit route. The second extension adds a field that makes groups of pedestrians always walk close to each other and exit together. Several experiments were conducted to study the effects of these new extensions, first to verify the associated collective phenomena and to verify the effect with the security performance measures, more precisely, in the evacuation time, as well as to perform comparisons with other previous models. The main conclusions are that the effects of these new extensions effectively modify the security performance measures and can therefore be important for improving the models and providing better estimates.

16. Design of efficient full adder in quantum-dot cellular automata.

PubMed

Sen, Bibhash; Rajoria, Ayush; Sikdar, Biplab K

2013-01-01

Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters) for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock) with high compaction (0.01 μ m(2)) for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches.

17. Design of Efficient Full Adder in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

PubMed Central

Sen, Bibhash; Sikdar, Biplab K.

2013-01-01

Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters) for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock) with high compaction (0.01 μm2) for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches. PMID:23844385

18. Time reverse automata patterns generated by Spencer-Brown's modulator: invertibility based on autopoiesis.

PubMed

Gunji, Y; Nakamura, T

1991-01-01

In the present paper the self-consistency or operational closure of autopoiesis is described by introducing time explicitly. It is an extension of Spencer-Brown's idea of time, however. The definition of time is segregated into two parts, corresponding to the syntax and semantics of language, respectively. In this context, time reversibility is defined by the formalization of the relationship between time and self-consistency. This idea has also been discussed in the context of designation and/or naming. Here we will discuss it in the context of cellular automata and explain the structure of one-to-many type mappings. Our approach is the first attempt to extend autopoietic systems in terms of dynamics. It illustrates how to introduce an autopoietic time which looks irreversible, but without the concept of entropy.

19. Performance of 1D quantum cellular automata in the presence of error

McNally, Douglas M.; Clemens, James P.

2016-09-01

This work expands a previous block-partitioned quantum cellular automata (BQCA) model proposed by Brennen and Williams [Phys. Rev. A. 68, 042311 (2003)] to incorporate physically realistic error models. These include timing errors in the form of over- and under-rotations of quantum states during computational gate sequences, stochastic phase and bit flip errors, as well as undesired two-bit interactions occurring during single-bit gate portions of an update sequence. A compensation method to counteract the undesired pairwise interactions is proposed and investigated. Each of these error models is implemented using Monte Carlo simulations for stochastic errors and modifications to the prescribed gate sequences to account for coherent over-rotations. The impact of these various errors on the function of a QCA gate sequence is evaluated using the fidelity of the final state calculated for four quantum information processing protocols of interest: state transfer, state swap, GHZ state generation, and entangled pair generation.

20. Electoral surveys’ influence on the voting processes: a cellular automata model

Alves, S. G.; Oliveira Neto, N. M.; Martins, M. L.

2002-12-01

Nowadays, in societies threatened by atomization, selfishness, short-term thinking, and alienation from political life, there is a renewed debate about classical questions concerning the quality of democratic decision making. In this work a cellular automata model for the dynamics of free elections, based on the social impact theory is proposed. By using computer simulations, power-law distributions for the size of electoral clusters and decision time have been obtained. The major role of broadcasted electoral surveys in guiding opinion formation and stabilizing the “status quo” was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was shown that in societies where these surveys are manipulated within the universally accepted statistical error bars, even a majoritary opposition could be hindered from reaching power through the electoral path.

1. Operator-sum models of quantum decoherence in molecular quantum-dot cellular automata

Ramsey, Jackson S.; Blair, Enrique P.

2017-08-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata is a paradigm for classical computing which departs from the transistor paradigm and provides a system in which quantum phenomena may be studied. Here, the elementary computing device is a cell, a structure having multiple quantum dots and a few mobile charges. A specific operator-sum representation is developed for an exactly modeled double-dot, molecular cell within an environment of N similar neighboring molecules. While an operator-sum representation is not unique, a specific model can be determined by selecting a particular environmental basis. We select the environment's computational basis and calculate the specific and full set of 2N Kraus operators, which match exactly previous models of quantum decoherence in this system. Finally, the timescale for environmental interaction is characterized, enabling the reduction of the large set of Kraus operators to an approximate pair of Kraus operators, exact in the limit of large N.

2. Conflict game in evacuation process: A study combining Cellular Automata model

Zheng, Xiaoping; Cheng, Yuan

2011-03-01

The game-theoretic approach is an essential tool in the research of conflicts of human behaviors. The aim of this study is to research crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. By combining a conflict game with a Cellular Automata model, the following factors such as rationality, herding effect and conflict cost are taken into the research on frequency of each strategy of evacuees, and evacuation time. Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that (i) in an emergency condition, rationality leads to “vying” behaviors and inhibited “polite” behavior; (ii) high herding causes a crowd of high rationality (especially in normal circumstances) to become more “vying” in behavior; (iii) the high-rationality crowd is shown to spend more evacuation time than a low-rationality crowd in emergency situations. This study provides a new perspective to understand conflicts in evacuation processes as well as the rationality of evacuees.

3. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation

PubMed Central

Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin

2014-01-01

Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system. PMID:24892080

4. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

PubMed

2013-05-21

This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

5. Consequences of landscape fragmentation on Lyme disease risk: a cellular automata approach.

PubMed

Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

2012-01-01

The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial

6. Consequences of Landscape Fragmentation on Lyme Disease Risk: A Cellular Automata Approach

PubMed Central

Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.

2012-01-01

The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial

7. Facilitating arrhythmia simulation: the method of quantitative cellular automata modeling and parallel running

PubMed Central

Zhu, Hao; Sun, Yan; Rajagopal, Gunaretnam; Mondry, Adrian; Dhar, Pawan

2004-01-01

Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods described. PMID:15339335

8. Urn Automata

DTIC Science & Technology

2003-11-05

of deadlock or loss of synchronization. The Chemical Abstract Machine of Berry and Boudol [1] is an abstract machine designed to model a situation in...only small growth in the number of tokens? References [1] G. Berry and G. Boudol. The chemical abstract machine. Theoretical Computer Science, 96:217

9. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

10. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

11. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

12. Cellular automata approach for the dynamics of HIV infection under antiretroviral therapies: The role of the virus diffusion

González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio

2013-10-01

We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.

13. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Colgate, S.A.

1958-05-27

An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

14. Origin of nonsaturating linear magnetoresistivity

Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B.

2017-01-01

The observation of nonsaturating classical linear magnetoresistivity has been an enigmatic phenomenon in solid-state physics. We present a study of a two-dimensional ohmic conductor, including local Hall effect and a self-consistent consideration of the environment. An equivalent-circuit scheme delivers a simple and convincing argument why the magnetoresistivity is linear in strong magnetic field, provided that current and biasing electric field are misaligned by a nonlocal mechanism. A finite-element model of a two-dimensional conductor is suited to display the situations that create such deviating currents. Besides edge effects next to electrodes, charge carrier density fluctuations are efficiently generating this effect. However, mobility fluctuations that have frequently been related to linear magnetoresistivity are barely relevant. Despite its rare observation, linear magnetoresitivity is rather the rule than the exception in a regime of low charge carrier densities, misaligned current pathways and strong magnetic field.

15. Field validation of a free-agent cellular automata model of fire spread with fire–atmosphere coupling

Treesearch

Gary Achtemeier

2012-01-01

A cellular automata fire model represents âelementsâ of fire by autonomous agents. A few simple algebraic expressions substituted for complex physical and meteorological processes and solved iteratively yield simulations for âsuper-diffusiveâ fire spread and coupled surface-layer (2-m) fireâatmosphere processes. Pressure anomalies, which are integrals of the thermal...

16. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

PubMed

Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

2015-01-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

17. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits

PubMed Central

Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F.

2015-01-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs. PMID:26345412

18. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments-A proof of concept

Wang, Michael H. L. S.; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

2016-10-01

We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

19. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. A proof of concept

DOE PAGES

Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; ...

2016-06-25

Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

20. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments. A proof of concept

SciTech Connect

Michael H. L. S. Wang; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

2016-06-25

Here, we explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

1. Linear Clouds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2006-01-01

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2. Second sum rule for the hot plasma permittivity

SciTech Connect

Bobrov, V. B.; Mendeleyev, V. Ya.; Skovorod'ko, S. N.; Trigger, S. A.

2011-02-15

Based on linear response theory, Kramers-Kronig relations, and diagram techniques of perturbation theory, it is shown that the second sum rule is satisfied for hot plasma permittivity. An explicit analytical expression for the second sum rule in the limit of weak nonideality is derived.

3. Strategy as simple rules.

PubMed

Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

2001-01-01

4. Rules, culture, and fitness

PubMed Central

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

5. Toward quantum-dot cellular automata units: thiolated-carbazole linked bisferrocenes

Arima, Valentina; Iurlo, Matteo; Zoli, Luca; Kumar, Susmit; Piacenza, Manuel; Della Sala, Fabio; Matino, Francesca; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Ross; Paolucci, Francesco; Marcaccio, Massimo; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo

2012-01-01

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) exploit quantum confinement, tunneling and electrostatic interaction for transistorless digital computing. Implementation at the molecular scale requires carefully tailored units which must obey several structural and functional constraints, ranging from the capability to confine charge efficiently on different quantum-dot centers'--in order to sharply encode the Boolean states--up to the possibility of having their state blanked out upon application of an external signal. In addition, the molecular units must preserve their geometry in the solid state, to interact electrostatically in a controlled way. Here, we present a novel class of organometallic molecules, 6-3,6-bis(1-ethylferrocen)-9H-carbazol-9-yl-6-hexan-1-thiols, which are engineered to satisfy all such crucial requirements at once, as confirmed by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, and first principles density functional calculations.Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) exploit quantum confinement, tunneling and electrostatic interaction for transistorless digital computing. Implementation at the molecular scale requires carefully tailored units which must obey several structural and functional constraints, ranging from the capability to confine charge efficiently on different quantum-dot centers'--in order to sharply encode the Boolean states--up to the possibility of having their state blanked out upon application of an external signal. In addition, the molecular units must preserve their geometry in the solid state, to interact electrostatically in a controlled way. Here, we present a novel class of organometallic molecules, 6-3,6-bis(1-ethylferrocen)-9H-carbazol-9-yl-6-hexan-1-thiols, which are engineered to satisfy all such crucial requirements at once, as confirmed by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, and first principles density functional calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

6. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

PubMed Central

Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

2004-01-01

Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

7. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Murphy, David

2011-01-01

About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

8. A Reconceptualization of Rules.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kushner, Malcolm

Recently, communications scholars and theorists have begun formulating rules to describe the workings of language in various situations of everyday use. Theoretically, current rules approaches are in violation of the basic philosophy underlying communication theory--Whitehead's notion of process. The inconsistency is a function of the degree of…

9. Are Intuitive Rules Universal?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell

2006-01-01

This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…

10. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

11. How Rules Shape Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emo, Kenneth

2008-01-01

Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

12. Core Rules of Netiquette.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shea, Virginia

1994-01-01

Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

13. Beyond Rules to Guidelines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gartrell, Dan

2010-01-01

Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…

14. How Rules Shape Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emo, Kenneth

2008-01-01

Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

15. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

16. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

17. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

18. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rule of construction (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

19. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rule of construction (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

20. Cellular Automata for Spatiotemporal Pattern Formation from Reaction-Diffusion Partial Differential Equations

Ohmori, Shousuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

2016-01-01

Ultradiscrete equations are derived from a set of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and cellular automaton rules are obtained on the basis of the ultradiscrete equations. Some rules reproduce the dynamical properties of the original reaction-diffusion equations, namely, bistability and pulse annihilation. Furthermore, other rules bring about soliton-like preservation and periodic pulse generation with a pacemaker, which are not obtained from the original reaction-diffusion equations.

1. Quasi-classical modeling of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata multidriver gates

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (mQCA) has received considerable attention in nanoscience. Unlike the current-based molecular switches, where the digital data is represented by the on/off states of the switches, in mQCA devices, binary information is encoded in charge configuration within molecular redox centers. The mQCA paradigm allows high device density and ultra-low power consumption. Digital mQCA gates are the building blocks of circuits in this paradigm. Design and analysis of these gates require quantum chemical calculations, which are demanding in computer time and memory. Therefore, developing simple models to probe mQCA gates is of paramount importance. We derive a semi-classical model to study the steady-state output polarization of mQCA multidriver gates, directly from the two-state approximation in electron transfer theory. The accuracy and validity of this model are analyzed using full quantum chemistry calculations. A complete set of logic gates, including inverters and minority voters, are implemented to provide an appropriate test bench in the two-dot mQCA regime. We also briefly discuss how the QCADesigner tool could find its application in simulation of mQCA devices. PMID:22647345

2. The cellular automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface

Jarna, Alexandra; Cirbus, Juraj

2013-04-01

Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow.

3. The Cellular Automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface

Jarna, A.

2012-12-01

Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow. Comparison of the simulation results with real lava flows mapped out from satellite images will be presented.

4. Statistical learning and the challenge of syntax: Beyond finite state automata

Elman, Jeff

2003-10-01

Over the past decade, it has been clear that even very young infants are sensitive to the statistical structure of language input presented to them, and use the distributional regularities to induce simple grammars. But can such statistically-driven learning also explain the acquisition of more complex grammar, particularly when the grammar includes recursion? Recent claims (e.g., Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch, 2002) have suggested that the answer is no, and that at least recursion must be an innate capacity of the human language acquisition device. In this talk evidence will be presented that indicates that, in fact, statistically-driven learning (embodied in recurrent neural networks) can indeed enable the learning of complex grammatical patterns, including those that involve recursion. When the results are generalized to idealized machines, it is found that the networks are at least equivalent to Push Down Automata. Perhaps more interestingly, with limited and finite resources (such as are presumed to exist in the human brain) these systems demonstrate patterns of performance that resemble those in humans.

5. Cellular automata segmentation of the boundary between the compacta of vertebral bodies and surrounding structures

Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher

2016-03-01

Due to the aging population, spinal diseases get more and more common nowadays; e.g., lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is 40% for white women and 13% for white men in the United States. Thus the numbers of surgical spinal procedures are also increasing with the aging population and precise diagnosis plays a vital role in reducing complication and recurrence of symptoms. Spinal imaging of vertebral column is a tedious process subjected to interpretation errors. In this contribution, we aim to reduce time and error for vertebral interpretation by applying and studying the GrowCut - algorithm for boundary segmentation between vertebral body compacta and surrounding structures. GrowCut is a competitive region growing algorithm using cellular automata. For our study, vertebral T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were first manually outlined by neurosurgeons. Then, the vertebral bodies were segmented in the medical images by a GrowCut-trained physician using the semi-automated GrowCut-algorithm. Afterwards, results of both segmentation processes were compared using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance (HD) which yielded to a DSC of 82.99+/-5.03% and a HD of 18.91+/-7.2 voxel, respectively. In addition, the times have been measured during the manual and the GrowCut segmentations, showing that a GrowCutsegmentation - with an average time of less than six minutes (5.77+/-0.73) - is significantly shorter than a pure manual outlining.

6. Link prediction based on temporal similarity metrics using continuous action set learning automata

2016-10-01

7. Impact of time delay on the dynamics of SEIR epidemic model using cellular automata

Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

2017-04-01

The delay of an infectious disease is significant when aiming to predict its strength and spreading patterns. In this paper the SEIR ​(susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) epidemic spread with time delay is analyzed through a two-dimensional cellular automata model. The time delay corresponding to the infectious span, predominantly, includes death during the latency period in due course of infection. The advancement of whole system is described by SEIR transition function complemented with crucial factors like inhomogeneous population distribution, birth and disease independent mortality. Moreover, to reflect more realistic population dynamics some stochastic parameters like population movement and connections at local level are also considered. The existence and stability of disease free equilibrium is investigated. Two prime behavioral patterns of disease dynamics is found depending on delay. The critical value of delay, beyond which there are notable variations in spread patterns, is computed. The influence of important parameters affecting the disease dynamics on basic reproduction number is also examined. The results obtained show that delay plays an affirmative role to control disease progression in an infected host.

8. Estimation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of snow covered area by using cellular automata models

Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Pulido-Velazquez, David

2017-07-01

Given the need to consider the cryosphere in water resources management for mountainous regions, the purpose of this paper is to model the daily spatially distributed dynamics of snow covered area (SCA) by using calibrated cellular automata models. For the operational use of the calibrated model, the only data requirements are the altitude of each cell of the spatial discretization of the area of interest and precipitation and temperature indexes for the area of interest. For the calibration step, experimental snow covered area data are needed. Potential uses of the model are to estimate the snow covered area when satellite data are absent, or when they provide a temporal resolution different from the operational resolution, or when the satellite images are useless because they are covered by clouds or because there has been a sensor failure. Another interesting application is the simulation of SCA dynamics for the snow covered area under future climatic scenarios. The model is applied to the Sierra Nevada mountain range, in southern Spain, which is home to significant biodiversity, contains important water resources in its snowpack, and contains the most meridional ski resort in Europe.

9. Cellular automata simulation of osteoblast growth on microfibrous-carbon-based scaffolds.

PubMed

Czarnecki, Jarema S; Jolivet, Simon; Blackmore, Mary E; Lafdi, Khalid; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

2014-12-01

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of three fibrous carbon materials (T300, P25, and P120) for bone repair and develop and validate theoretical and computational methods in which bone tissue regeneration and repair could be accurately predicted. T300 was prepared from polyacrylonitrile precursor while P25 and P120 fibers were prepared from pitch, both common fiber precursors. Results showed that osteoblast growth on carbon scaffolds was enhanced with increased crystallinity, surface roughness, and material orientation. For unidirectional scaffolds at 120 h, there was 33% difference in cell growth between T300 and P25 fibers and 64% difference between P25 and P120 fibers. Moreover, for multidirectional fibers at 120 h, there was 35% difference in cell growth between T300 and P25 fibers and 43% difference between P25 and P120 fibers. Results showed that material alignment was integral to promoting cell growth with multidirectional scaffolds having the capacity for greater growth over unidirectional scaffolds. At 120 h there was 24% increase in cell growth between unidirectional alignment and multidirectional alignment on high-crystalline carbon fibers. Ultimately, data indicated that carbon scaffolds exhibited excellent bioactivity and may be tuned to stimulate unique reactions. Additionally, numerical and computational simulations provided evidence that corroborated experimental data with simulations. Results illustrated the capability of cellular automata models for assessing osteoblast cell response to biomaterials.

10. A cellular automata-based model of Earth's magnetosphere in relation with Dst index

Banerjee, Adrija; Bej, Amaresh; Chatterjee, T. N.

2015-05-01

The disturbance storm time (Dst) index, a measure of the strength of a geomagnetic storm, is difficult to predict by some conventional methods due to its abstract structural complexity and stochastic nature though a timely geomagnetic storm warning could save society from huge economic losses and hours of related hazards. Self-organized criticality and the concept of many-body interactive nonlinear system can be considered an explanation for the fundamental mechanism of the nonstationary geomagnetic disturbances controlled by the perturbed interplanetary conditions. The present paper approaches this natural phenomena by a sandpile-like cellular automata-based model of magnetosphere, taking the real-time solar wind and both the direction and magnitude of the BZ component of the real-time interplanetary magnetic field as the system-controlling input parameters. Moreover, three new parameters had been introduced in the model which modify the functional relationships between the variables and regulate the dynamical behavior of the model to closely approximate the actual geomagnetic fluctuations. The statistical similarities between the dynamics of the model and that of the actual Dst index series during the entire 22nd solar cycle signifies the acceptability of the model.

11. Resolution of Infinite-Loop in Hyperincursive and Nonlocal Cellular Automata: Introduction to Slime Mold Computing

Aono, Masashi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2004-08-01

How can non-algorithmic/non-deterministic computational syntax be computed? "The hyperincursive system" introduced by Dubois is an anticipatory system embracing the contradiction/uncertainty. Although it may provide a novel viewpoint for the understanding of complex systems, conventional digital computers cannot run faithfully as the hyperincursive computational syntax specifies, in a strict sense. Then is it an imaginary story? In this paper we try to argue that it is not. We show that a model of complex systems "Elementary Conflictable Cellular Automata (ECCA)" proposed by Aono and Gunji is embracing the hyperincursivity and the nonlocality. ECCA is based on locality-only type settings basically as well as other CA models, and/but at the same time, each cell is required to refer to globality-dominant regularity. Due to this contradictory locality-globality loop, the time evolution equation specifies that the system reaches the deadlock/infinite-loop. However, we show that there is a possibility of the resolution of these problems if the computing system has parallel and/but non-distributed property like an amoeboid organism. This paper is an introduction to "the slime mold computing" that is an attempt to cultivate an unconventional notion of computation.

12. Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system

Pandey, R. B.

1989-02-01

Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value B ca ( B cq). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at B ca ( B cq).

13. Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system

SciTech Connect

Pandey, R.B.

1989-02-01

Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value B/sub ca/ (B/sub cq/). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at B/sub ca/ (B/sub cq/).

14. Automata and the susceptibility of the square lattice Ising model modulo powers of primes

Guttmann, A. J.; Maillard, J.-M.

2015-11-01

We study the full susceptibility of the Ising model modulo powers of primes. We find exact functional equations for the full susceptibility modulo these primes. Revisiting some lesser-known results on discrete finite automata, we show that these results can be seen as a consequence of the fact that, modulo 2 r , one cannot distinguish the full susceptibility from some simple diagonals of rational functions which reduce to algebraic functions modulo 2 r , and, consequently, satisfy exact functional equations modulo 2 r . We sketch a possible physical interpretation of these functional equations modulo 2 r as reductions of a master functional equation corresponding to infinite order symmetries such as the isogenies of elliptic curves. One relevant example is the Landen transformation which can be seen as an exact generator of the Ising model renormalization group. We underline the importance of studying a new class of functions corresponding to ratios of diagonals of rational functions: they reduce to algebraic functions modulo powers of primes and they may have solutions with natural boundaries. Dedicated to R J Baxter, for his 75th birthday.

15. On Cesàro Limit Distribution of a Class of Permutative Cellular Automata

Maass, Alejandro; Martinez, Servet

1998-01-01

We study Cesàro means (time averages) of the evolution measures of the class of permutative cellular automata over {0, 1}ℕ defined by (\\varphi _B x)_n = x_{n{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} + {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} R} + Pi _{j{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} = {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} 0}^{R{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} - {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} 1} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} (1 + b_j + x_{n{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} + {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} j} ) where B= b 0 ⋯ b R-1is an aperiodic block in {0, 1} R and operations are taken mod 2. If the initial measure is Bernoulli, we prove that the limit of the Cesàro mean of the first column distribution exists. When R = 1 and B = 1, φ B is the mod 2 sum automaton. For this automaton we show that the limit is the (1/2, 1/2(-Bernoulli measure, and if the initial measure is Markov, we show that the limit of Cesàro mean of the one-site distribution is equidistributed.

16. Tuning of quantum entanglement in molecular quantum cellular automata based on mixed-valence tetrameric units.

PubMed

Palii, Andrew; Tsukerblat, Boris

2016-10-25

In this article we consider two coupled tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) units accommodating electron pairs, which play the role of cells in molecular quantum cellular automata. It is supposed that the Coulombic interaction between instantly localized electrons within the cell markedly inhibits the transfer processes between the redox centers. Under this condition, as well as due to the vibronic localization of the electron pair, the cell can encode binary information, which is controlled by neighboring cells. We show that under certain conditions the two low-lying vibronic spin levels of the cell (ground and first excited states) can be regarded as originating from an effective spin-spin interaction. This is shown to depend on the internal parameters of the cell as well as on the induced polarization. Within this simplified two-level picture we evaluate the quantum entanglement in the system represented by the two electrons in the cell and show how the entanglement within the cell and concurrence can be controlled via polarization of the neighboring cells and temperature.

17. Firing patterns in a random network cellular automata model of the brain

Acedo, L.; Lamprianidou, E.; Moraño, J.-A.; Villanueva-Oller, J.; Villanueva, R.-J.

2015-10-01

One of the main challenges in the simulation of even reduced areas of the brain is the presence of a large number of neurons and a large number of connections among them. Even from a theoretical point of view, the behaviour of dynamical models of complex networks with high connectivity is unknown, precisely because the cost of computation is still unaffordable and it will likely be in the near future. In this paper we discuss the simulation of a cellular automata network model of the brain including up to one million sites with a maximum average of three hundred connections per neuron. This level of connectivity was achieved thanks to a distributed computing environment based on the BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) platform. Moreover, in this work we consider the interplay among excitatory neurons (which induce the excitation of their neighbours) and inhibitory neurons (which prevent resting neurons from firing and induce firing neurons to pass to the refractory state). Our objective is to classify the normal (noisy but asymptotically constant patterns) and the abnormal (high oscillations with spindle-like behaviour) patterns of activity in the model brain and their stability and parameter ranges in order to determine the role of excitatory and inhibitory compensatory effects in healthy and diseased individuals.

18. Analysis of competition between transformation pathways in the functioning of biotic abstract dual automata.

PubMed

2013-05-01

Properties of avenues of transformation and their mutualism with forms of organization in dynamic systems are essential for understanding the evolution of prebiotic order. We have analyzed competition between two avenues of transformation in an A↔B system, using the simulation approach called BiADA (Biotic Abstract Dual Automata). We discuss means of avoiding common pitfalls of abstract system modeling and benefits of BiADA-based simulations. We describe the effect of the availability of free energy, energy sink magnitude, and autocatalysis on the evolution of energy flux and order in the system. Results indicate that prebiotic competition between avenues of transformation was more stringent in energy-limited environments. We predict that in such conditions the efficiency of autocatalysis during competition between alternative system states will increase for systems with forms of organization having short half-lives and thus information that is time-sensitive to energy starvation. Our results also offer a potential solution to Manfred Eigen's error catastrophe dilemma. In the conditions discussed above, the exponential growth of quasi species is curbed through the removal of less competitive "genetic" variants via energy starvation. We propose that one of the most important achievements (and selective edges) of a dynamic network during competition in energy-limited or energy-variable environments was the capacity to correlate the internal energy flux and the need for free energy with the availability of free energy in the environment.

19. A solution to the biodiversity paradox by logical deterministic cellular automata.

PubMed

Kalmykov, Lev V; Kalmykov, Vyacheslav L

2015-06-01

The paradox of biological diversity is the key problem of theoretical ecology. The paradox consists in the contradiction between the competitive exclusion principle and the observed biodiversity. The principle is important as the basis for ecological theory. On a relatively simple model we show a mechanism of indefinite coexistence of complete competitors which violates the known formulations of the competitive exclusion principle. This mechanism is based on timely recovery of limiting resources and their spatio-temporal allocation between competitors. Because of limitations of the black-box modeling there was a problem to formulate the exclusion principle correctly. Our white-box multiscale model of two-species competition is based on logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. This approach provides an automatic deductive inference on the basis of a system of axioms, and gives a direct insight into mechanisms of the studied system. It is one of the most promising methods of artificial intelligence. We reformulate and generalize the competitive exclusion principle and explain why this formulation provides a solution of the biodiversity paradox. In addition, we propose a principle of competitive coexistence.

20. A scale-invariant cellular-automata model for distributed seismicity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barriere, Benoit; Turcotte, Donald L.

1991-01-01

In the standard cellular-automata model for a fault an element of stress is randomly added to a grid of boxes until a box has four elements, these are then redistributed to the adjacent boxes on the grid. The redistribution can result in one or more of these boxes having four or more elements in which case further redistributions are required. On the average added elements are lost from the edges of the grid. The model is modified so that the boxes have a scale-invariant distribution of sizes. The objective is to model a scale-invariant distribution of fault sizes. When a redistribution from a box occurs it is equivalent to a characteristic earthquake on the fault. A redistribution from a small box (a foreshock) can trigger an instability in a large box (the main shock). A redistribution from a large box always triggers many instabilities in the smaller boxes (aftershocks). The frequency-size statistics for both main shocks and aftershocks satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter relation with b = 0.835 for main shocks and b = 0.635 for aftershocks. Model foreshocks occur 28 percent of the time.

1. Structural classification of proteins using texture descriptors extracted from the cellular automata image.

PubMed

Kavianpour, Hamidreza; Vasighi, Mahdi

2017-02-01

Nowadays, having knowledge about cellular attributes of proteins has an important role in pharmacy, medical science and molecular biology. These attributes are closely correlated with the function and three-dimensional structure of proteins. Knowledge of protein structural class is used by various methods for better understanding the protein functionality and folding patterns. Computational methods and intelligence systems can have an important role in performing structural classification of proteins. Most of protein sequences are saved in databanks as characters and strings and a numerical representation is essential for applying machine learning methods. In this work, a binary representation of protein sequences is introduced based on reduced amino acids alphabets according to surrounding hydrophobicity index. Many important features which are hidden in these long binary sequences can be clearly displayed through their cellular automata images. The extracted features from these images are used to build a classification model by support vector machine. Comparing to previous studies on the several benchmark datasets, the promising classification rates obtained by tenfold cross-validation imply that the current approach can help in revealing some inherent features deeply hidden in protein sequences and improve the quality of predicting protein structural class.

2. Cellular automata-based modelling and simulation of biofilm structure on multi-core computers.

PubMed

Skoneczny, Szymon

2015-01-01

The article presents a mathematical model of biofilm growth for aerobic biodegradation of a toxic carbonaceous substrate. Modelling of biofilm growth has fundamental significance in numerous processes of biotechnology and mathematical modelling of bioreactors. The process following double-substrate kinetics with substrate inhibition proceeding in a biofilm has not been modelled so far by means of cellular automata. Each process in the model proposed, i.e. diffusion of substrates, uptake of substrates, growth and decay of microorganisms and biofilm detachment, is simulated in a discrete manner. It was shown that for flat biofilm of constant thickness, the results of the presented model agree with those of a continuous model. The primary outcome of the study was to propose a mathematical model of biofilm growth; however a considerable amount of focus was also placed on the development of efficient algorithms for its solution. Two parallel algorithms were created, differing in the way computations are distributed. Computer programs were created using OpenMP Application Programming Interface for C++ programming language. Simulations of biofilm growth were performed on three high-performance computers. Speed-up coefficients of computer programs were compared. Both algorithms enabled a significant reduction of computation time. It is important, inter alia, in modelling and simulation of bioreactor dynamics.

3. Emergent protein folding modeled with evolved neural cellular automata using the 3D HP model.

PubMed

Santos, José; Villot, Pablo; Diéguez, Martin

2014-11-01

We used cellular automata (CA) for the modeling of the temporal folding of proteins. Unlike the focus of the vast research already done on the direct prediction of the final folded conformations, we will model the temporal and dynamic folding process. To reduce the complexity of the interactions and the nature of the amino acid elements, lattice models like HP were used, a model that categorizes the amino acids regarding their hydrophobicity. Taking into account the restrictions of the lattice model, the CA model defines how the amino acids interact through time to obtain a folded conformation. We extended the classical CA models using artificial neural networks for their implementation (neural CA), and we used evolutionary computing to automatically obtain the models by means of Differential Evolution. As the iterative folding also provides the final folded conformation, we can compare the results with those from direct prediction methods of the final protein conformation. Finally, as the neural CA that provides the iterative folding process can be evolved using several protein sequences and used as operators in the folding of another protein with different length, this represents an advantage over the NP-hard complexity of the original problem of the direct prediction.

4. [A Cellular Automata Model for a Community Comprising Two Plant Species of Different Growth Forms].

PubMed

Frolov, P V; Zubkova, E V; Komarov, A S

2015-01-01

A cellular automata computer model for the interactions between two plant species of different growth forms--the lime hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., a sod cereal, and the moneywort Lysimachia nummularia L., a ground creeping perennial herb--is considered. Computer experiments on the self-maintenance of the populations of each species against the background of a gradual increase in the share of randomly eliminated individuals, coexistence of the populations of two species, and the effect of the phytogenous field have been conducted. As has been shown, all the studied factors determine the number of individuals and self-sustainability of the simulated populations by the degree of their impact. The limits of action have been determined for individual factors; within these limits, the specific features in plant reproduction and dispersal provide sustainable coexistence of the simulated populations. It has been demonstrated that the constructed model allows for studying the long-term developmental dynamics of the plants belonging to the selected growth forms.

5. Testing cellular automata interpretation of quantum mechanics in carbon nanotubes and superconductivity

Dolce, Donatello; Perali, Andrea

2015-07-01

Cellular Automata (CA) are represented at an effective level as intrinsic periodic phenomena, classical in the essence, reproducing the complete coherence (perfect recurrences) associated to pure quantum behaviours in condensed matter systems. By means of this approach it is possible to obtain a consistent, novel derivation of SuperConductivity (SC) essential phenomenology and of the peculiar quantum behaviour of electrons in graphene physics and Carbon Nanotubes (CNs), in which electrons cyclic dynamics simulate CA. In this way we will derive, from classical arguments, the essential electronic properties of these — or similar — graphene systems, such as energy bands and density of states. Similarly, in the second part of the paper, we will derive the fundamental phenomenology of SC by means of fundamental quantum dynamics and geometrical considerations, directly derived from the CA evolution law, rather than on empirical microscopical characteristics of the materials as in the standard approaches. This allows for a novel heuristic interpretation of the related gauge symmetry breaking and of the occurrence of high temperature superconductivity by means of simple considerations on the competition of quantum recurrence and thermal noise.

6. A cellular automata model for avascular solid tumor growth under the effect of therapy

Reis, E. A.; Santos, L. B. L.; Pinho, S. T. R.

2009-04-01

Tumor growth has long been a target of investigation within the context of mathematical and computer modeling. The objective of this study is to propose and analyze a two-dimensional stochastic cellular automata model to describe avascular solid tumor growth, taking into account both the competition between cancer cells and normal cells for nutrients and/or space and a time-dependent proliferation of cancer cells. Gompertzian growth, characteristic of some tumors, is described and some of the features of the time-spatial pattern of solid tumors, such as compact morphology with irregular borders, are captured. The parameter space is studied in order to analyze the occurrence of necrosis and the response to therapy. Our findings suggest that transitions exist between necrotic and non-necrotic phases (no-therapy cases), and between the states of cure and non-cure (therapy cases). To analyze cure, the control and order parameters are, respectively, the highest probability of cancer cell proliferation and the probability of the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. With respect to patterns, it is possible to observe the inner necrotic core and the effect of the therapy destroying the tumor from its outer borders inwards.

7. A cellular automata based FPGA realization of a new metaheuristic bat-inspired algorithm

Progias, Pavlos; Amanatiadis, Angelos A.; Spataro, William; Trunfio, Giuseppe A.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.

2016-10-01

Optimization algorithms are often inspired by processes occuring in nature, such as animal behavioral patterns. The main concern with implementing such algorithms in software is the large amounts of processing power they require. In contrast to software code, that can only perform calculations in a serial manner, an implementation in hardware, exploiting the inherent parallelism of single-purpose processors, can prove to be much more efficient both in speed and energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of Cellular Automata (CA) in such an implementation would be efficient both as a model for natural processes, as well as a computational paradigm implemented well on hardware. In this paper, we propose a VHDL implementation of a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the echolocation behavior of bats. More specifically, the CA model is inspired by the metaheuristic algorithm proposed earlier in the literature, which could be considered at least as efficient than other existing optimization algorithms. The function of the FPGA implementation of our algorithm is explained in full detail and results of our simulations are also demonstrated.

8. A Stochastic Cellular Automata Approach to Population Dynamics of Cells in a HIV Immune Response Model

Pandey, Ras B.

1998-03-01

A stochastic cellular automata (SCA) approach is introduced to study the growth and decay of cellular population in an immune response model relevant to HIV. Four cell types are considered: macrophages (M), helper cells (H), cytotoxic cells (C), and viral infected cells (V). Mobility of the cells is introduced and viral mutation is considered probabilistically. In absence of mutation, the population of the host cells, helper (N_H) and cytotxic (N_C) cells in particular, dominates over the viral population (N_V), i.e., N_H, NC > N_V, the immune system wins over the viral infection. Variation of cellular population with time exhibits oscillations. The amplitude of oscillations in variation of N_H, NC and NV with time decreases at high mobility even at low viral mutation; the rate of viral growth is nonmonotonic with NV > N_H, NC in the long time regime. The viral population is much higher than that of the host cells at higher mutation rate, a possible cause of AIDS.

9. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

2016-11-01

The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

10. Modelling approaches for coastal simulation based on cellular automata: the need and potential.

PubMed

Dearing, J A; Richmond, N; Plater, A J; Wolf, J; Prandle, D; Coulthard, T J

2006-04-15

The paper summarizes the theoretical and practical needs for cellular automata (CA)-type models in coastal simulation, and describes early steps in the development of a CA-based model for estuarine sedimentation. It describes the key approaches and formulae used for tidal, wave and sediment processes in a prototype integrated cellular model for coastal simulation designed to simulate estuary sedimentary responses during the tidal cycle in the short-term and climate driven changes in sea-level in the long-term. Results of simple model testing for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional models, and a preliminary parameterization for the Blackwater Estuary, UK, are shown. These reveal a good degree of success in using a CA-type model for water and sediment transport as a function of water level and wave height, but tidal current vectors are not effectively simulated in the approach used. The research confirms that a CA-type model for the estuarine sediment system is feasible, with a real prospect for coupling to existing catchment and nearshore beach/cliff models to produce integrated coastal simulators of sediment response to climate, sea-level change and human actions.

11. Periodic forcing in a three-level cellular automata model for a vector-transmitted disease

Santos, L. B. L.; Costa, M. C.; Pinho, S. T. R.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Barreto, F. R.; Teixeira, M. G.; Barreto, M. L.

2009-07-01

A periodically forced two-dimensional cellular automata model is used to reproduce and analyze the complex spatiotemporal patterns observed in the transmission of vector infectious diseases. The system, which comprises three population levels, is introduced to describe complex features of the dynamics of the vector-transmitted dengue epidemics, known to be very sensitive to seasonal variables. The three coupled levels represent the human, the adult, and immature vector populations. The dynamics includes external seasonality forcing, human and mosquito mobility, and vector control effects. The model parameters, even if bounded to well-defined intervals obtained from reported data, can be selected to reproduce specific epidemic outbursts. In the current study, explicit results are obtained by comparison with actual data retrieved from the time series of dengue epidemics in two cities in Brazil. The results show fluctuations that are not captured by mean-field models. It also reveals the qualitative behavior of the spatiotemporal patterns of the epidemics. In the extreme situation of the absence of external periodic drive, the model predicts a completely distinct long-time evolution. The model is robust in the sense that it is able to reproduce the time series of dengue epidemics of different cities, provided that the forcing term takes into account the local rainfall modulation. Finally, an analysis is provided of the effect of the dependence between epidemics threshold and vector control actions, both in the presence and absence of human mobility factor.

12. Analysis of Architectural Building Design Influences on Fire Spread in Densely Urban Settlement using Cellular Automata

Tambunan, L.; Salamah, H.; Asriana, N.

2017-03-01

This study aims to determine the influence of architectural design on the risk of fire spread in densely urban settlement area. Cellular Automata (CA) is used to analyse the fire spread pattern, speed, and the extent of damage. Four cells represent buildings, streets, and fields characteristic in the simulated area, as well as their flammability level and fire spread capabilities. Two fire scenarios are used to model the spread of fire: (1) fire origin in a building with concrete and wood material majority, and (2) fire origin in building with wood material majority. Building shape, building distance, road width, and total area of wall openings are considered constant, while wind is ignored. The result shows that fire spread faster in the building area with wood majority than with concrete majority. Significant amount of combustible building material, absence of distance between buildings, narrow streets and limited fields are factors which influence fire spread speed and pattern as well as extent of damage when fire occurs in the densely urban settlement area.

13. Enabling model checking for collaborative process analysis: from BPMN to `Network of Timed Automata'

Mallek, Sihem; Daclin, Nicolas; Chapurlat, Vincent; Vallespir, Bruno

2015-04-01

Interoperability is a prerequisite for partners involved in performing collaboration. As a consequence, the lack of interoperability is now considered a major obstacle. The research work presented in this paper aims to develop an approach that allows specifying and verifying a set of interoperability requirements to be satisfied by each partner in the collaborative process prior to process implementation. To enable the verification of these interoperability requirements, it is necessary first and foremost to generate a model of the targeted collaborative process; for this research effort, the standardised language BPMN 2.0 is used. Afterwards, a verification technique must be introduced, and model checking is the preferred option herein. This paper focuses on application of the model checker UPPAAL in order to verify interoperability requirements for the given collaborative process model. At first, this step entails translating the collaborative process model from BPMN into a UPPAAL modelling language called 'Network of Timed Automata'. Second, it becomes necessary to formalise interoperability requirements into properties with the dedicated UPPAAL language, i.e. the temporal logic TCTL.

14. Pedestrian intention prediction based on dynamic fuzzy automata for vehicle driving at nighttime

Kwak, Joon-Young; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

2017-03-01

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can predict a pedestrian's intention using images captured by a far-infrared thermal camera mounted on a moving car at nighttime. To predict a pedestrian's intention in consecutive sequences, we use the dynamic fuzzy automata (DFA) method, which not only provides a systemic approach for handling uncertainty but also is able to handle continuous spaces. As the spatio-temporal features, the distance between the curbs and the pedestrian and the pedestrian's velocity and head orientation are used. In this study, we define four intention states of the pedestrian: Standing-Sidewalk (S-SW), Walking-Sidewalk (W-SW), Walking-Crossing (W-Cro), and Running-Crossing (R-Cro). In every frame, the proposed system determines the final intention of the pedestrian as 'Stop' if the pedestrian's intention state is S-SW or W-SW. In contrast, the proposed system determines the final intention of a pedestrian as 'Cross' if the pedestrian's intention state is W-Cro or R-Cro. A performance comparison with other related methods shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of other related methods. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to our dataset, which includes complex environments with many pedestrians.

15. Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata--from molecular structure to circuit dynamics

Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig

2008-03-01

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) [1] provides a transistor-less paradigm for molecular electronics. In the QCA approach, binary information is stored in the charge configuration of single cells, and transferred via Coulomb coupling between neighboring cells. Single-molecule QCA cells can be realized by using as quantum dots the localized states of mixed-valence complexes. Several candidate QCA molecules have been synthesized and shown to have the required field-induced switching properties [2]. We report progress towards a hierarchic dynamic theory of QCA circuits. We use ab initio techniques to calculate the relevant molecular electronic structure, and extract parameters for a simpler Hamiltonian to describe switching behavior. We then apply a coherence vector formalism to model interaction with the thermal environment and generate a circuit-dynamic description. [1] C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, W. Porod, and G. H. Bernstein, Nanotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 49, 1993. [2] H. Qi, S. Sharma, Z. Li, G. L. Snider, A. O. Orlov, C. S. Lent, and T. P. Fehlner, J.Am.Chem.Soc., vol. 125, pp. 15250, 2003.

16. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

2016-10-01

Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

17. Studying the role of lipid rafts on protein receptor bindings with cellular automata.

PubMed

Haack, Fiete; Burrage, Kevin; Redmer, Ronald; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

2013-01-01

It is widely accepted that lipid rafts promote receptor clustering and thereby facilitate signaling transduction. The role of lipid rafts in inducing and promoting receptor accumulation within the cell membrane has been explored by several computational and experimental studies. However, it remains unclear whether lipid rafts influence the recruitment and binding of proteins from the cytosol as well. To provide an answer to this question a spatial membrane model has been developed based on cellular automata. Our results indicate that lipid rafts indeed influence protein receptor bindings. In particular processes with slow dissociation and binding kinetics are promoted by lipid rafts, whereas fast binding processes are slightly hampered. However, the impact depends on a variety of parameters, such as the size and mobility of the lipid rafts, the induced slow down of receptors within rafts, and also the dissociation and binding kinetics of the cytosolic proteins. Thus, for any individual signaling pathway the influence of lipid rafts on protein binding might be different. To facilitate analyzing this influence given a specific pathway, our approach has been generalized into LiRaM, a modeling and simulation tool for lipid rafts models.

18. The role of topography in the scaling distribution of landslide areas: A cellular automata modeling approach

Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian; Ponziani, Francesco

2017-08-01

Power law scaling has been widely observed in the frequency distribution of landslide sizes. The exponent of the power-law characterizes the probability of landslide magnitudes and it thus represents an important parameter for hazard assessment. The reason for the universal scaling behavior of landslides is still debated and the role of topography has been explored in terms of possible explanation for this type of behavior. We built a simple cellular automata model to investigate this issue, as well as the relationships between the scaling properties of landslide areas and the changes suffered by the topographic surface affected by landslides. The dynamics of the model is controlled by a temporal rate of weakening, which drives the system to instability, and by topography, which defines both the quantity of the displaced mass and the direction of the movement. Results show that the model is capable of reproducing the scaling behavior of real landslide areas and suggest that topography is a good candidate to explain their scale-invariance. In the model, the values of the scaling exponents depend on how fast the system is driven to instability; they are less sensitive to the duration of the driving rate, thus suggesting that the probability of landslide areas could depend on the intensity of the triggering mechanism rather than on its duration, and on the topographic setting of the area. Topography preserves the information concerning the statistical distribution of areas of landslides caused by a driving mechanism of given intensity and duration.

19. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

PubMed

Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

2013-01-01

Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

20. Self-doping of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata: mixed valence zwitterions.

PubMed

Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig

2011-09-07

Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a promising paradigm for realizing molecular electronics. In molecular QCA, binary information is encoded in the distribution of intramolecular charge, and Coulomb interactions between neighboring molecules combine to create long-range correlations in charge distribution that can be exploited for signal transfer and computation. Appropriate mixed-valence species are promising candidates for single-molecule device operation. A complication arises because many mixed-valence compounds are ions and the associated counterions can potentially disrupt the correct flow of information through the circuit. We suggest a self-doping mechanism which incorporates the counterion covalently into the structure of a neutral molecular cell, thus producing a zwitterionic mixed-valence complex. The counterion is located at the geometrical center of the QCA molecule and bound to the working dots via covalent bonds, thus avoiding counterion effects that bias the system toward one binary information state or the other. We investigate the feasibility of using multiply charged anion (MCA) boron clusters, specifically closo-borate dianion, as building blocks. A first principle calculation shows that neutral, bistable, and switchable QCA molecules are possible. The self-doping mechanism is confirmed by molecular orbital analysis, which shows that MCA counterions can be stabilized by the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged counterions and positively charged working dots. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011