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Sample records for automated dna sequencing

  1. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  2. A Demonstration of Automated DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Details a simulation that employs a paper-and-pencil model to demonstrate the principles behind automated DNA sequencing. Discusses the advantages of automated sequencing as well as the chemistry of automated DNA sequencing. (DDR)

  3. Automated Template Quantification for DNA Sequencing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Ivanetich, Kathryn M.; Yan, Wilson; Wunderlich, Kathleen M.; Weston, Jennifer; Walkup, Ward G.; Simeon, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The quantification of plasmid DNA by the PicoGreen dye binding assay has been automated, and the effect of quantification of user-submitted templates on DNA sequence quality in a core laboratory has been assessed. The protocol pipets, mixes and reads standards, blanks and up to 88 unknowns, generates a standard curve, and calculates template concentrations. For pUC19 replicates at five concentrations, coefficients of variance were 0.1, and percent errors were from 1% to 7% (n = 198). Standard curves with pUC19 DNA were nonlinear over the 1 to 1733 ng/μL concentration range required to assay the majority (98.7%) of user-submitted templates. Over 35,000 templates have been quantified using the protocol. For 1350 user-submitted plasmids, 87% deviated by ≥ 20% from the requested concentration (500 ng/μL). Based on data from 418 sequencing reactions, quantification of user-submitted templates was shown to significantly improve DNA sequence quality. The protocol is applicable to all types of double-stranded DNA, is unaffected by primer (1 pmol/μL), and is user modifiable. The protocol takes 30 min, saves 1 h of technical time, and costs approximately $0.20 per unknown. PMID:16461949

  4. Automated hybridization/imaging device for fluorescent multiplex DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Robert B.; Kimball, Alvin W.; Gesteland, Raymond F.; Ferguson, F. Mark; Dunn, Diane M.; Di Sera, Leonard J.; Cherry, Joshua L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for automated multiplex sequencing of DNA with an integrated automated imaging hybridization chamber system. This system comprises an hybridization chamber device for mounting a membrane containing size-fractionated multiplex sequencing reaction products, apparatus for fluid delivery to the chamber device, imaging apparatus for light delivery to the membrane and image recording of fluorescence emanating from the membrane while in the chamber device, and programmable controller apparatus for controlling operation of the system. The multiplex reaction products are hybridized with a probe, then an enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) is bound to a binding moiety on the probe, and a fluorogenic substrate (such as a benzothiazole derivative) is introduced into the chamber device by the fluid delivery apparatus. The enzyme converts the fluorogenic substrate into a fluorescent product which, when illuminated in the chamber device with a beam of light from the imaging apparatus, excites fluorescence of the fluorescent product to produce a pattern of hybridization. The pattern of hybridization is imaged by a CCD camera component of the imaging apparatus to obtain a series of digital signals. These signals are converted by the controller apparatus into a string of nucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence an automated sequence reader. The method and apparatus are also applicable to other membrane-based applications such as colony and plaque hybridization and Southern, Northern, and Western blots.

  5. Automated hybridization/imaging device for fluorescent multiplex DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, R.B.; Kimball, A.W.; Gesteland, R.F.; Ferguson, F.M.; Dunn, D.M.; Di Sera, L.J.; Cherry, J.L.

    1995-11-28

    A method is disclosed for automated multiplex sequencing of DNA with an integrated automated imaging hybridization chamber system. This system comprises an hybridization chamber device for mounting a membrane containing size-fractionated multiplex sequencing reaction products, apparatus for fluid delivery to the chamber device, imaging apparatus for light delivery to the membrane and image recording of fluorescence emanating from the membrane while in the chamber device, and programmable controller apparatus for controlling operation of the system. The multiplex reaction products are hybridized with a probe, the enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) is bound to a binding moiety on the probe, and a fluorogenic substrate (such as a benzothiazole derivative) is introduced into the chamber device by the fluid delivery apparatus. The enzyme converts the fluorogenic substrate into a fluorescent product which, when illuminated in the chamber device with a beam of light from the imaging apparatus, excites fluorescence of the fluorescent product to produce a pattern of hybridization. The pattern of hybridization is imaged by a CCD camera component of the imaging apparatus to obtain a series of digital signals. These signals are converted by the controller apparatus into a string of nucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence an automated sequence reader. The method and apparatus are also applicable to other membrane-based applications such as colony and plaque hybridization and Southern, Northern, and Western blots. 9 figs.

  6. Stability of capillary gels for automated sequencing of DNA.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, H; Dew-Jager, K E; Brady, K; Grey, R; Dovichi, N J; Gesteland, R

    1992-08-01

    Recent interest in capillary gel electrophoresis has been fueled by the Human Genome Project and other large-scale sequencing projects. Advances in gel polymerization techniques and detector design have enabled sequencing of DNA directly in capillaries. Efforts to exploit this technology have been hampered by problems with the reproducibility and stability of gels. Gel instability manifests itself during electrophoresis as a decrease in the current passing through the capillary under a constant voltage. Upon subsequent microscopic examination, bubbles are often visible at or near the injection (cathodic) end of the capillary gel. Gels have been prepared with the polyacrylamide matrix covalently attached to the silica walls of the capillary. These gels, although more stable, still suffer from problems with bubbles. The use of actual DNA sequencing samples also adversely affects gel stability. We examined the mechanisms underlying these disruptive processes by employing polyacrylamide gel-filled capillaries in which the gel was not attached to the capillary wall. Three sources of gel instability were identified. Bubbles occurring in the absence of sample introduction were attributed to electroosmotic force; replacing the denaturant urea with formamide was shown to reduce the frequency of these bubbles. The slow, steady decline in current through capillary sequencing gels interferes with the ability to detect other gel problems. This phenomenon was shown to be a result of ionic depletion at the gel-liquid interface. The decline was ameliorated by adding denaturant and acrylamide monomers to the buffer reservoirs. Sample-induced problems were shown to be due to the presence of template DNA; elimination of the template allowed sample loading to occur without complications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Innovations in non-isotopic DNA sequencing: using an electrotransfer unit to blot sequencing gels and an automated membrane processor for detecting DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Nash, B

    1995-02-01

    As alternatives to radiolabeled DNA sequencing, chemiluminescent and chromogenic sequencing methods can be comparable in both sensitivity and resolution. Chemiluminescent/chromogenic detection procedures are safer because they completely eliminate the handling and use of radioisotopes. One method involves standard dideoxy DNA sequencing reactions that are initiated with biotinylated primers, separated by gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nylon membrane and detected utilizing chemiluminescent 1,2-dioxetane substrates for alkaline-phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase is linked to the biotinylated sequencing products by a streptavidin/alkaline phosphatase conjugate (SAAP). In this paper we describe an optimized procedure for transferring sequencing gels. The procedure is based on a semidry method developed at Hoefer Laboratories using the GeneSweep Sequencing Gel Transfer Unit. Transfer is rapid, uniform and reliable from gel to gel. We also describe automation of the development process using a fully programmable Gel/Membrane Processor that automates delivery, incubation and disposal of reagents. All crucial points for electrotransfer of sequencing gels and the detection of biotinylated DNA sequencing reaction products are discussed.

  8. Primer effect in the detection of mitochondrial DNA point heteroplasmy by automated sequencing.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Ramos, Amanda; Santos, Cristina; Aluja, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-01

    The correct detection of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy by automated sequencing presents methodological constraints. The main goals of this study are to investigate the effect of sense and distance of primers in heteroplasmy detection and to test if there are differences in the accurate determination of heteroplasmy involving transitions or transversions. A gradient of the heteroplasmy levels was generated for mtDNA positions 9477 (transition G/A) and 15,452 (transversion C/A). Amplification and subsequent sequencing with forward and reverse primers, situated at 550 and 150 bp from the heteroplasmic positions, were performed. Our data provide evidence that there is a significant difference between the use of forward and reverse primers. The forward primer is the primer that seems to give a better approximation to the real proportion of the variants. No significant differences were found concerning the distance at which the sequencing primers were placed neither between the analysis of transitions and transversions. The data collected in this study are a starting point that allows to glimpse the importance of the sequencing primers in the accurate detection of point heteroplasmy, providing additional insight into the overall automated sequencing strategy.

  9. Aptaligner: automated software for aligning pseudorandom DNA X-aptamers from next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Emily; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Angel; Chang, Jeffrey T; Volk, David E

    2014-06-10

    Next-generation sequencing results from bead-based aptamer libraries have demonstrated that traditional DNA/RNA alignment software is insufficient. This is particularly true for X-aptamers containing specialty bases (W, X, Y, Z, ...) that are identified by special encoding. Thus, we sought an automated program that uses the inherent design scheme of bead-based X-aptamers to create a hypothetical reference library and Markov modeling techniques to provide improved alignments. Aptaligner provides this feature as well as length error and noise level cutoff features, is parallelized to run on multiple central processing units (cores), and sorts sequences from a single chip into projects and subprojects.

  10. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  11. Automated Workflow for Preparation of cDNA for Cap Analysis of Gene Expression on a Single Molecule Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Saijo, Eri; Lassmann, Timo; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kaiho, Ai; Lizio, Marina; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Background Cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) is a 5′ sequence tag technology to globally determine transcriptional starting sites in the genome and their expression levels and has most recently been adapted to the HeliScope single molecule sequencer. Despite significant simplifications in the CAGE protocol, it has until now been a labour intensive protocol. Methodology In this study we set out to adapt the protocol to a robotic workflow, which would increase throughput and reduce handling. The automated CAGE cDNA preparation system we present here can prepare 96 ‘HeliScope ready’ CAGE cDNA libraries in 8 days, as opposed to 6 weeks by a manual operator.We compare the results obtained using the same RNA in manual libraries and across multiple automation batches to assess reproducibility. Conclusions We show that the sequencing was highly reproducible and comparable to manual libraries with an 8 fold increase in productivity. The automated CAGE cDNA preparation system can prepare 96 CAGE sequencing samples simultaneously. Finally we discuss how the system could be used for CAGE on Illumina/SOLiD platforms, RNA-seq and full-length cDNA generation. PMID:22303458

  12. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  13. High-speed automated DNA sequencing utilizing from-the-side laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphall, Michael S.; Brumley, Robert L., Jr.; Buxton, Erin C.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1995-04-01

    The Human Genome Initiative is an ambitious international effort to map and sequence the three billion bases of DNA encoded in the human genome. If successfully completed, the resultant sequence database will be a tool of unparalleled power for biomedical research. One of the major challenges of this project is in the area of DNA sequencing technology. At this time, virtually all DNA sequencing is based upon the separation of DNA fragments in high resolution polyacrylamide gels. This method, as generally practiced, is one to two orders of magnitude too slow and expensive for the successful completion of the Human Genome projection. One reasonable approach is improved sequencing of DNA fragments is to increase the performance of such gel-based sequencing methods. Decreased sequencing times may be obtained by increasing the magnitude of the electric field employed. This is not possible with conventional sequencing, due to the fact that the additional heat associated with the increased electric field cannot be adequately dissipated. Recent developments in the use of thin gels have addressed this problem. Performing electrophoresis in ultrathin (50 to 100 microns) gels greatly increases the heat transfer efficiency, thus allowing the benefits of larger electric fields to be obtained. An increase in separation speed of about an order of magnitude is readily achieved. Thin gels have successfully been used in capillary and slab formats. A detection system has been designed for use with a multiple fluorophore sequencing strategy in horizontal ultrathin slab gels. The system employs laser through-the-side excitation and a cooled CCD detector; this allows for the parallel detection of up to 24 sets of four fluorescently labeled DNA sequencing reactions during their electrophoretic separation in ultrathin (115 micrometers ) denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Four hundred bases of sequence information is obtained from 100 ng of M13 template DNA in an hour, corresponding to an

  14. Sanger dideoxy sequencing of DNA.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Lorsch, Jon

    2013-01-01

    While the ease and reduced cost of automated DNA sequencing has largely obviated the need for manual dideoxy sequencing for routine purposes, specific applications require manual DNA sequencing. For instance, in studies of enzymes or proteins that bind or modify DNA, a DNA ladder is often used to map the site at which an enzyme is bound or a modification occurs. In these cases, the Sanger method for dideoxy sequencing provides a rapid and facile method for producing a labeled DNA ladder.

  15. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  16. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T

    2003-03-20

    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  17. j5 DNA assembly design automation.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Modern standardized methodologies, described in detail in the previous chapters of this book, have enabled the software-automated design of optimized DNA construction protocols. This chapter describes how to design (combinatorial) scar-less DNA assembly protocols using the web-based software j5. j5 assists biomedical and biotechnological researchers construct DNA by automating the design of optimized protocols for flanking homology sequence as well as type IIS endonuclease-mediated DNA assembly methodologies. Unlike any other software tool available today, j5 designs scar-less combinatorial DNA assembly protocols, performs a cost-benefit analysis to identify which portions of an assembly process would be less expensive to outsource to a DNA synthesis service provider, and designs hierarchical DNA assembly strategies to mitigate anticipated poor assembly junction sequence performance. Software integrated with j5 add significant value to the j5 design process through graphical user-interface enhancement and downstream liquid-handling robotic laboratory automation.

  18. Algorithms for automated DNA assembly

    PubMed Central

    Densmore, Douglas; Hsiau, Timothy H.-C.; Kittleson, Joshua T.; DeLoache, Will; Batten, Christopher; Anderson, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Generating a defined set of genetic constructs within a large combinatorial space provides a powerful method for engineering novel biological functions. However, the process of assembling more than a few specific DNA sequences can be costly, time consuming and error prone. Even if a correct theoretical construction scheme is developed manually, it is likely to be suboptimal by any number of cost metrics. Modular, robust and formal approaches are needed for exploring these vast design spaces. By automating the design of DNA fabrication schemes using computational algorithms, we can eliminate human error while reducing redundant operations, thus minimizing the time and cost required for conducting biological engineering experiments. Here, we provide algorithms that optimize the simultaneous assembly of a collection of related DNA sequences. We compare our algorithms to an exhaustive search on a small synthetic dataset and our results show that our algorithms can quickly find an optimal solution. Comparison with random search approaches on two real-world datasets show that our algorithms can also quickly find lower-cost solutions for large datasets. PMID:20335162

  19. Primary structure of rat cardiac beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors obtained by automated DNA sequence analysis: further evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gocayne, J; Robinson, D A; FitzGerald, M G; Chung, F Z; Kerlavage, A R; Lentes, K U; Lai, J; Wang, C D; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, lambda RHM-MF and lambda RHB-DAR, encoding the muscarinic cholinergic receptor and the beta-adrenergic receptor, respectively, have been isolated from a rat heart cDNA library. The cDNA clones were characterized by restriction mapping and automated DNA sequence analysis utilizing fluorescent dye primers. The rat heart muscarinic receptor consists of 466 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 51,543. The rat heart beta-adrenergic receptor consists of 418 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 46,890. The two cardiac receptors have substantial amino acid homology (27.2% identity, 50.6% with favored substitutions). The rat cardiac beta receptor has 88.0% homology (92.5% with favored substitutions) with the human brain beta receptor and the rat cardiac muscarinic receptor has 94.6% homology (97.6% with favored substitutions) with the porcine cardiac muscarinic receptor. The muscarinic cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors appear to be as conserved as hemoglobin and cytochrome c but less conserved than histones and are clearly members of a multigene family. These data support our hypothesis, based upon biochemical and immunological evidence, that suggests considerable structural homology and evolutionary conservation between adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first report utilizing automated DNA sequence analysis to determine the structure of a gene. Images PMID:2825184

  20. Initial analysis of non-typical Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) at onset and late developing demyelinating disease in Italian patients by SSCP and automated DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sartore, M.; Semeraro, A.; Fortina, P.

    1994-09-01

    LHON is a mitochondrial genetic disease characterized by maternal inheritance and late onset of blindness caused by bilateral retinal degeneration. A number of molecular defects are known affecting expression of seven mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory chain complex I, III and IV. We screened genomic DNA from Italian patients for seven of the known point mutations in the ND-1, ND-4 and ND-6 subunits of complex I by PCR followed by SSCP and restriction enzyme digestion. Most of the patients had nonfamilial bilateral visual loss with partial or no recovery and normal neurological examination. Fundoscopic examination revealed that none of the patients had features typical of LHON. Nine of 21 patients (43%) showed multifocal CNS demyelination on MRI. Our results show aberrant SSCP patterns for a PCR product from the ND-4 subunit in one affected child and his mother. Sfa NI and Mae III digestions suggested the absence of a previously defined LHON mutation, and automated DNA sequence analysis revealed two A to G neutral sequence polymorphisms in the third position of codons 351 and 353. In addition, PCR products from the same two samples and an unrelated one showed abnormal SSCP patterns for the ND-1 subunit region of complex I due to the presence of a T to C change at nt 4,216 which was demonstrated after Nla III digestion of PCR products and further confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Our results indicate that additional defects are present in the Italian population, and identification of abnormal SSCP patterns followed by targeted automated DNA sequence analysis is a reasonable strategy for delineation of new LHON mutations.

  1. Comparison of Boiling and Robotics Automation Method in DNA Extraction for Metagenomic Sequencing of Human Oral Microbes.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Junya; Sato, Yukuto; Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Tsuboi, Akito; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamashita, Riu

    2016-01-01

    The rapid improvement of next-generation sequencing performance now enables us to analyze huge sample sets with more than ten thousand specimens. However, DNA extraction can still be a limiting step in such metagenomic approaches. In this study, we analyzed human oral microbes to compare the performance of three DNA extraction methods: PowerSoil (a method widely used in this field), QIAsymphony (a robotics method), and a simple boiling method. Dental plaque was initially collected from three volunteers in the pilot study and then expanded to 12 volunteers in the follow-up study. Bacterial flora was estimated by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA following species-level profiling. Our results indicate that the efficiency of PowerSoil and QIAsymphony was comparable to the boiling method. Therefore, the boiling method may be a promising alternative because of its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and short handling time. Moreover, this method was reliable for estimating bacterial species and could be used in the future to examine the correlation between oral flora and health status. Despite this, differences in the efficiency of DNA extraction for various bacterial species were observed among the three methods. Based on these findings, there is no "gold standard" for DNA extraction. In future, we suggest that the DNA extraction method should be selected on a case-by-case basis considering the aims and specimens of the study. PMID:27104353

  2. Comparison of Boiling and Robotics Automation Method in DNA Extraction for Metagenomic Sequencing of Human Oral Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Tsuboi, Akito; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamashita, Riu

    2016-01-01

    The rapid improvement of next-generation sequencing performance now enables us to analyze huge sample sets with more than ten thousand specimens. However, DNA extraction can still be a limiting step in such metagenomic approaches. In this study, we analyzed human oral microbes to compare the performance of three DNA extraction methods: PowerSoil (a method widely used in this field), QIAsymphony (a robotics method), and a simple boiling method. Dental plaque was initially collected from three volunteers in the pilot study and then expanded to 12 volunteers in the follow-up study. Bacterial flora was estimated by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA following species-level profiling. Our results indicate that the efficiency of PowerSoil and QIAsymphony was comparable to the boiling method. Therefore, the boiling method may be a promising alternative because of its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and short handling time. Moreover, this method was reliable for estimating bacterial species and could be used in the future to examine the correlation between oral flora and health status. Despite this, differences in the efficiency of DNA extraction for various bacterial species were observed among the three methods. Based on these findings, there is no “gold standard” for DNA extraction. In future, we suggest that the DNA extraction method should be selected on a case-by-case basis considering the aims and specimens of the study. PMID:27104353

  3. Image analysis for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Kannappan; Huang, Thomas S.

    1991-07-01

    There is a great deal of interest in automating the process of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequencing to support the analysis of genomic DNA such as the Human and Mouse Genome projects. In one class of gel-based sequencing protocols autoradiograph images are generated in the final step and usually require manual interpretation to reconstruct the DNA sequence represented by the image. The need to handle a large volume of sequence information necessitates automation of the manual autoradiograph reading step through image analysis in order to reduce the length of time required to obtain sequence data and reduce transcription errors. Various adaptive image enhancement, segmentation and alignment methods were applied to autoradiograph images. The methods are adaptive to the local characteristics of the image such as noise, background signal, or presence of edges. Once the two-dimensional data is converted to a set of aligned one-dimensional profiles waveform analysis is used to determine the location of each band which represents one nucleotide in the sequence. Different classification strategies including a rule-based approach are investigated to map the profile signals, augmented with the original two-dimensional image data as necessary, to textual DNA sequence information.

  4. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  5. Automated DNA Base Pair Calling Algorithm

    1999-07-07

    The procedure solves the problem of calling the DNA base pair sequence from two channel electropherogram separations in an automated fashion. The core of the program involves a peak picking algorithm based upon first, second, and third derivative spectra for each electropherogram channel, signal levels as a function of time, peak spacing, base pair signal to noise sequence patterns, frequency vs ratio of the two channel histograms, and confidence levels generated during the run. Themore » ratios of the two channels at peak centers can be used to accurately and reproducibly determine the base pair sequence. A further enhancement is a novel Gaussian deconvolution used to determine the peak heights used in generating the ratio.« less

  6. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  7. [DNA sequencing technology and automatization of it].

    PubMed

    Kraev, A S

    1991-01-01

    Precise manipulations with genetic material, typical for modern experiments in molecular biology and in new biotechnology, require a capability to determine DNA base sequence. This capability enables today to exploit specific genetic knowledge for the dissection of complex cell processes and for modulation of cell metabolism in transgenic organisms. The review focuses on such DNA sequencing technologies that are widespread in general laboratory practice. They can safely be called, with the availability of commercial reagents, industrial techniques. Modern DNA sequencing requires recurrent breakdown of large genomic DNA into smaller pieces, that are then amplified, sequenced and the initial long stretch reconstructed via overlap of small pieces. The DNA sequencing process has several steps: a DNA fragment is obtained in sufficient quantity and purity, it is converted to a form suitable for a particular sequencing method, a sequencing reaction is performed and its products fractionated; and finally the resultant data are interpreted (i.e. an autoradiograph is read into a computer memory) and a long sequence in reconstructed via overlap of short stretches. These steps are considered in separate parts; an accent is made on sequencing strategies with respect to their biological task. In the last part, possibilities for automation of sequencing experiment are considered, followed by a discussion of domestic problems in DNA sequencing.

  8. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  9. Evolution of DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tipu, Hamid Nawaz; Shabbir, Ambreen

    2015-03-01

    Sanger and coworkers introduced DNA sequencing in 1970s for the first time. It principally relied on termination of growing nucleotide chain when a dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP) was inserted in it. Detection of terminated sequences was done radiographically on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Improvements that have evolved over time in original Sanger sequencing include replacement of radiography with fluorescence, use of separate fluorescent markers for each nucleotide, use of capillary electrophoresis instead of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then introduction of capillary array electrophoresis. However, this technique suffered from few inherent limitations like decreased sensitivity for low level mutant alleles, complexities in analyzing highly polymorphic regions like Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and high DNA concentrations required. Several Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have been introduced by Roche, Illumina and other commercial manufacturers that tend to overcome Sanger sequencing limitations and have been reviewed. Introduction of NGS in clinical research and medical diagnostics is expected to change entire diagnostic approach. These include study of cancer variants, detection of minimal residual disease, exome sequencing, detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and their disease association, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and sequencing of microorganisms genome.

  10. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses, and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.

  11. Automated Sequence Generation Process and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy

    2007-01-01

    "Automated sequence generation" (autogen) signifies both a process and software used to automatically generate sequences of commands to operate various spacecraft. The autogen software comprises the autogen script plus the Activity Plan Generator (APGEN) program. APGEN can be used for planning missions and command sequences.

  12. DNA sequence analysis by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Kirpekar, F; Nordhoff, E; Larsen, L K; Kristiansen, K; Roepstorff, P; Hillenkamp, F

    1998-01-01

    Conventional DNA sequencing is based on gel electrophoretic separation of the sequencing products. Gel casting and electrophoresis are the time limiting steps, and the gel separation is occasionally imperfect due to aberrant mobility of certain fragments, leading to erroneous sequence determination. Furthermore, illegitimately terminated products frequently cannot be distinguished from correctly terminated ones, a phenomenon that also obscures data interpretation. In the present work the use of MALDI mass spectrometry for sequencing of DNA amplified from clinical samples is implemented. The unambiguous and fast identification of deletions and substitutions in DNA amplified from heterozygous carriers realistically suggest MALDI mass spectrometry as a future alternative to conventional sequencing procedures for high throughput screening for mutations. Unique features of the method are demonstrated by sequencing a DNA fragment that could not be sequenced conventionally because of gel electrophoretic band compression and the presence of multiple non-specific termination products. Taking advantage of the accurate mass information provided by MALDI mass spectrometry, the sequence was deduced, and the nature of the non-specific termination could be determined. The method described here increases the fidelity in DNA sequencing, is fast, compatible with standard DNA sequencing procedures, and amenable to automation. PMID:9592136

  13. Automated Identification of Nucleotide Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osman, Shariff; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Fox, George; Zhu, Dian-Hui

    2007-01-01

    STITCH is a computer program that processes raw nucleotide-sequence data to automatically remove unwanted vector information, perform reverse-complement comparison, stitch shorter sequences together to make longer ones to which the shorter ones presumably belong, and search against the user s choice of private and Internet-accessible public 16S rRNA databases. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] In STITCH, a template 16S rRNA sequence is used to position forward and reverse reads. STITCH then automatically searches known 16S rRNA sequences in the user s chosen database(s) to find the sequence most similar to (the sequence that lies at the smallest edit distance from) each spliced sequence. The result of processing by STITCH is the identification of the most similar well-described bacterium. Whereas previously commercially available software for analyzing genetic sequences operates on one sequence at a time, STITCH can manipulate multiple sequences simultaneously to perform the aforementioned operations. A typical analysis of several dozen sequences (length of the order of 103 base pairs) by use of STITCH is completed in a few minutes, whereas such an analysis performed by use of prior software takes hours or days.

  14. A Bioluminometric Method of DNA Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronaghi, Mostafa; Pourmand, Nader; Stolc, Viktor; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Pyrosequencing is a bioluminometric single-tube DNA sequencing method that takes advantage of co-operativity between four enzymes to monitor DNA synthesis. In this sequencing-by-synthesis method, a cascade of enzymatic reactions yields detectable light, which is proportional to incorporated nucleotides. Pyrosequencing has the advantages of accuracy, flexibility and parallel processing. It can be easily automated. Furthermore, the technique dispenses with the need for labeled primers, labeled nucleotides and gel-electrophoresis. In this chapter, the use of this technique for different applications is discussed.

  15. The Dynamics of DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morvillo, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a paper-and-pencil activity that helps students understand DNA sequencing and expands student understanding of DNA structure, replication, and gel electrophoresis. Appropriate for advanced biology students who are familiar with the Sanger method. (DDR)

  16. Biosensors for DNA sequence detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, Wenonah; Akeson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    DNA biosensors are being developed as alternatives to conventional DNA microarrays. These devices couple signal transduction directly to sequence recognition. Some of the most sensitive and functional technologies use fibre optics or electrochemical sensors in combination with DNA hybridization. In a shift from sequence recognition by hybridization, two emerging single-molecule techniques read sequence composition using zero-mode waveguides or electrical impedance in nanoscale pores.

  17. Graphene nanodevices for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerema, Stephanie J.; Dekker, Cees

    2016-02-01

    Fast, cheap, and reliable DNA sequencing could be one of the most disruptive innovations of this decade, as it will pave the way for personalized medicine. In pursuit of such technology, a variety of nanotechnology-based approaches have been explored and established, including sequencing with nanopores. Owing to its unique structure and properties, graphene provides interesting opportunities for the development of a new sequencing technology. In recent years, a wide range of creative ideas for graphene sequencers have been theoretically proposed and the first experimental demonstrations have begun to appear. Here, we review the different approaches to using graphene nanodevices for DNA sequencing, which involve DNA passing through graphene nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons, and the physisorption of DNA on graphene nanostructures. We discuss the advantages and problems of each of these key techniques, and provide a perspective on the use of graphene in future DNA sequencing technology.

  18. Automated Sequence Processor: Something Old, Something New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara; Schrock, Mitchell; Fisher, Forest; Himes, Terry

    2012-01-01

    High productivity required for operations teams to meet schedules Risk must be minimized. Scripting used to automate processes. Scripts perform essential operations functions. Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) was a grass-roots task built to automate the command uplink process System engineering task for ASP revitalization organized. ASP is a set of approximately 200 scripts written in Perl, C Shell, AWK and other scripting languages.. ASP processes/checks/packages non-interactive commands automatically.. Non-interactive commands are guaranteed to be safe and have been checked by hardware or software simulators.. ASP checks that commands are non-interactive.. ASP processes the commands through a command. simulator and then packages them if there are no errors.. ASP must be active 24 hours/day, 7 days/week..

  19. j5 DNA assembly design automation software.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J; Rosengarten, Rafael D; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-01-20

    Recent advances in Synthetic Biology have yielded standardized and automatable DNA assembly protocols that enable a broad range of biotechnological research and development. Unfortunately, the experimental design required for modern scar-less multipart DNA assembly methods is frequently laborious, time-consuming, and error-prone. Here, we report the development and deployment of a web-based software tool, j5, which automates the design of scar-less multipart DNA assembly protocols including SLIC, Gibson, CPEC, and Golden Gate. The key innovations of the j5 design process include cost optimization, leveraging DNA synthesis when cost-effective to do so, the enforcement of design specification rules, hierarchical assembly strategies to mitigate likely assembly errors, and the instruction of manual or automated construction of scar-less combinatorial DNA libraries. Using a GFP expression testbed, we demonstrate that j5 designs can be executed with the SLIC, Gibson, or CPEC assembly methods, used to build combinatorial libraries with the Golden Gate assembly method, and applied to the preparation of linear gene deletion cassettes for E. coli. The DNA assembly design algorithms reported here are generally applicable to broad classes of DNA construction methodologies and could be implemented to supplement other DNA assembly design tools. Taken together, these innovations save researchers time and effort, reduce the frequency of user design errors and off-target assembly products, decrease research costs, and enable scar-less multipart and combinatorial DNA construction at scales unfeasible without computer-aided design.

  20. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, Stefan K.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

  1. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, S.K.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

  2. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  3. Automated DNA extraction of single dog hairs without roots for mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Bram; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Opdekamp, Anouschka; Decorte, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Dogs are intensely integrated in human social life and their shed hairs can play a major role in forensic investigations. The overall aim of this study was to validate a semi-automated extraction method for mitochondrial DNA analysis of telogenic dog hairs. Extracted DNA was amplified with a 95% success rate from 43 samples using two new experimental designs in which the mitochondrial control region was amplified as a single large (± 1260 bp) amplicon or as two individual amplicons (HV1 and HV2; ± 650 and 350 bp) with tailed-primers. The results prove that the extraction of dog hair mitochondrial DNA can easily be automated to provide sufficient DNA yield for the amplification of a forensically useful long mitochondrial DNA fragment or alternatively two short fragments with minimal loss of sequence in case of degraded samples.

  4. Arduino-based automation of a DNA extraction system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Mi-So; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies to detect infectious diseases with the molecular genetic method. This study presents an automation process for a DNA extraction system based on microfluidics and magnetic bead, which is part of a portable molecular genetic test system. This DNA extraction system consists of a cartridge with chambers, syringes, four linear stepper actuators, and a rotary stepper actuator. The actuators provide a sequence of steps in the DNA extraction process, such as transporting, mixing, and washing for the gene specimen, magnetic bead, and reagent solutions. The proposed automation system consists of a PC-based host application and an Arduino-based controller. The host application compiles a G code sequence file and interfaces with the controller to execute the compiled sequence. The controller executes stepper motor axis motion, time delay, and input-output manipulation. It drives the stepper motor with an open library, which provides a smooth linear acceleration profile. The controller also provides a homing sequence to establish the motor's reference position, and hard limit checking to prevent any over-travelling. The proposed system was implemented and its functionality was investigated, especially regarding positioning accuracy and velocity profile. PMID:26409535

  5. Arduino-based automation of a DNA extraction system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Mi-So; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies to detect infectious diseases with the molecular genetic method. This study presents an automation process for a DNA extraction system based on microfluidics and magnetic bead, which is part of a portable molecular genetic test system. This DNA extraction system consists of a cartridge with chambers, syringes, four linear stepper actuators, and a rotary stepper actuator. The actuators provide a sequence of steps in the DNA extraction process, such as transporting, mixing, and washing for the gene specimen, magnetic bead, and reagent solutions. The proposed automation system consists of a PC-based host application and an Arduino-based controller. The host application compiles a G code sequence file and interfaces with the controller to execute the compiled sequence. The controller executes stepper motor axis motion, time delay, and input-output manipulation. It drives the stepper motor with an open library, which provides a smooth linear acceleration profile. The controller also provides a homing sequence to establish the motor's reference position, and hard limit checking to prevent any over-travelling. The proposed system was implemented and its functionality was investigated, especially regarding positioning accuracy and velocity profile.

  6. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  7. High throughput system for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Difrawy, Sameh A.; Lam, Roger; Aborn, James H.; Novotny, Mark; Gismondi, Elizabeth A.; Matsudaira, Paul; Mckenna, Brian K.; O'Neil, Thomas; Streechon, Philip; Ehrlich, Daniel J.

    2005-07-01

    A 768-lane DNA sequencing system based on micromachined plates has been designed as a near-term successor to 96-lane capillary arrays. Electrophoretic separations are implemented in large-format (25cm by 50cm) microfabricated devices with the objective of proving realistic read length, parallelism, and the scaled sample requirements for long-read de novo sequencing. Two 384-lane plates are alternatively cycled between electrophoresis and regeneration via a robotic pipettor and switching optical system. The instrument minimizes the DNA sample requirement to "1/32×" Sanger chemistry, equal to typical genome center operation, and a 16-fold improvement in scaling relative to previous microfabricated devices. The 40-cm-long channels permit an increase in read length (several hundred base pairs) relative to previous multichannel microfabricated devices. These advances directly address the cost and automation model for adaptation of the technology.

  8. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA.

    PubMed

    Heather, James M; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way.

  9. Microchips for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrangelo, Carlos H.; Palaniappan, S.; Man, Piu Francis; Burns, Mark A.; Burke, David T.

    1999-08-01

    Genetic information is vital for understanding features and response of an organism. In humans, genetic errors are linked to the development of major diseases such as cancer and diabetes. In order to maximally exploit this information it is necessary to develop miniature sequencing assays that are rapid and inexpensive. In this paper we show how this could be attained with microfluidic chips that contain integrated assays. To date simple silicon/glass chips aimed for sequencing purpose have been realized; but these chips are not yet practical. Some of the solutions that are used to bring these devices closer to commercial applications are discussed.

  10. Statistical properties of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing non-coding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, nucleotides thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationarity" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and non-coding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to every DNA sequence (33301 coding and 29453 non-coding) in the entire GenBank database. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the non-coding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural and artificial languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts. These statistical properties of non-coding sequences support the possibility that non-coding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  11. DNA sequences at a glance.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Armando J; Garcia, Sara P; Pratas, Diogo; Ferreira, Paulo J S G

    2013-01-01

    Data summarization and triage is one of the current top challenges in visual analytics. The goal is to let users visually inspect large data sets and examine or request data with particular characteristics. The need for summarization and visual analytics is also felt when dealing with digital representations of DNA sequences. Genomic data sets are growing rapidly, making their analysis increasingly more difficult, and raising the need for new, scalable tools. For example, being able to look at very large DNA sequences while immediately identifying potentially interesting regions would provide the biologist with a flexible exploratory and analytical tool. In this paper we present a new concept, the "information profile", which provides a quantitative measure of the local complexity of a DNA sequence, independently of the direction of processing. The computation of the information profiles is computationally tractable: we show that it can be done in time proportional to the length of the sequence. We also describe a tool to compute the information profiles of a given DNA sequence, and use the genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain 972 h(-) and five human chromosomes 22 for illustration. We show that information profiles are useful for detecting large-scale genomic regularities by visual inspection. Several discovery strategies are possible, including the standalone analysis of single sequences, the comparative analysis of sequences from individuals from the same species, and the comparative analysis of sequences from different organisms. The comparison scale can be varied, allowing the users to zoom-in on specific details, or obtain a broad overview of a long segment. Software applications have been made available for non-commercial use at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/dna-at-glance.

  12. DNA Sequences at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Armando J.; Garcia, Sara P.; Pratas, Diogo; Ferreira, Paulo J. S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Data summarization and triage is one of the current top challenges in visual analytics. The goal is to let users visually inspect large data sets and examine or request data with particular characteristics. The need for summarization and visual analytics is also felt when dealing with digital representations of DNA sequences. Genomic data sets are growing rapidly, making their analysis increasingly more difficult, and raising the need for new, scalable tools. For example, being able to look at very large DNA sequences while immediately identifying potentially interesting regions would provide the biologist with a flexible exploratory and analytical tool. In this paper we present a new concept, the “information profile”, which provides a quantitative measure of the local complexity of a DNA sequence, independently of the direction of processing. The computation of the information profiles is computationally tractable: we show that it can be done in time proportional to the length of the sequence. We also describe a tool to compute the information profiles of a given DNA sequence, and use the genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain 972 h− and five human chromosomes 22 for illustration. We show that information profiles are useful for detecting large-scale genomic regularities by visual inspection. Several discovery strategies are possible, including the standalone analysis of single sequences, the comparative analysis of sequences from individuals from the same species, and the comparative analysis of sequences from different organisms. The comparison scale can be varied, allowing the users to zoom-in on specific details, or obtain a broad overview of a long segment. Software applications have been made available for non-commercial use at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/dna-at-glance. PMID:24278218

  13. Automated DNA electrophoresis, hybridization and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zapolski, E.J.; Gersten, D.M.; Golab, T.J.; Ledley, R.S.

    1986-05-01

    A fully automated, computer controlled system for nucleic acid hybridization analysis has been devised and constructed. In practice, DNA is digested with restriction endonuclease enzyme(s) and loaded into the system by pipette; /sup 32/P-labelled nucleic acid probe(s) is loaded into the nine hybridization chambers. Instructions for all the steps in the automated process are specified by answering questions that appear on the computer screen at the start of the experiment. Subsequent steps are performed automatically. The system performs horizontal electrophoresis in agarose gel, fixed the fragments to a solid phase matrix, denatures, neutralizes, prehybridizes, hybridizes, washes, dries and detects the radioactivity according to the specifications given by the operator. The results, printed out at the end, give the positions on the matrix to which radioactivity remains hybridized following stringent washing.

  14. Haplogrouping mitochondrial DNA sequences in Legal Medicine/Forensic Genetics.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; van Oven, Mannis; Salas, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Haplogrouping refers to the classification of (partial) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences into haplogroups using the current knowledge of the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny. Haplogroup assignment of mtDNA control-region sequences assists in the focused comparison with closely related complete mtDNA sequences and thus serves two main goals in forensic genetics: first is the a posteriori quality analysis of sequencing results and second is the prediction of relevant coding-region sites for confirmation or further refinement of haplogroup status. The latter may be important in forensic casework where discrimination power needs to be as high as possible. However, most articles published in forensic genetics perform haplogrouping only in a rudimentary or incorrect way. The present study features PhyloTree as the key tool for assigning control-region sequences to haplogroups and elaborates on additional Web-based searches for finding near-matches with complete mtDNA genomes in the databases. In contrast, none of the automated haplogrouping tools available can yet compete with manual haplogrouping using PhyloTree plus additional Web-based searches, especially when confronted with artificial recombinants still present in forensic mtDNA datasets. We review and classify the various attempts at haplogrouping by using a multiplex approach or relying on automated haplogrouping. Furthermore, we re-examine a few articles in forensic journals providing mtDNA population data where appropriate haplogrouping following PhyloTree immediately highlights several kinds of sequence errors.

  15. Structural complexity of DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Tseng, Shen-Han; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Huai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    In modern bioinformatics, finding an efficient way to allocate sequence fragments with biological functions is an important issue. This paper presents a structural approach based on context-free grammars extracted from original DNA or protein sequences. This approach is radically different from all those statistical methods. Furthermore, this approach is compared with a topological entropy-based method for consistency and difference of the complexity results. PMID:23662161

  16. Structural Complexity of DNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Huai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    In modern bioinformatics, finding an efficient way to allocate sequence fragments with biological functions is an important issue. This paper presents a structural approach based on context-free grammars extracted from original DNA or protein sequences. This approach is radically different from all those statistical methods. Furthermore, this approach is compared with a topological entropy-based method for consistency and difference of the complexity results. PMID:23662161

  17. Automation of a single-DNA molecule stretching device.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Lopacinska, Joanna M; Tommerup, Niels; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-06-01

    We automate the manipulation of genomic-length DNA in a nanofluidic device based on real-time analysis of fluorescence images. In our protocol, individual molecules are picked from a microchannel and stretched with pN forces using pressure driven flows. The millimeter-long DNA fragments free flowing in micro- and nanofluidics emit low fluorescence and change shape, thus challenging the image analysis for machine vision. We demonstrate a set of image processing steps that increase the intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio associated with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to estimate the length of molecules by continuous real-time image stitching and how to increase the effective resolution of a pressure controller by pulse width modulation. The sequence of image-processing steps addresses the challenges of genomic-length DNA visualization; however, they should also be general to other applications of fluorescence-based microfluidics.

  18. Automation of a single-DNA molecule stretching device.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Lopacinska, Joanna M; Tommerup, Niels; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-06-01

    We automate the manipulation of genomic-length DNA in a nanofluidic device based on real-time analysis of fluorescence images. In our protocol, individual molecules are picked from a microchannel and stretched with pN forces using pressure driven flows. The millimeter-long DNA fragments free flowing in micro- and nanofluidics emit low fluorescence and change shape, thus challenging the image analysis for machine vision. We demonstrate a set of image processing steps that increase the intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio associated with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to estimate the length of molecules by continuous real-time image stitching and how to increase the effective resolution of a pressure controller by pulse width modulation. The sequence of image-processing steps addresses the challenges of genomic-length DNA visualization; however, they should also be general to other applications of fluorescence-based microfluidics. PMID:26133839

  19. High-throughput DNA sequencing: a genomic data manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Huang, G M

    1999-01-01

    The progress trends in automated DNA sequencing operation are reviewed. Technological development in sequencing instruments, enzymatic chemistry and robotic stations has resulted in ever-increasing capacity of sequence data production. This progress leads to a higher demand on laboratory information management and data quality assessment. High-throughput laboratories face the challenge of organizational management, as well as technology management. Engineering principles of process control should be adopted in this biological data manufacturing procedure. While various systems attempt to provide solutions to automate different parts of, or even the entire process, new technical advances will continue to change the paradigm and provide new challenges.

  20. Apparatus for improved DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a means for the rapid sequencing of DNA samples. More specifically, it consists of a new design direct blotting electrophoresis unit. The DNA sequence is deposited on a membrane attached to a rotating drum. Initial data compaction is facilitated by the use of a machined multi-channeled plate called a ribbon channel plate. Each channel is an isolated mini gel system much like a gel filled capillary. The system as a whole, however, is in a slab gel like format with the advantages of uniformity and easy reusability. The system can be used in different embodiments. The drum system is unique in that after deposition the drum rotates the deposited DNA into a large non-buffer open space where processing and detection can occur. The drum can also be removed in toto to special workstations for downstream processing, multiplexing and detection.

  1. Apparatus for improved DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1996-05-07

    This invention is a means for the rapid sequencing of DNA samples. More specifically, it consists of a new design direct blotting electrophoresis unit. The DNA sequence is deposited on a membrane attached to a rotating drum. Initial data compaction is facilitated by the use of a machined multi-channeled plate called a ribbon channel plate. Each channel is an isolated mini gel system much like a gel filled capillary. The system as a whole, however, is in a slab gel like format with the advantages of uniformity and easy reusability. The system can be used in different embodiments. The drum system is unique in that after deposition the drum rotates the deposited DNA into a large non-buffer open space where processing and detection can occur. The drum can also be removed in toto to special workstations for downstream processing, multiplexing and detection. 18 figs.

  2. Automated DNA diagnostics using an ELISA-based oligonucleotide ligation assay.

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, D A; Kaiser, R; Lappin, S; Stewart, J; Hood, L; Landegren, U

    1990-01-01

    DNA diagnostics, the detection of specific DNA sequences, will play an increasingly important role in medicine as the molecular basis of human disease is defined. Here, we demonstrate an automated, nonisotopic strategy for DNA diagnostics using amplification of target DNA segments by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the discrimination of allelic sequence variants by a colorimetric oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA). We have applied the automated PCR/OLA procedure to diagnosis of common genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis (delta F508 mutation), and to genetic linkage mapping of gene segments in the human T-cell receptor beta-chain locus. The automated PCR/OLA strategy provides a rapid system for diagnosis of genetic, malignant, and infectious diseases as well as a powerful approach to genetic linkage mapping of chromosomes and forensic DNA typing. Images PMID:2247466

  3. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  4. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  5. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  6. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  7. Scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation

    DOEpatents

    Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides a method of a method of designing an implementation of a DNA assembly. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding flanking homology sequences to each of the DNA oligos. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding optimized overhang sequences to each of the DNA oligos.

  8. Towards modeling DNA sequences as automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Christian; Farmer, Doyne

    1984-01-01

    We seek to describe a starting point for modeling the evolution and role of DNA sequences within the framework of cellular automata by discussing the current understanding of genetic information storage in DNA sequences. This includes alternately viewing the role of DNA in living organisms as a simple scheme and as a complex scheme; a brief review of strategies for identifying and classifying patterns in DNA sequences; and finally, notes towards establishing DNA-like automata models, including a discussion of the extent of experimentally determined DNA sequence data present in the database at Los Alamos.

  9. Particle sizer and DNA sequencer

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.

    2005-09-13

    An electrophoretic device separates and detects particles such as DNA fragments, proteins, and the like. The device has a capillary which is coated with a coating with a low refractive index such as Teflon.RTM. AF. A sample of particles is fluorescently labeled and injected into the capillary. The capillary is filled with an electrolyte buffer solution. An electrical field is applied across the capillary causing the particles to migrate from a first end of the capillary to a second end of the capillary. A detector light beam is then scanned along the length of the capillary to detect the location of the separated particles. The device is amenable to a high throughput system by providing additional capillaries. The device can also be used to determine the actual size of the particles and for DNA sequencing.

  10. Methods for comparing a DNA sequence with a protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Zhang, J

    1996-12-01

    We describe two methods for constructing an optimal global alignment of, and an optimal local alignment between, a DNA sequence and a protein sequence. The alignment model of the methods addresses the problems of frameshifts and introns in the DNA sequence. The methods require computer memory proportional to the sequence lengths, so they can rigorously process very huge sequences. The simplified versions of the methods were implemented as computer programs named NAP and LAP. The experimental results demonstrate that the programs are sensitive and powerful tools for finding genes by DNA-protein sequence homology.

  11. Automated Gel Size Selection to Improve the Quality of Next-generation Sequencing Libraries Prepared from Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel I; Slobodan, Jared R; Nesbitt, Matthew J; Croxen, Matthew A; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Tang, Patrick

    2015-04-17

    Next-generation sequencing of environmental samples can be challenging because of the variable DNA quantity and quality in these samples. High quality DNA libraries are needed for optimal results from next-generation sequencing. Environmental samples such as water may have low quality and quantities of DNA as well as contaminants that co-precipitate with DNA. The mechanical and enzymatic processes involved in extraction and library preparation may further damage the DNA. Gel size selection enables purification and recovery of DNA fragments of a defined size for sequencing applications. Nevertheless, this task is one of the most time-consuming steps in the DNA library preparation workflow. The protocol described here enables complete automation of agarose gel loading, electrophoretic analysis, and recovery of targeted DNA fragments. In this study, we describe a high-throughput approach to prepare high quality DNA libraries from freshwater samples that can be applied also to other environmental samples. We used an indirect approach to concentrate bacterial cells from environmental freshwater samples; DNA was extracted using a commercially available DNA extraction kit, and DNA libraries were prepared using a commercial transposon-based protocol. DNA fragments of 500 to 800 bp were gel size selected using Ranger Technology, an automated electrophoresis workstation. Sequencing of the size-selected DNA libraries demonstrated significant improvements to read length and quality of the sequencing reads.

  12. The Value of DNA Sequencing - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    DNA sequencing: what it tells us about DNA changes in cancer, how looking across many tumors will help to identify meaningful changes and potential drug targets, and how genomics is changing the way we think about cancer.

  13. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Andrew M.; Dawson, John

    1993-01-01

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source.

  14. DNA sequence from Cretaceous period bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Woodward, S R; Weyand, N J; Bunnell, M

    1994-11-18

    DNA was extracted from 80-million-year-old bone fragments found in strata of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the roof of an underground coal mine in eastern Utah. This DNA was used as the template in a polymerase chain reaction that amplified and sequenced a portion of the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome b. These sequences differ from all other cytochrome b sequences investigated, including those in the GenBank and European Molecular Biology Laboratory databases. DNA isolated from these bone fragments and the resulting gene sequences demonstrate that small fragments of DNA may survive in bone for millions of years.

  15. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences.

  16. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences. PMID:27265133

  17. Sequence and Structure Dependent DNA-DNA Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopchick, Benjamin; Qiu, Xiangyun

    Molecular forces between dsDNA strands are largely dominated by electrostatics and have been extensively studied. Quantitative knowledge has been accumulated on how DNA-DNA interactions are modulated by varied biological constituents such as ions, cationic ligands, and proteins. Despite its central role in biology, the sequence of DNA has not received substantial attention and ``random'' DNA sequences are typically used in biophysical studies. However, ~50% of human genome is composed of non-random-sequence DNAs, particularly repetitive sequences. Furthermore, covalent modifications of DNA such as methylation play key roles in gene functions. Such DNAs with specific sequences or modifications often take on structures other than the canonical B-form. Here we present series of quantitative measurements of the DNA-DNA forces with the osmotic stress method on different DNA sequences, from short repeats to the most frequent sequences in genome, and to modifications such as bromination and methylation. We observe peculiar behaviors that appear to be strongly correlated with the incurred structural changes. We speculate the causalities in terms of the differences in hydration shell and DNA surface structures.

  18. Atypical regions in large genomic DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S. |; McPeek, M.S.; Speed, T.P.

    1994-07-19

    Large genomic DNA sequences contain regions with distinctive patterns of sequence organization. The authors describe a method using logarithms of probabilities based on seventh-order Markov chains to rapidly identify genomic sequences that do not resemble models of genome organization built from compilations of octanucleotide usage. Data bases have been constructed from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA sequences of >1000 nt and human sequences of >10,000 nt. Atypical genes and clusters of genes have been located in bacteriophage, yeast, and primate DNA sequences. The authors consider criteria for statistical significance of the results, offer possible explanations for the observed variation in genome organization, and give additional applications of these methods in DNA sequence analysis.

  19. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  20. Automated shielding analysis sequences for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two important Shielding Analysis Sequences (SAS) have recently been developed within the SCALE computational system. These sequences significantly enhance the existing SCALE system capabilities for evaluating radiation doses exterior to spent fuel casks. These new control module sequences (SAS1 and SAS4) and their capabilities are discussed and demonstrated, together with the existing SAS2 sequence that is used to generate radiation sources for spent fuel. Particular attention is given to the new SAS4 sequence which provides an automated scheme for generating and using biasing parameters in a subsequent Monte Carlo analysis of a cask.

  1. Using DNA looping to measure sequence dependent DNA elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandinov, Alan; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2012-10-01

    We are using tethered particle motion (TPM) microscopy to observe protein-mediated DNA looping in the lactose repressor system in DNA constructs with varying AT / CG content. We use these data to determine the persistence length of the DNA as a function of its sequence content and compare the data to direct micromechanical measurements with constant-force axial optical tweezers. The data from the TPM experiments show a much smaller sequence effect on the persistence length than the optical tweezers experiments.

  2. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  3. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Huang, Xiaohua C.; Quesada, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A DNA sequencing method described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in said lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radio-isotope labels.

  4. The retrieval of ancient human DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, O.; Krings, M.; Ward, R. H.; Pääbo, S.

    1996-01-01

    DNA was extracted from approximately 600-year-old human remains found at an archaeological site in the southwestern United States, and mtDNA fragments were amplified by PCR. When these fragments were sequenced directly, multiple sequences seemed to be present. From three representative individuals, DNA fragments of different lengths were quantified and short overlapping amplification products cloned. When amplifications started from <40 molecules, clones contained several different sequences. In contrast, when they were initiated by a few thousand molecules, unambiguous and reproducible results were achieved. These results show that more experimental work than is often applied is necessary to ensure that DNA sequences amplified from ancient human remains are authentic. In particular, quantitation of the numbers of amplifiable molecules is a useful tool to determine the role of contaminating contemporary molecules and PCR errors in amplifications from ancient DNA. Images Figure 1 PMID:8755923

  5. Automated Sequence Preprocessing in a Large-Scale Sequencing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wendl, Michael C.; Dear, Simon; Hodgson, Dave; Hillier, LaDeana

    1998-01-01

    A software system for transforming fragments from four-color fluorescence-based gel electrophoresis experiments into assembled sequence is described. It has been developed for large-scale processing of all trace data, including shotgun and finishing reads, regardless of clone origin. Design considerations are discussed in detail, as are programming implementation and graphic tools. The importance of input validation, record tracking, and use of base quality values is emphasized. Several quality analysis metrics are proposed and applied to sample results from recently sequenced clones. Such quantities prove to be a valuable aid in evaluating modifications of sequencing protocol. The system is in full production use at both the Genome Sequencing Center and the Sanger Centre, for which combined weekly production is ∼100,000 sequencing reads per week. PMID:9750196

  6. Fractal analysis of DNA sequence data

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelsen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    DNA sequence databases are growing at an almost exponential rate. New analysis methods are needed to extract knowledge about the organization of nucleotides from this vast amount of data. Fractal analysis is a new scientific paradigm that has been used successfully in many domains including the biological and physical sciences. Biological growth is a nonlinear dynamic process and some have suggested that to consider fractal geometry as a biological design principle may be most productive. This research is an exploratory study of the application of fractal analysis to DNA sequence data. A simple random fractal, the random walk, is used to represent DNA sequences. The fractal dimension of these walks is then estimated using the [open quote]sandbox method[close quote]. Analysis of 164 human DNA sequences compared to three types of control sequences (random, base-content matched, and dimer-content matched) reveals that long-range correlations are present in DNA that are not explained by base or dimer frequencies. The study also revealed that the fractal dimension of coding sequences was significantly lower than sequences that were primarily noncoding, indicating the presence of longer-range correlations in functional sequences. The multifractal spectrum is used to analyze fractals that are heterogeneous and have a different fractal dimension for subsets with different scalings. The multifractal spectrum of the random walks of twelve mitochondrial genome sequences was estimated. Eight vertebrate mtDNA sequences had uniformly lower spectra values than did four invertebrate mtDNA sequences. Thus, vertebrate mitochondria show significantly longer-range correlations than to invertebrate mitochondria. The higher multifractal spectra values for invertebrate mitochondria suggest a more random organization of the sequences. This research also includes considerable theoretical work on the effects of finite size, embedding dimension, and scaling ranges.

  7. Fractal Analysis of DNA Sequence Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelsen, Cheryl Lynn

    DNA sequence databases are growing at an almost exponential rate. New analysis methods are needed to extract knowledge about the organization of nucleotides from this vast amount of data. Fractal analysis is a new scientific paradigm that has been used successfully in many domains including the biological and physical sciences. Biological growth is a nonlinear dynamic process and some have suggested that to consider fractal geometry as a biological design principle may be most productive. This research is an exploratory study of the application of fractal analysis to DNA sequence data. A simple random fractal, the random walk, is used to represent DNA sequences. The fractal dimension of these walks is then estimated using the "sandbox method." Analysis of 164 human DNA sequences compared to three types of control sequences (random, base -content matched, and dimer-content matched) reveals that long-range correlations are present in DNA that are not explained by base or dimer frequencies. The study also revealed that the fractal dimension of coding sequences was significantly lower than sequences that were primarily noncoding, indicating the presence of longer-range correlations in functional sequences. The multifractal spectrum is used to analyze fractals that are heterogeneous and have a different fractal dimension for subsets with different scalings. The multifractal spectrum of the random walks of twelve mitochondrial genome sequences was estimated. Eight vertebrate mtDNA sequences had uniformly lower spectra values than did four invertebrate mtDNA sequences. Thus, vertebrate mitochondria show significantly longer-range correlations than do invertebrate mitochondria. The higher multifractal spectra values for invertebrate mitochondria suggest a more random organization of the sequences. This research also includes considerable theoretical work on the effects of finite size, embedding dimension, and scaling ranges.

  8. Streamlining DNA Barcoding Protocols: Automated DNA Extraction and a New cox1 Primer in Arachnid Systematics

    PubMed Central

    Vidergar, Nina; Toplak, Nataša; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding is a popular tool in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, but for most animal lineages protocols for obtaining the barcoding sequences—mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1 AKA CO1)—are not standardized. Our aim was to explore an optimal strategy for arachnids, focusing on the species-richest lineage, spiders by (1) improving an automated DNA extraction protocol, (2) testing the performance of commonly used primer combinations, and (3) developing a new cox1 primer suitable for more efficient alignment and phylogenetic analyses. Methodology We used exemplars of 15 species from all major spider clades, processed a range of spider tissues of varying size and quality, optimized genomic DNA extraction using the MagMAX Express magnetic particle processor—an automated high throughput DNA extraction system—and tested cox1 amplification protocols emphasizing the standard barcoding region using ten routinely employed primer pairs. Results The best results were obtained with the commonly used Folmer primers (LCO1490/HCO2198) that capture the standard barcode region, and with the C1-J-2183/C1-N-2776 primer pair that amplifies its extension. However, C1-J-2183 is designed too close to HCO2198 for well-interpreted, continuous sequence data, and in practice the resulting sequences from the two primer pairs rarely overlap. We therefore designed a new forward primer C1-J-2123 60 base pairs upstream of the C1-J-2183 binding site. The success rate of this new primer (93%) matched that of C1-J-2183. Conclusions The use of C1-J-2123 allows full, indel-free overlap of sequences obtained with the standard Folmer primers and with C1-J-2123 primer pair. Our preliminary tests suggest that in addition to spiders, C1-J-2123 will also perform in other arachnids and several other invertebrates. We provide optimal PCR protocols for these primer sets, and recommend using them for systematic efforts beyond DNA barcoding. PMID:25415202

  9. Counterintuitive DNA Sequence Dependence in Supercoiling-Induced DNA Melting

    PubMed Central

    Vlijm, Rifka; v.d. Torre, Jaco; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of DNA in cells relies on the balance between hybridized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and local de-hybridized regions of ssDNA that provide access to binding proteins. Traditional melting experiments, in which short pieces of dsDNA are heated up until the point of melting into ssDNA, have determined that AT-rich sequences have a lower binding energy than GC-rich sequences. In cells, however, the double-stranded backbone of DNA is destabilized by negative supercoiling, and not by temperature. To investigate what the effect of GC content is on DNA melting induced by negative supercoiling, we studied DNA molecules with a GC content ranging from 38% to 77%, using single-molecule magnetic tweezer measurements in which the length of a single DNA molecule is measured as a function of applied stretching force and supercoiling density. At low force (<0.5pN), supercoiling results into twisting of the dsDNA backbone and loop formation (plectonemes), without inducing any DNA melting. This process was not influenced by the DNA sequence. When negative supercoiling is introduced at increasing force, local melting of DNA is introduced. We measured for the different DNA molecules a characteristic force Fchar, at which negative supercoiling induces local melting of the dsDNA. Surprisingly, GC-rich sequences melt at lower forces than AT-rich sequences: Fchar = 0.56pN for 77% GC but 0.73pN for 38% GC. An explanation for this counterintuitive effect is provided by the realization that supercoiling densities of a few percent only induce melting of a few percent of the base pairs. As a consequence, denaturation bubbles occur in local AT-rich regions and the sequence-dependent effect arises from an increased DNA bending/torsional energy associated with the plectonemes. This new insight indicates that an increased GC-content adjacent to AT-rich DNA regions will enhance local opening of the double-stranded DNA helix. PMID:26513573

  10. Counterintuitive DNA Sequence Dependence in Supercoiling-Induced DNA Melting.

    PubMed

    Vlijm, Rifka; V D Torre, Jaco; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of DNA in cells relies on the balance between hybridized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and local de-hybridized regions of ssDNA that provide access to binding proteins. Traditional melting experiments, in which short pieces of dsDNA are heated up until the point of melting into ssDNA, have determined that AT-rich sequences have a lower binding energy than GC-rich sequences. In cells, however, the double-stranded backbone of DNA is destabilized by negative supercoiling, and not by temperature. To investigate what the effect of GC content is on DNA melting induced by negative supercoiling, we studied DNA molecules with a GC content ranging from 38% to 77%, using single-molecule magnetic tweezer measurements in which the length of a single DNA molecule is measured as a function of applied stretching force and supercoiling density. At low force (<0.5pN), supercoiling results into twisting of the dsDNA backbone and loop formation (plectonemes), without inducing any DNA melting. This process was not influenced by the DNA sequence. When negative supercoiling is introduced at increasing force, local melting of DNA is introduced. We measured for the different DNA molecules a characteristic force Fchar, at which negative supercoiling induces local melting of the dsDNA. Surprisingly, GC-rich sequences melt at lower forces than AT-rich sequences: Fchar = 0.56pN for 77% GC but 0.73pN for 38% GC. An explanation for this counterintuitive effect is provided by the realization that supercoiling densities of a few percent only induce melting of a few percent of the base pairs. As a consequence, denaturation bubbles occur in local AT-rich regions and the sequence-dependent effect arises from an increased DNA bending/torsional energy associated with the plectonemes. This new insight indicates that an increased GC-content adjacent to AT-rich DNA regions will enhance local opening of the double-stranded DNA helix.

  11. Visible periodicity of strong nucleosome DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Salih, Bilal; Tripathi, Vijay; Trifonov, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Lowary and Widom assembled nucleosomes on synthetic random sequence DNA molecules, selected the strongest nucleosomes and discovered that the TA dinucleotides in these strong nucleosome sequences often appear at 10-11 bases from one another or at distances which are multiples of this period. We repeated this experiment computationally, on large ensembles of natural genomic sequences, by selecting the strongest nucleosomes--i.e. those with such distances between like-named dinucleotides, multiples of 10.4 bases, the structural and sequence period of nucleosome DNA. The analysis confirmed the periodicity of TA dinucleotides in the strong nucleosomes, and revealed as well other periodic sequence elements, notably classical AA and TT dinucleotides. The matrices of DNA bendability and their simple linear forms--nucleosome positioning motifs--are calculated from the strong nucleosome DNA sequences. The motifs are in full accord with nucleosome positioning sequences derived earlier, thus confirming that the new technique, indeed, detects strong nucleosomes. Species- and isochore-specific variations of the matrices and of the positioning motifs are demonstrated. The strong nucleosome DNA sequences manifest the highest hitherto nucleosome positioning sequence signals, showing the dinucleotide periodicities in directly observable rather than in hidden form.

  12. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A.; Arlinghaus, H.F.

    1993-06-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  13. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A. ); Arlinghaus, H.F. )

    1993-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  14. Automated serial extraction of DNA and RNA from biobanked tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing biobanking of biological samples, methods for large scale extraction of nucleic acids are in demand. The lack of such techniques designed for extraction from tissues results in a bottleneck in downstream genetic analyses, particularly in the field of cancer research. We have developed an automated procedure for tissue homogenization and extraction of DNA and RNA into separate fractions from the same frozen tissue specimen. A purpose developed magnetic bead based technology to serially extract both DNA and RNA from tissues was automated on a Tecan Freedom Evo robotic workstation. Results 864 fresh-frozen human normal and tumor tissue samples from breast and colon were serially extracted in batches of 96 samples. Yields and quality of DNA and RNA were determined. The DNA was evaluated in several downstream analyses, and the stability of RNA was determined after 9 months of storage. The extracted DNA performed consistently well in processes including PCR-based STR analysis, HaloPlex selection and deep sequencing on an Illumina platform, and gene copy number analysis using microarrays. The RNA has performed well in RT-PCR analyses and maintains integrity upon storage. Conclusions The technology described here enables the processing of many tissue samples simultaneously with a high quality product and a time and cost reduction for the user. This reduces the sample preparation bottleneck in cancer research. The open automation format also enables integration with upstream and downstream devices for automated sample quantitation or storage. PMID:23957867

  15. Automated SNP detection in expressed sequence tags: statistical considerations and application to maritime pine sequences.

    PubMed

    Dantec, Loïck Le; Chagné, David; Pot, David; Cantin, Olivier; Garnier-Géré, Pauline; Bedon, Frank; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Chaumeil, Philippe; Léger, Patrick; Garcia, Virginie; Laigret, Frédéric; De Daruvar, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe

    2004-02-01

    We developed an automated pipeline for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets, by combining three DNA sequence analysis programs: Phred, Phrap and PolyBayes. This application requires access to the individual electrophoregram traces. First, a reference set of 65 SNPs was obtained from the sequencing of 30 gametes in 13 maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) gene fragments (6671 bp), resulting in a frequency of 1 SNP every 102.6 bp. Second, parameters of the three programs were optimized in order to retrieve as many true SNPs, while keeping the rate of false positive as low as possible. Overall, the efficiency of detection of true SNPs was 83.1%. However, this rate varied largely as a function of the rare SNP allele frequency: down to 41% for rare SNP alleles (frequency < 10%), up to 98% for allele frequencies above 10%. Third, the detection method was applied to the 18498 assembled maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) ESTs, allowing to identify a total of 1400 candidate SNPs, in contigs containing between 4 and 20 sequence reads. These genetic resources, described for the first time in a forest tree species, were made available at http://www.pierroton.inra/genetics/Pinesnps. We also derived an analytical expression for the SNP detection probability as a function of the SNP allele frequency, the number of haploid genomes used to generate the EST sequence database, and the sample size of the contigs considered for SNP detection. The frequency of the SNP allele was shown to be the main factor influencing the probability of SNP detection.

  16. Data structures for DNA sequence manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C B

    1986-01-01

    Two data structures designated Fragment and Construct are described. The Fragment data structure defines a continuous nucleic acid sequence from a unique genetic origin. The Construct defines a continuous sequence composed of sequences from multiple genetic origins. These data structures are manipulated by a set of software tools to simulate the construction of mosaic recombinant DNA molecules. They are also used as an interface between sequence data banks and analytical programs. PMID:3753765

  17. A test matrix sequencer for research test facility automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccartney, Timothy P.; Emery, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    The hardware and software configuration of a Test Matrix Sequencer, a general purpose test matrix profiler that was developed for research test facility automation at the NASA Lewis Research Center, is described. The system provides set points to controllers and contact closures to data systems during the course of a test. The Test Matrix Sequencer consists of a microprocessor controlled system which is operated from a personal computer. The software program, which is the main element of the overall system is interactive and menu driven with pop-up windows and help screens. Analog and digital input/output channels can be controlled from a personal computer using the software program. The Test Matrix Sequencer provides more efficient use of aeronautics test facilities by automating repetitive tasks that were once done manually.

  18. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.

    1993-12-14

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source. 6 figures.

  19. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  20. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  1. Automated screening for small organic ligands using DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Decurtins, Willy; Wichert, Moreno; Franzini, Raphael M; Buller, Fabian; Stravs, Michael A; Zhang, Yixin; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are collections of organic compounds that are individually linked to different oligonucleotides, serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. As all compounds in the library can be identified by their DNA tags, they can be mixed and used in affinity-capture experiments on target proteins of interest. In this protocol, we describe the screening process that allows the identification of the few binding molecules within the multiplicity of library members. First, the automated affinity selection process physically isolates binding library members. Second, the DNA codes of the isolated binders are PCR-amplified and subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing. Third, the obtained sequencing data are evaluated using a C++ program and the results are displayed using MATLAB software. The resulting selection fingerprints facilitate the discrimination of binding from nonbinding library members. The described procedures allow the identification of small organic ligands to biological targets from a DECL within 10 d. PMID:26985574

  2. Sequencing Intractable DNA to Close Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Brown, Steven D; Podar, Mircea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled intractable resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such difficult regions in the non-contiguous finished Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps) and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap). The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. These developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.

  3. The expanding scope of DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shendure, Jay; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2014-01-01

    In just seven years, next-generation technologies have reduced the cost and increased the speed of DNA sequencing by four orders of magnitude, and experiments requiring many millions of sequencing reads are now routine. In research, sequencing is being applied not only to assemble genomes and to investigate the genetic basis of human disease, but also to explore myriad phenomena in organismic and cellular biology. In the clinic, the utility of sequence data is being intensively evaluated in diverse contexts, including reproductive medicine, oncology and infectious disease. A recurrent theme in the development of new sequencing applications is the creative ‘recombination’ of existing experimental building blocks. However, there remain many potentially high-impact applications of next-generation DNA sequencing that are not yet fully realized. PMID:23138308

  4. Osmylated DNA, a novel concept for sequencing DNA using nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    2015-03-01

    Saenger sequencing has led the advances in molecular biology, while faster and cheaper next generation technologies are urgently needed. A newer approach exploits nanopores, natural or solid-state, set in an electrical field, and obtains base sequence information from current variations due to the passage of a ssDNA molecule through the pore. A hurdle in this approach is the fact that the four bases are chemically comparable to each other which leads to small differences in current obstruction. ‘Base calling’ becomes even more challenging because most nanopores sense a short sequence and not individual bases. Perhaps sequencing DNA via nanopores would be more manageable, if only the bases were two, and chemically very different from each other; a sequence of 1s and 0s comes to mind. Osmylated DNA comes close to such a sequence of 1s and 0s. Osmylation is the addition of osmium tetroxide bipyridine across the C5-C6 double bond of the pyrimidines. Osmylation adds almost 400% mass to the reactive base, creates a sterically and electronically notably different molecule, labeled 1, compared to the unreactive purines, labeled 0. If osmylated DNA were successfully sequenced, the result would be a sequence of osmylated pyrimidines (1), and purines (0), and not of the actual nucleobases. To solve this problem we studied the osmylation reaction with short oligos and with M13mp18, a long ssDNA, developed a UV-vis assay to measure extent of osmylation, and designed two protocols. Protocol A uses mild conditions and yields osmylated thymidines (1), while leaving the other three bases (0) practically intact. Protocol B uses harsher conditions and effectively osmylates both pyrimidines, but not the purines. Applying these two protocols also to the complementary of the target polynucleotide yields a total of four osmylated strands that collectively could define the actual base sequence of the target DNA.

  5. Dispersed repetitive DNA sequence of Mucor racemosus.

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, R; Katayama, C; Sypherd, P S; Cihlar, R L

    1985-01-01

    A dispersed repetitive DNA sequence has been identified within the genome of the fungus Mucor racemosus. Recombinant phage clones, as well as a plasmid harboring the sequence, have been isolated. Examination of cloned fragments comprising part of the repetitive sequence has led to a partial characterization of the element. The sequence has been detected in other Mucor species, and although the apparent number and chromosomal position of the repetitive sequence vary from strain to strain, it is clear that at least portions of the element have been conserved. Images PMID:3980442

  6. [Characterization and modification of phage T7 DNA polymerase for use in DNA sequencing]: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This project focuses on the DNA polymerase and accessory proteins of phage T7 for use in DNA sequence analysis. T7 DNA polymerase (gene 5 protein) interacts with accessory proteins for the acquisition of properties such as processivity that are necessary for DNA replication. One goal is to understand these interactions in order to modify the proteins to increase their usefulness with DNA sequence analysis. Using a genetically modified gene 5 protein lacking 3` to 5` exonuclease activity we have found that in the presence of manganese there is no discrimination against dideoxynucleotides, a property that enables novel approaches to DNA sequencing using automated technology. Pyrophosphorolysis can create problems in DNA sequence determination, a problem that can be eliminated by the addition of pyrophosphatase. Crystals of the gene 5 protein/thioredoxin complex have now been obtained and X-ray diffraction analysis will be undertaken once their quality has been improved. Amino acid changes in gene 5 protein have been identified that alter its interaction with thioredoxin. Characterization of these proteins should help determine how thioredoxin confers processivity on polymerization. We have characterized the 17 DNA binding protein, the gene 2.5 protein, and shown that it interacts with gene 5 protein and gene 4 protein. The gene 2.5 protein mediates homologous base pairing and strand uptake. Gene 5.5 protein interacts with E. coli Hl protein and affects gene expression. Biochemical and genetic studies on the T7 56-kDa gene 4 protein, the helicase, are focused on its physical interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and the mechanism by which the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates fuels its unidirectional translocation on DNA.

  7. [Characterization and modification of phage T7 DNA polymerase for use in DNA sequencing]: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This project focuses on the DNA polymerase and accessory proteins of phage T7 for use in DNA sequence analysis. T7 DNA polymerase (gene 5 protein) interacts with accessory proteins for the acquisition of properties such as processivity that are necessary for DNA replication. One goal is to understand these interactions in order to modify the proteins to increase their usefulness with DNA sequence analysis. Using a genetically modified gene 5 protein lacking 3' to 5' exonuclease activity we have found that in the presence of manganese there is no discrimination against dideoxynucleotides, a property that enables novel approaches to DNA sequencing using automated technology. Pyrophosphorolysis can create problems in DNA sequence determination, a problem that can be eliminated by the addition of pyrophosphatase. Crystals of the gene 5 protein/thioredoxin complex have now been obtained and X-ray diffraction analysis will be undertaken once their quality has been improved. Amino acid changes in gene 5 protein have been identified that alter its interaction with thioredoxin. Characterization of these proteins should help determine how thioredoxin confers processivity on polymerization. We have characterized the 17 DNA binding protein, the gene 2.5 protein, and shown that it interacts with gene 5 protein and gene 4 protein. The gene 2.5 protein mediates homologous base pairing and strand uptake. Gene 5.5 protein interacts with E. coli Hl protein and affects gene expression. Biochemical and genetic studies on the T7 56-kDa gene 4 protein, the helicase, are focused on its physical interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and the mechanism by which the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates fuels its unidirectional translocation on DNA.

  8. Bacterial identification and subtyping using DNA microarray and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Mossoba, Magdi M; Allard, Marc M; Lienau, E Kurt; Brown, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    The era of fast and accurate discovery of biological sequence motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is here. The co-evolution of direct genome sequencing and DNA microarray strategies not only will identify, isotype, and serotype pathogenic bacteria, but also it will aid in the discovery of new gene functions by detecting gene expressions in different diseases and environmental conditions. Microarray bacterial identification has made great advances in working with pure and mixed bacterial samples. The technological advances have moved beyond bacterial gene expression to include bacterial identification and isotyping. Application of new tools such as mid-infrared chemical imaging improves detection of hybridization in DNA microarrays. The research in this field is promising and future work will reveal the potential of infrared technology in bacterial identification. On the other hand, DNA sequencing by using 454 pyrosequencing is so cost effective that the promise of $1,000 per bacterial genome sequence is becoming a reality. Pyrosequencing technology is a simple to use technique that can produce accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA sequences with a great speed. The deposition of massive amounts of bacterial genomic information in databanks is creating fingerprint phylogenetic analysis that will ultimately replace several technologies such as Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. In this chapter, we will review (1) the use of DNA microarray using fluorescence and infrared imaging detection for identification of pathogenic bacteria, and (2) use of pyrosequencing in DNA cluster analysis to fingerprint bacterial phylogenetic trees.

  9. Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome XI.

    PubMed

    Dujon, B; Alexandraki, D; André, B; Ansorge, W; Baladron, V; Ballesta, J P; Banrevi, A; Bolle, P A; Bolotin-Fukuhara, M; Bossier, P; Bou, G; Boyer, J; Bultrago, M J; Cheret, G; Colleaux, L; Dalgnan-Fornler, B; del Rey, F; Dlon, C; Domdey, H; Düsterhoft, A; Düsterhus, S; Entlan, K D; Erfle, H; Esteban, P F; Feldmann, H; Fernandes, L; Robo, G M; Fritz, C; Fukuhara, H; Gabel, C; Gaillon, L; Carcia-Cantalejo, J M; Garcia-Ramirez, J J; Gent, N E; Ghazvini, M; Goffeau, A; Gonzaléz, A; Grothues, D; Guerreiro, P; Hegemann, J; Hewitt, N; Hilger, F; Hollenberg, C P; Horaitis, O; Indge, K J; Jacquier, A; James, C M; Jauniaux, C; Jimenez, A; Keuchel, H; Kirchrath, L; Kleine, K; Kötter, P; Legrain, P; Liebl, S; Louis, E J; Maia e Silva, A; Marck, C; Monnier, A L; Möstl, D; Müller, S; Obermaier, B; Oliver, S G; Pallier, C; Pascolo, S; Pfeiffer, F; Philippsen, P; Planta, R J; Pohl, F M; Pohl, T M; Pöhlmann, R; Portetelle, D; Purnelle, B; Puzos, V; Ramezani Rad, M; Rasmussen, S W; Remacha, M; Revuelta, J L; Richard, G F; Rieger, M; Rodrigues-Pousada, C; Rose, M; Rupp, T; Santos, M A; Schwager, C; Sensen, C; Skala, J; Soares, H; Sor, F; Stegemann, J; Tettelin, H; Thierry, A; Tzermia, M; Urrestarazu, L A; van Dyck, L; Van Vliet-Reedijk, J C; Valens, M; Vandenbo, M; Vilela, C; Vissers, S; von Wettstein, D; Voss, H; Wiemann, S; Xu, G; Zimmermann, J; Haasemann, M; Becker, I; Mewes, H W

    1994-06-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local gene density along the chromosome. Significant discrepancies with the previously published genetic map demonstrate the need for using independent physical mapping criteria.

  10. Estimating the entropy of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A O; Herzel, H

    1997-10-01

    The Shannon entropy is a standard measure for the order state of symbol sequences, such as, for example, DNA sequences. In order to incorporate correlations between symbols, the entropy of n-mers (consecutive strands of n symbols) has to be determined. Here, an assay is presented to estimate such higher order entropies (block entropies) for DNA sequences when the actual number of observations is small compared with the number of possible outcomes. The n-mer probability distribution underlying the dynamical process is reconstructed using elementary statistical principles: The theorem of asymptotic equi-distribution and the Maximum Entropy Principle. Constraints are set to force the constructed distributions to adopt features which are characteristic for the real probability distribution. From the many solutions compatible with these constraints the one with the highest entropy is the most likely one according to the Maximum Entropy Principle. An algorithm performing this procedure is expounded. It is tested by applying it to various DNA model sequences whose exact entropies are known. Finally, results for a real DNA sequence, the complete genome of the Epstein Barr virus, are presented and compared with those of other information carriers (texts, computer source code, music). It seems as if DNA sequences possess much more freedom in the combination of the symbols of their alphabet than written language or computer source codes. PMID:9344742

  11. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions. PMID:25362284

  12. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  13. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-10-01

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  14. Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. )

    1994-08-01

    An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

  15. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B; Johansson, K E; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    Automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used for determination of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of mycoplasmas. The sequence information was used to establish phylogenetic relationships of 11 different mycoplasmas whose 16S rRNA sequences had not been determined earlier. A biotinylated fragment corresponding to positions 344 to 939 in the Escherichia coli sequence was generated by PCR. The PCR product was immobilized onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and direct sequencing was performed in both directions. One previously unclassified avian mycoplasma was found to belong to the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Microheterogeneities were discovered in the rRNA operons of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC type), confirming the existence of two different rRNA operons. The 16S rRNA sequence of M. mycoides subsp. capri was identical to that of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (type SC), except that no microheterogeneities were revealed. Furthermore, automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used to identify a mycoplasmal contamination of a cell culture as Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which proved to be very difficult by conventional methods. The results suggest that the direct solid-phase DNA sequencing procedure is a powerful tool for identification of mycoplasmas and is also useful in taxonomic studies. Images PMID:7521158

  16. Determining DNA methylation profiles using sequencing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Suhua; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Jacobsen, Steven E; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark that has a significant impact on the regulation of transcription and replication of DNA. DNA methylation patterns are highly conserved across cell divisions and are therefore highly heritable. Furthermore, in multicellular organisms, DNA methylation patterning is a key determinant of cellular differentiation and tissue-specific expression patterns. Lastly, DNA demethylases can affect global levels of DNA methylation during specific stages of development. Bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard for measuring the methylation state of cytosines. Sodium bisulfite -converts unmethylated cytosines to uracils (which after PCR are converted to thymines), while leaving methylated cytosines unconverted. By mapping bisulfite treated DNA back to the original reference genome, it is then possible to determine the methylation state of individual cytosines. With the advent of next-generation sequencers during the past few years, it is now possible to determine the methylation state of an entire genome. Here, we describe in detail two protocols for preparing bisulfite treated libraries, which may be sequenced using Illumina GAII sequencers. The first of these uses premethylated adapters, which are not affected by bisulfite treatments, while the second uses a two-stage adapter strategy and does not require premethylation of the adapters. We also describe the specialized protocol for mapping bisulfite converted reads. These approaches allow one to determine the methylation state of each cytosine in the genome. PMID:21431774

  17. DATEL: A Scarless and Sequence-Independent DNA Assembly Method Using Thermostable Exonucleases and Ligase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Ding, Wenwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2016-09-16

    DNA assembly is a pivotal technique in synthetic biology. Here, we report a scarless and sequence-independent DNA assembly method using thermal exonucleases (Taq and Pfu DNA polymerases) and Taq DNA ligase (DATEL). Under the optimized conditions, DATEL allows rapid assembly of 2-10 DNA fragments (1-2 h) with high accuracy (between 74 and 100%). Owing to the simple operation system with denaturation-annealing-cleavage-ligation temperature cycles in one tube, DATEL is expected to be a desirable choice for both manual and automated high-throughput assembly of DNA fragments, which will greatly facilitate the rapid progress of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. PMID:27230689

  18. DNA sequencing by synthesis based on elongation delay detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2015-03-01

    The one of most important problem in modern genetics, biology and medicine is determination of the primary nucleotide sequence of the DNA of living organisms (DNA sequencing). This paper describes the label-free DNA sequencing approach, based on the observation of a discrete dynamics of DNA sequence elongation phase. The proposed DNA sequencing principle are studied by numerical simulation. The numerical model for proposed label-free DNA sequencing approach is based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) and dynamics of nucleotides incorporation to rising DNA strand. The estimates for number of copied DNA sequences for required probability of nucleotide incorporation event detection and correct DNA sequence determination was obtained. The proposed approach can be applied at all known DNA sequencing devices with "sequencing by synthesis" principle of operation.

  19. Quantum-Sequencing: Fast electronic single DNA molecule sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free, high-throughput and cost-effective, single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the first demonstration of unique ``electronic fingerprint'' of all nucleotides (A, G, T, C), with single-molecule DNA sequencing, using Quantum-tunneling Sequencing (Q-Seq) at room temperature. We show that the electronic state of the nucleobases shift depending on the pH, with most distinct states identified at acidic pH. We also demonstrate identification of single nucleotide modifications (methylation here). Using these unique electronic fingerprints (or tunneling data), we report a partial sequence of beta lactamase (bla) gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, with over 95% success rate. These results highlight the potential of Q-Seq as a robust technique for next-generation sequencing.

  20. Illuminating the future of DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Watson, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Human (clinical) genome sequencing is the biggest potential market in DNA sequencing, and it is this market that all of the sequencing companies are striving to capture. In another article in this issue of Genome Biology, Neil Hall expresses some concern over the limitation of Illumina's newly announced Hiseq X Ten platform to human indeed, at face value this does appear strange. The fact that Illumina have presented PhiX data from the X Ten confirms that there is no limitation inherent to the technology. The limitation is one of licensing. However, those involved in human genome sequencing will not be surprised by the move.

  1. Accounting for uncertainty in DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    O'Rawe, Jason A; Ferson, Scott; Lyon, Gholson J

    2015-02-01

    Science is defined in part by an honest exposition of the uncertainties that arise in measurements and propagate through calculations and inferences, so that the reliabilities of its conclusions are made apparent. The recent rapid development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the number of measurements made at the biochemical and molecular level. These data come from many different DNA-sequencing technologies, each with their own platform-specific errors and biases, which vary widely. Several statistical studies have tried to measure error rates for basic determinations, but there are no general schemes to project these uncertainties so as to assess the surety of the conclusions drawn about genetic, epigenetic, and more general biological questions. We review here the state of uncertainty quantification in DNA sequencing applications, describe sources of error, and propose methods that can be used for accounting and propagating these errors and their uncertainties through subsequent calculations.

  2. DNA Sequencing in Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Vai, Stefania; Lari, Martina; Caramelli, David

    2016-02-01

    During the last three decades, DNA analysis on degraded samples revealed itself as an important research tool in anthropology, archaeozoology, molecular evolution, and population genetics. Application on topics such as determination of species origin of prehistoric and historic objects, individual identification of famous personalities, characterization of particular samples important for historical, archeological, or evolutionary reconstructions, confers to the paleogenetics an important role also for the enhancement of cultural heritage. A really fast improvement in methodologies in recent years led to a revolution that permitted recovering even complete genomes from highly degraded samples with the possibility to go back in time 400,000 years for samples from temperate regions and 700,000 years for permafrozen remains and to analyze even more recent material that has been subjected to hard biochemical treatments. Here we propose a review on the different methodological approaches used so far for the molecular analysis of degraded samples and their application on some case studies.

  3. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  4. The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Goebel, S J; Johnson, G P; Perkus, M E; Davis, S W; Winslow, J P; Paoletti, E

    1990-11-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the genome of vaccinia virus has been determined. The genome consisted of 191,636 bp with a base composition of 66.6% A + T. We have identified 198 "major" protein-coding regions and 65 overlapping "minor" regions, for a total of 263 potential genes. Genes encoded by the virus were located by examination of DNA sequence characteristics and compared with existing vaccinia virus mapping analyses, sequence data, and transcription data. These genes were found to be compactly organized along the genome with relatively few regions of noncoding sequences. Whereas several similarities to proteins of known function were discerned, the function of the majority of proteins encoded by these open reading frames is as yet undetermined.

  5. DNA Sequencing in Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Vai, Stefania; Lari, Martina; Caramelli, David

    2016-02-01

    During the last three decades, DNA analysis on degraded samples revealed itself as an important research tool in anthropology, archaeozoology, molecular evolution, and population genetics. Application on topics such as determination of species origin of prehistoric and historic objects, individual identification of famous personalities, characterization of particular samples important for historical, archeological, or evolutionary reconstructions, confers to the paleogenetics an important role also for the enhancement of cultural heritage. A really fast improvement in methodologies in recent years led to a revolution that permitted recovering even complete genomes from highly degraded samples with the possibility to go back in time 400,000 years for samples from temperate regions and 700,000 years for permafrozen remains and to analyze even more recent material that has been subjected to hard biochemical treatments. Here we propose a review on the different methodological approaches used so far for the molecular analysis of degraded samples and their application on some case studies. PMID:27572991

  6. Sequence change and phylogenetic signal in muscoid COII DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Szalanski, Allen L; Owens, Carrie B

    2003-08-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase II gene from house fly, Musca domestica, face fly, Musca autumnalis, stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and black garbage fly, Hydrotaea aenescens, are reported. The nucleotide sequence codes for a 229 amino acid peptide. The COII sequence is A + T rich (74.1%), with up to 12.3% nucleotide and 8.4% amino acid divergence among the five taxa. Of the 688 nucleotides encoding for the gene, 135 nucleotide sites (19.6%) are variable, and 55 (8.0%) are phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic analysis using three calliphorids as the outgroup taxa, indicates that the two haematophagus species, horn fly and stable fly, form a sister group.

  7. Nanopore Technology: A Simple, Inexpensive, Futuristic Technology for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P D

    2016-10-01

    In health care, importance of DNA sequencing has been fully established. Sanger's Capillary Electrophoresis DNA sequencing methodology is time consuming, cumbersome, hence become more expensive. Lately, because of its versatility DNA sequencing became house hold name, and therefore, there is an urgent need of simple, fast, inexpensive, DNA sequencing technology. In the beginning of this century efforts were made, and Nanopore DNA sequencing technology was developed; still it is infancy, nevertheless, it is the futuristic technology. PMID:27605732

  8. DNA sequencing technology, walking with modular primers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, L.

    1996-12-31

    The success of the Human Genome Project depends on the development of adequate technology for rapid and inexpensive DNA sequencing, which will also benefit biomedical research in general. The authors are working on DNA technologies that eliminate primer synthesis, the main bottleneck in sequencing by primer walking. They have developed modular primers that are assembled from three 5-mer, 6-mer or 7-mer modules selected from a presynthesized library of as few as 1,000 oligonucleotides ({double_bond}4, {double_bond}5, {double_bond}7). The three modules anneal contiguously at the selected template site and prime there uniquely, even though each is not unique for the most part when used alone. This technique is expected to speed up primer walking 30 to 50 fold, and reduce the sequencing cost by a factor of 5 to 15. Time and expensive will be saved on primer synthesis itself and even more so due to closed-loop automation of primer walking, made possible by the instant availability of primers. Apart from saving time and cost, closed-loop automation would also minimize the errors and complications associated with human intervention between the walks. The author has also developed two additional approaches to primer-library based sequencing. One involves a branched structure of modular primers which has a distinctly different mechanism of achieving priming specificity. The other introduces the concept of ``Differential Extension with Nucleotide Subsets`` as an approach increasing priming specificity, priming strength and allowing cycle sequencing. These approaches are expected to be more robust than the original version of the modular primer technique.

  9. Detection and quantitation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    DNA mutation binding proteins alone and as chimeric proteins with nucleases are used with solid supports to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The solid supports may be flow cytometry beads, DNA chips, glass slides or DNA dips sticks. DNA molecules are coupled to solid supports to form DNA-support complexes. Labeled DNA is used with unlabeled DNA mutation binding proteins such at TthMutS to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by binding which gives an increase in signal. Unlabeled DNA is utilized with labeled chimeras to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by nuclease activity of the chimera which gives a decrease in signal.

  10. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S. cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E. coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  11. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-18

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S.cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E.coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  12. The first determination of DNA sequence of a specific gene.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Masayori

    2016-05-10

    How and when the first DNA sequence of a gene was determined? In 1977, F. Sanger came up with an innovative technology to sequence DNA by using chain terminators, and determined the entire DNA sequence of the 5375-base genome of bacteriophage φX 174 (Sanger et al., 1977). While this Sanger's achievement has been recognized as the first DNA sequencing of genes, we had determined DNA sequence of a gene, albeit a partial sequence, 11 years before the Sanger's DNA sequence (Okada et al., 1966).

  13. Imaging of DNA sequences with chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Tizard, R; Cate, R L; Ramachandran, K L; Wysk, M; Voyta, J C; Murphy, O J; Bronstein, I

    1990-01-01

    We have coupled a chemiluminescent detection method that uses an alkaline phosphatase label to the genomic DNA sequencing protocol of Church and Gilbert [Church, G. M. & Gilbert, W. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1991-1995]. Images of sequence ladders are obtained on x-ray film with exposure times of less than 30 min, as compared to 40 h required for a similar exposure with a 32P-labeled oligomer. Chemically cleaved DNA from a sequencing gel is transferred to a nylon membrane, and specific sequence ladders are selected by hybridization to DNA oligonucleotides labeled with alkaline phosphatase or with biotin, leading directly or indirectly to deposition of enzyme. If a biotinylated probe is used, an incubation with avidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate follows. The membrane is soaked in the chemiluminescent substrate (AMPPD) and is exposed to film. Dephosphorylation of AMPPD leads in a two-step pathway to a highly localized emission of visible light. The demonstrated shorter exposure times may improve the efficiency of a serial reprobing strategy such as the multiplex sequencing approach of Church and Kieffer-Higgins [Church, G. M. & Kieffer-Higgins, S. (1988) Science 240, 185-188]. Images PMID:2191292

  14. Flexible automated platform for blood group genotyping on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Sandra; Rigal, Dominique; Barlet, Valérie; Verdier, Martine; Coudurier, Nicole; Bailly, Pascal; Brès, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    The poor suitability of standard hemagglutination-based assay techniques for large-scale automated screening of red blood cell antigens severely limits the ability of blood banks to supply extensively phenotype-matched blood. With better understanding of the molecular basis of blood antigens, it is now possible to predict blood group phenotype by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA. Development of DNA-typing assays for antigen screening in blood donation qualification laboratories promises to enable blood banks to provide optimally matched donations. We have designed an automated genotyping system using 96-well DNA microarrays for blood donation screening and a first panel of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify 16 alleles in four blood group systems (KEL, KIDD, DUFFY, and MNS). Our aim was to evaluate this system on 960 blood donor samples with known phenotype. Study data revealed a high concordance rate (99.92%; 95% CI, 99.77%-99.97%) between predicted and serologic phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that our assay using a simple protocol allows accurate, relatively low-cost phenotype prediction at the DNA level. This system could easily be configured with other blood group markers for identification of donors with rare blood types or blood units for IH panels or antigens from other systems. PMID:24726279

  15. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  16. DNA sequencing by nanopores: advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agah, Shaghayegh; Zheng, Ming; Pasquali, Matteo; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2016-10-01

    Developing inexpensive and simple DNA sequencing methods capable of detecting entire genomes in short periods of time could revolutionize the world of medicine and technology. It will also lead to major advances in our understanding of fundamental biological processes. It has been shown that nanopores have the ability of single-molecule sensing of various biological molecules rapidly and at a low cost. This has stimulated significant experimental efforts in developing DNA sequencing techniques by utilizing biological and artificial nanopores. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the nanopore sequencing field with a focus on the nature of nanopores and on sensing mechanisms during the translocation. Current challenges and alternative methods are also discussed.

  17. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  18. mtDNAprofiler: a Web application for the nomenclature and comparison of human mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Lee, Hwan Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a valuable tool in the fields of forensic, population, and medical genetics. However, recording and comparing mtDNA control region or entire genome sequences would be difficult if researchers are not familiar with mtDNA nomenclature conventions. Therefore, mtDNAprofiler, a Web application, was designed for the analysis and comparison of mtDNA sequences in a string format or as a list of mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs). mtDNAprofiler which comprises four mtDNA sequence-analysis tools (mtDNA nomenclature, mtDNA assembly, mtSNP conversion, and mtSNP concordance-check) supports not only the accurate analysis of mtDNA sequences via an automated nomenclature function, but also consistent management of mtSNP data via direct comparison and validity-check functions. Since mtDNAprofiler consists of four tools that are associated with key steps of mtDNA sequence analysis, mtDNAprofiler will be helpful for researchers working with mtDNA. mtDNAprofiler is freely available at http://mtprofiler.yonsei.ac.kr. PMID:23682804

  19. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Greeks.

    PubMed

    Kouvatsi, A; Karaiskou, N; Apostolidis, A; Kirmizidis, G

    2001-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences were determined in 54 unrelated Greeks, coming from different regions in Greece, for both segments HVR-I and HVR-II. Fifty-two different mtDNA haplotypes were revealed, one of which was shared by three individuals. A very low heterogeneity was found among Greek regions. No one cluster of lineages was specific to individuals coming from a certain region. The average pairwise difference distribution showed a value of 7.599. The data were compared with that for other European or neighbor populations (British, French, Germans, Tuscans, Bulgarians, and Turks). The genetic trees that were constructed revealed homogeneity between Europeans. Median networks revealed that most of the Greek mtDNA haplotypes are clustered to the five known haplogroups and that a number of haplotypes are shared among Greeks and other European and Near Eastern populations.

  20. Palladium as electrode in DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    We construct a molecular junction comprising two identical "reader" molecules that are each linked on one end to a DNA single base via hydrogen bonds and on the other end to a palladium electrode. The structure of the junction is thus palladium-reader-base-reader-palladium. The palladium-reader contacts occur via Pd-S bonds. We calculated the electronic structure and conductance of the molecular junctions. Compared with the performance of molecular junctions with gold or titanium nitride electrodes, the current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions with palladium electrodes show higher sensitivity to the identity of the bridging DNA base, allowing the DNA bases to be distinguished more easily. Therefore, palladium is a superior electrode for molecular electronics and DNA sequencing.

  1. DNA Sequencing Using an Engineered Protein Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Jens H.

    2010-03-01

    Inexpensive and fast sequencing of DNA is of paramount importance to medicine, the life sciences and to many other applications. Because of the nanometer diameter of DNA a nanometer-scale reader directly interfaced to macroscopic observables seems particularly attractive. We are working on a new single molecule technique based on a biological pore embedded in a lipid bilayer. When a voltage is applied across the bilayer an ion current is measured that flows through the nanometer opening of the pore. Poly-negatively charged single stranded DNA passes through the pore and reduces the ion current with the remaining ion current being indicative of the nucleotide type in the constriction of the pore. The protein pore that we introduced to the field, MspA, has a shape ideally suited to nanopore sequencing, has robustness comparable to solid state devices, is easily reproduced with sub-nanometer level precision and is engineerable using genetic mutations. I will present proof-of-principle data showing that this technique can lead to a direct very inexpensive and fast sequencing technology. The experimental electronic signatures of the DNA translocation process provide an ideal test bed for molecular dynamics simulations, which in turn allows developing intuition and prediction of nanoscale dynamics.

  2. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred

    1989-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli K12 available from the GENBANK and EMBO databases and over a period of several years independently from the literature. We have introduced all available genetic map data and have arranged the sequences accordingly. As far as possible the overlaps are deleted and a total of 940,449 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1989. This corresponds to a total of 19.92% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2% derived from the sequence of lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and the various insertion sequences. This compilation may be available in machine readable form from one of the international databanks in some future. PMID:2654890

  3. ASTRAL, a hyperspectral imaging DNA sequencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin M.; Wren, Jonathan; Davé, Varshal K.; Bai, Diane; Anderson, Richard D.; Rayner, Simon; Evans, Glen A.; Dabiri, Ali E.; Garner, Harold R.

    1998-05-01

    We are developing a prototype automatic DNA sequencer which utilizes polyacrylamide slab gels imaged through a novel optical detection system. The design of this prototype sequencer allows the ability to perform direct optical coupling over the entire read area of the gel and hyperspectrographic separation and detection of the fluorescence emission. The machine has no moving parts. All the major components incorporated in this prototype are all currently available "off the shelf," thus reducing equipment development time and decreasing costs. Software developed for data acquisition, analysis, and conversion to other standard formats facilitates compatibility.

  4. Sequencing and Analysis of Neanderthal Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, James P.; Coop, Graham; Kudaravalli, Sridhar; Smith, Doug; Krause, Johannes; Alessi, Joe; Chen, Feng; Platt, Darren; Pääbo, Svante; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Our knowledge of Neanderthals is based on a limited number of remains and artifacts from which we must make inferences about their biology, behavior, and relationship to ourselves. Here, we describe the characterization of these extinct hominids from a new perspective, based on the development of a Neanderthal metagenomic library and its high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the 65,250 base pairs of hominid sequence so far identified in the library are of Neanderthal origin, the strongest being the ascertainment of sequence identities between Neanderthal and chimpanzee at sites where the human genomic sequence is different. These results enabled us to calculate the human-Neanderthal divergence time based on multiple randomly distributed autosomal loci. Our analyses suggest that on average the Neanderthal genomic sequence we obtained and the reference human genome sequence share a most recent common ancestor ~706,000 years ago, and that the human and Neanderthal ancestral populations split ~370,000 years ago, before the emergence of anatomically modern humans. Our finding that the Neanderthal and human genomes are at least 99.5% identical led us to develop and successfully implement a targeted method for recovering specific ancient DNA sequences from metagenomic libraries. This initial analysis of the Neanderthal genome advances our understanding of the evolutionary relationship of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis and signifies the dawn of Neanderthal genomics. PMID:17110569

  5. Efficient Automated Solid-Phase Synthesis of DNA and RNA 5'-Triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Ivo; Meier, Chris

    2015-11-01

    A fast, high-yielding and reliable method for the synthesis of DNA- and RNA 5'-triphosphates is reported. After synthesizing DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by automated oligonucleotide synthesis, 5-chloro-saligenyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite was coupled to the 5'-end. Oxidation of the formed 5'-phosphite using the same oxidizing reagent used in standard oligonucleotide synthesis led to 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotides. Reaction of the support-bonded 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotide with pyrophosphate yielded the corresponding 5'-triphosphates. The 5'-triphosphorylated DNA and RNA oligonucleotides were obtained after cleavage from the support in high purity and excellent yields. The whole reaction sequence was adapted to be used on a standard oligonucleotide synthesizer.

  6. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  7. Accurate restoration of DNA sequences. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The primary of this project are the development of (1) a general stochastic model for DNA sequencing errors (2) algorithms to restore the original DNA sequence and (3) statistical methods to assess the accuracy of this restoration. A secondary objective is to develop new algorithms for fragment assembly. Initially a stochastic model that assumes errors are independent and uniformly distributed will be developed. Generalizations of the basic model will be developed to account for (1) decay of accuracy along fragments, (2) variable error rates among fragments, (3) sequence dependent errors (e.g. homopolymeric, runs), and (4) strand--specific systematic errors (e.g. compressions). The emphasis of this project will be the development of a theoretical basis for determining sequence accuracy. However, new algorithms are proposed and these will be implemented as software (in the C programming language). This software will be tested using real and simulated data. It will be modular in design and will be made available for distribution to the scientific community.

  8. Imaging of DNA sequences with chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tizard, R.; Cate, R.L.; Ramachandran, K.L.; Wysk, M.; Bronstein, I.; Voyta, J.C.; Murphy, O.J.

    1989-12-31

    We have coupled a chemiluminescent method for detecting oligonucleotides labeled with alkaline phosphatase to the genomic DNA sequencing protocol of Church and Gilbert. Images of sequence ladders obtained on x-ray film in a 30 minute exposure are comparable to those from a 40 hour exposure with 3000 Ci/mmol {sup 32}P probes. Chemically cleaved DNA from a sequencing gel is transferred to a nylon membrane, and specific sequence ladders are selected by hybridization to an oligonucleotide probe conjugated either to biotin or to alkaline phosphates. If biotinylated probe is used, then an avidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate is subsequently bound. This membrane, bearing immobilized alkaline phosphatase, is incubated with the commercially available chemiluminescent substrate disodium 3-(4-methoxyspiro[1,2-dioxetone-3,2{prime}-tricyclo[3.3.1.1.{sup 3.7}]decan]-4-yl)phenyl phosphate. (AMPPD) Dephosphorylation of AMPPD leads in a two step pathway to a highly localized emission of visible light.

  9. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1988-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3368330

  10. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1989-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2654889

  11. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2333227

  12. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1987-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3575113

  13. Automated protein-DNA interaction screening of Drosophila regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hens, Korneel; Feuz, Jean-Daniel; Isakova, Alina; Iagovitina, Antonina; Massouras, Andreas; Bryois, Julien; Callaerts, Patrick; Celniker, Susan E; Deplancke, Bart

    2011-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has one of the best characterized metazoan genomes in terms of functionally annotated regulatory elements. To explore how these elements contribute to gene regulation, we need convenient tools to identify the proteins that bind to them. Here we describe the development and validation of a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid platform, which enables screening of DNA elements versus an array of full-length, sequence-verified clones containing over 85% of predicted Drosophila transcription factors. Using six well-characterized regulatory elements, we identified 33 transcription factor-DNA interactions of which 27 were previously unidentified. To simultaneously validate these interactions and locate the binding sites of involved transcription factors, we implemented a powerful microfluidics-based approach that enabled us to retrieve DNA-occupancy data for each transcription factor throughout the respective target DNA elements. Finally, we biologically validated several interactions and identified two new regulators of sine oculis gene expression and hence eye development.

  14. Sequence-of-events-driven automation of the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R., Jr.; Fayyad, K.; Smyth, C.; Santos, T.; Chen, R.; Chien, S.; Bevan, R.

    1996-01-01

    In February 1995, sequence-of-events (SOE)-driven automation technology was demonstrated for a Voyager telemetry downlink track at DSS 13. This demonstration entailed automated generation of an operations procedure (in the form of a temporal dependency network) from project SOE information using artificial intelligence planning technology and automated execution of the temporal dependency network using the link monitor and control operator assistant system. This article describes the overall approach to SOE-driven automation that was demonstrated, identifies gaps in SOE definitions and project profiles that hamper automation, and provides detailed measurements of the knowledge engineering effort required for automation.

  15. Sequence-of-Events-Driven Automation of the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R., Jr.; Fayyad, K.; Smyth, C.; Santos, T.; Chen, R.; Chien, S.; Bevan, R.

    1995-10-01

    In February 1995, sequence-of-events (SOE)-driven automation technology was demonstrated for a Voyager telemetry downlink track at DSS 13. This demonstration entailed automated generation of an operations procedure (in the form of a temporal dependency network) from project SOE information using artificial intelligence planning technology and automated execution of the temporal dependency network using the link monitor and control operator assistant system. This article describes the overall approach to SOE-driven automation that was demonstrated, identifies gaps in SOE definitions and project profiles that hamper automation, and provides detailed measurements of the knowledge engineering effort required for automation.

  16. Analysis of DNA Sequence Variants Detected by High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David R; Sincan, Murat; Fajardo, Karin Fuentes; Mullikin, James C; Pierson, Tyler M; Toro, Camilo; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Tifft, Cynthia J; Gahl, William A; Markello, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    The Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the National Institutes of Health uses High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) to diagnose rare and novel diseases. HTS techniques generate large numbers of DNA sequence variants, which must be analyzed and filtered to find candidates for disease causation. Despite the publication of an increasing number of successful exome-based projects, there has been little formal discussion of the analytic steps applied to HTS variant lists. We present the results of our experience with over 30 families for whom HTS sequencing was used in an attempt to find clinical diagnoses. For each family, exome sequence was augmented with high-density SNP-array data. We present a discussion of the theory and practical application of each analytic step and provide example data to illustrate our approach. The paper is designed to provide an analytic roadmap for variant analysis, thereby enabling a wide range of researchers and clinical genetics practitioners to perform direct analysis of HTS data for their patients and projects. PMID:22290882

  17. Method for priming and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Ulanovsky, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for improving the priming specificity of an oligonucleotide primer that is non-unique in a nucleic acid template which includes selecting a continuous stretch of several nucleotides in the template DNA where one of the four bases does not occur in the stretch. This also includes bringing the template DNA in contract with a non-unique primer partially or fully complimentary to the sequence immediately upstream of the selected sequence stretch. This results in polymerase-mediated differential extension of the primer in the presence of a subset of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates that does not contain the base complementary to the base absent in the selected sequence stretch. These reactions occur at a temperature sufficiently low for allowing the extension of the non-unique primer. The method causes polymerase-mediated extension reactions in the presence of all four natural deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates or modifications. At this high temperature discrimination occurs against priming sites of the non-unique primer where the differential extension has not made the primer sufficiently stable to prime. However, the primer extended at the selected stretch is sufficiently stable to prime.

  18. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  19. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Zhu, Y. F.; Chung, C. N.; Allman, S. L.

    1997-05-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, we recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Sanger's enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. Our preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possible be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, we applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  20. Sequence dependent hole evolution in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lakhno, V D

    2004-06-01

    The paper examines thedynamical behavior of a radical cation(G(+*)) generated in adouble stranded DNA for differentoligonucleotide sequences. The resonancehole tunneling through an oligonucleotidesequence is studied by the method ofnumerical integration of self-consistentquantum-mechanical equations. The holemotion is considered quantum mechanicallyand nucleotide base oscillations aretreated classically. The results obtaineddemonstrate a strong dependence of chargetransfer on the type of nucleotidesequence. The rates of the hole transferare calculated for different nucleotidesequences and compared with experimentaldata on the transfer from (G(+*))to a GGG unit.

  1. Poincaré recurrences of DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the statistical properties of Poincaré recurrences of Homo sapiens, mammalian, and other DNA sequences taken from the Ensembl Genome data base with up to 15 billion base pairs. We show that the probability of Poincaré recurrences decays in an algebraic way with the Poincaré exponent β≈4 even if the oscillatory dependence is well pronounced. The correlations between recurrences decay with an exponent ν≈0.6 that leads to an anomalous superdiffusive walk. However, for Homo sapiens sequences, with the largest available statistics, the diffusion coefficient converges to a finite value on distances larger than one million base pairs. We argue that the approach based on Poncaré recurrences determines new proximity features between different species and sheds a new light on their evolution history.

  2. Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rama Shankar

    2013-06-01

    Successful mapping of the draft human genome in 2001 and more recent mapping of the human microbiome genome in 2012 have relied heavily on the parallel processing of the second generation/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) DNA machines at a cost of several millions dollars and long computer processing times. These have been mainly biochemical approaches. Here a system analysis approach is used to review these techniques by identifying the requirements, specifications, test methods, error estimates, repeatability, reliability and trends in the cost reduction. The first generation, NGS and the Third Generation Single Molecule Real Time (SMART) detection sequencing methods are reviewed. Based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) data, the achieved cost reduction of 1.5 times per yr. from Sep. 2001 to July 2007; 7 times per yr., from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2010; and 2.5 times per yr. from July 2010 to Jan 2012 are discussed.

  3. Elucidating population histories using genomic DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Vigilant, Linda

    2009-04-01

    In 1993, Cliff Jolly suggested that rather than debating species definitions and classifications, energy would be better spent investigating multidimensional patterns of variation and gene flow among populations. Until now, however, genetic studies of wild primate populations have been limited to very small portions of the genome. Access to complete genome sequences of humans, chimpanzees, macaques, and other primates makes it possible to design studies surveying substantial amounts of DNA sequence variation at multiple genetic loci in representatives of closely related but distinct wild primate populations. Such data can be analyzed with new approaches that estimate not only when populations diverged but also the relative amounts and directions of subsequent gene flow. These analyses will reemphasize the difficulty of achieving consistent species and subspecies definitions by revealing the extent of variation in the amount and duration of gene flow accompanying population divergences. PMID:19817223

  4. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  5. MAGIC-SPP: a database-driven DNA sequence processing package with associated management tools

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chun; Sun, Feng; Wang, Haiming; Qu, Junfeng; Freeman, Robert M; Pratt, Lee H; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michèle

    2006-01-01

    Background Processing raw DNA sequence data is an especially challenging task for relatively small laboratories and core facilities that produce as many as 5000 or more DNA sequences per week from multiple projects in widely differing species. To meet this challenge, we have developed the flexible, scalable, and automated sequence processing package described here. Results MAGIC-SPP is a DNA sequence processing package consisting of an Oracle 9i relational database, a Perl pipeline, and user interfaces implemented either as JavaServer Pages (JSP) or as a Java graphical user interface (GUI). The database not only serves as a data repository, but also controls processing of trace files. MAGIC-SPP includes an administrative interface, a laboratory information management system, and interfaces for exploring sequences, monitoring quality control, and troubleshooting problems related to sequencing activities. In the sequence trimming algorithm it employs new features designed to improve performance with respect to concerns such as concatenated linkers, identification of the expected start position of a vector insert, and extending the useful length of trimmed sequences by bridging short regions of low quality when the following high quality segment is sufficiently long to justify doing so. Conclusion MAGIC-SPP has been designed to minimize human error, while simultaneously being robust, versatile, flexible and automated. It offers a unique combination of features that permit administration by a biologist with little or no informatics background. It is well suited to both individual research programs and core facilities. PMID:16522212

  6. Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules.

    PubMed

    Korlach, Jonas; Bjornson, Keith P; Chaudhuri, Bidhan P; Cicero, Ronald L; Flusberg, Benjamin A; Gray, Jeremy J; Holden, David; Saxena, Ravi; Wegener, Jeffrey; Turner, Stephen W

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Biosciences has developed a method for real-time sequencing of single DNA molecules (Eid et al., 2009), with intrinsic sequencing rates of several bases per second and read lengths into the kilobase range. Conceptually, this sequencing approach is based on eavesdropping on the activity of DNA polymerase carrying out template-directed DNA polymerization. Performed in a highly parallel operational mode, sequential base additions catalyzed by each polymerase are detected with terminal phosphate-linked, fluorescence-labeled nucleotides. This chapter will first outline the principle of this single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing method, followed by descriptions of its underlying components and typical sequencing run conditions. Two examples are provided which illustrate that, in addition to the DNA sequence, the dynamics of DNA polymerization from each enzyme molecules is directly accessible: the determination of base-specific kinetic parameters from single-molecule sequencing reads, and the characterization of DNA synthesis rate heterogeneities. PMID:20580975

  7. A Microfluidic DNA Library Preparation Platform for Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary W.; Solberg, Owen D.; Williams, Kelly P.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Meagher, Robert J.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Lane, Todd W.; Branda, Steven S.; Bartsch, Michael S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a powerful tool for elucidating genetic information for a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, the surging popularity of NGS has not yet been accompanied by an improvement in automated techniques for preparing formatted sequencing libraries. To address this challenge, we have developed a prototype microfluidic system for preparing sequencer-ready DNA libraries for analysis by Illumina sequencing. Our system combines droplet-based digital microfluidic (DMF) sample handling with peripheral modules to create a fully-integrated, sample-in library-out platform. In this report, we use our automated system to prepare NGS libraries from samples of human and bacterial genomic DNA. E. coli libraries prepared on-device from 5 ng of total DNA yielded excellent sequence coverage over the entire bacterial genome, with >99% alignment to the reference genome, even genome coverage, and good quality scores. Furthermore, we produced a de novo assembly on a previously unsequenced multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain BAA-2146 (KpnNDM). The new method described here is fast, robust, scalable, and automated. Our device for library preparation will assist in the integration of NGS technology into a wide variety of laboratories, including small research laboratories and clinical laboratories. PMID:23894387

  8. A microfluidic DNA library preparation platform for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanyoup; Jebrail, Mais J; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary W; Solberg, Owen D; Williams, Kelly P; Langevin, Stanley A; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L; Meagher, Robert J; Schoeniger, Joseph S; Lane, Todd W; Branda, Steven S; Bartsch, Michael S; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a powerful tool for elucidating genetic information for a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, the surging popularity of NGS has not yet been accompanied by an improvement in automated techniques for preparing formatted sequencing libraries. To address this challenge, we have developed a prototype microfluidic system for preparing sequencer-ready DNA libraries for analysis by Illumina sequencing. Our system combines droplet-based digital microfluidic (DMF) sample handling with peripheral modules to create a fully-integrated, sample-in library-out platform. In this report, we use our automated system to prepare NGS libraries from samples of human and bacterial genomic DNA. E. coli libraries prepared on-device from 5 ng of total DNA yielded excellent sequence coverage over the entire bacterial genome, with >99% alignment to the reference genome, even genome coverage, and good quality scores. Furthermore, we produced a de novo assembly on a previously unsequenced multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain BAA-2146 (KpnNDM). The new method described here is fast, robust, scalable, and automated. Our device for library preparation will assist in the integration of NGS technology into a wide variety of laboratories, including small research laboratories and clinical laboratories.

  9. Theory of sequence-dependent DNA elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Bernard D.; Olson, Wilma K.; Swigon, David

    2003-04-01

    The elastic properties of a molecule of duplex DNA are strongly dependent on nucleotide sequence. In the theory developed here the contribution ψn of the nth base-pair step to the elastic energy is assumed to be given by a function ψ˜n of six kinematical variables, called tilt, roll, twist, shift, slide, and rise, that describe the relative orientation and displacement of the nth and (n+1)th base pairs. The sequence dependence of elastic properties is determined when one specifies the way ψ˜n depends on the nucleotides of the two base pairs of the nth step. Among the items discussed are the symmetry relations imposed on ψ˜n by the complementarity of bases, i.e., of A to T and C to G, the antiparallel nature of the DNA sugar-phosphate chains, and the requirement that ψ˜n be independent of the choice of the direction of increasing n. Variational equations of mechanical equilibrium are here derived without special assumptions about the form of the functions ψ˜n, and numerical solutions of those equations are shown for illustrative cases in which ψ˜n is, for each n, a quadratic form and the DNA forms a closed, 150 base-pair, minicircle that can be called a DNA o-ring because it has a nearly circular stress-free configuration. Examples are given of noncircular equilibrium configurations of naked DNA o-rings and of cases in which the interaction with ligands induces changes in configuration that are markedly different from those undergone by a minicircle of intrinsically straight DNA. When a minicircle of intrinsically straight DNA interacts with an intercalating agent that upon binding to DNA causes a local reduction of intrinsic twist, the configuration that minimizes elastic energy depends on the number of intercalated molecules, but is independent of the spatial distribution of those molecules along the minicircle. In contrast, it is shown here that the configuration and elastic energy of a DNA o-ring can depend strongly on the spatial distribution of

  10. MG-Digger: An Automated Pipeline to Search for Giant Virus-Related Sequences in Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Jonathan; Levasseur, Anthony; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The number of metagenomic studies conducted each year is growing dramatically. Storage and analysis of such big data is difficult and time-consuming. Interestingly, analysis shows that environmental and human metagenomes include a significant amount of non-annotated sequences, representing a 'dark matter.' We established a bioinformatics pipeline that automatically detects metagenome reads matching query sequences from a given set and applied this tool to the detection of sequences matching large and giant DNA viral members of the proposed order Megavirales or virophages. A total of 1,045 environmental and human metagenomes (≈ 1 Terabase) were collected, processed, and stored on our bioinformatics server. In addition, nucleotide and protein sequences from 93 Megavirales representatives, including 19 giant viruses of amoeba, and 5 virophages, were collected. The pipeline was generated by scripts written in Python language and entitled MG-Digger. Metagenomes previously found to contain megavirus-like sequences were tested as controls. MG-Digger was able to annotate 100s of metagenome sequences as best matching those of giant viruses. These sequences were most often found to be similar to phycodnavirus or mimivirus sequences, but included reads related to recently available pandoraviruses, Pithovirus sibericum, and faustoviruses. Compared to other tools, MG-Digger combined stand-alone use on Linux or Windows operating systems through a user-friendly interface, implementation of ready-to-use customized metagenome databases and query sequence databases, adjustable parameters for BLAST searches, and creation of output files containing selected reads with best match identification. Compared to Metavir 2, a reference tool in viral metagenome analysis, MG-Digger detected 8% more true positive Megavirales-related reads in a control metagenome. The present work shows that massive, automated and recurrent analyses of metagenomes are effective in improving knowledge about the

  11. MG-Digger: An Automated Pipeline to Search for Giant Virus-Related Sequences in Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Jonathan; Levasseur, Anthony; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The number of metagenomic studies conducted each year is growing dramatically. Storage and analysis of such big data is difficult and time-consuming. Interestingly, analysis shows that environmental and human metagenomes include a significant amount of non-annotated sequences, representing a 'dark matter.' We established a bioinformatics pipeline that automatically detects metagenome reads matching query sequences from a given set and applied this tool to the detection of sequences matching large and giant DNA viral members of the proposed order Megavirales or virophages. A total of 1,045 environmental and human metagenomes (≈ 1 Terabase) were collected, processed, and stored on our bioinformatics server. In addition, nucleotide and protein sequences from 93 Megavirales representatives, including 19 giant viruses of amoeba, and 5 virophages, were collected. The pipeline was generated by scripts written in Python language and entitled MG-Digger. Metagenomes previously found to contain megavirus-like sequences were tested as controls. MG-Digger was able to annotate 100s of metagenome sequences as best matching those of giant viruses. These sequences were most often found to be similar to phycodnavirus or mimivirus sequences, but included reads related to recently available pandoraviruses, Pithovirus sibericum, and faustoviruses. Compared to other tools, MG-Digger combined stand-alone use on Linux or Windows operating systems through a user-friendly interface, implementation of ready-to-use customized metagenome databases and query sequence databases, adjustable parameters for BLAST searches, and creation of output files containing selected reads with best match identification. Compared to Metavir 2, a reference tool in viral metagenome analysis, MG-Digger detected 8% more true positive Megavirales-related reads in a control metagenome. The present work shows that massive, automated and recurrent analyses of metagenomes are effective in improving knowledge about the

  12. MG-Digger: An Automated Pipeline to Search for Giant Virus-Related Sequences in Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Verneau, Jonathan; Levasseur, Anthony; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The number of metagenomic studies conducted each year is growing dramatically. Storage and analysis of such big data is difficult and time-consuming. Interestingly, analysis shows that environmental and human metagenomes include a significant amount of non-annotated sequences, representing a ‘dark matter.’ We established a bioinformatics pipeline that automatically detects metagenome reads matching query sequences from a given set and applied this tool to the detection of sequences matching large and giant DNA viral members of the proposed order Megavirales or virophages. A total of 1,045 environmental and human metagenomes (≈ 1 Terabase) were collected, processed, and stored on our bioinformatics server. In addition, nucleotide and protein sequences from 93 Megavirales representatives, including 19 giant viruses of amoeba, and 5 virophages, were collected. The pipeline was generated by scripts written in Python language and entitled MG-Digger. Metagenomes previously found to contain megavirus-like sequences were tested as controls. MG-Digger was able to annotate 100s of metagenome sequences as best matching those of giant viruses. These sequences were most often found to be similar to phycodnavirus or mimivirus sequences, but included reads related to recently available pandoraviruses, Pithovirus sibericum, and faustoviruses. Compared to other tools, MG-Digger combined stand-alone use on Linux or Windows operating systems through a user-friendly interface, implementation of ready-to-use customized metagenome databases and query sequence databases, adjustable parameters for BLAST searches, and creation of output files containing selected reads with best match identification. Compared to Metavir 2, a reference tool in viral metagenome analysis, MG-Digger detected 8% more true positive Megavirales-related reads in a control metagenome. The present work shows that massive, automated and recurrent analyses of metagenomes are effective in improving knowledge about

  13. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  14. Development of an Automated DNA Detection System Using an Electrochemical DNA Chip Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Sadato; Okada, Jun; Hashimoto, Koji; Tsuji, Koichi; Nikaido, Masaru; Gemma, Nobuhiro

    A new compact automated DNA detection system Genelyzer™ has been developed. After injecting a sample solution into a cassette with a built-in electrochemical DNA chip, processes from hybridization reaction to detection and analysis are all operated fully automatically. In order to detect a sample DNA, electrical currents from electrodes due to an oxidization reaction of electrochemically active intercalator molecules bound to hybridized DNAs are detected. The intercalator is supplied as a reagent solution by a fluid supply unit of the system. The feasibility test proved that the simultaneous typing of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was carried out within two hours and that all the results were consistent with those by conventional typing methods. It is expected that this system opens a new way to a DNA testing such as a test for infectious diseases, a personalized medicine, a food inspection, a forensic application and any other applications.

  15. Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Edwin H.; Meyne, Julianne

    2000-01-01

    Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

  16. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

  17. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed “reads” are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions. PMID:24681819

  18. Automated and Multiplexed Soft Lithography for the Production of Low-Density DNA Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Fredonnet, Julie; Foncy, Julie; Cau, Jean-Christophe; Séverac, Childérick; François, Jean Marie; Trévisiol, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-26

    Microarrays are established research tools for genotyping, expression profiling, or molecular diagnostics in which DNA molecules are precisely addressed to the surface of a solid support. This study assesses the fabrication of low-density oligonucleotide arrays using an automated microcontact printing device, the InnoStamp 40(®). This automate allows a multiplexed deposition of oligoprobes on a functionalized surface by the use of a MacroStamp(TM) bearing 64 individual pillars each mounted with 50 circular micropatterns (spots) of 160 µm diameter at 320 µm pitch. Reliability and reuse of the MacroStamp(TM) were shown to be fast and robust by a simple washing step in 96% ethanol. The low-density microarrays printed on either epoxysilane or dendrimer-functionalized slides (DendriSlides) showed excellent hybridization response with complementary sequences at unusual low probe and target concentrations, since the actual probe density immobilized by this technology was at least 10-fold lower than with the conventional mechanical spotting. In addition, we found a comparable hybridization response in terms of fluorescence intensity between spotted and printed oligoarrays with a 1 nM complementary target by using a 50-fold lower probe concentration to produce the oligoarrays by the microcontact printing method. Taken together, our results lend support to the potential development of this multiplexed microcontact printing technology employing soft lithography as an alternative, cost-competitive tool for fabrication of low-density DNA microarrays.

  19. Automated and Multiplexed Soft Lithography for the Production of Low-Density DNA Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Fredonnet, Julie; Foncy, Julie; Cau, Jean-Christophe; Séverac, Childérick; François, Jean Marie; Trévisiol, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are established research tools for genotyping, expression profiling, or molecular diagnostics in which DNA molecules are precisely addressed to the surface of a solid support. This study assesses the fabrication of low-density oligonucleotide arrays using an automated microcontact printing device, the InnoStamp 40(®). This automate allows a multiplexed deposition of oligoprobes on a functionalized surface by the use of a MacroStamp(TM) bearing 64 individual pillars each mounted with 50 circular micropatterns (spots) of 160 µm diameter at 320 µm pitch. Reliability and reuse of the MacroStamp(TM) were shown to be fast and robust by a simple washing step in 96% ethanol. The low-density microarrays printed on either epoxysilane or dendrimer-functionalized slides (DendriSlides) showed excellent hybridization response with complementary sequences at unusual low probe and target concentrations, since the actual probe density immobilized by this technology was at least 10-fold lower than with the conventional mechanical spotting. In addition, we found a comparable hybridization response in terms of fluorescence intensity between spotted and printed oligoarrays with a 1 nM complementary target by using a 50-fold lower probe concentration to produce the oligoarrays by the microcontact printing method. Taken together, our results lend support to the potential development of this multiplexed microcontact printing technology employing soft lithography as an alternative, cost-competitive tool for fabrication of low-density DNA microarrays. PMID:27681742

  20. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Santaniello, Adam; Caillier, Stacy J.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in cases and controls part of an international consortium. Methods: We analyzed 115 high-quality mtDNA variants and common haplogroups from a previously published genome-wide association study among 7,391 cases from the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium and 14,568 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 project from 7 countries. Significant single nucleotide polymorphism and haplogroup associations were replicated in 3,720 cases and 879 controls from the University of California, San Francisco. Results: An elevated risk of MS was detected among haplogroup JT carriers from 7 pooled clinic sites (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–1.24, p = 0.0002) included in the discovery study. The increased risk of MS was observed for both haplogroup T (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29, p = 0.002) and haplogroup J carriers (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01–1.22, p = 0.03). These haplogroup associations with MS were not replicated in the independent sample set. An elevated risk of primary progressive (PP) MS was detected for haplogroup J participants from 3 European discovery populations (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.10–2.01, p = 0.009). This elevated risk was borderline significant in the US replication population (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.99–2.08, p = 0.058) and remained significant in pooled analysis of discovery and replication studies (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.14–1.81, p = 0.002). No common individual mtDNA variants were associated with MS risk. Conclusions: Identification and validation of mitochondrial genetic variants associated with MS and PPMS may lead to new targets for treatment and diagnostic tests for identifying potential responders to interventions that target mitochondria. PMID:26136518

  2. What Advances Are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the future. For more information about DNA sequencing technologies and their use: Genetics Home Reference discusses whether ... the University of Washington describes the different sequencing technologies and what the new technologies have meant for ...

  3. Kinetoplast DNA minicircles: regions of extensive sequence divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, W O; Wirth, D F

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of Leishmania species exhibits species-specific sequence divergence and this observation has led to the development of a DNA probe-based diagnostic test for leishmaniasis. In the work reported here, we demonstrate that the minicircle is composed of three types of DNA sequences with differing specificities reflecting different rates of DNA sequence change. A library of cloned fragments of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) from Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was prepared and the cloned subfragments were found to contain DNA sequences with different taxonomic specificities based on hybridization analysis with various species of Leishmania. Four groups of subfragments were found, those that hybridized with a large number of Leishmania sp. as well as sequences unique to the species, subspecies, or isolate. Analysis of nested deletions of a single, full-length minicircle demonstrates that these different taxonomic specificities are contained within a single minicircle. This implies that different regions of a single minicircle have DNA sequences that diverge at different rates. These sequences represent potentially valuable tools in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and ecological studies of leishmaniasis and provide the basis for a model of kDNA sequence evolution. Images PMID:3025880

  4. DNA sequence determination by hybridization: A strategy for efficient large-scale sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Drmanac, R.; Drmanac, S.; Strezoska, Z.; Paunesku, T.; Labat, I.; Zeremski, M.; Snoody, J.; Crkvenjakov, R. ); Funkhouser, W.K.; Koop, B.; Hood, L. )

    1993-06-11

    The concept of sequencing by hybridization (SBH) makes use of an array of all possible n-nucleotide oligomers (n-mers) to identify n-mers present in an unknown DNA sequence. Computational approaches can then be used to assemble the complete sequence. As a validation of this concept, the sequences of three DNA fragments, 343 base pairs in length, were determined with octamer oligonucleotides. Possible applications of SBH include physical mapping (ordering) of overlapping DNA clones, sequence checking, DNA fingerprinting comparisons of normal and disease-causing genes, and the identification of DNA fragments with particular sequence motifs in complementary DNA and genomic libraries. The SBH techniques may accelerate the mapping and sequencing phases of the human genome project. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  5. DNA Sequence Determination by Hybridization: A Strategy for Efficient Large-Scale Sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drmanac, R.; Drmanac, S.; Strezoska, Z.; Paunesku, T.; Labat, I.; Zeremski, M.; Snoddy, J.; Funkhouser, W. K.; Koop, B.; Hood, L.; Crkvenjakov, R.

    1993-06-01

    The concept of sequencing by hybridization (SBH) makes use of an array of all possible n-nucleotide oligomers (n-mers) to identify n-mers present in an unknown DNA sequence. Computational approaches can then be used to assemble the complete sequence. As a validation of this concept, the sequences of three DNA fragments, 343 base pairs in length, were determined with octamer oligonucleotides. Possible applications of SBH include physical mapping (ordering) of overlapping DNA clones, sequence checking, DNA fingerprinting comparisons of normal and disease-causing genes, and the identification of DNA fragments with particular sequence motifs in complementary DNA and genomic libraries. The SBH techniques may accelerate the mapping and sequencing phases of the human genome project.

  6. Guanine-rich sequences inhibit proofreading DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Shuhui; Xie, Binghua; Hu, Xuemei; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng; Dai, Zhong-Min

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases with proofreading activity are important for accurate amplification of target DNA. Despite numerous efforts have been made to improve the proofreading DNA polymerases, they are more susceptible to be failed in PCR than non-proofreading DNA polymerases. Here we showed that proofreading DNA polymerases can be inhibited by certain primers. Further analysis showed that G-rich sequences such as GGGGG and GGGGHGG can cause PCR failure using proofreading DNA polymerases but not Taq DNA polymerase. The inhibitory effect of these G-rich sequences is caused by G-quadruplex and is dose dependent. G-rich inhibitory sequence-containing primers can be used in PCR at a lower concentration to amplify its target DNA fragment. PMID:27349576

  7. Automated synthesis and sequence analysis of biological macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.M.

    1988-03-15

    The traditional distinctions between the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology have blurred with time. As the important questions in biological research have become increasingly detailed and molecular in nature, the techniques needed to answer these questions have drawn increasingly on principles and methods usually ascribed to the fields of physics and chemistry. This fusion has resulted in the instruments and chemistries that constitute the technological foundations of modern biology and that are critical components in the new methods responsible for the explosive growth of modern biology during the last decade. Many of these instruments, such as microscopes, and spectrophotometers, have existed for decades; however, technological advances such as the user of imaging methods in NMR have greatly expanded their power and versatility. In the past several years, a new generation of instruments, whose everyday use has had revolutionary consequences, has come into existence. Central among these are the instruments concerned with the synthesis and sequence analysis of the two major biopolymers, protein and DNA. This article contains descriptions of these instruments, the chemistries on which they are based, and some of their manifold applications.

  8. Advances in high throughput DNA sequence data compression.

    PubMed

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and reduction in cost of sequencing have led to exponential growth in high throughput DNA sequence data. This growth has posed challenges such as storage, retrieval, and transmission of sequencing data. Data compression is used to cope with these challenges. Various methods have been developed to compress genomic and sequencing data. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of compression methods for genome and reads compression. Algorithms are categorized as referential or reference free. Experimental results and comparative analysis of various methods for data compression are presented. Finally, key challenges and research directions in DNA sequence data compression are highlighted. PMID:26846812

  9. New method to study DNA sequences: the languages of evolution.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Gino; Mayer-Foulkes, David

    2008-04-01

    Recently, several authors have reported statistical evidence for deterministic dynamics in the flux of genetic information, suggesting that evolution involves the emergence and maintenance of a fractal landscape in DNA chains. Here we examine the idea that motif repetition lies at the origin of these statistical properties of DNA. To analyse repetition patterns we apply a modification of the BDS statistic, devised to analyze complex economic dynamics and adapted here to DNA sequence analysis. This provides a new method to detect structured signals in genetic information. We compare naturally occurring DNA sequences along the evolutionary tree with randomly generated sequences and also with simulated sequences with repetition motifs. For easier understanding, we also define a new statistic for a DNA sequence that constitutes a specific fingerprint. The new methods are applied to exon and intron DNA sequences, finding specific statistical differences. Moreover, by analysing DNA sequences of different species from Bacteria to Man, we explore the evolution of these linguistic DNA features along the evolutionary tree. The results are consistent with the idea that all the flux of DNA information need not be random, but may be structured along the evolutionary tree. The implications for evolutionary theory are discussed.

  10. Next Generation Sequencing to Characterize Mitochondrial Genomic DNA Heteroplasmy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    This protocol is to describe the methodology to characterize mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy with parallel sequencing. Mitochondria play a very important role in important cellular functions. Each eukaryotic cell contains hundreds of mitochondria with hundreds of mitochondria genomes. The mutant mtDNA and the wild type may co-exist as heteroplasmy, and cause human disease. The purpose of this methodology is to simultaneously determine mtDNA sequence and to quantify the heteroplasmy level. The protocol includes two-fragment mitochondria genome DNA PCR amplification. The PCR product is then mixed at an equimolar ratio. The samples will be barcoded and sequenced with high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology. We found that this technology is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate in determining mtDNA mutations and the degree of heteroplasmic level. PMID:21975941

  11. Affordable Hands-On DNA Sequencing and Genotyping: An Exercise for Teaching DNA Analysis to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kushani; Thomas, Shelby; Stein, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a 5-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology and biochemistry students in which students learn to sequence DNA and to genotype their DNA for selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Students use miniaturized DNA sequencing gels that require approximately 8 min to run. The students perform G, A, T, C…

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing in Mitochondrial DNA Research

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Samuels, David C.; Clark, Travis; Guo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing, also known as high-throughput sequencing, has greatly enhanced researchers’ ability to conduct biomedical research on all levels. Mitochondrial research has also benefitted greatly from high-throughput sequencing; sequencing technology now allows for screening of all 16569 base pairs of the mitochondrial genome simultaneously for SNPs and low level heteroplasmy and, in some cases, the estimation of mitochondrial DNA copy number. It is important to realize the full potential of high-throughput sequencing for the advancement of mitochondrial research. To this end, we review how high-throughput sequencing has impacted mitochondrial research in the categories of SNPs, low level heteroplasmy, copy number, and structural variants. We also discuss the different types of mitochondrial DNA sequencing and their pros and cons. Based on previous studies conducted by various groups, we provide strategies for processing mitochondrial DNA sequencing data, including assembly, variant calling, and quality control. PMID:24859348

  13. High-throughput sequencing in mitochondrial DNA research.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Samuels, David C; Clark, Travis; Guo, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing, also known as high-throughput sequencing, has greatly enhanced researchers' ability to conduct biomedical research on all levels. Mitochondrial research has also benefitted greatly from high-throughput sequencing; sequencing technology now allows for screening of all 16,569 base pairs of the mitochondrial genome simultaneously for SNPs and low level heteroplasmy and, in some cases, the estimation of mitochondrial DNA copy number. It is important to realize the full potential of high-throughput sequencing for the advancement of mitochondrial research. To this end, we review how high-throughput sequencing has impacted mitochondrial research in the categories of SNPs, low level heteroplasmy, copy number, and structural variants. We also discuss the different types of mitochondrial DNA sequencing and their pros and cons. Based on previous studies conducted by various groups, we provide strategies for processing mitochondrial DNA sequencing data, including assembly, variant calling, and quality control.

  14. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for DNA Sequencing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Golovlev, V. V.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid DNA sequencing and/or analysis is critically important for biomedical research. In the past, gel electrophoresis has been the primary tool to achieve DNA analysis and sequencing. However, gel electrophoresis is a time-consuming and labor-extensive process. Recently, we have developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) to achieve sequencing of ss-DNA longer than 100 nucleotides. With LDMS, we succeeded in sequencing DNA in seconds instead of hours or days required by gel electrophoresis. In addition to sequencing, we also applied LDMS for the detection of DNA probes for hybridization LDMS was also used to detect short tandem repeats for forensic applications. Clinical applications for disease diagnosis such as cystic fibrosis caused by base deletion and point mutation have also been demonstrated. Experimental details will be presented in the meeting. abstract.

  15. Configuring the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software for Automated Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Ryan G.; Siliwinski, Tomasz K.; King, Ellis T.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is being designed with greater automation capabilities than any other crewed spacecraft in NASA s history. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) flight software architecture is designed to provide a flexible and evolvable framework that accommodates increasing levels of automation over time. Within the GN&C flight software, a data-driven approach is used to configure software. This approach allows data reconfiguration and updates to automated sequences without requiring recompilation of the software. Because of the great dependency of the automation and the flight software on the configuration data, the data management is a vital component of the processes for software certification, mission design, and flight operations. To enable the automated sequencing and data configuration of the GN&C subsystem on Orion, a desktop database configuration tool has been developed. The database tool allows the specification of the GN&C activity sequences, the automated transitions in the software, and the corresponding parameter reconfigurations. These aspects of the GN&C automation on Orion are all coordinated via data management, and the database tool provides the ability to test the automation capabilities during the development of the GN&C software. In addition to providing the infrastructure to manage the GN&C automation, the database tool has been designed with capabilities to import and export artifacts for simulation analysis and documentation purposes. Furthermore, the database configuration tool, currently used to manage simulation data, is envisioned to evolve into a mission planning tool for generating and testing GN&C software sequences and configurations. A key enabler of the GN&C automation design, the database tool allows both the creation and maintenance of the data artifacts, as well as serving the critical role of helping to manage, visualize, and understand the data-driven parameters both during software development

  16. Food Fish Identification from DNA Extraction through Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment exposed 3rd and 4th y undergraduates and graduate students taking a course in advanced food analysis to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Students provided their own fish sample, purchased from local grocery stores, and the class as a whole extracted DNA, which was then subjected to PCR,…

  17. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  18. Sequence-Specific DNA Binding by a Short Peptide Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanian, Robert V.; McKnight, C. James; Kim, Peter S.

    1990-08-01

    A recently described class of DNA binding proteins is characterized by the "bZIP" motif, which consists of a basic region that contacts DNA and an adjacent "leucine zipper" that mediates protein dimerization. A peptide model for the basic region of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been developed in which the leucine zipper has been replaced by a disulfide bond. The 34-residue peptide dimer, but not the reduced monomer, binds DNA with nanomolar affinity at 4^circC. DNA binding is sequence-specific as judged by deoxyribonuclease I footprinting. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests that the peptide adopts a helical structure when bound to DNA. These results demonstrate directly that the GCN4 basic region is sufficient for sequence-specific DNA binding and suggest that a major function of the GCN4 leucine zipper is simply to mediate protein dimerization. Our approach provides a strategy for the design of short sequence-specific DNA binding peptides.

  19. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  20. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  1. An iterative and regenerative method for DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jones, D H

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first iterative DNA sequencing method that regenerates the product of interest during each iterative cycle, allowing it to overcome the critical obstacles that impede alternative iterative approaches to DNA sequencing: loss of product and the accumulation of background signal due to incomplete reactions. It can sequence numerous double-stranded (ds) DNA segments in parallel without gel resolution of DNA fragments and can sequence DNA that is almost entirely double-stranded, preventing the secondary structures that impede sequencing by hybridization. This method uses ligation of an adaptor containing the recognition domain for a class-IIS restriction endonuclease and digestion with a class-IIS restriction endonuclease that recognizes the adaptor's recognition domain. This generates a set of DNA templates that are each composed of a short overhang positioned at a fixed interval with respect to one end of the original dsDNA fragment. Adaptor ligation also appends a unique sequence during each iterative cycle, so that the polymerase chain reaction can be used to regenerate the desired template-precursor before class-IIS restriction endonuclease digestion. Following class-IIS restriction endonuclease digestion, sequencing of a nucleotide in each overhang occurs by template-directed ligation during adaptor ligation or through a separate template-directed polymerization step with labeled ddNTPs. DNA sequencing occurs in strides determined by the number of nucleotides separating the recognition and cleavage domains for the class-IIS restriction endonuclease encoded in the ligated adaptor, maximizing the span of DNA sequenced for a given number of iterative cycles. This method allows the concurrent sequencing of numerous dsDNA segments in a microplate format, and in the future it can be adapted to biochip format. PMID:9149879

  2. Next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental DNA research.

    PubMed

    Shokralla, Shadi; Spall, Jennifer L; Gibson, Joel F; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005, advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological science. The analysis of environmental DNA through the use of specific gene markers such as species-specific DNA barcodes has been a key application of next-generation sequencing technologies in ecological and environmental research. Access to parallel, massive amounts of sequencing data, as well as subsequent improvements in read length and throughput of different sequencing platforms, is leading to a better representation of sample diversity at a reasonable cost. New technologies are being developed rapidly and have the potential to dramatically accelerate ecological and environmental research. The fast pace of development and improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies can reflect on broader and more robust applications in environmental DNA research. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of current next-generation sequencing technologies in regard to their application for environmental DNA analysis.

  3. Sequence specificity in aflatoxin B1--DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Muench, K F; Misra, R P; Humayun, M Z

    1983-01-01

    The activated form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes covalent modification primarily of guanine residues, leading to alkali-labile sites in DNA. A simple extension of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for sequence analysis permits the identification of alkali-labile sites induced by AFB1 and determination of the frequency of alkali-labile AFB1 modifications at particular sites on a DNA fragment of known sequence. Using this strategy, we have investigated the influence of flanking nucleotide sequences on AFB1 modification in a number of DNA fragments of known sequence. Our results show that certain guanine residues in double-stranded DNA are preferentially attacked by AFB1 over others in a manner predictable from a knowledge of vicinal nucleotide sequences. The observed in vitro sequence specificity is independent of a number of tested parameters and is likely to occur in vivo. Images PMID:6218504

  4. Spectral entropy criteria for structural segmentation in genomic DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechetkin, V. R.; Lobzin, V. V.

    2004-07-01

    The spectral entropy is calculated with Fourier structure factors and characterizes the level of structural ordering in a sequence of symbols. It may efficiently be applied to the assessment and reconstruction of the modular structure in genomic DNA sequences. We present the relevant spectral entropy criteria for the local and non-local structural segmentation in DNA sequences. The results are illustrated with the model examples and analysis of intervening exon-intron segments in the protein-coding regions.

  5. Progress towards DNA sequencing at the single molecule level

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.M.; Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    We describe progress towards sequencing DNA at the single molecule level. Our technique involves incorporation of fluorescently tagged nucleotides into a targeted sequence, anchoring the labeled DNA strand in a flowing stream, sequential exonuclease digestion of the DNA strand, and efficient detection and identification of single tagged nucleotides. Experiments demonstrating strand specific exonuclease digestion of fluorescently labeled DNA anchored in flow as well as the detection of single cleaved fluorescently tagged nucleotides from a small number of anchored DNA fragments axe described. We find that the turnover rate of Esherichia coli exonuclease III on fluorescently labeled DNA in flow at 36{degree}C is {approximately}7 nucleotides per DNA strand per second, which is approximately the same as that measured for this enzyme on native DNA under static, saturated (excess enzyme) conditions. Experiments demonstrating the efficient detection of single fluorescent molecules delivered electrokinetically to a {approximately}3 pL probe volume are also described.

  6. The nucleotide sequence of cloned wheat dwarf virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    MacDowell, S. W.; Macdonald, H.; Hamilton, W. D. O.; Coutts, R. H. A.; Buck, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    Restriction analysis and cloning of virus-specific double-stranded DNA isolated from plants infected with wheat dwarf virus (WDV) indicated that the virus genome, like that of maize streak virus (MSV), consists of a single DNA circle. The complete nucleotide sequence of cloned WDV DNA (2749 nucleotides) has been determined. Comparison of the potential coding regions in WDV DNA with those in the DNA of two strains of MSV suggests that these viruses encode at least two functional proteins, the coat protein read in the virion (+) DNA sense and a composite protein, formed from two open reading regions, in the complementary (−) DNA sense. Although WDV and MSV are serologically unrelated their coat proteins showed 35% direct amino acid sequence and their DNAs showed 46% nucleotide sequence homology. There was too little homology between the DNAs of WDV and those of two geminiviruses with bipartite genomes, cassava latent virus (CLV) and tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), to align the sequences. However comparison of the amino acid sequences of predicted proteins of WDV, MSV, TGMV and CLV revealed clear relationships between these viruses and suggested that the monopartite and the bipartite geminiviruses have a common ancestral origin. Four inverted repeat sequences which have the potential to form hairpin structures of △G≥-14 kcal/mol were detected in WDV DNA. The sequence TAATATTAC present in the loop of one of these hairpins is conserved in similar putative structures in MSV DNA and in both DNA components of CLV and TGMV and may function as a recognition sequence for a protein involved in virus DNA replication. PMID:15938050

  7. Advanced microinstrumentation for rapid DNA sequencing and large DNA fragment separation

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.; Davidson, J.; Brewer, L.; Gingrich, J.; Koo, J.; Mariella, R.; Carrano, A.

    1995-01-25

    Our efforts to develop novel technology for a rapid DNA sequencer and large fragment analysis system based upon gel electrophoresis are described. We are using microfabrication technology to build dense arrays of high speed micro electrophoresis lanes that will ultimately increase the sequencing rate of DNA by at least 100 times the rate of current sequencers. We have demonstrated high resolution DNA fragment separation needed for sequencing in polyacrylamide microgels formed in glass microchannels. We have built prototype arrays of microchannels having up to 48 channels. Significant progress has also been made in developing a sensitive fluorescence detection system based upon a confocal microscope design that will enable the diagnostics and detection of DNA fragments in ultrathin microchannel gels. Development of a rapid DNA sequencer and fragment analysis system will have a major impact on future DNA instrumentation used in clinical, molecular and forensic analysis of DNA fragments.

  8. Analysis of separate isolates of Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    McPheat, W L; Hanson, J H; Livey, I; Robertson, J S

    1989-06-01

    Two independent isolates of a Bordetella pertussis repeated DNA unit were sequenced and shown to be an insertion sequence element with five nucleotide differences between the two copies. The sequences were 1053 bp in length with near-perfect terminal inverted repeats of 28 bp, had three open reading frames, and were each flanked by short direct repeats. The two insertion sequences showed considerable homology to two other B. pertussis repeated DNA sequences reported recently: IS481 and a 530 bp repeated DNA unit. The B. pertussis insertion sequence would appear to comprise a group of closely related sequences differing mainly in flanking direct repeats and the terminal inverted repeats. The two isolates reported here, which were from the adenylate cyclase and agglutinogen 2 regions of the genome, were numbered IS48lvl and IS48lv2 respectively. PMID:2559151

  9. Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A; Lu, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication-data encoding, data transfer & data extraction-and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system-Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)-that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA. PMID:27050646

  10. Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A.; Lu, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication—data encoding, data transfer & data extraction—and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system—Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)—that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA. PMID:27050646

  11. DNA Shape Dominates Sequence Affinity in Nucleosome Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Gordon S.; Lequieu, Joshua P.; Hinckley, Daniel M.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-10-01

    Nucleosomes provide the basic unit of compaction in eukaryotic genomes, and the mechanisms that dictate their position at specific locations along a DNA sequence are of central importance to genetics. In this Letter, we employ molecular models of DNA and proteins to elucidate various aspects of nucleosome positioning. In particular, we show how DNA's histone affinity is encoded in its sequence-dependent shape, including subtle deviations from the ideal straight B-DNA form and local variations of minor groove width. By relying on high-precision simulations of the free energy of nucleosome complexes, we also demonstrate that, depending on DNA's intrinsic curvature, histone binding can be dominated by bending interactions or electrostatic interactions. More generally, the results presented here explain how sequence, manifested as the shape of the DNA molecule, dominates molecular recognition in the problem of nucleosome positioning.

  12. A mathematical model and numerical method for thermoelectric DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liwei; Guilbeau, Eric J.; Nestorova, Gergana; Dai, Weizhong

    2014-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base pair variations within the genome that are important indicators of genetic predisposition towards specific diseases. This study explores the feasibility of SNP detection using a thermoelectric sequencing method that measures the heat released when DNA polymerase inserts a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate into a DNA strand. We propose a three-dimensional mathematical model that governs the DNA sequencing device with a reaction zone that contains DNA template/primer complex immobilized to the surface of the lower channel wall. The model is then solved numerically. Concentrations of reactants and the temperature distribution are obtained. Results indicate that when the nucleoside is complementary to the next base in the DNA template, polymerization occurs lengthening the complementary polymer and releasing thermal energy with a measurable temperature change, implying that the thermoelectric conceptual device for sequencing DNA may be feasible for identifying specific genes in individuals.

  13. Compiling Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Sequences from Bacterial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonseok; Lim, Dongbin

    2016-01-01

    A retron is a bacterial retroelement that encodes an RNA gene and a reverse transcriptase (RT). The former, once transcribed, works as a template primer for reverse transcription by the latter. The resulting DNA is covalently linked to the upstream part of the RNA; this chimera is called multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA), which is extrachromosomal DNA found in many bacterial species. Based on the conserved features in the eight known msDNA sequences, we developed a detection method and applied it to scan National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) RefSeq bacterial genome sequences. Among 16,844 bacterial sequences possessing a retron-type RT domain, we identified 48 unique types of msDNA. Currently, the biological role of msDNA is not well understood. Our work will be a useful tool in studying the distribution, evolution, and physiological role of msDNA. PMID:27103888

  14. The number of reduced alignments between two DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we consider DNA sequences as mathematical strings. Total and reduced alignments between two DNA sequences have been considered in the literature to measure their similarity. Results for explicit representations of some alignments have been already obtained. Results We present exact, explicit and computable formulas for the number of different possible alignments between two DNA sequences and a new formula for a class of reduced alignments. Conclusions A unified approach for a wide class of alignments between two DNA sequences has been provided. The formula is computable and, if complemented by software development, will provide a deeper insight into the theory of sequence alignment and give rise to new comparison methods. AMS Subject Classification Primary 92B05, 33C20, secondary 39A14, 65Q30 PMID:24684679

  15. Biological nanopore MspA for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrao, Elizabeth A.

    Unlocking the information hidden in the human genome provides insight into the inner workings of complex biological systems and can be used to greatly improve health-care. In order to allow for widespread sequencing, new technologies are required that provide fast and inexpensive readings of DNA. Nanopore sequencing is a third generation DNA sequencing technology that is currently being developed to fulfill this need. In nanopore sequencing, a voltage is applied across a small pore in an electrolyte solution and the resulting ionic current is recorded. When DNA passes through the channel, the ionic current is partially blocked. If the DNA bases uniquely modulate the ionic current flowing through the channel, the time trace of the current can be related to the sequence of DNA passing through the pore. There are two main challenges to realizing nanopore sequencing: identifying a pore with sensitivity to single nucleotides and controlling the translocation of DNA through the pore so that the small single nucleotide current signatures are distinguishable from background noise. In this dissertation, I explore the use of Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA) for nanopore sequencing. In order to determine MspA's sensitivity to single nucleotides, DNA strands of various compositions are held in the pore as the resulting ionic current is measured. DNA is immobilized in MspA by attaching it to a large molecule which acts as an anchor. This technique confirms the single nucleotide resolution of the pore and additionally shows that MspA is sensitive to epigenetic modifications and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The forces from the electric field within MspA, the effective charge of nucleotides, and elasticity of DNA are estimated using a Freely Jointed Chain model of single stranded DNA. These results offer insight into the interactions of DNA within the pore. With the nucleotide sensitivity of MspA confirmed, a method is introduced to controllably pass DNA through the pore

  16. An Optimal Seed Based Compression Algorithm for DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Karunakaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a seed based lossless compression algorithm to compress a DNA sequence which uses a substitution method that is similar to the LempelZiv compression scheme. The proposed method exploits the repetition structures that are inherent in DNA sequences by creating an offline dictionary which contains all such repeats along with the details of mismatches. By ensuring that only promising mismatches are allowed, the method achieves a compression ratio that is at par or better than the existing lossless DNA sequence compression algorithms. PMID:27555868

  17. PNA Directed Sequence Addressed Self-Assembly of DNA Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2008-10-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) can be designed to target duplex DNA with very high sequence specificity and efficiency via various binding modes. We have designed three domain PNA clamps, that bind stably to predefined decameric homopurine targets in large dsDNA molecules and via a third PNA domain sequence specifically recognize another PNA oligomer. We describe how such three domain PNAs have utility for assembling dsDNA grid and clover leaf structures, and in combination with SNAP-tag technology of protein dsDNA structures.

  18. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Final report: Report period, 15 April 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    This Report concludes the DOE Human Genome Program project, ``Identification of Genes in Anonymous DNA Sequence.`` The central goals of this project have been (1) understanding the problem of identifying genes in anonymous sequences, and (2) development of tools, primarily the automated identification system gm, for identifying genes. The activities supported under the previous award are summarized here to provide a single complete report on the activities supported as part of the project from its inception to its completion.

  19. Plasmonic Nanopores for Trapping, Controlling Displacement, and Sequencing of DNA.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Maxim; Chao, Shu-Han; Jonsson, Magnus P; Dekker, Cees; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2015-11-24

    With the aim of developing a DNA sequencing methodology, we theoretically examine the feasibility of using nanoplasmonics to control the translocation of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore and to read off sequence information using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that high-intensity optical hot spots produced by a metallic nanostructure can arrest DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore, thus providing a physical knob for controlling the DNA speed. Switching the plasmonic field on and off can displace the DNA molecule in discrete steps, sequentially exposing neighboring fragments of a DNA molecule to the pore as well as to the plasmonic hot spot. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the exposed DNA fragments contains information about their nucleotide composition, possibly allowing the identification of the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule transported through the hot spot. The principles of plasmonic nanopore sequencing can be extended to detection of DNA modifications and RNA characterization.

  20. Affinity Purification of Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadonaga, James T.; Tjian, Robert

    1986-08-01

    We describe a method for affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that is fast and effective. Complementary chemically synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides that contain a recognition site for a sequence-specific DNA binding protein are annealed and ligated to give oligomers. This DNA is then covalently coupled to Sepharose CL-2B with cyanogen bromide to yield the affinity resin. A partially purified protein fraction is combined with competitor DNA and subsequently passed through the DNA-Sepharose resin. The desired sequence-specific DNA binding protein is purified because it preferentially binds to the recognition sites in the affinity resin rather than to the nonspecific competitor DNA in solution. For example, a protein fraction that is enriched for transcription factor Sp1 can be further purified 500- to 1000-fold by two sequential affinity chromatography steps to give Sp1 of an estimated 90% homogeneity with 30% yield. In addition, the use of tandem affinity columns containing different protein binding sites allows the simultaneous purification of multiple DNA binding proteins from the same extract. This method provides a means for the purification of rare sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, such as Sp1 and CAAT-binding transcription factor.

  1. Low-Cost, High-Throughput Sequencing of DNA Assemblies Using a Highly Multiplexed Nextera Process.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Elaine B; Holmes, Victor; Reeves, Christopher D; Sorokin, Elena; Durot, Maxime; Platt, Darren; Allen, Christopher; Dean, Jed; Serber, Zach; Newman, Jack; Chandran, Sunil

    2015-07-17

    In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly reduced the cost of sequencing whole genomes, whereas the cost of sequence verification of plasmids via Sanger sequencing has remained high. Consequently, industrial-scale strain engineers either limit the number of designs or take short cuts in quality control. Here, we show that over 4000 plasmids can be completely sequenced in one Illumina MiSeq run for less than $3 each (15× coverage), which is a 20-fold reduction over using Sanger sequencing (2× coverage). We reduced the volume of the Nextera tagmentation reaction by 100-fold and developed an automated workflow to prepare thousands of samples for sequencing. We also developed software to track the samples and associated sequence data and to rapidly identify correctly assembled constructs having the fewest defects. As DNA synthesis and assembly become a centralized commodity, this NGS quality control (QC) process will be essential to groups operating high-throughput pipelines for DNA construction.

  2. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christine S; Rai, Kunal; Garber, Manuel; Hollinger, Andrew; Robbins, Dana; Anderson, Scott; Macbeth, Alyssa; Tzou, Austin; Carneiro, Mauricio O; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Russ, Carsten; Hacohen, Nir; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Chin, Lynda; Regev, Aviv; Amit, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of a semiconductor-based, non-optical DNA sequencing technology promises scalable, low-cost and rapid sequence data production. The technology has previously been applied mainly to genomic sequencing and targeted re-sequencing. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing for sensitive, efficient and rapid chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) through the application of sample preparation methods that are optimized for ChIP-seq on the Ion Torrent platform. We leverage this method for epigenetic profiling of tumour tissues. PMID:24157732

  3. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christine S.; Rai, Kunal; Garber, Manuel; Hollinger, Andrew; Robbins, Dana; Anderson, Scott; Macbeth, Alyssa; Tzou, Austin; Carneiro, Mauricio O.; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Russ, Carsten; Hacohen, Nir; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Chin, Lynda; Regev, Aviv; Amit, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of a semiconductor-based, non-optical DNA sequencing technology promises scalable, low-cost and rapid sequence data production. The technology has previously been applied mainly to genomic sequencing and targeted re-sequencing. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing for sensitive, efficient and rapid chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) through the application of sample preparation methods that are optimized for ChIP-seq on the Ion Torrent platform. We leverage this method for epigenetic profiling of tumour tissues. PMID:24157732

  4. Microchannel DNA Sequencing by End-Labelled Free Solution Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, A.

    2005-09-29

    The further development of End-Labeled Free-Solution Electrophoresis will greatly simplify DNA separation and sequencing on microfluidic devices. The development and optimization of drag-tags is critical to the success of this research.

  5. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  6. DNA sequencing using polymerase substrate-binding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael John Robert; Zhou, Chunhong; Kellinger, Matthew; Pantoja, Rigo; Chen, Cheng-Yao; Shi, Jin; Wang, BeiBei; Kia, Amirali; Etchin, Sergey; Vieceli, John; Nikoomanzar, Ali; Bomati, Erin; Gloeckner, Christian; Ronaghi, Mostafa; He, Molly Min

    2015-01-23

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by decreasing the cost of sequencing. However, whole-genome sequencing is still costly and complex for diagnostics purposes. In the clinical space, targeted sequencing has the advantage of allowing researchers to focus on specific genes of interest. Routine clinical use of targeted NGS mandates inexpensive instruments, fast turnaround time and an integrated and robust workflow. Here we demonstrate a version of the Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) chemistry that potentially can become a preferred targeted sequencing method in the clinical space. This sequencing chemistry uses natural nucleotides and is based on real-time recording of the differential polymerase/DNA-binding kinetics in the presence of correct or mismatch nucleotides. This ensemble SBS chemistry has been implemented on an existing Illumina sequencing platform with integrated cluster amplification. We discuss the advantages of this sequencing chemistry for targeted sequencing as well as its limitations for other applications.

  7. DNA sequencing using polymerase substrate-binding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Previte, Michael John Robert; Zhou, Chunhong; Kellinger, Matthew; Pantoja, Rigo; Chen, Cheng-Yao; Shi, Jin; Wang, BeiBei; Kia, Amirali; Etchin, Sergey; Vieceli, John; Nikoomanzar, Ali; Bomati, Erin; Gloeckner, Christian; Ronaghi, Mostafa; He, Molly Min

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by decreasing the cost of sequencing. However, whole-genome sequencing is still costly and complex for diagnostics purposes. In the clinical space, targeted sequencing has the advantage of allowing researchers to focus on specific genes of interest. Routine clinical use of targeted NGS mandates inexpensive instruments, fast turnaround time and an integrated and robust workflow. Here we demonstrate a version of the Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) chemistry that potentially can become a preferred targeted sequencing method in the clinical space. This sequencing chemistry uses natural nucleotides and is based on real-time recording of the differential polymerase/DNA-binding kinetics in the presence of correct or mismatch nucleotides. This ensemble SBS chemistry has been implemented on an existing Illumina sequencing platform with integrated cluster amplification. We discuss the advantages of this sequencing chemistry for targeted sequencing as well as its limitations for other applications. PMID:25612848

  8. [Similarity of the DNA mucleotide sequences of vibrios].

    PubMed

    Turova, T P

    1979-12-01

    The systematic position of some Vibrio species was ascertained by the method of molecular DNA -- DNA hybridization. The DNA of the brine vibrios V. costicola and V. fischeri were shown to have about 10% of sequences homologous with DNA of a typical cholera vibrio (V. cholerae eltor No. 334). Similarity between the genomes of other representatives of the Vibrionaceae family, as well as in DNA hybridization of V. costicola and V. fischeri, was found to be approximately on the same level. All species included into the genus, Vibrio on account of their phenotypic characteristics may be considered to have essential differences in the structures of their genomes.

  9. Sequence Recognition of DNA by Protein-Induced Conformational Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Derrick; Mohan, Srividya; Koudelka, Gerald B.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2010-11-09

    The binding of proteins to specific sequences of DNA is an important feature of virtually all DNA transactions. Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences using both direct readout (sensing types and positions of DNA functional groups) and indirect readout (sensing DNA conformation and deformability). Previously we showed that the P22 c2 repressor N-terminal domain (P22R NTD) forces the central non-contacted 5{prime}-ATAT-3{prime} sequence of the DNA operator into the B{prime} state, a state known to affect DNA hydration, rigidity and bending. Usually the B{prime} state, with a narrow minor groove and a spine of hydration, is reserved for A-tract DNA (TpA steps disrupt A-tracts). Here, we have co-crystallized P22R NTD with an operator containing a central 5{prime}-ACGT-3{prime} sequence in the non-contacted region. C {center_dot} G base pairs have not previously been observed in the B{prime} state and are thought to prevent it. However, P22R NTD induces a narrow minor groove and a spine of hydration to 5{prime}-ACGT-3{prime}. We observe that C {center_dot} G base pairs have distinctive destabilizing and disordering effects on the spine of hydration. It appears that the reduced stability of the spine results in a higher energy cost for the B to B{prime} transition. The differential effect of DNA sequence on the barrier to this transition allows the protein to sense the non-contacted DNA sequence.

  10. Kilo-sequencing: an ordered strategy for rapid DNA sequence data acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, W M; Bevan, M

    1983-01-01

    A strategy for rapid DNA sequence acquisition in an ordered, nonrandom manner, while retaining all of the conveniences of the dideoxy method with M13 transducing phage DNA template, is described. Target DNA 3 to 14 kb in size can be stably carried by our M13 vectors. Suitable targets are stretches of DNA which lack an enzyme recognition site which is unique on our cloning vectors and adjacent to the sequencing primer; current sites that are so useful when lacking are Pst, Xba, HindIII, BglII, EcoRI. By an in vitro procedure, we cut RF DNA once randomly and once specifically, to create thousands of deletions which start at the unique restriction site adjacent to the dideoxy sequencing primer and extend various distances across the target DNA. Phage carrying a desired size of deletions, whose DNA as template will give rise to DNA sequence data in a desired location along the target DNA, may be purified by electrophoresis alive on agarose gels. Phage running in the same location on the agarose gel thus conveniently give rise to nucleotide sequence data from the same kilobase of target DNA. Images PMID:6298723

  11. Automated detection of meteors in observed image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimberová, Stanislava; Suk, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new detection technique based on statistical characteristics of images in the video sequence. These characteristics displayed in time enable to catch any bright track during the whole sequence. We applied our method to the image datacubes that are created from camera pictures of the night sky. Meteor flying through the Earth's atmosphere leaves a light trail lasting a few seconds on the sky background. We developed a special technique to recognize this event automatically in the complete observed video sequence. For further analysis leading to the precise recognition of object we suggest to apply Fourier and Hough transformations.

  12. Local alignment of two-base encoded DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Nils; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stanley F

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA sequence comparison is based on optimal local alignment of two sequences using a similarity score. However, some new DNA sequencing technologies do not directly measure the base sequence, but rather an encoded form, such as the two-base encoding considered here. In order to compare such data to a reference sequence, the data must be decoded into sequence. The decoding is deterministic, but the possibility of measurement errors requires searching among all possible error modes and resulting alignments to achieve an optimal balance of fewer errors versus greater sequence similarity. Results We present an extension of the standard dynamic programming method for local alignment, which simultaneously decodes the data and performs the alignment, maximizing a similarity score based on a weighted combination of errors and edits, and allowing an affine gap penalty. We also present simulations that demonstrate the performance characteristics of our two base encoded alignment method and contrast those with standard DNA sequence alignment under the same conditions. Conclusion The new local alignment algorithm for two-base encoded data has substantial power to properly detect and correct measurement errors while identifying underlying sequence variants, and facilitating genome re-sequencing efforts based on this form of sequence data. PMID:19508732

  13. Understanding the Sequence-Dependence of DNA Groove Dimensions: Implications for DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Oguey, Christophe; Foloppe, Nicolas; Hartmann, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    Background The B-DNA major and minor groove dimensions are crucial for DNA-protein interactions. It has long been thought that the groove dimensions depend on the DNA sequence, however this relationship has remained elusive. Here, our aim is to elucidate how the DNA sequence intrinsically shapes the grooves. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study is based on the analysis of datasets of free and protein-bound DNA crystal structures, and from a compilation of NMR 31P chemical shifts measured on free DNA in solution on a broad range of representative sequences. The 31P chemical shifts can be interpreted in terms of the BI↔BII backbone conformations and dynamics. The grooves width and depth of free and protein-bound DNA are found to be clearly related to the BI/BII backbone conformational states. The DNA propensity to undergo BI↔BII backbone transitions is highly sequence-dependent and can be quantified at the dinucleotide level. This dual relationship, between DNA sequence and backbone behavior on one hand, and backbone behavior and groove dimensions on the other hand, allows to decipher the link between DNA sequence and groove dimensions. It also firmly establishes that proteins take advantage of the intrinsic DNA groove properties. Conclusions/Significance The study provides a general framework explaining how the DNA sequence shapes the groove dimensions in free and protein-bound DNA, with far-reaching implications for DNA-protein indirect readout in both specific and non specific interactions. PMID:21209967

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susanna; Renaud, Gabriel; Viola, Bence; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Shunkov, Michael V; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-12-22

    Denisovans, a sister group of Neandertals, have been described on the basis of a nuclear genome sequence from a finger phalanx (Denisova 3) found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains. The only other Denisovan specimen described to date is a molar (Denisova 4) found at the same site. This tooth carries a mtDNA sequence similar to that of Denisova 3. Here we present nuclear DNA sequences from Denisova 4 and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, from another molar (Denisova 8) found in Denisova Cave in 2010. This new molar is similar to Denisova 4 in being very large and lacking traits typical of Neandertals and modern humans. Nuclear DNA sequences from the two molars form a clade with Denisova 3. The mtDNA of Denisova 8 is more diverged and has accumulated fewer substitutions than the mtDNAs of the other two specimens, suggesting Denisovans were present in the region over an extended period. The nuclear DNA sequence diversity among the three Denisovans is comparable to that among six Neandertals, but lower than that among present-day humans.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Susanna; Renaud, Gabriel; Viola, Bence; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Prüfer, Kay; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Denisovans, a sister group of Neandertals, have been described on the basis of a nuclear genome sequence from a finger phalanx (Denisova 3) found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains. The only other Denisovan specimen described to date is a molar (Denisova 4) found at the same site. This tooth carries a mtDNA sequence similar to that of Denisova 3. Here we present nuclear DNA sequences from Denisova 4 and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, from another molar (Denisova 8) found in Denisova Cave in 2010. This new molar is similar to Denisova 4 in being very large and lacking traits typical of Neandertals and modern humans. Nuclear DNA sequences from the two molars form a clade with Denisova 3. The mtDNA of Denisova 8 is more diverged and has accumulated fewer substitutions than the mtDNAs of the other two specimens, suggesting Denisovans were present in the region over an extended period. The nuclear DNA sequence diversity among the three Denisovans is comparable to that among six Neandertals, but lower than that among present-day humans. PMID:26630009

  16. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susanna; Renaud, Gabriel; Viola, Bence; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Shunkov, Michael V; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-12-22

    Denisovans, a sister group of Neandertals, have been described on the basis of a nuclear genome sequence from a finger phalanx (Denisova 3) found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains. The only other Denisovan specimen described to date is a molar (Denisova 4) found at the same site. This tooth carries a mtDNA sequence similar to that of Denisova 3. Here we present nuclear DNA sequences from Denisova 4 and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, from another molar (Denisova 8) found in Denisova Cave in 2010. This new molar is similar to Denisova 4 in being very large and lacking traits typical of Neandertals and modern humans. Nuclear DNA sequences from the two molars form a clade with Denisova 3. The mtDNA of Denisova 8 is more diverged and has accumulated fewer substitutions than the mtDNAs of the other two specimens, suggesting Denisovans were present in the region over an extended period. The nuclear DNA sequence diversity among the three Denisovans is comparable to that among six Neandertals, but lower than that among present-day humans. PMID:26630009

  17. Sequence-selective DNA recognition: natural products and nature's lessons.

    PubMed

    Tse, Winston C; Boger, Dale L

    2004-12-01

    Biologically active, therapeutically useful, DNA binding natural products continue to reveal new paradigms for sequence-selective recognition, to enlist beautiful mechanisms of in situ activation for DNA modification, to define new therapeutic targets, to exploit new mechanisms to achieve cellular selectivity, and to provide a rich source of new drugs. These attributes arise in compact structures of complex integrated function.

  18. Effects of sequence on DNA wrapping around histones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Vanessa

    2011-03-01

    A central question in biophysics is whether the sequence of a DNA strand affects its mechanical properties. In epigenetics, these are thought to influence nucleosome positioning and gene expression. Theoretical and experimental attempts to answer this question have been hindered by an inability to directly resolve DNA structure and dynamics at the base-pair level. In our previous studies we used a detailed model of DNA to measure the effects of sequence on the stability of naked DNA under bending. Sequence was shown to influence DNA's ability to form kinks, which arise when certain motifs slide past others to form non-native contacts. Here, we have now included histone-DNA interactions to see if the results obtained for naked DNA are transferable to the problem of nucleosome positioning. Different DNA sequences interacting with the histone protein complex are studied, and their equilibrium and mechanical properties are compared among themselves and with the naked case. NLM training grant to the Computation and Informatics in Biology and Medicine Training Program (NLM T15LM007359).

  19. Automating the design of informative sequences of sensory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lewi, Jeremy; Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.; Paninski, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive stimulus design methods can potentially improve the efficiency of sensory neurophysiology experiments significantly; however, designing optimal stimulus sequences in real time remains a serious technical challenge. Here we describe two approximate methods for generating informative stimulus sequences: the first approach provides a fast method for scoring the informativeness of a batch of specific potential stimulus sequences, while the second method attempts to compute an optimal stimulus distribution from which the experimenter may easily sample. We apply these methods to single-neuron spike train data recorded from the auditory midbrain of zebra finches, and demonstrate that the resulting stimulus sequences do in fact provide more information about neuronal tuning in a shorter amount of time than do more standard experimental designs. PMID:20556641

  20. Affordable hands-on DNA sequencing and genotyping: an exercise for teaching DNA analysis to undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kushani; Thomas, Shelby; Stein, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a 5-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate biology and biochemistry students in which students learn to sequence DNA and to genotype their DNA for selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Students use miniaturized DNA sequencing gels that require approximately 8 min to run. The students perform G, A, T, C Sanger sequencing reactions. They prepare and run the gels, perform Southern blots (which require only 10 min), and detect sequencing ladders using a colorimetric detection system. Students enlarge their sequencing ladders from digital images of their small nylon membranes, and read the sequence manually. They compare their reads with the actual DNA sequence using BLAST2. After mastering the DNA sequencing system, students prepare their own DNA from a cheek swab, polymerase chain reaction-amplify a region of their DNA that encompasses a SNP of interest, and perform sequencing to determine their genotype at the SNP position. A family pedigree can also be constructed. The SNP chosen by the instructor was rs17822931, which is in the ABCC11 gene and is the determinant of human earwax type. Genotypes at the rs178229931 site vary in different ethnic populations.

  1. DNA fingerprinting, DNA barcoding, and next generation sequencing technology in plants.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Hennell, James R; Carles, Maria C

    2012-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications.

  2. Efficient DNA sequencing on microtiter plates using dried reagents and Bst DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Earley, J J; Kuivaniemi, H; Prockop, D J; Tromp, G

    1993-01-01

    Sequenase, Taq DNA polymerase and Bst DNA polymerase were tested for sequencing of DNA on microtiter plates using dried down reagents. Several parameters were investigated to expedite the drying process while minimizing damage to the enzyme. Sequenase did not tolerate drying very well, and frequently generated sequences with weak signals and many sites of premature termination. With Taq DNA polymerase it was possible to obtain sequences of good quality. However, there was considerable variation of results between experiments and between batches of microtiter plates. Bst DNA polymerase generated sequences of excellent quality. It was stable for more than a week in dried-down state at -20 degrees C and at least overnight at room temperature. The method described here using Bst DNA polymerase is well suited for laboratory robots and workstations that typically employ 96-well microtiter plates. PMID:8173079

  3. Analysis of the DNA sequencing quality and efficiency of the Apollo100 robotic microcycler in a core facility setting.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M E; Trounstine, M C; Zianni, M R

    2011-07-01

    Sanger, or dideoxynucleotide sequencing, is an important tool for biomolecular research. An important trend in DNA sequencing is to find new and innovative ways to provide high-quality, reliable sequences in a more efficient manner, using automated capillary electrophoresis. The Apollo100 combines Sanger cycle sequencing and solid-phase reversible immobilization for product purification in a single instrument with robotic liquid handling and microfluidic (Microscale On-chip Valve) chips that have onboard thermal cycling and pneumatic mixing. Experiments were performed to determine how the DNA sequencing results from the Apollo100 compared with conventional, manual methods used in a core facility setting. Through rigorous experimentation of multiple baseline runs and a dilution series of template concentration, the Apollo100 generated sequencing that exceeded 900 bases with a quality score of 20 or above. When comparing actual client samples of amplicons, plasmids, and cosmids, Apollo100 sequencing results did not differ significantly from those reactions prepared manually. In addition, bacterial genomic DNA was sequenced successfully, directly with the Apollo100, although results were of lower quality than the standard manual method. As a result of the microscale capabilities, the Apollo100 offers valuable savings with respect to the quantity of reagents consumed compared with current manual sequencing methods, thereby continuing the demand for smaller template and reagent requirements. In conclusion, the Apollo100 can generate high-quality DNA sequences for common templates equivalent to those produced using manual sequencing methods and increases efficiency through reduced labor and reagents.

  4. Probe mapping to facilitate transposon-based DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Strausbaugh, L.D.; Bourke, M.T.; Sommer, M.T.; Coon, M.E.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-08-01

    A promising strategy for DNA sequencing exploits transposons to provide mobile sites for the binding of sequencing primers. For such a strategy to be maximally efficient, the location and orientation of the transposon must be readily determined and the insertion sites should be randomly distributed. The authors demonstrate an efficient probe-based method for the localization and orientation of transposon-borne primer sites, which is adaptable to large-scale sequencing strategies. This approach requires no prior restriction enzyme mapping or knowledge of the cloned sequence and eliminates the inefficiency inherent in totally random sequencing methods. To test the efficiency of probe mapping, 49 insertions of the transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) in a cloned fragment of Drosophila melanogaster DNA were mapped and oriented. In addition, oligonucleotide primers specific for unique subterminal {gamma}{delta} segments were used to prime dideoxynucleotide double-stranded sequencing. These data provided an opportunity to rigorously examine {gamma}{delta} insertion sites. The insertions were quire randomly distributed, even though the target DNA fragment had both A+T-rich and G+C-rich regions; in G+C-rich DNA, the insertions were found in A+T-rich valleys. These data demonstrate that {gamma}{delta} is an excellent choice for supplying mobile primer binding sites to cloned DNA and that transposon-based probe mapping permits the sequences of large cloned segments to be determined without any subcloning.

  5. Titration of integrated simian virus 40 DNA sequences, using highly radioactive, single-stranded DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, M A; Roufa, D J

    1981-04-01

    Nick-translated simian virus 40 (SV40) [32P]DNA fragments (greater than 2 X 10(8) cpm/micrograms) were resolved into early- and late-strand nucleic acid sequences by hybridization with asymmetric SV40 complementary RNA. Both single-stranded DNA fractions contained less than 0.5% self-complementary sequences; both included [32P]-DNA sequences that derived from all regions of the SV40 genome. In contrast to asymmetric SV40 complementary RNA, both single-stranded [32P]DNAs annealed to viral [3H]DNA at a rate characteristic of SV40 DNA reassociation. Kinetics of reassociation between the single-stranded [32P]DNAs indicated that the two fractions contain greater than 90% of the total nucleotide sequences comprising the SV40 genome. These preparations were used as hybridization probes to detect small amounts of viral DNA integrated into the chromosomes of Chinese hamster cells transformed by SV40. Under the conditions used for hybridization titrations in solution (i.e., 10- to 50-fold excess of radioactive probe), as little as 1 pg of integrated SV40 DNA sequence was assayed quantitatively. Among the transformed cells analyzed, three clones contained approximately one viral genome equivalent of SV40 DNA per diploid cell DNA complement; three other clones contained between 1.2 and 1.6 viral genome equivalents of SV40 DNA; and one clone contained somewhat more than two viral genome equivalents of SV40 DNA. Preliminary restriction endonuclease maps of the integrated SV40 DNAs indicated that four clones contained viral DNA sequences located at a single, clone-specific chromosomal site. In three clones, the SV40 DNA sequences were located at two distinct chromosomal sites.

  6. An integer programming approach to DNA sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Youngjung; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V

    2011-08-10

    De novo sequence assembly is a ubiquitous combinatorial problem in all DNA sequencing technologies. In the presence of errors in the experimental data, the assembly problem is computationally challenging, and its solution may not lead to a unique reconstruct. The enumeration of all alternative solutions is important in drawing a reliable conclusion on the target sequence, and is often overlooked in the heuristic approaches that are currently available. In this paper, we develop an integer programming formulation and global optimization solution strategy to solve the sequence assembly problem with errors in the data. We also propose an efficient technique to identify all alternative reconstructs. When applied to examples of sequencing-by-hybridization, our approach dramatically increases the length of DNA sequences that can be handled with global optimality certificate to over 10,000, which is more than 10 times longer than previously reported. For some problem instances, alternative solutions exhibited a wide range of different ability in reproducing the target DNA sequence. Therefore, it is important to utilize the methodology proposed in this paper in order to obtain all alternative solutions to reliably infer the true reconstruct. These alternative solutions can be used to refine the obtained results and guide the design of further experiments to correctly reconstruct the target DNA sequence. PMID:21864794

  7. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  8. Selective binding of anti-DNA antibodies to native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence.

    PubMed

    Uccellini, Melissa B; Busto, Patricia; Debatis, Michelle; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Viglianti, Gregory A

    2012-03-30

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of autoantibodies directed against a limited subset of nuclear antigens, including DNA. DNA-specific B cells take up mammalian DNA through their B cell receptor, and this DNA is subsequently transported to an endosomal compartment where it can potentially engage TLR9. We have previously shown that ssDNA-specific B cells preferentially bind to particular DNA sequences, and antibody specificity for short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Since CpG-rich DNA, the ligand for TLR9 is found in low abundance in mammalian DNA, we sought to determine whether antibodies derived from DNA-reactive B cells showed binding preference for CpG-rich native dsDNA, and thereby select immunostimulatory DNA for delivery to TLR9. We examined a panel of anti-DNA antibodies for binding to CpG-rich and CpG-poor DNA fragments. We show that a number of anti-DNA antibodies do show preference for binding to certain native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence, but this does not correlate directly with the presence of CpG dinucleotides. An antibody with preference for binding to a fragment containing optimal CpG motifs was able to promote B cell proliferation to this fragment at 10-fold lower antibody concentrations than an antibody that did not selectively bind to this fragment, indicating that antibody binding preference can influence autoreactive B cell responses.

  9. Automated genomic DNA purification options in agricultural applications using MagneSil paramagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner, Rex M.; Koller, Susan C.

    2002-06-01

    The automated high throughput purification of genomic DNA form plant materials can be performed using MagneSil paramagnetic particles on the Beckman-Coulter FX, BioMek 2000, and the Tecan Genesis robot. Similar automated methods are available for DNA purifications from animal blood. These methods eliminate organic extractions, lengthy incubations and cumbersome filter plates. The DNA is suitable for applications such as PCR and RAPD analysis. Methods are described for processing traditionally difficult samples such as those containing large amounts of polyphenolics or oils, while still maintaining a high level of DNA purity. The robotic protocols have ben optimized for agricultural applications such as marker assisted breeding, seed-quality testing, and SNP discovery and scoring. In addition to high yield purification of DNA from plant samples or animal blood, the use of Promega's DNA-IQ purification system is also described. This method allows for the purification of a narrow range of DNA regardless of the amount of additional DNA that is present in the initial sample. This simultaneous Isolation and Quantification of DNA allows the DNA to be used directly in applications such as PCR, SNP analysis, and RAPD, without the need for separate quantitation of the DNA.

  10. Electronic Transport and Thermopower in Aperiodic DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Stephan; Maciá, Enrique

    A detailed study of charge transport properties of synthetic and genomic DNA sequences is reported. Genomic sequences of the Chromosome 22, λ-bacteriophage, and D1s80 genes of Human and Pygmy chimpanzee are considered in this work, and compared with both periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci) sequences of nucleotides. Charge transfer efficiency is compared for all these different sequences, and large variations in charge transfer efficiency, stemming from sequence-dependent effects, are reported. In addition, basic characteristics of tunneling currents, including contact effects, are described. Finally, the thermoelectric power of nucleobases connected in between metallic contacts at different temperatures is presented.

  11. Sequencing of chloroplast genome using whole cellular DNA and solexa sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Lim, Yong Pyo; Wang, Xiao-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of the chloroplast (cp) genome using traditional sequencing methods has been difficult because of its size (>120 kb) and the complicated procedures required to prepare templates. To explore the feasibility of sequencing the cp genome using DNA extracted from whole cells and Solexa sequencing technology, we sequenced whole cellular DNA isolated from leaves of three Brassicarapa accessions with one lane per accession. In total, 246, 362, and 361 Mb sequence data were generated for the three accessions Chiifu-401-42, Z16, and FT, respectively. Micro-reads were assembled by reference-guided assembly using the cpDNA sequences of B. rapa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana tabacum. We achieved coverage of more than 99.96% of the cp genome in the three tested accessions using the B. rapa sequence as the reference. When A. thaliana or N. tabacum sequences were used as references, 99.7-99.8 or 95.5-99.7% of the B. rapa cp genome was covered, respectively. These results demonstrated that sequencing of whole cellular DNA isolated from young leaves using the Illumina Genome Analyzer is an efficient method for high-throughput sequencing of cp genome.

  12. Nano-plasmonic-based structures for DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Bashir; Ahmadi, Vahid; Faramarzi, Vahid

    2016-09-15

    We propose novel nano-plasmonic-based structures for rapid sequencing of DNA molecules. The optical properties of DNA nucleotides have notable differences in the ultraviolet (UV) region of light. Using nanopore, bowtie, and bowtie-nanopore compound structures, probable application of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in DNA sequencing is investigated by employing the discrete dipole approximation method. The effects of different materials like chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al), rhodium (Rh), and graphene (Gr) are studied. We show that for Cr/Al/Gr/Rh, the nucleotide presented shifts the SPR spectra for the nanopore 1/29/5/34 to 14/39/15/67 nm, bowtie 8/2/49/38 to 31/20/79/55 nm, and bowtie-nanopore compound 25/77/5/16 to 80/80/22/39 nm. The Cr-based compound structure shows excellent sensitivity and selectivity which can make it a promising methodology for DNA sequencing. PMID:27628364

  13. Efficient depletion of host DNA contamination in malaria clinical sequencing.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Samuel O; Gu, Yong; Manske, Magnus; Otto, Thomas D; O'Brien, John; Alcock, Daniel; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Berriman, Matthew; Newbold, Chris I; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Swerdlow, Harold P; Quail, Michael A

    2013-03-01

    The cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is decreasing rapidly as next-generation sequencing technology continues to advance, and the prospect of making WGS available for public health applications is becoming a reality. So far, a number of studies have demonstrated the use of WGS as an epidemiological tool for typing and controlling outbreaks of microbial pathogens. Success of these applications is hugely dependent on efficient generation of clean genetic material that is free from host DNA contamination for rapid preparation of sequencing libraries. The presence of large amounts of host DNA severely affects the efficiency of characterizing pathogens using WGS and is therefore a serious impediment to clinical and epidemiological sequencing for health care and public health applications. We have developed a simple enzymatic treatment method that takes advantage of the methylation of human DNA to selectively deplete host contamination from clinical samples prior to sequencing. Using malaria clinical samples with over 80% human host DNA contamination, we show that the enzymatic treatment enriches Plasmodium falciparum DNA up to ∼9-fold and generates high-quality, nonbiased sequence reads covering >98% of 86,158 catalogued typeable single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. PMID:23224084

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of circulating cell-free DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Chan, Landon L; Jiang, Peiyong

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma has opened up numerous opportunities in noninvasive diagnosis. Cell-free DNA molecules have become increasingly recognized as promising biomarkers for detection and management of many diseases. The advent of next generation sequencing has provided unprecedented opportunities to scrutinize the characteristics of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma in a genome-wide fashion and at single-base resolution. Consequently, clinical applications of circulating cell-free DNA analysis have not only revolutionized noninvasive prenatal diagnosis but also facilitated cancer detection and monitoring toward an era of blood-based personalized medicine. With the remarkably increasing throughput and lowering cost of next generation sequencing, bioinformatics analysis becomes increasingly demanding to understand the large amount of data generated by these sequencing platforms. In this Review, we highlight the major bioinformatics algorithms involved in the analysis of cell-free DNA sequencing data. Firstly, we briefly describe the biological properties of these molecules and provide an overview of the general bioinformatics approach for the analysis of cell-free DNA. Then, we discuss the specific upstream bioinformatics considerations concerning the analysis of sequencing data of circulating cell-free DNA, followed by further detailed elaboration on each key clinical situation in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and cancer management where downstream bioinformatics analysis is heavily involved. We also discuss bioinformatics analysis as well as clinical applications of the newly developed massively parallel bisulfite sequencing of cell-free DNA. Finally, we offer our perspectives on the future development of bioinformatics in noninvasive diagnosis.

  15. Isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yaqiong; Li, Na; Lysén, Colleen; Frace, Michael; Tang, Kevin; Sammons, Scott; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-02-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of Cryptosporidium spp. is hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficient, highly pure genomic DNA from clinical specimens. In this study, we developed procedures for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium genomic DNA from fecal specimens and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of genomic DNA were achieved by a combination of three oocyst purification steps and whole-genome amplification (WGA) of DNA from purified oocysts. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of WGA products was used as an initial quality assessment of amplified genomic DNA. The purity of WGA products was assessed by Sanger sequencing of cloned products. Next-generation sequencing tools were used in final evaluations of genome coverage and of the extent of contamination. Altogether, 24 fecal specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. tyzzeri, and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I were processed with the procedures. As expected, WGA products with low (<16.0) threshold cycle (CT) values yielded mostly Cryptosporidium sequences in Sanger sequencing. The cloning-sequencing analysis, however, showed significant contamination in 5 WGA products (proportion of positive colonies derived from Cryptosporidium genomic DNA, ≤25%). Following this strategy, 20 WGA products from six Cryptosporidium species or genotypes with low (mostly <14.0) CT values were submitted to whole-genome sequencing, generating sequence data covering 94.5% to 99.7% of Cryptosporidium genomes, with mostly minor contamination from bacterial, fungal, and host DNA. These results suggest that the described strategy can be used effectively for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA from fecal specimens for whole-genome sequencing.

  16. Folding complex DNA nanostructures from limited sets of reusable sequences

    PubMed Central

    Niekamp, Stefan; Blumer, Katy; Nafisi, Parsa M.; Tsui, Kathy; Garbutt, John; Douglas, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable production of DNA nanostructures remains a substantial obstacle to realizing new applications of DNA nanotechnology. Typical DNA nanostructures comprise hundreds of DNA oligonucleotide strands, where each unique strand requires a separate synthesis step. New design methods that reduce the strand count for a given shape while maintaining overall size and complexity would be highly beneficial for efficiently producing DNA nanostructures. Here, we report a method for folding a custom template strand by binding individual staple sequences to multiple locations on the template. We built several nanostructures for well-controlled testing of various design rules, and demonstrate folding of a 6-kb template by as few as 10 unique strand sequences binding to 10 ± 2 locations on the template strand. PMID:27036861

  17. Sequence-induced curvature of Tenebrio molitor satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Plohl, M; Borstnik, B; Ugarković, D; Gamulin, V

    1990-09-01

    Single satellite DNA constitutes about 50% of the Tenebrio molitor genome. Electrophoresis of 142 base pair long satellite monomers on nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel shows retarded mobility, a characteristic of fragments with sequence-induced DNA curvature. Migrational analysis of circularly permuted satellite monomers revealed the existence of 2 bend centers in the monomer sequence. We calculated the trajectory of DNA helix axis according to the algorithm of De Santis et al. This model predicts that T molitor naked satellite DNA forms a solenoid structure with left-handed superhelix. One turn of the superhelix has approximately 310 base pairs and a 33 nm pitch. Point mutations found in the satellite DNA (1.8%) influence bending characteristics, but do not distort the general geometry of satellite superhelix.

  18. Bayesian classification for promoter prediction in human DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercher, J.-F.; Jardin, P.; Duriez, B.

    2006-11-01

    Many Computational methods are yet available for data retrieval and analysis of genomic sequences, but some functional sites are difficult to characterize. In this work, we examine the problem of promoter localization in human DNA sequences. Promoters are regulatory regions that governs the expression of genes, and their prediction is reputed difficult, so that this issue is still open. We present the Chaos Game representation (CGR) of DNA sequences which has many interesting properties, and the notion of `genomic signature' that proved relevant in phylogeny applications. Based on this notion, we develop a (naïve) bayesian classifier, evaluate its performances, and show that its adaptive implementation enable to reveal or assess core-promoter positions along a DNA sequence.

  19. CloVR-ITS: Automated internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequence analysis pipeline for the characterization of fungal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides the development of comprehensive tools for high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequence analysis, there exists a growing need for protocols emphasizing alternative phylogenetic markers such as those representing eukaryotic organisms. Results Here we introduce CloVR-ITS, an automated pipeline for comparative analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) pyrosequences amplified from metagenomic DNA isolates and representing fungal species. This pipeline performs a variety of steps similar to those commonly used for 16S rRNA amplicon sequence analysis, including preprocessing for quality, chimera detection, clustering of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), taxonomic assignment (at class, order, family, genus, and species levels) and statistical analysis of sample groups of interest based on user-provided information. Using ITS amplicon pyrosequencing data from a previous human gastric fluid study, we demonstrate the utility of CloVR-ITS for fungal microbiota analysis and provide runtime and cost examples, including analysis of extremely large datasets on the cloud. We show that the largest fractions of reads from the stomach fluid samples were assigned to Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes but that all samples were dominated by sequences that could not be taxonomically classified. Representatives of the Candida genus were identified in all samples, most notably C. quercitrusa, while sequence reads assigned to the Aspergillus genus were only identified in a subset of samples. CloVR-ITS is made available as a pre-installed, automated, and portable software pipeline for cloud-friendly execution as part of the CloVR virtual machine package (http://clovr.org). Conclusion The CloVR-ITS pipeline provides fungal microbiota analysis that can be complementary to bacterial 16S rRNA and total metagenome sequence analysis allowing for more comprehensive studies of environmental and host-associated microbial

  20. PCR Primers for Metazoan Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Kweskin, Matthew; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. Conclusions/Significance Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans. PMID:22536450

  1. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed Central

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region. PMID:3671088

  2. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-10-26

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region.

  3. Ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of DNA sequencing gels

    SciTech Connect

    Mathies, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the three years of this grant we have: (1) Developed and applied a new theory for optimizing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection. (2) Developed and patented a new high-sensitivity confocal-fluorescence laser-excited gel-scanner. (3) Applied this scanner to the development of a new class of versatile and sensitive fluorescent dyes for DNA detection. (4) Developed methods for the detection of single fluorescent molecules by fluorescence burst detection. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  4. RapTOR: Automated sequencing library preparation and suppression for rapid pathogen characterization ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Lane, Todd [SNL

    2016-07-12

    Todd Lane on "RapTOR: Automated sequencing library preparation and suppression for rapid pathogen characterization" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  5. RapTOR: Automated sequencing library preparation and suppression for rapid pathogen characterization ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd

    2012-06-01

    Todd Lane on "RapTOR: Automated sequencing library preparation and suppression for rapid pathogen characterization" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  6. A scalable, fully automated process for construction of sequence-ready human exome targeted capture libraries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genome targeting methods enable cost-effective capture of specific subsets of the genome for sequencing. We present here an automated, highly scalable method for carrying out the Solution Hybrid Selection capture approach that provides a dramatic increase in scale and throughput of sequence-ready libraries produced. Significant process improvements and a series of in-process quality control checkpoints are also added. These process improvements can also be used in a manual version of the protocol. PMID:21205303

  7. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories.

  8. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. PMID:26615474

  9. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Oh, D H; King, B A; Boxer, S G; Hanawalt, P C

    2001-09-25

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen-DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320-400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA-psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen-TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  10. GENSTYLE: exploration and analysis of DNA sequences with genomic signature.

    PubMed

    Fertil, Bernard; Massin, Matthieu; Lespinats, Sylvain; Devic, Caroline; Dumee, Philippe; Giron, Alain

    2005-07-01

    GENSTYLE (http://Genstyle.imed.jussieu.fr) is a workspace designed for the characterization and classification of nucleotide sequences. Based on the genomic signature paradigm, GENSTYLE focuses on oligonucleotide frequencies in DNA sequences. Users can select sequences of interest in the GENSTYLE companion database, where the whole set of GenBank sequences is grouped per species, or upload their own sequences to work with. Tools for the exploration and analysis of signatures allow (i) identification of the origin of DNA segments (detection of rare species or species for which technical problems prevent fast characterization, such as micro-organisms with slow growth), (ii) analysis of the homogeneity of a genome and isolation of areas with novel functionality (horizontal transfers for example)--and (iii) molecular phylogeny and taxonomy.

  11. Selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules for ancient genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contamination by present-day human and microbial DNA is one of the major hindrances for large-scale genomic studies using ancient biological material. We describe a new molecular method, U selection, which exploits one of the most distinctive features of ancient DNA—the presence of deoxyuracils—for selective enrichment of endogenous DNA against a complex background of contamination during DNA library preparation. By applying the method to Neanderthal DNA extracts that are heavily contaminated with present-day human DNA, we show that the fraction of useful sequence information increases ∼10-fold and that the resulting sequences are more efficiently depleted of human contamination than when using purely computational approaches. Furthermore, we show that U selection can lead to a four- to fivefold increase in the proportion of endogenous DNA sequences relative to those of microbial contaminants in some samples. U selection may thus help to lower the costs for ancient genome sequencing of nonhuman samples also. PMID:25081630

  12. Improved algorithm for analysis of DNA sequences using multiresolution transformation.

    PubMed

    Inbamalar, T M; Sivakumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics and genomic signal processing use computational techniques to solve various biological problems. They aim to study the information allied with genetic materials such as the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the ribonucleic acid (RNA), and the proteins. Fast and precise identification of the protein coding regions in DNA sequence is one of the most important tasks in analysis. Existing digital signal processing (DSP) methods provide less accurate and computationally complex solution with greater background noise. Hence, improvements in accuracy, computational complexity, and reduction in background noise are essential in identification of the protein coding regions in the DNA sequences. In this paper, a new DSP based method is introduced to detect the protein coding regions in DNA sequences. Here, the DNA sequences are converted into numeric sequences using electron ion interaction potential (EIIP) representation. Then discrete wavelet transformation is taken. Absolute value of the energy is found followed by proper threshold. The test is conducted using the data bases available in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) site. The comparative analysis is done and it ensures the efficiency of the proposed system.

  13. Improved algorithm for analysis of DNA sequences using multiresolution transformation.

    PubMed

    Inbamalar, T M; Sivakumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics and genomic signal processing use computational techniques to solve various biological problems. They aim to study the information allied with genetic materials such as the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the ribonucleic acid (RNA), and the proteins. Fast and precise identification of the protein coding regions in DNA sequence is one of the most important tasks in analysis. Existing digital signal processing (DSP) methods provide less accurate and computationally complex solution with greater background noise. Hence, improvements in accuracy, computational complexity, and reduction in background noise are essential in identification of the protein coding regions in the DNA sequences. In this paper, a new DSP based method is introduced to detect the protein coding regions in DNA sequences. Here, the DNA sequences are converted into numeric sequences using electron ion interaction potential (EIIP) representation. Then discrete wavelet transformation is taken. Absolute value of the energy is found followed by proper threshold. The test is conducted using the data bases available in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) site. The comparative analysis is done and it ensures the efficiency of the proposed system. PMID:26000337

  14. Hiding message into DNA sequence through DNA coding and chaotic maps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyan; Liu, Hongjun; Kadir, Abdurahman

    2014-09-01

    The paper proposes an improved reversible substitution method to hide data into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, and four measures have been taken to enhance the robustness and enlarge the hiding capacity, such as encode the secret message by DNA coding, encrypt it by pseudo-random sequence, generate the relative hiding locations by piecewise linear chaotic map, and embed the encoded and encrypted message into a randomly selected DNA sequence using the complementary rule. The key space and the hiding capacity are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method has a better performance compared with the competing methods with respect to robustness and capacity. PMID:25023893

  15. Management of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Projects: Alpheus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Neil A; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Farmer, Andrew; Langley, Raymond J; Mudge, Joann; Crow, John A; Gonzalez, Alvaro J; Schilkey, Faye D; Kim, Ryan J; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer; May, Gregory D; Black, C Forrest; Myers, M Kathy; Utsey, John P; Frost, Nicholas S; Sugarbaker, David J; Bueno, Raphael; Gullans, Stephen R; Baxter, Susan M; Day, Steve W; Retzel, Ernest F

    2008-12-26

    High-throughput DNA sequencing has enabled systems biology to begin to address areas in health, agricultural and basic biological research. Concomitant with the opportunities is an absolute necessity to manage significant volumes of high-dimensional and inter-related data and analysis. Alpheus is an analysis pipeline, database and visualization software for use with massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies that feature multi-gigabase throughput characterized by relatively short reads, such as Illumina-Solexa (sequencing-by-synthesis), Roche-454 (pyrosequencing) and Applied Biosystem's SOLiD (sequencing-by-ligation). Alpheus enables alignment to reference sequence(s), detection of variants and enumeration of sequence abundance, including expression levels in transcriptome sequence. Alpheus is able to detect several types of variants, including non-synonymous and synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (indels), premature stop codons, and splice isoforms. Variant detection is aided by the ability to filter variant calls based on consistency, expected allele frequency, sequence quality, coverage, and variant type in order to minimize false positives while maximizing the identification of true positives. Alpheus also enables comparisons of genes with variants between cases and controls or bulk segregant pools. Sequence-based differential expression comparisons can be developed, with data export to SAS JMP Genomics for statistical analysis. PMID:20151039

  16. Label-free DNA sequencing using Millikan detection.

    PubMed

    Dettloff, Roger; Leiske, Danielle; Chow, Andrea; Farinas, Javier

    2015-10-15

    A label-free method for DNA sequencing based on the principle of the Millikan oil drop experiment was developed. This sequencing-by-synthesis approach sensed increases in bead charge as nucleotides were added by a polymerase to DNA templates attached to beads. The balance between an electrical force, which was dependent on the number of nucleotide charges on a bead, and opposing hydrodynamic drag and restoring tether forces resulted in a bead velocity that was a function of the number of nucleotides attached to the bead. The velocity of beads tethered via a polymer to a microfluidic channel and subjected to an oscillating electric field was measured using dark-field microscopy and used to determine how many nucleotides were incorporated during each sequencing-by-synthesis cycle. Increases in bead velocity of approximately 1% were reliably detected during DNA polymerization, allowing for sequencing of short DNA templates. The method could lead to a low-cost, high-throughput sequencing platform that could enable routine sequencing in medical applications.

  17. VoSeq: a voucher and DNA sequence web application.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Malm, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    There is an ever growing number of molecular phylogenetic studies published, due to, in part, the advent of new techniques that allow cheap and quick DNA sequencing. Hence, the demand for relational databases with which to manage and annotate the amassing DNA sequences, genes, voucher specimens and associated biological data is increasing. In addition, a user-friendly interface is necessary for easy integration and management of the data stored in the database back-end. Available databases allow management of a wide variety of biological data. However, most database systems are not specifically constructed with the aim of being an organizational tool for researchers working in phylogenetic inference. We here report a new software facilitating easy management of voucher and sequence data, consisting of a relational database as back-end for a graphic user interface accessed via a web browser. The application, VoSeq, includes tools for creating molecular datasets of DNA or amino acid sequences ready to be used in commonly used phylogenetic software such as RAxML, TNT, MrBayes and PAUP, as well as for creating tables ready for publishing. It also has inbuilt BLAST capabilities against all DNA sequences stored in VoSeq as well as sequences in NCBI GenBank. By using mash-ups and calls to web services, VoSeq allows easy integration with public services such as Yahoo! Maps, Flickr, Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and GBIF (by generating data-dumps that can be processed with GBIF's Integrated Publishing Toolkit).

  18. Nonlinear Aspects of Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-03-01

    One of the most remarkable features of human DNA is that 97 percent is not coding for proteins. Studying this noncoding DNA is important both for practical reasons (to distinguish it from the coding DNA as the human genome is sequenced), and for scientific reasons (why is the noncoding DNA present at all, if it appears to have little if any purpose?). In this talk we discuss new methods of analyzing coding and noncoding DNA in parallel, with a view to uncovering different statistical properties of the two kinds of DNA. We also speculate on possible roles of noncoding DNA. The work reported here was carried out primarily by P. Bernaola-Galvan, S. V. Buldyrev, P. Carpena, N. Dokholyan, A. L. Goldberger, I. Grosse, S. Havlin, H. Herzel, J. L. Oliver, C.-K. Peng, M. Simons, H. E. Stanley, R. H. R. Stanley, and G. M. Viswanathan. [1] For a brief overview in language that physicists can understand, see H. E. Stanley, S. V. Buldyrev, A. L. Goldberger, S. Havlin, C.-K. Peng, and M. Simons, "Scaling Features of Noncoding DNA" [Proc. XII Max Born Symposium, Wroclaw], Physica A 273, 1-18 (1999). [2] I. Grosse, H. Herzel, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, "Species Independence of Mutual Information in Coding and Noncoding DNA," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5624-5629 (2000). [3] P. Bernaola-Galvan, I. Grosse, P. Carpena, J. L. Oliver, and H. E. Stanley, "Identification of DNA Coding Regions Using an Entropic Segmentation Method," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1342-1345 (2000). [4] N. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Distributions of Dimeric Tandem Repeats in Non-coding and Coding DNA Sequences," J. Theor. Biol. 202, 273-282 (2000). [5] R. H. R. Stanley, N. V. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Clumping of Identical Oligonucleotides in Coding and Noncoding DNA Sequences," J. Biomol. Structure and Design 17, 79-87 (1999). [6] N. Dokholyan, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, and H. E. Stanley, "Distribution of Base Pair Repeats in Coding and Noncoding DNA

  19. Correlations in DNA sequences across the three domains of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Sabyasachi; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.; White, Owen R.

    2000-11-01

    We report statistical studies of correlation properties of ∼7500 gene sequences, covering coding (exon) and non-coding (intron) sequences for DNA and primary amino acid sequences for proteins, across all three domains of life, namely Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei), Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Archaea (archaebacteria). Mutual information function, power spectrum and Hölder exponent analyses show exons with somewhat greater correlation content than the introns studied. These results are further confirmed with hypothesis testing. While ∼30% of the Eukaryote coding sequences show distinct correlations above noise threshold, this is true for only ∼10% of the Prokaryote and Archaea coding sequences. For protein sequences, we observe correlation lengths similar to that of “random” sequences.

  20. Sequence tagged microsatellite profiling (STMP): improved isolation of DNA sequence flanking target SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, M. J.; Good, G.; Sharp, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Sequence tagged microsatellite profiling (STMP) enables the rapid development of large numbers of co-dominant DNA markers, known as sequence tagged microsatellites (STMs). Each STM is amplified by PCR using a single primer specific to the conserved DNA sequence flanking the microsatellite repeat in combination with a universal primer that anchors to the 5′-ends of the microsatellites. It is also possible to convert STMs into conventional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), markers that are amplified using a pair of primers flanking the repeat sequence. Here, we describe a modification of the STMP procedure to significantly improve the capacity to convert STMs into conventional SSRs and, therefore, facilitate the development of highly specific DNA markers for purposes such as marker-assisted breeding. The usefulness of this technique was demonstrated in bread wheat. PMID:12466561

  1. Sequence tagged microsatellite profiling (STMP): improved isolation of DNA sequence flanking target SSRs.

    PubMed

    Hayden, M J; Good, G; Sharp, P J

    2002-12-01

    Sequence tagged microsatellite profiling (STMP) enables the rapid development of large numbers of co-dominant DNA markers, known as sequence tagged microsatellites (STMs). Each STM is amplified by PCR using a single primer specific to the conserved DNA sequence flanking the microsatellite repeat in combination with a universal primer that anchors to the 5'-ends of the microsatellites. It is also possible to convert STMs into conventional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), markers that are amplified using a pair of primers flanking the repeat sequence. Here, we describe a modification of the STMP procedure to significantly improve the capacity to convert STMs into conventional SSRs and, therefore, facilitate the development of highly specific DNA markers for purposes such as marker-assisted breeding. The usefulness of this technique was demonstrated in bread wheat. PMID:12466561

  2. PIMS sequencing extension: a laboratory information management system for DNA sequencing facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilities that provide a service for DNA sequencing typically support large numbers of users and experiment types. The cost of services is often reduced by the use of liquid handling robots but the efficiency of such facilities is hampered because the software for such robots does not usually integrate well with the systems that run the sequencing machines. Accordingly, there is a need for software systems capable of integrating different robotic systems and managing sample information for DNA sequencing services. In this paper, we describe an extension to the Protein Information Management System (PIMS) that is designed for DNA sequencing facilities. The new version of PIMS has a user-friendly web interface and integrates all aspects of the sequencing process, including sample submission, handling and tracking, together with capture and management of the data. Results The PIMS sequencing extension has been in production since July 2009 at the University of Leeds DNA Sequencing Facility. It has completely replaced manual data handling and simplified the tasks of data management and user communication. Samples from 45 groups have been processed with an average throughput of 10000 samples per month. The current version of the PIMS sequencing extension works with Applied Biosystems 3130XL 96-well plate sequencer and MWG 4204 or Aviso Theonyx liquid handling robots, but is readily adaptable for use with other combinations of robots. Conclusions PIMS has been extended to provide a user-friendly and integrated data management solution for DNA sequencing facilities that is accessed through a normal web browser and allows simultaneous access by multiple users as well as facility managers. The system integrates sequencing and liquid handling robots, manages the data flow, and provides remote access to the sequencing results. The software is freely available, for academic users, from http://www.pims-lims.org/. PMID:21385349

  3. A new antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana: characterization, amino acid sequence and cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Shao, F; Hu, Z; Xiong, Y M; Huang, Q Z; WangCG; Zhu, R H; Wang, D C

    1999-03-19

    An antifungal peptide from seeds of Phytolacca americana, designated PAFP-s, has been isolated. The peptide is highly basic and consists of 38 residues with three disulfide bridges. Its molecular mass of 3929.0 was determined by mass spectrometry. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained from automated Edman degradation, and cDNA cloning was successfully performed by 3'-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence of a partial cDNA corresponded to the amino acid sequence from chemical sequencing. PAFP-s exhibited a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, and its activities differed among various fungi. PAFP-s displayed no inhibitory activity towards Escherichia coli. PAFP-s shows significant sequence similarities and the same cysteine motif with Mj-AMPs, antimicrobial peptides from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa belonging to the knottin-type antimicrobial peptide.

  4. A consensus sequence for binding of Lrp to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Y; Wang, Q; Stormo, G D; Calvo, J M

    1995-01-01

    Lrp (leucine-responsive regulatory protein) is a major regulatory protein involved in the expression of numerous operons in Escherichia coli. For ilvIH, one of the operons positively regulated by Lrp, Lrp binds to multiple sites upstream of the transcriptional start site and activates transcription. An alignment of 12 Lrp binding sites within ilvIH DNA from two different organisms revealed a tentative consensus sequence AGAAT TTTATTCT (Q. Wang, M. Sacco, E. Ricca, C.T. Lago, M. DeFelice, and J.M. Calvo, Mol. Microbiol. 7:883-891, 1993). To further characterize the binding specificity of Lrp, we used a variation of the Selex procedure of C. Tuerk and L. Gold (Science 249:505-510, 1990) to identify sequences that bound Lrp out of a pool of 10(12) different DNA molecules. We identified 63 related DNA sequences that bound Lrp and estimated their relative binding affinities for Lrp. A consensus sequence derived from analysis of these sequences, YAGHAWATTWT DCTR, where Y = C or T, H = not G, W = A or T, D = not C, and R = A or G, contains clear dyad symmetry and is very similar to the one defined earlier. To test the idea that Lrp in the presence of leucine might bind to a different subset of DNA sequences, we carried out a second selection experiment with leucine present during the binding reactions. DNA sequences selected in the presence or absence of leucine were similar, and leucine did not stimulate binding to any of the sequences that were selected in the presence of leucine. Therefore, it is unlikely that leucine changes the specificity of Lrp binding. PMID:7665463

  5. Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Wheat and Rice Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrells, Mark E.; La Rota, Mauricio; Bermudez-Kandianis, Catherine E.; Greene, Robert A.; Kantety, Ramesh; Munkvold, Jesse D.; Miftahudin; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Ma, Xuefeng; Gustafson, Perry J.; Qi, Lili L.; Echalier, Benjamin; Gill, Bikram S.; Matthews, David E.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Chao, Shiaoman; Anderson, Olin D.; Edwards, Hugh; Linkiewicz, Anna M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Dvorak, Jan; Zhang, Deshui; Nguyen, Henry T.; Peng, Junhua; Lapitan, Nora L.V.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Anderson, James A.; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Choi, Dong-Woog; Close, Timothy J.; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Steber, Camille; Walker-Simmons, Mary K.; McGuire, Patrick E.; Qualset, Calvin O.

    2003-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence-based comparative genomics for evolutionary studies and for transferring information from model species to crop species has revolutionized molecular genetics and crop improvement strategies. This study compared 4485 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that were physically mapped in wheat chromosome bins, to the public rice genome sequence data from 2251 ordered BAC/PAC clones using BLAST. A rice genome view of homologous wheat genome locations based on comparative sequence analysis revealed numerous chromosomal rearrangements that will significantly complicate the use of rice as a model for cross-species transfer of information in nonconserved regions. PMID:12902377

  6. Re-identification of DNA through an automated linkage process.

    PubMed Central

    Malin, B.; Sweeney, L.

    2001-01-01

    This work demonstrates how seemingly anonymous DNA database entries can be related to publicly available health information to uniquely and specifically identify the persons who are the subjects of the information even though the DNA information contains no accompanying explicit identifiers such as name, address, or Social Security number and contains no additional fields of personal information. The software program, REID (Re-Identification of DNA), iteratively uncovers unique occurrences in visit-disease patterns across data collections that reveal inferences about the identities of the patients who are the subject of the DNA. Using real-world data, REID established identifiable linkages in 33-100% of the 10,886 cases explicitly surveyed over 8 gene-based diseases. PMID:11825223

  7. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dennis H.; King, Brett A.; Boxer, Steven G.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen–DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320–400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA–psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen–TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  8. Divergence of unique DNA sequences in Lepidoptera (insecta)

    SciTech Connect

    Ado, N.Yu.; Petrov, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The authors contribute additional information about the interrelationship between lepidoteran taxons. Such information may be obtained by the techniques of genosystematics. DNA was extracted from the last larval instars of images by the usual methods. The labeled and unlabeled fragments were 150-250 nucleotide pairs (n.p.) long. DNA hybridization was performed under gentle conditions: 0.5 M Na phosphage buffer, pH 6.8, at 55/sup 0/C, incubation to 10,000 C/sub o/T (product of initial concentration of single-strand DNA molecules, moles/liter, and time of incubation (in seconds)), permitting the comparison of genomes of species from taxons phylogenetically far apart. The ratio of labeled fragments of reference unique DNA sequences to unlabeled total DNA was 1:2500. The techniques of hybridization and determination of the thermal stability (T/sub m/) of the duplexes, taking into account the auto-reassociation of the labeled DNA fragments. The radioactivity was determined in a dioxane-based scintillator, after partial acid hydrolysis of the DNA at 55/sup 0/C, in a counter. Under the experimental conditions chosen, reassociation of unique DNA sequences in homologous reactions was 70-85%

  9. DNA binding of dinuclear iron(II) metallosupramolecular cylinders. DNA unwinding and sequence preference.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J; Brabec, Viktor

    2008-06-01

    [Fe(2)L(3)](4+) (L = C(25)H(20)N(4)) is a synthetic tetracationic supramolecular cylinder (with a triple helical architecture) that targets the major groove of DNA and can bind to DNA Y-shaped junctions. To explore the DNA-binding mode of [Fe(2)L(3)](4+), we examine herein the interactions of pure enantiomers of this cylinder with DNA by biochemical and molecular biology methods. The results have revealed that, in addition to the previously reported bending of DNA, the enantiomers extensively unwind DNA, with the M enantiomer being the more efficient at unwinding, and exhibit preferential binding to regular alternating purine-pyrimidine sequences, with the M enantiomer showing a greater preference. Also, interestingly, the DNA binding of bulky cylinders [Fe(2)(L-CF(3))(3)](4+) and [Fe(2)(L-Ph)(3)](4+) results in no DNA unwinding and also no sequence preference of their DNA binding was observed. The observation of sequence-preference in the binding of these supramolecular cylinders suggests that a concept based on the use of metallosupramolecular cylinders might result in molecular designs that recognize the genetic code in a sequence-dependent manner with a potential ability to affect the processing of the genetic code. PMID:18467423

  10. DNA binding of dinuclear iron(II) metallosupramolecular cylinders. DNA unwinding and sequence preference

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    [Fe2L3]4+ (L = C25H20N4) is a synthetic tetracationic supramolecular cylinder (with a triple helical architecture) that targets the major groove of DNA and can bind to DNA Y-shaped junctions. To explore the DNA-binding mode of [Fe2L3]4+, we examine herein the interactions of pure enantiomers of this cylinder with DNA by biochemical and molecular biology methods. The results have revealed that, in addition to the previously reported bending of DNA, the enantiomers extensively unwind DNA, with the M enantiomer being the more efficient at unwinding, and exhibit preferential binding to regular alternating purine–pyrimidine sequences, with the M enantiomer showing a greater preference. Also, interestingly, the DNA binding of bulky cylinders [Fe2(L-CF3)3]4+ and [Fe2(L-Ph)3]4+ results in no DNA unwinding and also no sequence preference of their DNA binding was observed. The observation of sequence-preference in the binding of these supramolecular cylinders suggests that a concept based on the use of metallosupramolecular cylinders might result in molecular designs that recognize the genetic code in a sequence-dependent manner with a potential ability to affect the processing of the genetic code. PMID:18467423

  11. Rapid DNA sequencing by horizontal ultrathin gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Brumley, R L; Smith, L M

    1991-01-01

    A horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis apparatus has been developed that decreases the time required to separate the DNA fragments produced in enzymatic sequencing reactions. The configuration of this apparatus and the use of circulating coolant directly under the glass plates result in heat exchange that is approximately nine times more efficient than passive thermal transfer methods commonly used. Bubble-free gels as thin as 25 microns can be routinely cast on this device. The application to these ultrathin gels of electric fields up to 250 volts/cm permits the rapid separation of multiple DNA sequencing reactions in parallel. When used in conjunction with 32P-based autoradiography, the DNA bands appear substantially sharper than those obtained in conventional electrophoresis. This increased sharpness permits shorter autoradiographic exposure times and longer sequence reads. Images PMID:1870968

  12. Sequence-specific binding of luzopeptin to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K R; Davies, H; Adams, G R; Portugal, J; Waring, M J

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the binding of luzopeptin, an antitumor antibiotic, to five DNA fragments of varying base composition. The drug forms a tight, possibly covalent, complex with the DNA causing a reduction in mobility on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels and some smearing of the bands consistent with intramolecular cross-linking of DNA duplexes. DNAase I and micrococcal nuclease footprinting experiments suggest that the drug binds best to regions containing alternating A and T residues, although no consensus di- or trinucleotide sequence emerges. Binding to other sites is not excluded and at moderate ligand concentrations the DNA is almost totally protected from enzyme attack. Ligand-induced enhancement of DNAase I cleavage is observed at both AT and GC-rich regions. The sequence selectivity and characteristics of luzopeptin binding are quite different from those of echinomycin, a bifunctional intercalator of related structure. Images PMID:3362673

  13. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  14. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  15. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  16. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mankos, Marian; Persson, Henrik H J; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Shadman, Khashayar; Schmid, Andreas K; Davis, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging. PMID:27149617

  17. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging. PMID:27149617

  18. Branched modular primers in DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Shmulevitz, M. |; Ramanathan, V.

    1997-08-01

    The need to synthesize new sequencing primers, such as in primer walking, can be eliminated by assembling modular primers from oligonucleotide modules selected from presynthesized libraries. Our earlier modular primers consisted of 5-mers, 6-mers or 7-mers, annealing to the template contiguously with each other. Here we introduce a novel {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} type of modular primer with a distinctly different specificity mechanism. The concept of a {open_quotes}branched{close_quotes} primer involves modules that are physically linked by annealing to each other as well as to the target, forming a branched structure of the 3-way junction type. While contiguous modular primers are made specific by the preference of the polymerase for longer primer, branched primers, in contrast, owe their specificity to cooperative annealing of their modules to the intended site on the template. This cooperativity of annealing to the template is provided by mutually complementary segments in the two modules that bind each other. Thus the primer-template complex is no longer limited to linear sequences, but acquires another, second dimension giving the modular primer new functionality.

  19. Rotating rod renewable microcolumns for automated, solid-phase DNA hybridization studies.

    PubMed

    Bruckner-Lea, C J; Stottlemyre, M S; Holman, D A; Grate, J W; Brockman, F J; Chandler, D P

    2000-09-01

    The development of a new temperature-controlled renewable microcolumn flow cell for solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization in an automated sequential injection system is described. The flow cell included a stepper motor-driven rotating rod with the working end cut to a 45 degrees angle. In one position, the end of the rod prevented passage of microbeads while allowing fluid flow; rotation of the rod by 180 degrees releases the beads. This system was used to rapidly test many hybridization and elution protocols to examine the temperature and solution conditions required for sequence-specific nucleic acid hybridization. Target nucleic acids labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye were detected immediately postcolumn during all column perfusion and elution steps using a flow-through fluorescence detector. Temperature control of the column and the presence of Triton X-100 surfactant were critical for specific hybridization. Perfusion of the column with complementary oligonucleotide (200 microL, 10 nM) resulted in hybridization with 8% of the DNA binding sites on the microbeads with a solution residence time of less than 1 s and a total sample perfusion time of 40 s. The use of the renewable column system for detection of an unlabeled PCR product in a sandwich assay was also demonstrated. PMID:10994975

  20. Rotating rod renewable microcolumns for automated, solid-phase DNA hybridization studies.

    PubMed

    Bruckner-Lea, C J; Stottlemyre, M S; Holman, D A; Grate, J W; Brockman, F J; Chandler, D P

    2000-09-01

    The development of a new temperature-controlled renewable microcolumn flow cell for solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization in an automated sequential injection system is described. The flow cell included a stepper motor-driven rotating rod with the working end cut to a 45 degrees angle. In one position, the end of the rod prevented passage of microbeads while allowing fluid flow; rotation of the rod by 180 degrees releases the beads. This system was used to rapidly test many hybridization and elution protocols to examine the temperature and solution conditions required for sequence-specific nucleic acid hybridization. Target nucleic acids labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye were detected immediately postcolumn during all column perfusion and elution steps using a flow-through fluorescence detector. Temperature control of the column and the presence of Triton X-100 surfactant were critical for specific hybridization. Perfusion of the column with complementary oligonucleotide (200 microL, 10 nM) resulted in hybridization with 8% of the DNA binding sites on the microbeads with a solution residence time of less than 1 s and a total sample perfusion time of 40 s. The use of the renewable column system for detection of an unlabeled PCR product in a sandwich assay was also demonstrated.

  1. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  2. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D.; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537–542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the “Out of Africa” model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  3. Automated side-chain model building and sequence assignment by template matching

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for automated macromolecular side-chain model building and for aligning the sequence to the map is described. An algorithm is described for automated building of side chains in an electron-density map once a main-chain model is built and for alignment of the protein sequence to the map. The procedure is based on a comparison of electron density at the expected side-chain positions with electron-density templates. The templates are constructed from average amino-acid side-chain densities in 574 refined protein structures. For each contiguous segment of main chain, a matrix with entries corresponding to an estimate of the probability that each of the 20 amino acids is located at each position of the main-chain model is obtained. The probability that this segment corresponds to each possible alignment with the sequence of the protein is estimated using a Bayesian approach and high-confidence matches are kept. Once side-chain identities are determined, the most probable rotamer for each side chain is built into the model. The automated procedure has been implemented in the RESOLVE software. Combined with automated main-chain model building, the procedure produces a preliminary model suitable for refinement and extension by an experienced crystallographer.

  4. Evaluation of Automated and Manual Commercial DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Brucella DNA from Suspensions and Spiked Swabs ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dauphin, Leslie A.; Hutchins, Rebecca J.; Bost, Liberty A.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated automated and manual commercial DNA extraction methods for their ability to recover DNA from Brucella species in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) suspension and from spiked swab specimens. Six extraction methods, representing several of the methodologies which are commercially available for DNA extraction, as well as representing various throughput capacities, were evaluated: the MagNA Pure Compact and the MagNA Pure LC instruments, the IT 1-2-3 DNA sample purification kit, the MasterPure Complete DNA and RNA purification kit, the QIAamp DNA blood mini kit, and the UltraClean microbial DNA isolation kit. These six extraction methods were performed upon three pathogenic Brucella species: B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. Viability testing of the DNA extracts indicated that all six extraction methods were efficient at inactivating virulent Brucella spp. Real-time PCR analysis using Brucella genus- and species-specific TaqMan assays revealed that use of the MasterPure kit resulted in superior levels of detection from bacterial suspensions, while the MasterPure kit and MagNA Pure Compact performed equally well for extraction of spiked swab samples. This study demonstrated that DNA extraction methodologies differ in their ability to recover Brucella DNA from PBS bacterial suspensions and from swab specimens and, thus, that the extraction method used for a given type of sample matrix can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for Brucella. PMID:19846627

  5. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain.

    PubMed Central

    Pääbo, S; Gifford, J A; Wilson, A C

    1988-01-01

    Pieces of mitochondrial DNA from a 7000-year-old human brain were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Albumin and high concentrations of polymerase were required to overcome a factor in the brain extract that inhibits amplification. For this and other sources of ancient DNA, we find an extreme inverse dependence of the amplification efficiency on the length of the sequence to be amplified. This property of ancient DNA distinguishes it from modern DNA and thus provides a new criterion of authenticity for use in research on ancient DNA. The brain is from an individual recently excavated from Little Salt Spring in southwestern Florida and the anthropologically informative sequences it yielded are the first obtained from archaeologically retrieved remains. The sequences show that this ancient individual belonged to a mitochondrial lineage that is rare in the Old World and not previously known to exist among Native Americans. Our finding brings to three the number of maternal lineages known to have been involved in the prehistoric colonization of the New World. Images PMID:3186445

  6. Satellite DNA sequences in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Elizur, A; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    1982-01-01

    There is a complex pattern of satellite DNA sequences in M. rufus which are revealed by addition of Ag+ or dye (Hoechst 33258) to the DNA ink Cs2SO4 or CsCl equilibrium density gradients. Six satellite DNA fractions have been isolated; these have buoyant densities in neutral CsCl of 1.692, 1.704, 1.705, 1.707 (two), 1.710 and 1.712 g/ml compared with 1.696 g/ml for the main band DNA. Each satellite accounts for 1-3% of the DNA of the genome. The satellites are located in the centromeric heterochromatin of the chromosomes, in the nucleolar organizer region and in interstitial bands on some of the autosomes, each satellite having a unique distribution. Nucleic acid hybridization showed that six of the satellite sequences are also present in the genomes of the wallaroo and the red-necked wallaby, with sequence divergences of only 1-2% relative to the sequences in the red kangaroo.

  7. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Tonje; Rødland, Einar A; Lagesen, Karin; Seeberg, Erling; Rognes, Torbjørn; Tønjum, Tone

    2004-01-01

    Repeated sequence signatures are characteristic features of all genomic DNA. We have made a rigorous search for repeat genomic sequences in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae and found that by far the most frequent 9-10mers residing within coding regions are the DNA uptake sequences (DUS) required for natural genetic transformation. More importantly, we found a significantly higher density of DUS within genes involved in DNA repair, recombination, restriction-modification and replication than in any other annotated gene group in these organisms. Pasteurella multocida also displayed high frequencies of a putative DUS identical to that previously identified in H.influenzae and with a skewed distribution towards genome maintenance genes, indicating that this bacterium might be transformation competent under certain conditions. These results imply that the high frequency of DUS in genome maintenance genes is conserved among phylogenetically divergent species and thus are of significant biological importance. Increased DUS density is expected to enhance DNA uptake and the over-representation of DUS in genome maintenance genes might reflect facilitated recovery of genome preserving functions. For example, transient and beneficial increase in genome instability can be allowed during pathogenesis simply through loss of antimutator genes, since these DUS-containing sequences will be preferentially recovered. Furthermore, uptake of such genes could provide a mechanism for facilitated recovery from DNA damage after genotoxic stress. PMID:14960717

  8. Sequence dependence of transcription factor-mediated DNA looping

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; Lindén, Martin; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    DNA is subject to large deformations in a wide range of biological processes. Two key examples illustrate how such deformations influence the readout of the genetic information: the sequestering of eukaryotic genes by nucleosomes and DNA looping in transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These kinds of regulatory problems are now becoming amenable to systematic quantitative dissection with a powerful dialogue between theory and experiment. Here, we use a single-molecule experiment in conjunction with a statistical mechanical model to test quantitative predictions for the behavior of DNA looping at short length scales and to determine how DNA sequence affects looping at these lengths. We calculate and measure how such looping depends upon four key biological parameters: the strength of the transcription factor binding sites, the concentration of the transcription factor, and the length and sequence of the DNA loop. Our studies lead to the surprising insight that sequences that are thought to be especially favorable for nucleosome formation because of high flexibility lead to no systematically detectable effect of sequence on looping, and begin to provide a picture of the distinctions between the short length scale mechanics of nucleosome formation and looping. PMID:22718983

  9. Sequence-selective DNA recognition with peptide-bisbenzamidine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mateo I; Vázquez, Olalla; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2013-07-22

    Transcription factors (TFs) are specialized proteins that play a key role in the regulation of genetic expression. Their mechanism of action involves the interaction with specific DNA sequences, which usually takes place through specialized domains of the protein. However, achieving an efficient binding usually requires the presence of the full protein. This is the case for bZIP and zinc finger TF families, which cannot interact with their target sites when the DNA binding fragments are presented as isolated monomers. Herein it is demonstrated that the DNA binding of these monomeric peptides can be restored when conjugated to aza-bisbenzamidines, which are readily accessible molecules that interact with A/T-rich sites by insertion into their minor groove. Importantly, the fluorogenic properties of the aza-benzamidine unit provide details of the DNA interaction that are eluded in electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA). The hybrids based on the GCN4 bZIP protein preferentially bind to composite sequences containing tandem bisbenzamidine-GCN4 binding sites (TCAT⋅AAATT). Fluorescence reverse titrations show an interesting multiphasic profile consistent with the formation of competitive nonspecific complexes at low DNA/peptide ratios. On the other hand, the conjugate with the DNA binding domain of the zinc finger protein GAGA binds with high affinity (KD≈12 nM) and specificity to a composite AATTT⋅GAGA sequence containing both the bisbenzamidine and the TF consensus binding sites.

  10. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    PubMed

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  11. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    PubMed

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  12. Vertebrate DM domain proteins bind similar DNA sequences and can heterodimerize on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mark W; Zarkower, David; Bardwell, Vivian J

    2007-01-01

    Background: The DM domain is a zinc finger-like DNA binding motif first identified in the sexual regulatory proteins Doublesex (DSX) and MAB-3, and is widely conserved among metazoans. DM domain proteins regulate sexual differentiation in at least three phyla and also control other aspects of development, including vertebrate segmentation. Most DM domain proteins share little similarity outside the DM domain. DSX and MAB-3 bind partially overlapping DNA sequences, and DSX has been shown to interact with DNA via the minor groove without inducing DNA bending. DSX and MAB-3 exhibit unusually high DNA sequence specificity relative to other minor groove binding proteins. No detailed analysis of DNA binding by the seven vertebrate DM domain proteins, DMRT1-DMRT7 has been reported, and thus it is unknown whether they recognize similar or diverse DNA sequences. Results: We used a random oligonucleotide in vitro selection method to determine DNA binding sites for six of the seven proteins. These proteins selected sites resembling that of DSX despite differences in the sequence of the DM domain recognition helix, but they varied in binding efficiency and in preferences for particular nucleotides, and some behaved anomalously in gel mobility shift assays. DMRT1 protein from mouse testis extracts binds the sequence we determined, and the DMRT proteins can bind their in vitro-defined sites in transfected cells. We also find that some DMRT proteins can bind DNA as heterodimers. Conclusion: Our results suggest that target gene specificity of the DMRT proteins does not derive exclusively from major differences in DNA binding specificity. Instead target specificity may come from more subtle differences in DNA binding preference between different homodimers, together with differences in binding specificity between homodimers versus heterodimers. PMID:17605809

  13. Defining the sequence requirements for the positioning of base J in DNA using SMRT sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Genest, Paul-Andre; Baugh, Loren; Taipale, Alex; Zhao, Wanqi; Jan, Sabrina; van Luenen, Henri G.A.M.; Korlach, Jonas; Clark, Tyson; Luong, Khai; Boitano, Matthew; Turner, Steve; Myler, Peter J.; Borst, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Base J (β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil) replaces 1% of T in the Leishmania genome and is only found in telomeric repeats (99%) and in regions where transcription starts and stops. This highly restricted distribution must be co-determined by the thymidine hydroxylases (JBP1 and JBP2) that catalyze the initial step in J synthesis. To determine the DNA sequences recognized by JBP1/2, we used SMRT sequencing of DNA segments inserted into plasmids grown in Leishmania tarentolae. We show that SMRT sequencing recognizes base J in DNA. Leishmania DNA segments that normally contain J also picked up J when present in the plasmid, whereas control sequences did not. Even a segment of only 10 telomeric (GGGTTA) repeats was modified in the plasmid. We show that J modification usually occurs at pairs of Ts on opposite DNA strands, separated by 12 nucleotides. Modifications occur near G-rich sequences capable of forming G-quadruplexes and JBP2 is needed, as it does not occur in JBP2-null cells. We propose a model whereby de novo J insertion is mediated by JBP2. JBP1 then binds to J and hydroxylates another T 13 bp downstream (but not upstream) on the complementary strand, allowing JBP1 to maintain existing J following DNA replication. PMID:25662217

  14. An optimization approach and its application to compare DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwei; Li, Chao; Bai, Fenglan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Studying the evolutionary relationship between biological sequences has become one of the main tasks in bioinformatics research by means of comparing and analyzing the gene sequence. Many valid methods have been applied to the DNA sequence alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel comparing method based on the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity to compare biological sequences. Moreover, we introduce a new distance measure and make use of the corresponding similarity matrix to construct phylogenic tree without multiple sequence alignment. Further, we construct phylogenic tree for 24 species of Eutherian mammals and 48 countries of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) by an optimization approach. The results indicate that this new method improves the efficiency of sequence comparison and successfully construct phylogenies.

  15. DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Döring, H P; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    The DNA sequence of the terminal 4.2 kilobases (kb) of the 30-kb insertion in the endosperm sucrose synthase gene of maize mutant sh-m5933 shows that it comprises two identical 2,040-base pair (bp) segments, one inserted in the reverse direction into the other. We suggest that the 2,040-bp sequence is an example of the transposable element Dissociation described by Barbara McClintock. PMID:6318121

  16. Fast DNA sequencing by electrical means inches closer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2013-08-01

    The sequencing of the human genome offered a glimpse of future medical practices, where information retrieved from the genome could be harnessed to inform treatment decisions. However, making DNA sequencing accessible enough for widespread use poses a number of challenges. This perspective article traces the progress made in the field so far and looks at how close we may be already to real-life applications.

  17. DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Döring, H P; Tillmann, E; Starlinger, P

    The DNA sequence of the terminal 4.2 kilobases (kb) of the 30-kb insertion in the endosperm sucrose synthase gene of maize mutant sh-m5933 shows that it comprises two identical 2,040-base pair (bp) segments, one inserted in the reverse direction into the other. We suggest that the 2,040-bp sequence is an example of the transposable element Dissociation described by Barbara McClintock.

  18. How different DNA sequences are recognized by a DNA-binding protein: effects of partial proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Supakar, P C; Zhang, X Y; Githens, S; Khan, R; Ehrlich, K C; Ehrlich, M

    1989-11-11

    MDBP is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein from mammals that recognizes a variety of DNA sequences, all of which show much homology to a partially palindromic 14 base-pair consensus sequence. MDBP subjected to limited proteolysis and then incubated with various specific oligonucleotide duplexes yielded two types of complexes. The relative concentrations of these complexes varied greatly depending on how closely the MDBP site matched the consensus sequence. No such DNA sequence-specific differences in the types of complexes formed were seen with intact MDBP. Partial proteolysis also changed the relative affinity of MDBP for several of its binding sites. The nature of the two types of complexes formed from fragmented MDBP and DNA was studied by DNA competition assays, protein titration, site-directed mutagenesis, and dimethyl sulfate and missing base interference assays. The results suggest that, for some specific DNA sequences, half-site interactions with one MDBP subunit predominate and for others, strong interaction of two subunits with both half-sites readily occur.

  19. Fully automated DNA extraction from blood using magnetic particles modified with a hyperbranched polyamidoamine dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Yoza, Brandon; Arakaki, Atsushi; Maruyama, Kohei; Takeyama, Haruko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial and artificial magnetic particles were modified using a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and outer shell amines determined. Bacterial magnetic particles were the most consistently modified. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that the artificial magnetic particles were structurally damaged by the modification process including sonication. Furthermore, laser particle analysis of the magnetite also revealed damage. Small quantities of dendrimer-modified bacterial magnetic particles were used to extract DNA from blood. The efficiency of DNA recovery was consistently about 30 ng of DNA using 2-10 microg of dendrimer-modified bacterial magnetite. This technique was fully automated using newly developed liquid handling robots and bacterial magnetic particles.

  20. Derivatized versions of ligase enzymes for constructing DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Christian, Allen T.; Tucker, James D.; Dzenitis, John M.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2006-08-15

    A method of making very long, double-stranded synthetic poly-nucleotides. A multiplicity of short oligonucleotides is provided. The short oligonucleotides are sequentially hybridized to each other. Enzymatic ligation of the oligonucleotides provides a contiguous piece of PCR-ready DNA of predetermined sequence.

  1. DNA-sequence-specific erasers of epigenetic memory.

    PubMed

    Mozgova, Iva; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-05-27

    How epigenetic regulators find their specific targets remains a challenging question. Two parallel studies show that REF6, a plant H3K27me3 demethylase, binds a specific DNA motif via its zinc-finger domains and recruits the SWI/SNF-type ATPase BRAHMA, demonstrating a sequence-specific recruitment mechanism for a chromatin-modifying complex. PMID:27230685

  2. Sequence-specific DNA primer effects on telomerase polymerization activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M S; Blackburn, E H

    1993-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes one strand of telomeric DNA by copying a template sequence within the RNA moiety of the enzyme. Kinetic studies of this polymerization reaction were used to analyze the mechanism and properties of the telomerase from Tetrahymena thermophila. This enzyme synthesizes TTGGGG repeats, the telomeric DNA sequence of this species, by elongating a DNA primer whose 3' end base pairs with the template-forming domain of the RNA. The enzyme was found to act nonprocessively with short (10- to 12-nucleotide) primers but to become processive as TTGGGG repeats were added. Variation of the 5' sequences of short primers with a common 3' end identified sequence-specific effects which are distinct from those involving base pairing of the 3' end of the primer with the RNA template and which can markedly induce enzyme activity by increasing the catalytic rate of the telomerase polymerization reaction. These results identify an additional mechanistic basis for telomere and DNA end recognition by telomerase in vivo. Images PMID:8413255

  3. Educational Software for the Analysis of DNA and Protein Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, Stanley; Olson, Sue

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the microcomputer-based educational software, DNAzoom, which was designed to introduce undergraduates in molecular biology to computer analysis of DNA protein sequences. Highlights include graphical presentation of data, the functional use of color, a menu-oriented interface, and students' evaluations of the software.…

  4. DNA sequence evolution with neighbor-dependent mutation.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Peter F; Burge, Christopher B; Hwa, Terence

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a model of DNA sequence evolution which can account for biases in mutation rates that depend on the identity of the neighboring bases. An analytic solution for this class of models is developed by adopting well-known methods of nonlinear dynamics. Results are presented for the CpG-methylation-deamination process, which dominates point substitutions in vertebrates. The dinucleotide frequencies generated by the model (using empirically obtained mutation rates) match the overall pattern observed in noncoding DNA. A web-based tool has been constructed to compute single- and dinucleotide frequencies for arbitrary neighbor-dependent mutation rates. Also provided is the backward procedure to infer the mutation rates using maximum likelihood analysis given the observed single- and dinucleotide frequencies. Reasonable estimates of the mutation rates can be obtained very efficiently, using generic noncoding DNA sequences as input, after masking out long homonucleotide subsequences. Our method is much more convenient and versatile to use than the traditional method of deducing mutation rates by counting mutation events in carefully chosen sequences. More generally, our approach provides a more realistic but still tractable description of noncoding genomic DNA and may be used as a null model for various sequence analysis applications.

  5. Generalized Levy-walk model for DNA nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a generalized Levy walk to model fractal landscapes observed in noncoding DNA sequences. We find that this model provides a very close approximation to the empirical data and explains a number of statistical properties of genomic DNA sequences such as the distribution of strand-biased regions (those with an excess of one type of nucleotide) as well as local changes in the slope of the correlation exponent alpha. The generalized Levy-walk model simultaneously accounts for the long-range correlations in noncoding DNA sequences and for the apparently paradoxical finding of long subregions of biased random walks (length lj) within these correlated sequences. In the generalized Levy-walk model, the lj are chosen from a power-law distribution P(lj) varies as lj(-mu). The correlation exponent alpha is related to mu through alpha = 2-mu/2 if 2 < mu < 3. The model is consistent with the finding of "repetitive elements" of variable length interspersed within noncoding DNA.

  6. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-12-01

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  7. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-12-28

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  8. Wide-field imaging design for a multiple-capillary DNA-sequencing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nay, Lyle M.; Sinclair, Robert; Swerdlow, Harold

    1997-05-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence detection system compatible with a capillary electrophoresis array was developed. The design incorporates fiber-optic excitation and a detection system including a diffraction grating and a CCD camera. The system employs no moving parts and is capable of producing data comparable to commercially available systems. It is based on a spectrally-resolved four-dye sequencing scheme. The conceptual design was proven, however, refinements must be made to optimize performance for high-throughput capillary-array DNA sequencing. Automated sample preparation and loading in combination with a refillable separation- matrix capillary-array system could prove to be an invaluable tool for completion of the Human Genome Project.

  9. DNA sequence alignment by microhomology sampling during homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhi; Redding, Sy; Lee, Ja Yil; Gibb, Bryan; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Gaines, William A.; Sung, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Summary Homologous recombination (HR) mediates the exchange of genetic information between sister or homologous chromatids. During HR, members of the RecA/Rad51 family of recombinases must somehow search through vast quantities of DNA sequence to align and pair ssDNA with a homologous dsDNA template. Here we use single-molecule imaging to visualize Rad51 as it aligns and pairs homologous DNA sequences in real-time. We show that Rad51 uses a length-based recognition mechanism while interrogating dsDNA, enabling robust kinetic selection of 8-nucleotide (nt) tracts of microhomology, which kinetically confines the search to sites with a high probability of being a homologous target. Successful pairing with a 9th nucleotide coincides with an additional reduction in binding free energy and subsequent strand exchange occurs in precise 3-nt steps, reflecting the base triplet organization of the presynaptic complex. These findings provide crucial new insights into the physical and evolutionary underpinnings of DNA recombination. PMID:25684365

  10. DNA sequence analysis of newly formed telomeres in yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, S S; Pluta, A F; Zakian, V A

    1989-01-01

    A plasmid can be maintained in linear form in baker's yeast if it bears telomeric sequences at each end. Linear plasmids bearing cloned telomeric C4A4 repeats at one end (test end) and a natural DNA terminus with approximately 300 bps of C4A2 repeats at the other or control end were introduced by transformation into yeast. Test-end termini of 28 to 112 bps supported telomere formation. During telomere formation, C4A2 repeats were often transferred to test-end termini. To determine in greater detail the fate of test-end sequences on these plasmids after propagation in yeast, test-end telomeres were subcloned into E. coli and sequenced. DNA sequencing established a number of points about the molecular events involved in telomere formation in yeast. The results suggest that there are at least two mechanisms for telomere formation in yeast. One is mediated by a recombination event that requires neither a long stretch of homology nor the RAD52 gene product. The other mechanism is by addition of C1-3A repeats to the termini of linear DNA molecules. The telomeric sequence required to support C1-3A addition need not be at the very end of a molecule for telomere formation.

  11. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a domain theory''), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  12. Automated carboxy-terminal sequence analysis of peptides and proteins using diphenyl phosphoroisothiocyanatidate.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J. M.; Nikfarjam, F.; Shenoy, N. R.; Shively, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins and peptides can be sequenced from the carboxy-terminus with isothiocyanate reagents to produce amino acid thiohydantoin derivatives. Previous studies in our laboratory have focused on the automation of the thiocyanate chemistry using acetic anhydride and trimethylsilylisothiocyanate (TMS-ITC) to derivatize the C-terminal amino acid to a thiohydantoin and sodium trimethylsilanolate for specific hydrolysis of the derivatized C-terminal amino acid (Bailey, J.M., Shenoy, N.R., Ronk, M., & Shively, J.E., 1992, Protein Sci. 1, 68-80). A major limitation of this approach was the need to activate the C-terminus with acetic anhydride. We now describe the use of a new reagent, diphenyl phosphoroisothiocyanatidate (DPP-ITC) and pyridine, which combines the activation and derivatization steps to produce peptidylthiohydantoins. Previous work by Kenner et al. (Kenner, G.W., Khorana, H.G., & Stedman, R.J., 1953, Chem. Soc. J., 673-678) with this reagent demonstrated slow kinetics. Several days were required for complete reaction. We show here that the inclusion of pyridine was found to promote the formation of C-terminal thiohydantoins by DPP-ITC resulting in complete conversion of the C-terminal amino acid to a thiohydantoin in less than 1 h. Reagents such as imidazole, triazine, and tetrazole were also found to promote the reaction with DPP-ITC as effectively as pyridine. General base catalysts, such as triethylamine, do not promote the reaction, but are required to convert the C-terminal carboxylic acid to a salt prior to the reaction with DPP-ITC and pyridine. By introducing the DPP-ITC reagent and pyridine in separate steps in an automated sequencer, we observed improved sequencing yields for amino acids normally found difficult to derivatize with acetic anhydride/TMS-ITC. This was particularly true for aspartic acid, which now can be sequenced in yields comparable to most of the other amino acids. Automated programs are described for the C-terminal sequencing of

  13. Environmental DNA sequencing primers for eutardigrades and bdelloid rotifers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The time it takes to isolate individuals from environmental samples and then extract DNA from each individual is one of the problems with generating molecular data from meiofauna such as eutardigrades and bdelloid rotifers. The lack of consistent morphological information and the extreme abundance of these classes makes morphological identification of rare, or even common cryptic taxa a large and unwieldy task. This limits the ability to perform large-scale surveys of the diversity of these organisms. Here we demonstrate a culture-independent molecular survey approach that enables the generation of large amounts of eutardigrade and bdelloid rotifer sequence data directly from soil. Our PCR primers, specific to the 18s small-subunit rRNA gene, were developed for both eutardigrades and bdelloid rotifers. Results The developed primers successfully amplified DNA of their target organism from various soil DNA extracts. This was confirmed by both the BLAST similarity searches and phylogenetic analyses. Tardigrades showed much better phylogenetic resolution than bdelloids. Both groups of organisms exhibited varying levels of endemism. Conclusion The development of clade-specific primers for characterizing eutardigrades and bdelloid rotifers from environmental samples should greatly increase our ability to characterize the composition of these taxa in environmental samples. Environmental sequencing as shown here differs from other molecular survey methods in that there is no need to pre-isolate the organisms of interest from soil in order to amplify their DNA. The DNA sequences obtained from methods that do not require culturing can be identified post-hoc and placed phylogenetically as additional closely related sequences are obtained from morphologically identified conspecifics. Our non-cultured environmental sequence based approach will be able to provide a rapid and large-scale screening of the presence, absence and diversity of Bdelloidea and Eutardigrada in

  14. Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (nu ITS2 rRNA) Sequence-Structure Phylogenetics: Towards an Automated Reconstruction of the Green Algal Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Mark A.; Keller, Alexander; Koetschan, Christian; Förster, Frank; Merget, Benjamin; Wolf, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Background Chloroplast-encoded genes (matK and rbcL) have been formally proposed for use in DNA barcoding efforts targeting embryophytes. Extending such a protocol to chlorophytan green algae, though, is fraught with problems including non homology (matK) and heterogeneity that prevents the creation of a universal PCR toolkit (rbcL). Some have advocated the use of the nuclear-encoded, internal transcribed spacer two (ITS2) as an alternative to the traditional chloroplast markers. However, the ITS2 is broadly perceived to be insufficiently conserved or to be confounded by introgression or biparental inheritance patterns, precluding its broad use in phylogenetic reconstruction or as a DNA barcode. A growing body of evidence has shown that simultaneous analysis of nucleotide data with secondary structure information can overcome at least some of the limitations of ITS2. The goal of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of an automated, sequence-structure approach for analysis of IT2 data from a large sampling of phylum Chlorophyta. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences and secondary structures from 591 chlorophycean, 741 trebouxiophycean and 938 ulvophycean algae, all obtained from the ITS2 Database, were aligned using a sequence structure-specific scoring matrix. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by Profile Neighbor-Joining coupled with a sequence structure-specific, general time reversible substitution model. Results from analyses of the ITS2 data were robust at multiple nodes and showed considerable congruence with results from published phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions/Significance Our observations on the power of automated, sequence-structure analyses of ITS2 to reconstruct phylum-level phylogenies of the green algae validate this approach to assessing diversity for large sets of chlorophytan taxa. Moreover, our results indicate that objections to the use of ITS2 for DNA barcoding should be weighed against the utility of an automated

  15. Non-satellite repetitive human DNA families. Sequence properties and evidence for occurrence in chimpanzee DNA.

    PubMed

    Marx, K A

    1980-07-29

    Repetitive human DNA, fractionated on CsCl gradients following hydroxyapatite isolation, contains two complex DNA fractions, the 1.703 and 1.714 DNA families (Marx, K.A., Allen, J.R. and Hearst, J.E. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 425, 129-147). Biphasic Topt profiles, obtained in DNA excess hybridizations with cRNA tracers from each DNA family, have been shown to be the likely result of a fast kinetic component hybridizing at higher temperatures (67 degrees C peak) and this fast plus a slow kinetic component both hybridizing at lower temperatures (47 degrees C peak). Equilibrium CsCl gradient DNA-cRNA hybrid distributions support previous interpretations of the sequence composition of both DNA families. That is, the fast component is a relatively undiverged repetitive sequence of recent origin, while the slow component is a highly diverged, less thermally stabile, old primate sequence. This interpretation is further strengthened by cRNA tracer hybridization experiments in chimpanzee DNA excess where the fast component appears to be absent and the slow component present.

  16. Probing specific DNA sequences with luminescent semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jason R.; Nie, Shuming

    2001-06-01

    The development of new fluorescent probes has impacted many areas of research such as medical diagnostics, high-speed drug screening, and basic molecular biology. Main limitations to traditional organic fluorophores are their relatively weak intensities, short life times (eg., photobleaching), and broad emission spectra. The desire for more intense fluorescent probes with higher quality photostability and narrow emission wavelengths has led to the development and utilization of semiconductor quantum dots as a new label. In this work, we have modified semicondutor quantum dots (QD's) with synthetic oligonucleotides to probe a specific DNA target sequence both in solution as well as immobilized on a solid substrate. In the first approach, specific target sequences are detected in solution by using short oligonucleotide probes, which are covalently linked to semiconductor quantum dots. In the second approach, DNA target sequences are covalently attached to a glass substrate and detected using oligonucleotides linked to semiconductor quantum dots.

  17. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  18. Spectral sum rules and search for periodicities in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechetkin, V. R.

    2011-04-01

    Periodic patterns play the important regulatory and structural roles in genomic DNA sequences. Commonly, the underlying periodicities should be understood in a broad statistical sense, since the corresponding periodic patterns have been strongly distorted by the random point mutations and insertions/deletions during molecular evolution. The latent periodicities in DNA sequences can be efficiently displayed by Fourier transform. The criteria of significance for observed periodicities are obtained via the comparison versus the counterpart characteristics of the reference random sequences. We show that the restrictions imposed on the significance criteria by the rigorous spectral sum rules can be rationally described with De Finetti distribution. This distribution provides the convenient intermediate asymptotic form between Rayleigh distribution and exact combinatoric theory.

  19. Perspectives of DNA microarray and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Teng, XiaoKun; Xiao, HuaSheng

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarray and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies are important tools for high-throughput genome research, in revealing both the structural and functional characteristics of genomes. In the past decade the DNA microarray technologies have been widely applied in the studies of functional genomics, systems biology and pharmacogenomics. The next-generation DNA sequencing method was first introduced by the 454 Company in 2003, immediately followed by the establishment of the Solexa and Solid techniques by other biotech companies. Though it has not been long since the first emergence of this technology, with the fast and impressive improvement, the application of this technology has extended to almost all fields of genomics research, as a rival challenging the existing DNA microarray technology. This paper briefly reviews the working principles of these two technologies as well as their application and perspectives in genome research.

  20. Automated centrifugal-microfluidic platform for DNA purification using laser burst valve and coriolis effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seong; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2015-04-01

    We report a fully automated DNA purification platform with a micropored membrane in the channel utilizing centrifugal microfluidics on a lab-on-a-disc (LOD). The microfluidic flow in the LOD, into which the reagents are injected for DNA purification, is controlled by a single motor and laser burst valve. The sample and reagents pass successively through the micropored membrane in the channel when each laser burst valve is opened. The Coriolis effect is used by rotating the LOD bi-directionally to increase the purity of the DNA, thereby preventing the mixing of the waste and elution solutions. The total process from the lysed sample injection into the LOD to obtaining the purified DNA was finished within 7 min with only one manual step. The experimental result for Salmonella shows that the proposed microfluidic platform is comparable to the existing devices in terms of the purity and yield of DNA.

  1. Recent developments in sequence selective minor groove DNA effectors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Sharma, S K; Lown, J W

    2001-04-01

    DNA is a well characterized intracellular target but its large size and sequential nature make it an elusive target for selective drug action. Binding of low molecular weight ligands to DNA causes a wide variety of potential biological responses. In this respect the main consideration is given to recent developments in DNA sequence selective binding agents bearing conjugated effectors because of their potential application in diagnosis and treatment of cancers as well as in molecular biology. Recent progress in the development of cross linked lexitropsin oligopeptides and hairpins, which bind selectively to the minor groove of duplex DNA, is discussed. Bis-distamycins and related lexitropsins show inhibitory activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2 integrases at low nanomolar concentrations. Benzoyl nitrogen mustard analogs of lexitropsins are active against a variety of tumor models. Certain of the bis-benzimidazoles show altered DNA sequence preference and bind to DNA at 5'CG and TG sequences rather than at the preferred AT sites of the parent drug. A comparison of bifunctional bizelesin with monoalkylating adozelesin shows that it appears to have an increased sequence selectivity such that monoalkylating compounds react at more than one site but bizelesin reacts only at sites where there are two suitably positioned alkylation sites. Adozelesin, bizelesin and carzelesin are far more potent as cytotoxic agents than cisplatin or doxorubicin. A new class of 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclo-propa[c]benz[e]indole-4-one (CBI) analogs i.e., CBI-lexitropsin conjugates arising from the latter leads are also discussed.A number of cyclopropylpyrroloindole (CPI) and CBI-lexitropsin conjugates related to CC-1065 alkylate at the N3 position of adenine in the minor groove of DNA in a sequence specific manner, and also show cytotoxicities in the femtomolar range. The cross linking efficiency of PBD dimers is much greater than that of other cross linkers including cisplatin, and melphalan. A new

  2. Automated DNA extraction, quantification, dilution, and PCR preparation for genotyping by high-resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Seipp, Michael T; Herrmann, Mark; Wittwer, Carl T

    2010-12-01

    Genotyping by high-resolution amplicon melting uses only two PCR primers per locus and a generic, saturating DNA dye that detects heteroduplexes as well as homoduplexes. Heterozygous genotypes have a characteristic melting curve shape and a broader width than homozygous genotypes, which are usually differentiated by their melting temperature (T(m)). The H63D mutation, associated with hemochromatosis, is a single nucleotide polymorphism, which is impossible to genotype based on T(m), as the homozygous WT and mutant amplicons melt at the same temperature. To distinguish such homozygous variants, WT DNA can be added to controls and unknown samples to create artificial heterozygotes with all genotypes distinguished by quantitative heteroduplex analysis. By automating DNA extraction, quantification, and PCR preparation, a hands-off integrated solution for genotyping is possible. A custom Biomek® NX robot with an onboard spectrophotometer and custom programming was used to extract DNA from whole blood, dilute the DNA to appropriate concentrations, and add the sample DNA to preprepared PCR plates. Agencourt® Genfind™ v.2 chemistry was used for DNA extraction. PCR was performed on a plate thermocycler, high-resolution melting data collected on a LightScanner-96, followed by analysis and automatic genotyping using custom software. In a blinded study of 42 H63D samples, 41 of the 42 sample genotypes were concordant with dual hybridization probe genotyping. The incorrectly assigned genotype was a heterozygote that appeared to be a homozygous mutant as a result of a low sample DNA concentration. Automated DNA extraction from whole blood with quantification, dilution, and PCR preparation was demonstrated using quantitative heteroduplex analysis. Accuracy is critically dependent on DNA quantification.

  3. DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli tonB gene.

    PubMed Central

    Postle, K; Good, R F

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cloned section of the Escherichia coli chromosome containing the tonB gene has been determined. Transcription initiation and termination sites for tonB RNA have been determined by S1 nuclease mapping. The tonB promoter and terminator resemble other E. coli promoters and terminators; the sequence of the tonB terminator region suggests that it may function bidirectionally. The DNA sequence specifies an open translation reading frame between the 5' and 3' RNA termini whose location is consistent with the position of previously isolated tonB::IS1 mutations. The DNA sequence predicts a proline-rich protein with a calculated size of 26.1-26.6 kilodaltons (239-244 amino acids), depending on which of three potential initiation codons is utilized. The predicted NH2 terminus of tonB protein resembles the proteolytically cleaved signal sequences of E. coli periplasmic and outer membrane proteins; the overall hydrophilic character of the protein sequence suggests that the bulk of the tonB protein is not embedded within the inner or outer membrane. A significant discrepancy exists between the calculated size of tonB protein and the apparent size of 36 kilodaltons determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:6310567

  4. Sequence of a cDNA encoding pancreatic preprosomatostatin-22.

    PubMed

    Magazin, M; Minth, C D; Funckes, C L; Deschenes, R; Tavianini, M A; Dixon, J E

    1982-09-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of a precursor to somatostatin that upon proteolytic processing may give rise to a hormone of 22 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) encodes a precursor to somatostatin that is 105 amino acids (Mr, 11,500). The cDNA coding for somatostatin-22 consists of 36 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region, 315 nucleotides that code for the precursor to somatostatin-22, 269 nucleotides at the 3' untranslated region, and a variable length of poly(A). The putative preprohormone contains a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus that has the properties of a "signal" peptide. A connecting sequence of approximately 57 amino acids is followed by a single Arg-Arg sequence, which immediately precedes the hormone. Somatostatin-22 is homologous to somatostatin-14 in 7 of the 14 amino acids, including the Phe-Trp-Lys sequence. Hybridization selection of mRNA, followed by its translation in a wheat germ cell-free system, resulted in the synthesis of a single polypeptide having a molecular weight of approximately 10,000 as estimated on Na-DodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. PMID:6127673

  5. Sequence of a cDNA encoding pancreatic preprosomatostatin-22.

    PubMed Central

    Magazin, M; Minth, C D; Funckes, C L; Deschenes, R; Tavianini, M A; Dixon, J E

    1982-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of a precursor to somatostatin that upon proteolytic processing may give rise to a hormone of 22 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA from the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) encodes a precursor to somatostatin that is 105 amino acids (Mr, 11,500). The cDNA coding for somatostatin-22 consists of 36 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region, 315 nucleotides that code for the precursor to somatostatin-22, 269 nucleotides at the 3' untranslated region, and a variable length of poly(A). The putative preprohormone contains a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus that has the properties of a "signal" peptide. A connecting sequence of approximately 57 amino acids is followed by a single Arg-Arg sequence, which immediately precedes the hormone. Somatostatin-22 is homologous to somatostatin-14 in 7 of the 14 amino acids, including the Phe-Trp-Lys sequence. Hybridization selection of mRNA, followed by its translation in a wheat germ cell-free system, resulted in the synthesis of a single polypeptide having a molecular weight of approximately 10,000 as estimated on Na-DodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. Images PMID:6127673

  6. 3D-dynamic graphs as a classification tool of DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wa̧Ż, P.; Bielińska-Wa̧Ż, D.

    2016-10-01

    A method, called 3D-dynamic representation of DNA sequences, and its application to the classification of the DNA sequences is briefly reviewed. Some new classification diagrams obtained using this method are also shown. The method constitutes an alignment free tool of the comparison of the DNA sequences. It allows for both graphical and numerical similarity/dissimilarity analysis of the sequences.

  7. SSR_pipeline: a bioinformatic infrastructure for identifying microsatellites from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Knaus, Brian J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains 3 analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25bp in length. Each of the 3 analysis modules can also be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc.). We demonstrate use of the program with data from the brine fly Ephydra packardi (Diptera: Ephydridae) and provide empirical timing benchmarks to illustrate program performance on a common desktop computer environment. We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. All modules from SSR_pipeline are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, and Windows).

  8. SSR_pipeline: a bioinformatic infrastructure for identifying microsatellites from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark P; Knaus, Brian J; Mullins, Thomas D; Haig, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains 3 analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25 bp in length. Each of the 3 analysis modules can also be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc.). We demonstrate use of the program with data from the brine fly Ephydra packardi (Diptera: Ephydridae) and provide empirical timing benchmarks to illustrate program performance on a common desktop computer environment. We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. All modules from SSR_pipeline are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, and Windows). PMID:24052535

  9. Roche genome sequencer FLX based high-throughput sequencing of ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Alquezar-Planas, David E; Fordyce, Sarah L

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of so-called "next generation" high-throughput sequencing in 2005, this technology has been applied to a variety of fields. Such applications include disease studies, evolutionary investigations, and ancient DNA. Each application requires a specialized protocol to ensure that the data produced is optimal. Although much of the procedure can be followed directly from the manufacturer's protocols, the key differences lie in the library preparation steps. This chapter presents an optimized protocol for the sequencing of fossil remains and museum specimens, commonly referred to as "ancient DNA," using the Roche GS FLX 454 platform.

  10. Roche genome sequencer FLX based high-throughput sequencing of ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Alquezar-Planas, David E; Fordyce, Sarah L

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of so-called "next generation" high-throughput sequencing in 2005, this technology has been applied to a variety of fields. Such applications include disease studies, evolutionary investigations, and ancient DNA. Each application requires a specialized protocol to ensure that the data produced is optimal. Although much of the procedure can be followed directly from the manufacturer's protocols, the key differences lie in the library preparation steps. This chapter presents an optimized protocol for the sequencing of fossil remains and museum specimens, commonly referred to as "ancient DNA," using the Roche GS FLX 454 platform. PMID:22665278

  11. Development of a protein microarray using sequence-specific DNA binding domain on DNA chip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Pack, Seung Pil; Yoo, Young Je . E-mail: yjyoo@snu.ac.kr

    2005-04-22

    A protein microarray based on DNA microarray platform was developed to identify protein-protein interactions in vitro. The conventional DNA chip surface by 156-bp PCR product was prepared for a substrate of protein microarray. High-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding domain, GAL4 DNA binding domain, was introduced to the protein microarray as fusion partner of a target model protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein. The target protein was oriented immobilized directly on the DNA chip surface. Finally, monoclonal antibody of the target protein was used to identify the immobilized protein on the surface. This study shows that the conventional DNA chip can be used to make a protein microarray directly, and this novel protein microarray can be applicable as a tool for identifying protein-protein interactions.

  12. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  13. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  14. A frameshift error detection algorithm for DNA sequencing projects.

    PubMed Central

    Fichant, G A; Quentin, Y

    1995-01-01

    During the determination of DNA sequences, frameshift errors are not the most frequent but they are the most bothersome as they corrupt the amino acid sequence over several residues. Detection of such errors by sequence alignment is only possible when related sequences are found in the databases. To avoid this limitation, we have developed a new tool based on the distribution of non-overlapping 3-tuples or 6-tuples in the three frames of an ORF. The method relies upon the result of a correspondence analysis. It has been extensively tested on Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequences and has also been examined with human sequences. The results indicate that it can detect frameshift errors affecting as few as 20 bp with a low rate of false positives (no more than 1.0/1000 bp scanned). The proposed algorithm can be used to scan a large collection of data, but it is mainly intended for laboratory practice as a tool for checking the quality of the sequences produced during a sequencing project. PMID:7659513

  15. Evolution of Protein-binding DNA Sequences through Competitive Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence; Levine, Herbert

    2002-03-01

    The dynamics of in vitro DNA evolution controlled via competitive binding of DNA sequences to proteins has been explored in a recent serial transfer experiment footnote B. Dubertret, S.Liu, Q. Ouyang, A. Libchaber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 6022 (2001).. Motivated by the experiment, we investigate a continuum model for this evolution process in various parameter regimes. We establish a self-consistent mean-field evolution equation, determine its dynamical properties and finite population size corrections. In addition, we discuss the experimental implications of our results.

  16. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  17. Automated microfluidic DNA/RNA extraction with both disposable and reusable components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Johnson, Michael; Hill, Parker; Sonkul, Rahul S.; Kim, Jongwon; Gale, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    An automated microfluidic nucleic extraction system was fabricated with a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure that consists of sample wells, microvalves, a micropump and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. Both the microvalves and micropump structures were fabricated in a single layer and are operated pneumatically using a 100 µm PDMS membrane. To fabricate the disposable microfluidic silica cartridge, two-cavity structures were made in a PDMS replica to fit the stacked silica membranes. A handheld controller for the microvalves and pumps was developed to enable system automation. With purified ribonucleic acid (RNA), whole blood and E. coli samples, the automated microfluidic nucleic acid extraction system was validated with a guanidine-based solid phase extraction procedure. An extraction efficiency of ~90% for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ~54% for RNA was obtained in 12 min from whole blood and E. coli samples, respectively. In addition, the same quantity and quality of extracted DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR also presented the appropriate amplification and melting profiles. Automated, programmable fluid control and physical separation of the reusable components and the disposable components significantly decrease the assay time and manufacturing cost and increase the flexibility and compatibility of the system with downstream components.

  18. Renewable Microcolumns for Automated DNA Purification and Flow-through Amplification: From Sediment Samples through Polymerase Chain Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. ); Tsukuda, Toyoko ); Dockendorff, Brian P. ); Follansbee, James C. ); Kingsley, Mark T. ); Ocampo, Catherine O.; Stults, Jennie R.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-12-01

    There is an increasing need for field-portable systems for the detection and characterization of microorganisms in the environment. Nucleic acids analysis is frequently the method of choice for discriminating between bacteria in complex systems, but standard protocols are difficult to automate and current microfluidic devices are not configured specifically for environmental sample analysis. In this report, we describe the development of an integrated DNA purification and PCR amplification system and demonstrate its use for the automated purification and amplification of Geobacter chapelli DNA (genomic DNA or plasmid targets) from sediments. The system includes renewable separation columns for the automated capture and release of microparticle purification matrices, and can be easily reprogrammed for new separation chemistries and sample types. The DNA extraction efficiency for the automated system ranged from 3 to 25 percent, depending on the length and concentration of the DNA target . The system was more efficient than batch capture methods for the recovery of dilute genomic DNA even though the reagen volumes were smaller than required for the batch procedure. The automated DNA concentration and purification module was coupled to a flow-through, Peltier-controlled DNA amplification chamber, and used to successfully purify and amplify genomic and plasmid DNA from sediment extracts. Cleaning protocols were also developed to allow reuse of the integrated sample preparation system, including the flow-through PCR tube.

  19. Automated reconstruction of whole-genome phylogenies from short-sequence reads.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Frederic; Silander, Olin K; Pachkov, Mikhail; Rainey, Paul B; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Studies of microbial evolutionary dynamics are being transformed by the availability of affordable high-throughput sequencing technologies, which allow whole-genome sequencing of hundreds of related taxa in a single study. Reconstructing a phylogenetic tree of these taxa is generally a crucial step in any evolutionary analysis. Instead of constructing genome assemblies for all taxa, annotating these assemblies, and aligning orthologous genes, many recent studies 1) directly map raw sequencing reads to a single reference sequence, 2) extract single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and 3) infer the phylogenetic tree using maximum likelihood methods from the aligned SNP positions. However, here we show that, when using such methods to reconstruct phylogenies from sets of simulated sequences, both the exclusion of nonpolymorphic positions and the alignment to a single reference genome, introduce systematic biases and errors in phylogeny reconstruction. To address these problems, we developed a new method that combines alignments from mappings to multiple reference sequences and show that this successfully removes biases from the reconstructed phylogenies. We implemented this method as a web server named REALPHY (Reference sequence Alignment-based Phylogeny builder), which fully automates phylogenetic reconstruction from raw sequencing reads.

  20. [Determination of hepatitis B virus genotypes by DNA sequence analysis in patients from Ankara, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Külah, Canan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes vary depending on the geographical region. The HBV genotype determined in Turkey has been genotype D which is found as the homogenously disseminated single genotype. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotypes in a group of HBV infected patients who were admitted to a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Serum samples from HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative 84 (52 male, 32 female) patients with HBV infection were included into the study. Anti-HBc was positive in 95.2%, HBeAg was positive in 47.6% and anti-HBe was positive in 11.9% of the patients. Mean HBV-DNA levels of the patients were 5.7 x 10(7) +/- 4.6 x 10(7) IU/ml; mean ALT levels were 131 +/- 171 IU/ml and mean AST levels were 98 +/- 170 IU/ml. HBV-DNA was extracted from serum by the phenol-chloroform method and PCR was performed to amplify the S gene region of HBV-DNA. Cycle sequencing of PCR products was performed by a commercial "Cy5/Cy5.5 Dye Primer Cycle Sequencing Kit" (Visible Genetics, Canada) based on dideoxy chain termination method. The sequences were read and analyzed in an automated fluorescence-based DNA-sequencing system (Long-Read Tower System, Visible Genetics, Canada). The nucleotide sequences of the patient samples were compared with the previously reported sequences in gene bank for each genotype. According to the comparative analysis of S-sequences of all patient samples with the published sequences of the genotypes in gene bank, all of the 84 hepatitis B strains (100%) were shown to be related to D genotypic group, subtype ayw. A phylogenetic analysis was performed and phylogenetic trees were constructed using programs in the PHYLIP phylogeny inference package. The patient samples clustered within the genotypic group D. According to these results, the main HBV genotype in our patients was genotype D in accordance with the previous molecular epidemiologic information on HBV in this geographic area. HBV genotype determination may help to

  1. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-03-24

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point.

  2. Collaborative design for automated DNA storage that allows for rapid, accurate, large-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Scott; Ardlie, Kristin G; Krenitsky, Kevin F; Walsh, Gary; Clough, Graham

    2004-12-01

    Genomics Collaborative, Inc., a division of Sera Care Life Sciences, Inc. (Cambridge, MA), is among the first commercial entities in the world to enable genetic research on an industrial scale via its Large Scale Global Repository, a biobank of human specimens collected for research purposes. With the demand for large-scale DNA studies increasing, decisions about the strategic direction of sample storage and collection must be made to create a sound plan to support continued demands for drug discovery. Reported here is the approach used by Genomics Collaborative to automate its DNA processing, storage, and retrieval.

  3. Sequences Sufficient for Programming Imprinted Germline DNA Methylation Defined

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Jung; Herman, Herry; Gao, Ying; Lindroth, Anders M.; Hu, Benjamin Y.; Murphy, Patrick J.; Putnam, James R.; Soloway, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic marks are fundamental to normal development, but little is known about signals that dictate their placement. Insights have been provided by studies of imprinted loci in mammals, where monoallelic expression is epigenetically controlled. Imprinted expression is regulated by DNA methylation programmed during gametogenesis in a sex-specific manner and maintained after fertilization. At Rasgrf1 in mouse, paternal-specific DNA methylation on a differential methylation domain (DMD) requires downstream tandem repeats. The DMD and repeats constitute a binary switch regulating paternal-specific expression. Here, we define sequences sufficient for imprinted methylation using two transgenic mouse lines: One carries the entire Rasgrf1 cluster (RC); the second carries only the DMD and repeats (DR) from Rasgrf1. The RC transgene recapitulated all aspects of imprinting seen at the endogenous locus. DR underwent proper DNA methylation establishment in sperm and erasure in oocytes, indicating the DMD and repeats are sufficient to program imprinted DNA methylation in germlines. Both transgenes produce a DMD-spanning pit-RNA, previously shown to be necessary for imprinted DNA methylation at the endogenous locus. We show that when pit-RNA expression is controlled by the repeats, it regulates DNA methylation in cis only and not in trans. Interestingly, pedigree history dictated whether established DR methylation patterns were maintained after fertilization. When DR was paternally transmitted followed by maternal transmission, the unmethylated state that was properly established in the female germlines could not be maintained. This provides a model for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in mice. PMID:22403732

  4. Amplification of moderately repetitive DNA sequences during chick cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, C M; Dorfman, A

    1976-01-01

    A 5-bromo-2'-[3H]deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) probe was isolated to analyze DNAs obtained from various chick tissues and cell types. [3H]BrdUrd-substituted DNA, prepared from limb bud cultures, was sheared and freed from palindromic DNA. Nonradioactive DNA was prepared from embryonic liver, undifferentiated limb bud mesenchyme, sternal cartilage, differentiated limb bud cultures, and BrdUrd-blocked cultures, and was sheared. These DNAs were used in 100-fold excess to drive the reassociation of the [3H]-BrdUrd-DNA probe. Purified mature cartilage DNAs of embryonic sternae or differentiated limb bud cultures drove the reassociation of the probe approximately two times faster than did DNA from liver, undifferentiated limb bud, or BrdUrd-blocked cells. These data indicate that cartilage DNA contains a greater number of sequences complementary to the BrdUrd probe than do DNAs of noncartilage or undifferentiated precartilage cells. Calculations determined an average substitution of 10% of thymidine residues by BrdUrd in purified probe, whereas CsCl density gradients of unsheared probe revealed radioactive peaks of greater than 20% substitution. The BrdUrd appears to be clustered in the genome. PMID:1068455

  5. Rapid DNA Sequencing by Direct Nanoscale Reading of Nucleotide Bases on Individual DNA Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, James Weifu; Meller, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Since the independent invention of DNA sequencing by Sanger and by Gilbert 30 years ago, it has grown from a small scale technique capable of reading several kilobase-pair of sequence per day into today's multibillion dollar industry. This growth has spurred the development of new sequencing technologies that do not involve either electrophoresis or Sanger sequencing chemistries. Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) involves multiple parallel micro-sequencing addition events occurring on a surface, where data from each round is detected by imaging. New High Throughput Technologies for DNA Sequencing and Genomics is the second volume in the Perspectives in Bioanalysis series, which looks at the electroanalytical chemistry of nucleic acids and proteins, development of electrochemical sensors and their application in biomedicine and in the new fields of genomics and proteomics. The authors have expertly formatted the information for a wide variety of readers, including new developments that will inspire students and young scientists to create new tools for science and medicine in the 21st century. Reviews of complementary developments in Sanger and SBS sequencing chemistries, capillary electrophoresis and microdevice integration, MS sequencing and applications set the framework for the book.

  6. Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA. PMID:12734555

  7. Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA. PMID:12734555

  8. Negatively supercoiled simian virus 40 DNA contains Z-DNA segments within transcriptional enhancer sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A.; Rich, A.

    1983-01-01

    Three 8-base pair (bp) segments of alternating purine-pyrimidine from the simian virus 40 enhancer region form Z-DNA on negative supercoiling; minichromosome DNase I-hypersensitive sites determined by others bracket these three segments. A survey of transcriptional enhancer sequences reveals a pattern of potential Z-DNA-forming regions which occur in pairs 50-80 bp apart. This may influence local chromatin structure and may be related to transcriptional activation.

  9. Recent progress in atomistic simulation of electrical current DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Seul; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-07-15

    We review recent advances in the DNA sequencing method based on measurements of transverse electrical currents. Device configurations proposed in the literature are classified according to whether the molecular fingerprints appear as the major (Mode I) or perturbing (Mode II) current signals. Scanning tunneling microscope and tunneling electrode gap configurations belong to the former category, while the nanochannels with or without an embedded nanopore belong to the latter. The molecular sensing mechanisms of Modes I and II roughly correspond to the electron tunneling and electrochemical gating, respectively. Special emphasis will be given on the computer simulation studies, which have been playing a critical role in the initiation and development of the field. We also highlight low-dimensional nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene nanoribbons that allow the novel Mode II approach. Finally, several issues in previous computational studies are discussed, which points to future research directions toward more reliable simulation of electrical current DNA sequencing devices.

  10. Effect of dephasing on DNA sequencing via transverse electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zwolak, Michael; Krems, Matt; Pershin, Yuriy V; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the effects of dephasing on DNA sequencing in a nanopore via transverse electronic transport. To do this, we couple classical molecular dynamics simulations with transport calculations using scattering theory. Previous studies, which did not include dephasing, have shown that by measuring the transverse current of a particular base multiple times, one can get distributions of currents for each base that are distinguishable. We introduce a dephasing parameter into transport calculations to simulate the effects of the ions and other fluctuations. These effects lower the overall magnitude of the current, but have little effect on the current distributions themselves. The results of this work further implicate that distinguishing DNA bases via transverse electronic transport has potential as a sequencing tool.

  11. Cladistic analysis of iridoviruses based on protein and DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wang, J W; Deng, R Q; Wang, X Z; Huang, Y S; Xing, K; Feng, J H; He, J G; Long, Q X

    2003-11-01

    Cladograms of iridoviruses were inferred from bootstrap analysis of molecular data sets comprising all published protein and DNA sequences of the major capsid protein, ATPase and DNA polymerase genes of members of the Iridoviridae family Iridovirus. All data sets yielded cladograms supporting the separation of the Iridovirus, Ranavirus and Lymphocystivirus genera, and the cladogram based on data derived from major capsid proteins further divided both the Iridovirus and Ranavirus genera into two groups. Tests of alternative hypotheses of topological constraints were also performed to further investigate relationships between infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), an unclassified fish iridovirus for which the complete genome sequence data is available, and other iridoviruses. Cladograms inferred and results of Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests indicated that ISKNV is more closely related to the Ranavirus genus than it is to the other genera of the family.

  12. Silicene as a new potential DNA sequencing device.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Rodrigo G; Scheicher, Ralph H

    2015-04-17

    Silicene, a hexagonal buckled 2D allotrope of silicon, shows potential as a platform for numerous new applications, and may allow for easier integration with existing silicon-based microelectronics than graphene. Here, we show that silicene could function as an electrical DNA sequencing device. We investigated the stability of this novel nano-bio system, its electronic properties and the pronounced effects on the transverse electronic transport, i.e., changes in the transmission and the conductance caused by adsorption of each nucleobase, explored by us through the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Intriguingly, despite the relatively weak interaction between nucleobases and silicene, significant changes in the transmittance at zero bias are predicted by us, in particular for the two nucleobases cytosine and guanine. Our findings suggest that silicene could be utilized as an integrated-circuit biosensor as part of a lab-on-a-chip device for DNA sequencing.

  13. Model of elongation of short DNA sequence by thermophilic DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomohiro; Liang, Xingguo; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    Short DNA sequences, especially those that are repetitive or palindromic, can be used as the seeds for synthesis of long DNA by some DNA polymerases in an unusual manner. Although several elongation mechanisms have been proposed, there is no well-established model that explains highly efficient elongation under isothermal conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the elongation of nonrepetitive sequences with distinct hairpins at each end. These DNAs were elongated efficiently under isothermal conditions by thermophilic Vent (exo(-)) DNA polymerase, and the products were longer than 10 kb within 10 min of the reaction. A 20-nucleotide DNA with only one hairpin was also elongated. Sequence analysis revealed that the long products are mainly tandem repeats of the short seed sequences. The thermal melting temperatures of the products were much higher than the reaction temperature, indicating that most DNAs form duplexes during the reaction. Accordingly, a terminal hairpin formation and self-priming extension model was proposed in detail, and the efficient elongation was explained. Formation of the hairpin at the 5' end plays an important role during the elongation.

  14. DNA sequence matching processor using FPGA and JAVA interface.

    PubMed

    Brown, Benjamin O; Yin, Meng-Lai; Cheng, Yi

    2004-01-01

    This study uses an FPGA to perform high-speed DNA sequence matching as an alternative to using general purpose computer CPUs. The FPGA is programmed using the Verilog HDL and interfaced using a graphical user interface programmed in JAVA. Design overviews and details for a small scale design are given as well as plans for larger scale expansion. Encouraging results of the small scale model currently in production are also provided. Results of a successful match and no match are shown.

  15. DNA sequencing by multiple capillaries that form a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Dhadwal, S.H.; Quesada, M.A.; Studier, F.W.

    1997-05-01

    A 12-capillary prototype electrophoresis system for DNA sequencing has been constructed. Laser illumination is introduced into an optical waveguide that is formed by an array of individual capillaries that serve both as the optical elements of the periodic array and as the channels containing sieving media for electrophoresis. A theoretical framework and experimental data will be presented to illustrate the viability of this approach.

  16. Similarity Estimation Between DNA Sequences Based on Local Pattern Histograms of Binary Images.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Yusei; Mizuta, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Graphical representation of DNA sequences is one of the most popular techniques for alignment-free sequence comparison. Here, we propose a new method for the feature extraction of DNA sequences represented by binary images, by estimating the similarity between DNA sequences using the frequency histograms of local bitmap patterns of images. Our method shows linear time complexity for the length of DNA sequences, which is practical even when long sequences, such as whole genome sequences, are compared. We tested five distance measures for the estimation of sequence similarities, and found that the histogram intersection and Manhattan distance are the most appropriate ones for phylogenetic analyses.

  17. Direct DNA isolation from solid biological sources without pretreatments with proteinase-K and/or homogenization through automated DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Chang, Ki Byum; Roh, Hee June; Lee, Bong Youb; Yoon, Joon Yong; Jang, Gi Young

    2007-03-01

    Genomic DNA from solid biomaterials was directly isolated with an automated DNA extractor, which was based on magnetic bead technology with a bore-mediated grinding (BMG) system. The movement of the bore broke down the solid biomaterials, mixed crude lysates thoroughly with reagents to isolate the DNA, and carried the beads to the next step. The BMG system was suitable for the mechanical homogenization of the solid biomaterials and valid as an automated system for purifying the DNA from the solid biomaterials without the need for pretreatment or disruption procedures prior to the application of the solid biomaterials.

  18. Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Pierre; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; Swanton, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent progress thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies, personalised cancer medicine is still hampered by intra-tumour heterogeneity and drug resistance. As most patients with advanced metastatic disease face poor survival, there is need to improve early diagnosis. Analysing circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) might represent a non-invasive method to detect mutations in patients, facilitating early detection. In this article, we define reduced gene panels from publicly available datasets as a first step to assess and optimise the potential of targeted ctDNA scans for early tumour detection. Dividing 4,467 samples into one discovery and two independent validation cohorts, we show that up to 76% of 10 cancer types harbour at least one mutation in a panel of only 25 genes, with high sensitivity across most tumour types. Our analyses demonstrate that targeting ``hotspot'' regions would introduce biases towards in-frame mutations and would compromise the reproducibility of tumour detection.

  19. DNA topology confers sequence specificity to nonspecific architectural proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Juan; Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K

    2014-11-25

    Topological constraints placed on short fragments of DNA change the disorder found in chain molecules randomly decorated by nonspecific, architectural proteins into tightly organized 3D structures. The bacterial heat-unstable (HU) protein builds up, counter to expectations, in greater quantities and at particular sites along simulated DNA minicircles and loops. Moreover, the placement of HU along loops with the "wild-type" spacing found in the Escherichia coli lactose (lac) and galactose (gal) operons precludes access to key recognition elements on DNA. The HU protein introduces a unique spatial pathway in the DNA upon closure. The many ways in which the protein induces nearly the same closed circular configuration point to the statistical advantage of its nonspecificity. The rotational settings imposed on DNA by the repressor proteins, by contrast, introduce sequential specificity in HU placement, with the nonspecific protein accumulating at particular loci on the constrained duplex. Thus, an architectural protein with no discernible DNA sequence-recognizing features becomes site-specific and potentially assumes a functional role upon loop formation. The locations of HU on the closed DNA reflect long-range mechanical correlations. The protein responds to DNA shape and deformability—the stiff, naturally straight double-helical structure—rather than to the unique features of the constituent base pairs. The structures of the simulated loops suggest that HU architecture, like nucleosomal architecture, which modulates the ability of regulatory proteins to recognize their binding sites in the context of chromatin, may influence repressor-operator interactions in the context of the bacterial nucleoid. PMID:25385626

  20. DNA topology confers sequence specificity to nonspecific architectural proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Juan; Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A.; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K.

    2014-01-01

    Topological constraints placed on short fragments of DNA change the disorder found in chain molecules randomly decorated by nonspecific, architectural proteins into tightly organized 3D structures. The bacterial heat-unstable (HU) protein builds up, counter to expectations, in greater quantities and at particular sites along simulated DNA minicircles and loops. Moreover, the placement of HU along loops with the “wild-type” spacing found in the Escherichia coli lactose (lac) and galactose (gal) operons precludes access to key recognition elements on DNA. The HU protein introduces a unique spatial pathway in the DNA upon closure. The many ways in which the protein induces nearly the same closed circular configuration point to the statistical advantage of its nonspecificity. The rotational settings imposed on DNA by the repressor proteins, by contrast, introduce sequential specificity in HU placement, with the nonspecific protein accumulating at particular loci on the constrained duplex. Thus, an architectural protein with no discernible DNA sequence-recognizing features becomes site-specific and potentially assumes a functional role upon loop formation. The locations of HU on the closed DNA reflect long-range mechanical correlations. The protein responds to DNA shape and deformability—the stiff, naturally straight double-helical structure—rather than to the unique features of the constituent base pairs. The structures of the simulated loops suggest that HU architecture, like nucleosomal architecture, which modulates the ability of regulatory proteins to recognize their binding sites in the context of chromatin, may influence repressor–operator interactions in the context of the bacterial nucleoid. PMID:25385626

  1. Human mitochondrial DNA complete amplification and sequencing: a new validated primer set that prevents nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin co-amplification.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Amanda; Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Nogués, Ramon; Aluja, Maria Pilar

    2009-05-01

    To date, there are no published primers to amplify the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that completely prevent the amplification of nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences of mitochondrial origin. The main goal of this work was to design, validate and describe a set of primers, to specifically amplify and sequence the complete human mtDNA, allowing the correct interpretation of mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy and pathological samples. Validation was performed using two different approaches: (i) Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and (ii) amplification using isolated nDNA obtained from sperm cells by differential lyses. During the validation process, two mtDNA regions, with high similarity with nDNA, represent the major problematic areas for primer design. One of these could represent a non-published nuclear DNA sequence of mitochondrial origin. For two of the initially designed fragments, the amplification results reveal PCR artifacts that can be attributed to the poor quality of the DNA. After the validation, nine overlapping primer pairs to perform mtDNA amplification and 22 additional internal primers for mtDNA sequencing were obtained. These primers could be a useful tool in future projects that deal with mtDNA complete sequencing and heteroplasmy detection, since they represent a set of primers that have been tested for the non-amplification of nDNA.

  2. An Automaton for Motifs Recognition in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Gerardo; Mejia, Yuridia P.; Olmos, Ivan; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Sánchez, Patricia; Vázquez, Candelario

    In this paper we present a new algorithm to find inexact motifs (which are transformed into a set of exact subsequences) from a DNA sequence. Our algorithm builds an automaton that searches for the set of exact subsequences in the DNA database (that can be very long). It starts with a preprocessing phase in which it builds the finite automaton, in this phase it also considers the case in which two different subsequences share a substring (in other words, the subsequences might overlap), this is implemented in a similar way as the KMP algorithm. During the searching phase, the algorithm recognizes all instances in the set of input subsequences that appear in the DNA sequence. The automaton is able to perform the search phase in linear time with respect to the dimension of the input sequence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the Aho-Corasick algorithm, which has been proved to perform better than the naive approach, even more; it is considered to run in linear time.

  3. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli (update 1992)

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred; Wahl, Ralf; Schachtel, Gabriel; Rice, Peter

    1992-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli available from the GENBANK and EMBL data libraries and over a period of several years independently from the literature. This is the fourth listing replacing and increasing the former listings substantially. However, in order to save space this printed version contains DNA sequence information only, if they are publically available in electronic form. The complete compilation including a full set of genetic map data and the E.coli protein index can be obtained in machine readable form from the EMBL data library (ECD release 10) or from the CD-ROM version of this supplement issue directly. After deletion of all detected overlaps a total of 1 820 237 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1992. This corresponds to a total of 38.56% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2,5% derived from lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and various DNA sequences already received for other strains of E.coli. PMID:1598239

  4. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Ludlow, Andrew T.; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library’s heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality. PMID:27048884

  5. Large microchannel array fabrication and results for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrone, R L; Balch, J W; Brewer, L R; Copeland, A C; Davidson , J C; Fitch, J P; Kimbrough, J R; Madabhushi, R S; Richardson, P M; Swierkowski, S P; Tarte, L A; Vainer, M

    1999-01-07

    We have developed a process for the production of microchannel arrays on bonded glass substrates up to I4 x 58 cm, for DNA sequencing. Arrays of 96 and 384 microchannels, each 46 cm long have been built. This technology offers significant advantages over discrete capillaries or conventional slab-gel approaches. High throughput DNA sequencing with over 550 base pairs resolution has been achieved. With custom fabrication apparatus, microchannels are etched in a borosilicate substrate, and then fusion bonded to a top substrate 1.1 mm thick that has access holes formed in it. SEM examination shows a typical microchannel to be 40 x 180 micrometers by 46 cm Iong; the etch is approximately isotropic, leaving a key undercut, for forming a rounded channel. The surface roughness at the bottom of the 40 micrometer deep channel has been profilometer measured to be as low as 20 nm; the roughness at the top surface was 2 nm. Etch uniformity of about 5% has been obtained using a 22% vol. HF / 78% Acetic acid solution. The simple lithography, etching, and bonding of these substrates enables efficient production of these arrays and extremely precise replication From master masks and precision machining with a mandrel. Keywords: microchannels, microchannel plates, DNA sequencing, electrophoresis, borosilicate glass

  6. Detection and mapping of homologous, repeated and amplified DNA sequences by DNA renaturation in agarose gels.

    PubMed Central

    Roninson, I B

    1983-01-01

    A new molecular hybridization approach to the analysis of complex genomes has been developed. Tracer and driver DNAs were digested with the same restriction enzyme(s), and tracer DNA was labeled with 32P using T4 DNA polymerase. Tracer DNA was mixed with an excess amount of driver, and the mixture was electrophoresed in an agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, DNA was alkali-denatured in situ and allowed to reanneal in the gel, so that tracer DNA fragments could hybridize to the driver only when homologous driver DNA sequences were present at the same place in the gel, i.e. within a restriction fragment of the same size. After reannealing, unhybridized single-stranded DNA was digested in situ with S1 nuclease. The hybridized tracer DNA was detected by autoradiography. The general applicability of this technique was demonstrated in the following experiments. The common EcoRI restriction fragments were identified in the genomes of E. coli and four other species of bacteria. Two of these fragments are conserved in all Enterobacteriaceae. In other experiments, repeated EcoRI fragments of eukaryotic DNA were visualized as bands of various intensity after reassociation of a total genomic restriction digest in the gel. The situation of gene amplification was modeled by the addition of varying amounts of lambda phage DNA to eukaryotic DNA prior to restriction enzyme digestion. Restriction fragments of lambda DNA were detectable at a ratio of 15 copies per chicken genome and 30 copies per human genome. This approach was used to detect amplified DNA fragments in methotrexate (MTX)-resistant mouse cells and to identify commonly amplified fragments in two independently derived MTX-resistant lines. Images PMID:6310499

  7. Rapid sequencing of DNA based on single-molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Steven A.; Davis, Lloyd M.; Fairfield, Frederick R.; Hammond, Mark L.; Harger, Carol A.; Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Martin, John C.; Nutter, Harvey L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1991-07-01

    Sequencing the human genome is a major undertaking considering the large number of nucleotides present in the genome and the slow methods currently available to perform the task. The authors have recently reported on a scheme to sequence DNA rapidly using a non-gel based technique. The concept is based upon the incorporation of fluorescently labeled nucleotides into a strand of DNA, isolation and manipulation of a labeled DNA fragment and the detection of single nucleotides using ultra-sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection following their cleavage from the fragment. Detection of individual fluorophores in the liquid phase was accomplished with time-gated detection following pulsed-laser excitation. The photon bursts from individual rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules travelling through a laser beam have been observed, as have bursts from single fluorescently modified nucleotides. Using two different biotinylated nucleotides as a model system for fluorescently labeled nucleotides, the authors have observed synthesis of the complementary copy of M13 bacteriophage. Work with fluorescently labeled nucleotides is underway. Individual molecules of DNA attached to a microbead have been observed and manipulated with an epifluorescence microscope.

  8. Rapid sequencing of DNA based on single molecule detection

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, S.A.; Davis, L.M.; Fairfield, F.R.; Hammond, M.L.; Harger, C.A.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Marrone, B.L.; Martin, J.C.; Nutter, H.L.; Shera, E.B.; Simpson, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome is a major undertaking considering the large number of nucleotides present in the genome and the slow methods currently available to perform the task. We have recently reported on a scheme to sequence DNA rapidly using a non-gel based technique. The concept is based upon the incorporation of fluorescently labeled nucleotides into a strand of DNA, isolation and manipulation of a labeled DNA fragment and the detection of single nucleotides using ultra-sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection following their cleavage from the fragment. Detection of individual fluorophores in the liquid phase was accomplished with time-gated detection following pulsed-laser excitation. The photon bursts from individual rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules travelling through a laser beam have been observed as have bursts from single fluorescently modified nucleotides. Using two different biotinylated nucleotides as a model system for fluorescently labeled nucleotides, we have observed synthesis of the complementary copy of M13 bacteriophage. Work with fluorescently labeled nucleotides is underway. We have observed and manipulated individual molecules of DNA attached to a microbead with an epifluorescence microscope. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Targeted DNA methylation analysis by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Masser, Dustin R; Stanford, David R; Freeman, Willard M

    2015-02-24

    The role of epigenetic processes in the control of gene expression has been known for a number of years. DNA methylation at cytosine residues is of particular interest for epigenetic studies as it has been demonstrated to be both a long lasting and a dynamic regulator of gene expression. Efforts to examine epigenetic changes in health and disease have been hindered by the lack of high-throughput, quantitatively accurate methods. With the advent and popularization of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, these tools are now being applied to epigenomics in addition to existing genomic and transcriptomic methodologies. For epigenetic investigations of cytosine methylation where regions of interest, such as specific gene promoters or CpG islands, have been identified and there is a need to examine significant numbers of samples with high quantitative accuracy, we have developed a method called Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS). This method combines bisulfite conversion with targeted amplification of regions of interest, transposome-mediated library construction and benchtop NGS. BSAS offers a rapid and efficient method for analysis of up to 10 kb of targeted regions in up to 96 samples at a time that can be performed by most research groups with basic molecular biology skills. The results provide absolute quantitation of cytosine methylation with base specificity. BSAS can be applied to any genomic region from any DNA source. This method is useful for hypothesis testing studies of target regions of interest as well as confirmation of regions identified in genome-wide methylation analyses such as whole genome bisulfite sequencing, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing.

  10. Sequencing degraded DNA from non-destructively sampled museum specimens for RAD-tagging and low-coverage shotgun phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Economo, Evan Philip; Mikheyev, Alexander Sergeyevich

    2014-01-01

    Ancient and archival DNA samples are valuable resources for the study of diverse historical processes. In particular, museum specimens provide access to biotas distant in time and space, and can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary changes over time. However, archival specimens are difficult to handle; they are often fragile and irreplaceable, and typically contain only short segments of denatured DNA. Here we present a set of tools for processing such samples for state-of-the-art genetic analysis. First, we report a protocol for minimally destructive DNA extraction of insect museum specimens, which produced sequenceable DNA from all of the samples assayed. The 11 specimens analyzed had fragmented DNA, rarely exceeding 100 bp in length, and could not be amplified by conventional PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Our approach made these samples amenable to analysis with commonly used next-generation sequencing-based molecular analytic tools, including RAD-tagging and shotgun genome re-sequencing. First, we used museum ant specimens from three species, each with its own reference genome, for RAD-tag mapping. Were able to use the degraded DNA sequences, which were sequenced in full, to identify duplicate reads and filter them prior to base calling. Second, we re-sequenced six Hawaiian Drosophila species, with millions of years of divergence, but with only a single available reference genome. Despite a shallow coverage of 0.37 ± 0.42 per base, we could recover a sufficient number of overlapping SNPs to fully resolve the species tree, which was consistent with earlier karyotypic studies, and previous molecular studies, at least in the regions of the tree that these studies could resolve. Although developed for use with degraded DNA, all of these techniques are readily applicable to more recent tissue, and are suitable for liquid handling automation.

  11. Automated property optimization via ab initio O(N) elongation method: Application to (hyper-)polarizability in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orimoto, Yuuichi; Aoki, Yuriko

    2016-07-01

    An automated property optimization method was developed based on the ab initio O(N) elongation (ELG) method and applied to the optimization of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in DNA as a first test. The ELG method mimics a polymerization reaction on a computer, and the reaction terminal of a starting cluster is attacked by monomers sequentially to elongate the electronic structure of the system by solving in each step a limited space including the terminal (localized molecular orbitals at the terminal) and monomer. The ELG-finite field (ELG-FF) method for calculating (hyper-)polarizabilities was used as the engine program of the optimization method, and it was found to show linear scaling efficiency while maintaining high computational accuracy for a random sequenced DNA model. Furthermore, the self-consistent field convergence was significantly improved by using the ELG-FF method compared with a conventional method, and it can lead to more feasible NLO property values in the FF treatment. The automated optimization method successfully chose an appropriate base pair from four base pairs (A, T, G, and C) for each elongation step according to an evaluation function. From test optimizations for the first order hyper-polarizability (β) in DNA, a substantial difference was observed depending on optimization conditions between "choose-maximum" (choose a base pair giving the maximum β for each step) and "choose-minimum" (choose a base pair giving the minimum β). In contrast, there was an ambiguous difference between these conditions for optimizing the second order hyper-polarizability (γ) because of the small absolute value of γ and the limitation of numerical differential calculations in the FF method. It can be concluded that the ab initio level property optimization method introduced here can be an effective step towards an advanced computer aided material design method as long as the numerical limitation of the FF method is taken into account.

  12. Automated property optimization via ab initio O(N) elongation method: Application to (hyper-)polarizability in DNA.

    PubMed

    Orimoto, Yuuichi; Aoki, Yuriko

    2016-07-14

    An automated property optimization method was developed based on the ab initio O(N) elongation (ELG) method and applied to the optimization of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in DNA as a first test. The ELG method mimics a polymerization reaction on a computer, and the reaction terminal of a starting cluster is attacked by monomers sequentially to elongate the electronic structure of the system by solving in each step a limited space including the terminal (localized molecular orbitals at the terminal) and monomer. The ELG-finite field (ELG-FF) method for calculating (hyper-)polarizabilities was used as the engine program of the optimization method, and it was found to show linear scaling efficiency while maintaining high computational accuracy for a random sequenced DNA model. Furthermore, the self-consistent field convergence was significantly improved by using the ELG-FF method compared with a conventional method, and it can lead to more feasible NLO property values in the FF treatment. The automated optimization method successfully chose an appropriate base pair from four base pairs (A, T, G, and C) for each elongation step according to an evaluation function. From test optimizations for the first order hyper-polarizability (β) in DNA, a substantial difference was observed depending on optimization conditions between "choose-maximum" (choose a base pair giving the maximum β for each step) and "choose-minimum" (choose a base pair giving the minimum β). In contrast, there was an ambiguous difference between these conditions for optimizing the second order hyper-polarizability (γ) because of the small absolute value of γ and the limitation of numerical differential calculations in the FF method. It can be concluded that the ab initio level property optimization method introduced here can be an effective step towards an advanced computer aided material design method as long as the numerical limitation of the FF method is taken into account. PMID:27421397

  13. DNA sequence chromatogram browsing using JAVA and CORBA.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J D; Buehler, E; Hillier, L

    1999-03-01

    DNA sequence chromatograms (traces) are the primary data source for all large-scale genomic and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing projects. Access to the sequencing trace assists many later analyses, for example contig assembly and polymorphism detection, but obtaining and using traces is problematic. Traces are not collected and published centrally, they are much larger than the base calls derived from them, and viewing them requires the interactivity of a local graphical client with local data. To provide efficient global access to DNA traces, we developed a client/server system based on flexible Java components integrated into other applications including an applet for use in a WWW browser and a stand-alone trace viewer. Client/server interaction is facilitated by CORBA middleware which provides a well-defined interface, a naming service, and location independence. [The software is packaged as a Jar file available from the following URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/jparsons. Links to working examples of the trace viewers can be found at http://corba.ebi.ac.uk/EST. All the Washington University mouse EST traces are available for browsing at the same URL.

  14. Artificial intelligence approach in analysis of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Brézillon, P J; Zaraté, P; Saci, F

    1993-01-01

    We present an approach for designing a knowledge-based system, called Sequence Acquisition In Context (SAIC), that will be able to cooperate with a biologist in the analysis of DNA sequences. The main task of the system is the acquisition of the expert knowledge that the biologist uses for solving ambiguities from gel autoradiograms, with the aim of re-using it later for solving similar ambiguities. The various types of expert knowledge constitute what we call the contextual knowledge of the sequence analysis. Contextual knowledge deals with the unavoidable problems that are common in the study of the living material (eg noise on data, difficulties of observations). Indeed, the analysis of DNA sequences from autoradiograms belongs to an emerging and promising area of investigation, namely reasoning with images. The SAIC project is developed in a theoretical framework that is shared with other applications. Not all tasks have the same importance in each application. We use this observation for designing an intelligent assistant system with three applications. In the SAIC project, we focus on knowledge acquisition, human-computer interaction and explanation. The project will benefit research in the two other applications. We also discuss our SAIC project in the context of large international projects that aim to re-use and share knowledge in a repository.

  15. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, W D; Farrell, H E; Barrell, B G

    1996-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Smith strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was determined from virion DNA by using a whole-genome shotgun approach. The genome has an overall G+C content of 58.7%, consists of 230,278 bp, and is arranged as a single unique sequence with short (31-bp) terminal direct repeats and several short internal repeats. Significant similarity to the genome of the sequenced human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 is evident, particularly for 78 open reading frames encoded by the central part of the genome. There is a very similar distribution of G+C content across the two genomes. Sequences toward the ends of the MCMV genome encode tandem arrays of homologous glycoproteins (gps) arranged as two gene families. The left end encodes 15 gps that represent one family, and the right end encodes a different family of 11 gps. A homolog (m144) of cellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is located at the end of the genome opposite the HCMV MHC class I homolog (UL18). G protein-coupled receptor (GCR) homologs (M33 and M78) occur in positions congruent with two (UL33 and UL78) of the four putative HCMV GCR homologs. Counterparts of all of the known enzyme homologs in HCMV are present in the MCMV genome, including the phosphotransferase gene (M97), whose product phosphorylates ganciclovir in HCMV-infected cells, and the assembly protein (M80). PMID:8971012

  16. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, W D; Farrell, H E; Barrell, B G

    1996-12-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Smith strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was determined from virion DNA by using a whole-genome shotgun approach. The genome has an overall G+C content of 58.7%, consists of 230,278 bp, and is arranged as a single unique sequence with short (31-bp) terminal direct repeats and several short internal repeats. Significant similarity to the genome of the sequenced human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 is evident, particularly for 78 open reading frames encoded by the central part of the genome. There is a very similar distribution of G+C content across the two genomes. Sequences toward the ends of the MCMV genome encode tandem arrays of homologous glycoproteins (gps) arranged as two gene families. The left end encodes 15 gps that represent one family, and the right end encodes a different family of 11 gps. A homolog (m144) of cellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is located at the end of the genome opposite the HCMV MHC class I homolog (UL18). G protein-coupled receptor (GCR) homologs (M33 and M78) occur in positions congruent with two (UL33 and UL78) of the four putative HCMV GCR homologs. Counterparts of all of the known enzyme homologs in HCMV are present in the MCMV genome, including the phosphotransferase gene (M97), whose product phosphorylates ganciclovir in HCMV-infected cells, and the assembly protein (M80). PMID:8971012

  17. Intervening sequences in an Archaea DNA polymerase gene.

    PubMed

    Perler, F B; Comb, D G; Jack, W E; Moran, L S; Qiang, B; Kucera, R B; Benner, J; Slatko, B E; Nwankwo, D O; Hempstead, S K

    1992-06-15

    The DNA polymerase gene from the Archaea Thermococcus litoralis has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It is split by two intervening sequences (IVSs) that form one continuous open reading frame with the three polymerase exons. To our knowledge, neither IVS is similar to previously described introns. However, the deduced amino acid sequences of both IVSs are similar to open reading frames present in mobile group I introns. The second IVS (IVS2) encodes an endonuclease, I-Tli I, that cleaves at the exon 2-exon 3 junction after IVS2 has been deleted. IVS2 self-splices in E. coli to yield active polymerase, but processing is abolished if the IVS2 reading frame is disrupted. Silent changes in the DNA sequence at the exon 2-IVS2 junction that maintain the original protein sequence do not inhibit splicing. These data suggest that protein rather than mRNA splicing may be responsible for production of the mature polymerase. PMID:1608969

  18. Correlation approach to identify coding regions in DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossadnik, S. M.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it was observed that noncoding regions of DNA sequences possess long-range power-law correlations, whereas coding regions typically display only short-range correlations. We develop an algorithm based on this finding that enables investigators to perform a statistical analysis on long DNA sequences to locate possible coding regions. The algorithm is particularly successful in predicting the location of lengthy coding regions. For example, for the complete genome of yeast chromosome III (315,344 nucleotides), at least 82% of the predictions correspond to putative coding regions; the algorithm correctly identified all coding regions larger than 3000 nucleotides, 92% of coding regions between 2000 and 3000 nucleotides long, and 79% of coding regions between 1000 and 2000 nucleotides. The predictive ability of this new algorithm supports the claim that there is a fundamental difference in the correlation property between coding and noncoding sequences. This algorithm, which is not species-dependent, can be implemented with other techniques for rapidly and accurately locating relatively long coding regions in genomic sequences.

  19. Complete VAX/VMS DNA/protein sequence analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    A complete yet flexible system of programs and database libraries for analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequences is implemented for VAX/VMS computers. Types of analysis include 1) construction and analysis of chimeric sequences (cloning in the VAX), 2) multiple analysis of one or more single sequences, 3) search and comparison studies using sequence libraries, and 4) direct input and analysis of experimental data. Published groups of programs, including the Staden, Los Alamos, Zuker, Pearson, and PHYLIP programs, are used. GenBank and EMBL DNA libraries and PIR and Doolittle NEWAT protein libraries are available, with associated programs. The system is tutorial, with online documentation for relevent VAX software, the programs, and the databases. The complete documentation is flexibly maintained on reserve via computer printout placed in 3-ring binders. Command files are used extensively; porting of the entire system to another VAX/VMS system requires modification of a single command. Users of the system are members of a VAX group, with automatic implementation of the system upon login. The present system occupies about 140,000 blocks, and is easily expanded, or contracted, as desired. The UCSD system is used extensively for both teaching and research purposes. Use of microcomputers emulating Tektronix 4014 graphics terminals permits saving of graphics output to disk for subsequent modification to generate high quality publishable figures.

  20. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gébel, Gabriella; Röscheisen, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO(®)150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch(®)Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFiler™Automated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag™96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag™ extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination.

  1. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli (update 1990)

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred; Wahl, Ralf; Rice, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli available from the GENBANK and EMBL data libraries and over a period of several years independently from the literature. This is the second listing replacing and increasing the former listing roughly by one third. After deletion of all detected overlaps a total of 1 248 696 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1990. This corresponds to a total of 26.46% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2% derived from the sequence of lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and various insertion sequences. This compilation is now available in machine readable form from the EMBL data library. PMID:2185457

  2. Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Mountain, J L; Hebert, J M; Bhattacharyya, S; Underhill, P A; Ottolenghi, C; Gadgil, M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1995-01-01

    The demographic history of India was examined by comparing mtDNA sequences obtained from members of three culturally divergent Indian subpopulations (endogamous caste groups). While an inferred tree revealed some clustering according to caste affiliation, there was no clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines. Comparison of pairwise nucleotide difference distributions, however, did indicate a difference in growth patterns between two of the castes. The Brahmin population appears to have undergone either a rapid expansion or steady growth. The low-ranking Mukri caste, however, may have either maintained a roughly constant population size or undergone multiple bottlenecks during that period. Comparison of the Indian sequences to those obtained from other populations, using a tree, revealed that the Indian sequences, along with all other non-African samples, form a starlike cluster. This cluster may represent a major expansion, possibly originating in southern Asia, taking place at some point after modern humans initially left Africa. PMID:7717409

  3. Conservation patterns in angiosperm rDNA ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, M A; Zimmer, E A

    1996-01-01

    The two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA have become commonly exploited sources of informative variation for interspecific-/intergeneric-level phylogenetic analyses among angiosperms and other eukaryotes. We present an alignment in which one-third to one-half of the ITS2 sequence is alignable above the family level in angiosperms and a phenetic analysis showing that ITS2 contains information sufficient to diagnose lineages at several hierarchical levels. Base compositional analysis shows that angiosperm ITS2 is inherently GC-rich, and that the proportion of T is much more variable than that for other bases. We propose a general model of angiosperm ITS2 secondary structure that shows common pairing relationships for most of the conserved sequence tracts. Variations in our secondary structure predictions for sequences from different taxa indicate that compensatory mutation is not limited to paired positions. PMID:8760866

  4. On-Demand Indexing for Referential Compression of DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Fernando; Cogo, Vinicius; Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf; Bessani, Alysson

    2015-01-01

    The decreasing costs of genome sequencing is creating a demand for scalable storage and processing tools and techniques to deal with the large amounts of generated data. Referential compression is one of these techniques, in which the similarity between the DNA of organisms of the same or an evolutionary close species is exploited to reduce the storage demands of genome sequences up to 700 times. The general idea is to store in the compressed file only the differences between the to-be-compressed and a well-known reference sequence. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the performance of referential compression by removing the most costly phase of the process, the complete reference indexing. Our approach, called On-Demand Indexing (ODI) compresses human chromosomes five to ten times faster than other state-of-the-art tools (on average), while achieving similar compression ratios. PMID:26146838

  5. Automated analysis of DNA damage in the high-throughput version of the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Stang, A; Brendamour, M; Schunck, C; Witte, I

    2010-04-30

    Recently a high-throughput version of the comet assay was developed using a special 96-well multichamber plate (MCP) [1]. In this version, the electrophoresis is performed directly on the MCP, which makes transferring of cells to microscope slides unnecessary. In order to facilitate the scoring procedure we adapted an automated slide-scanning system (Metafer MetaCyte with CometScan) to enable unattended analysis of comets on the MCP. The results of the system were compared with the data obtained with two interactive comet-assay analysis systems. For induction of DNA damage in human fibroblasts methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) or H2O2 was used. The three systems revealed similar, concentration-dependent results for all parameters tested: tail moment (tm), % DNA-in-tail and olive tail moment. Near the detection limit of 5-6% DNA-in-tail a significant difference with the untreated control was obtained by use of four parallel samples (p=0.01). With the newly developed automated analysis system, the evaluation of either 50 or 100 comets yielded similar standard errors for either treatment with MMS or H2O2, thus showing that the method is suitable to reveal the crucial low-dose effects with high precision. The results also show that the time needed for automated evaluation of comets on the MCP was reduced by a factor of 10 when compared with the time required for interactive evaluation. In summary, the high-throughput version of the comet assay combined with the automated evaluating system increased the output by a factor up to 180 compared with the standard method. PMID:20197109

  6. Exploring the sequence space of a DNA aptamer using microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Katilius, Evaldas; Flores, Carole; Woodbury, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sequence and binding properties of an aptamer for immunoglobulin E (IgE) was investigated using custom DNA microarrays. Single, double and some triple mutations of the aptamer sequence were created to evaluate the importance of specific base composition on aptamer binding. The majority of the positions in the aptamer sequence were found to be immutable, with changes at these positions resulting in more than a 100-fold decrease in binding affinity. Improvements in binding were observed by altering the stem region of the aptamer, suggesting that it plays a significant role in binding. Results obtained for the various mutations were used to estimate the information content and the probability of finding a functional aptamer sequence by selection from a random library. For the IgE-binding aptamer, this probability is on the order of 10−10 to 10−9. Results obtained for the double and triple mutations also show that there are no compensatory mutations within the space defined by those mutations. Apparently, at least for this particular aptamer, the functional sequence space can be represented as a rugged landscape with sharp peaks defined by highly constrained base compositions. This makes the rational optimization of aptamer sequences using step-wise mutagenesis approaches very challenging. PMID:17981839

  7. Denoising DNA deep sequencing data—high-throughput sequencing errors and their correction

    PubMed Central

    Laehnemann, David; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the errors generated by common high-throughput sequencing platforms and telling true genetic variation from technical artefacts are two interdependent steps, essential to many analyses such as single nucleotide variant calling, haplotype inference, sequence assembly and evolutionary studies. Both random and systematic errors can show a specific occurrence profile for each of the six prominent sequencing platforms surveyed here: 454 pyrosequencing, Complete Genomics DNA nanoball sequencing, Illumina sequencing by synthesis, Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing, Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing and Oxford Nanopore sequencing. There is a large variety of programs available for error removal in sequencing read data, which differ in the error models and statistical techniques they use, the features of the data they analyse, the parameters they determine from them and the data structures and algorithms they use. We highlight the assumptions they make and for which data types these hold, providing guidance which tools to consider for benchmarking with regard to the data properties. While no benchmarking results are included here, such specific benchmarks would greatly inform tool choices and future software development. The development of stand-alone error correctors, as well as single nucleotide variant and haplotype callers, could also benefit from using more of the knowledge about error profiles and from (re)combining ideas from the existing approaches presented here. PMID:26026159

  8. Mixed Sequence Reader: A Program for Analyzing DNA Sequences with Heterozygous Base Calling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Tien; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tang, Chuan Yi; Chen, Chun-Houh; Lian, Jang-Hau; Hu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2012-01-01

    The direct sequencing of PCR products generates heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatograms that are useful for identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletions (indels), short tandem repeats (STRs), and paralogous genes. Indels and STRs can be easily detected using the currently available Indelligent or ShiftDetector programs, which do not search reference sequences. However, the detection of other genomic variants remains a challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools for heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data analysis. In this study, we developed a free web-based program, Mixed Sequence Reader (MSR), which can directly analyze heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data in .abi file format using comparisons with reference sequences. The heterozygous sequences are identified as two distinct sequences and aligned with reference sequences. Our results showed that MSR may be used to (i) physically locate indel and STR sequences and determine STR copy number by searching NCBI reference sequences; (ii) predict combinations of microsatellite patterns using the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); (iii) determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes by searching current viral databases in cases of double infections; (iv) estimate the copy number of paralogous genes, such as β-defensin 4 (DEFB4) and its paralog HSPDP3. PMID:22778697

  9. Mixed sequence reader: a program for analyzing DNA sequences with heterozygous base calling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Tien; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tang, Chuan Yi; Chen, Chun-Houh; Lian, Jang-Hau; Hu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2012-01-01

    The direct sequencing of PCR products generates heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatograms that are useful for identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletions (indels), short tandem repeats (STRs), and paralogous genes. Indels and STRs can be easily detected using the currently available Indelligent or ShiftDetector programs, which do not search reference sequences. However, the detection of other genomic variants remains a challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools for heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data analysis. In this study, we developed a free web-based program, Mixed Sequence Reader (MSR), which can directly analyze heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data in .abi file format using comparisons with reference sequences. The heterozygous sequences are identified as two distinct sequences and aligned with reference sequences. Our results showed that MSR may be used to (i) physically locate indel and STR sequences and determine STR copy number by searching NCBI reference sequences; (ii) predict combinations of microsatellite patterns using the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); (iii) determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes by searching current viral databases in cases of double infections; (iv) estimate the copy number of paralogous genes, such as β-defensin 4 (DEFB4) and its paralog HSPDP3.

  10. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-11-01

    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering. Hyperactivated variants of the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases function without accessory factors, and thus can be re-targeted to sequences of interest by replacing native DNA-binding domains (DBDs) with engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). However, imperfect modularity with particular domains, lack of high-affinity binding to all DNA triplets, and difficulty in construction has hindered the widespread adoption of ZFPs in unspecialized laboratories. The discovery of a novel type of DBD in transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas provides an alternative to ZFPs. Here we describe chimeric TALE recombinases (TALERs): engineered fusions between a hyperactivated catalytic domain from the DNA invertase Gin and an optimized TALE architecture. We use a library of incrementally truncated TALE variants to identify TALER fusions that modify DNA with efficiency and specificity comparable to zinc-finger recombinases in bacterial cells. We also show that TALERs recombine DNA in mammalian cells. The TALER architecture described herein provides a platform for insertion of customized TALE domains, thus significantly expanding the targeting capacity of engineered recombinases and their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  11. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA.

  12. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA. PMID:27117661

  13. DNA Sequence Determinants Controlling Affinity, Stability and Shape of DNA Complexes Bound by the Nucleoid Protein Fis

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Stephen P.; Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C.

    2016-01-01

    The abundant Fis nucleoid protein selectively binds poorly related DNA sequences with high affinities to regulate diverse DNA reactions. Fis binds DNA primarily through DNA backbone contacts and selects target sites by reading conformational properties of DNA sequences, most prominently intrinsic minor groove widths. High-affinity binding requires Fis-stabilized DNA conformational changes that vary depending on DNA sequence. In order to better understand the molecular basis for high affinity site recognition, we analyzed the effects of DNA sequence within and flanking the core Fis binding site on binding affinity and DNA structure. X-ray crystal structures of Fis-DNA complexes containing variable sequences in the noncontacted center of the binding site or variations within the major groove interfaces show that the DNA can adapt to the Fis dimer surface asymmetrically. We show that the presence and position of pyrimidine-purine base steps within the major groove interfaces affect both local DNA bending and minor groove compression to modulate affinities and lifetimes of Fis-DNA complexes. Sequences flanking the core binding site also modulate complex affinities, lifetimes, and the degree of local and global Fis-induced DNA bending. In particular, a G immediately upstream of the 15 bp core sequence inhibits binding and bending, and A-tracts within the flanking base pairs increase both complex lifetimes and global DNA curvatures. Taken together, our observations support a revised DNA motif specifying high-affinity Fis binding and highlight the range of conformations that Fis-bound DNA can adopt. The affinities and DNA conformations of individual Fis-DNA complexes are likely to be tailored to their context-specific biological functions. PMID:26959646

  14. An automated method for DNA preparation from thousands of YAC clones.

    PubMed Central

    MacMurray, A J; Weaver, A; Shin, H S; Lander, E S

    1991-01-01

    We describe an automated method for the preparation of yeast genomic DNA capable of preparing thousands of DNAs in parallel from a YAC library. Briefly, the protocol involves four steps: (1) Yeast clones are grown in the wells of 96-well microtiter plates with filter (rather than plastic) well-bottoms, which are embedded in solid growth media; (2) These yeast cultures are resuspended and their concentrations determined by optical density measurement; (3) Equal numbers of cells from each well are embedded in low-melting temperature agarose blocks in fresh 96-well plates, again with filter bottoms; and (4) DNA is prepared in the agarose blocks by a protocol similar to that used for preparing DNA for pulsed-field gels, with the reagents being dialyzed through the (filter) bottoms of the microtiter plate. The DNA produced by this method is suitable for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for restriction enzyme digestion, and for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this protocol, we produced 3000 YAC strain DNAs in three weeks. This automated procedure should be extremely useful in many genomic mapping projects. Images PMID:2014175

  15. Complete genome sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Cusano, Roberto; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this work. Within the Chlorella genus, it represents the second species with a complete sequenced and annotated mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KM241869). The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 52,528 bp and encodes a total of 31 protein coding genes, 3 rRNAs and 26 tRNAs. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana mtDNA is 70.89%, while the coding sequence is of 97.4%.

  16. SSR_pipeline--computer software for the identification of microsatellite sequences from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Knaus, Brian J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs; for example, microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains three analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can be used to automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to (1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass quality standards, (2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and (3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites conforming to user specified parameters. Each of the three separate analysis modules also can be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc). All modules are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, Windows). The program suite relies on a compiled Python extension module to perform paired-end alignments. Instructions for compiling the extension from source code are provided in the documentation. Users who do not have Python installed on their computers or who do not have the ability to compile software also may choose to download packaged executable files. These files include all Python scripts, a copy of the compiled extension module, and a minimal installation of Python in a single binary executable. See program documentation for more information.

  17. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Matthew M.; Dean, David A.; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell’s cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26287182

  18. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Matthew M; Dean, David A; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell's cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26287182

  19. Using Synthetic Nanopores for Single-Molecule Analyses: Detecting SNPs, Trapping DNA Molecules, and the Prospects for Sequencing DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Valentin V.

    2009-01-01

    This work focuses on studying properties of DNA molecules and DNA-protein interactions using synthetic nanopores, and it examines the prospects of sequencing DNA using synthetic nanopores. We have developed a method for discriminating between alleles that uses a synthetic nanopore to measure the binding of a restriction enzyme to DNA. There exists…

  20. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Athenia L; Drilling, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E

    2012-11-20

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources.

  1. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Athenia L; Drilling, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources. PMID:23168231

  2. Isolation and analysis of high quality nuclear DNA with reduced organellar DNA for plant genome sequencing and resequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics by drastically reducing the cost of sequencing, making it feasible for individual labs to sequence or resequence plant genomes. Obtaining high quality, high molecular weight DNA from plants poses significant challenges due to the high copy number of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, as well as high levels of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. Multiple methods have been used to isolate DNA from plants; the CTAB method is commonly used to isolate total cellular DNA from plants that contain nuclear DNA, as well as chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA. Alternatively, DNA can be isolated from nuclei to minimize chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA contamination. Results We describe optimized protocols for isolation of nuclear DNA from eight different plant species encompassing both monocot and eudicot species. These protocols use nuclei isolation to minimize chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA contamination. We also developed a protocol to determine the number of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA copies relative to the nuclear DNA using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). We compared DNA isolated from nuclei to total cellular DNA isolated with the CTAB method. As expected, DNA isolated from nuclei consistently yielded nuclear DNA with fewer chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA copies, as compared to the total cellular DNA prepared with the CTAB method. This protocol will allow for analysis of the quality and quantity of nuclear DNA before starting a plant whole genome sequencing or resequencing experiment. Conclusions Extracting high quality, high molecular weight nuclear DNA in plants has the potential to be a bottleneck in the era of whole genome sequencing and resequencing. The methods that are described here provide a framework for researchers to extract and quantify nuclear DNA in multiple types of plants. PMID:21599914

  3. Significance of satellite DNA revealed by conservation of a widespread repeat DNA sequence among angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, Soom Nath; Rajpal, Vijay Rani

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of plant genome structure and evolution requires comprehensive characterization of repetitive sequences that make up the majority of plant nuclear DNA. In the present study, we analyzed the nature of pCtKpnI-I and pCtKpnI-II tandem repeated sequences, reported earlier in Carthamus tinctorius. Interestingly, homolog of pCtKpnI-I repeat sequence was also found to be present in widely divergent families of angiosperms. pCtKpnI-I showed high sequence similarity but low copy number among various taxa of different families of angiosperms analyzed. In comparison, pCtKpnI-II was specific to the genus Carthamus and was not present in any other taxa analyzed. The molecular structure of pCtKpnI-I was analyzed in various unrelated taxa of angiosperms to decipher the evolutionary conserved nature of the sequence and its possible functional role.

  4. Sequence Heterogeneity Accelerates Protein Search for Targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Alexey; Kolomeisky, Anatoly

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry and heterogeneity of a genome. The work was supported by the Welch Foundation (Grant C-1559), by the NSF (Grant CHE-1360979), and by the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics sponsored by the NSF (Grant PHY-1427654).

  5. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  7. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  8. Isolation of Human Genomic DNA Sequences with Expanded Nucleobase Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Preeti; Maurer, Sara; Kubik, Grzegorz; Summerer, Daniel

    2016-08-10

    We report the direct isolation of user-defined DNA sequences from the human genome with programmable selectivity for both canonical and epigenetic nucleobases. This is enabled by the use of engineered transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) as DNA major groove-binding probes in affinity enrichment. The approach provides the direct quantification of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels at single genomic nucleotide positions in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate the simple, multiplexed typing of a variety of epigenetic cancer biomarker 5mC with custom TALE mixes. Compared to antibodies as the most widely used affinity probes for 5mC analysis, i.e., employed in the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) protocol, TALEs provide superior sensitivity, resolution and technical ease. We engineer a range of size-reduced TALE repeats and establish full selectivity profiles for their binding to all five human cytosine nucleobases. These provide insights into their nucleobase recognition mechanisms and reveal the ability of TALEs to isolate genomic target sequences with selectivity for single 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and, in combination with sodium borohydride reduction, single 5-formylcytosine nucleobases. PMID:27429302

  9. Developmentally programmed excision of internal DNA sequences in Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Gratias, A; Bétermier, M

    2001-01-01

    The development of a new somatic nucleus (macronucleus) during sexual reproduction of the ciliate Paramecium aurelia involves reproducible chromosomal rearrangements that affect the entire germline genome. Macronuclear development can be induced experimentally, which makes P. aurelia an attractive model for the study of the mechanism and the regulation of DNA rearrangements. Two major types of rearrangements have been identified: the fragmentation of the germline chromosomes, followed by the formation of the new macronuclear chromosome ends in association with imprecise DNA elimination, and the precise excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs). All IESs identified so far are short, A/T rich and non-coding elements. They are flanked by a direct repeat of a 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide, a single copy of which remains at the macronuclear junction after excision. The number of these single-copy sequences has been estimated to be around 60,000 per haploid genome. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic determinants of IES elimination in P. aurelia, the analysis of excision products, and the tightly regulated timing of excision throughout macronuclear development. Several models for the molecular mechanism of IES excision will be discussed in relation to those proposed for DNA elimination in other ciliates. PMID:11879729

  10. Random-breakage mapping method applied to human DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The random-breakage mapping method [Game et al. (1990) Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 4453-4461] was applied to DNA sequences in human fibroblasts. The methodology involves NotI restriction endonuclease digestion of DNA from irradiated calls, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Southern blotting and hybridization with DNA probes recognizing the single copy sequences of interest. The Southern blots show a band for the unbroken restriction fragments and a smear below this band due to radiation induced random breaks. This smear pattern contains two discontinuities in intensity at positions that correspond to the distance of the hybridization site to each end of the restriction fragment. By analyzing the positions of those discontinuities we confirmed the previously mapped position of the probe DXS1327 within a NotI fragment on the X chromosome, thus demonstrating the validity of the technique. We were also able to position the probes D21S1 and D21S15 with respect to the ends of their corresponding NotI fragments on chromosome 21. A third chromosome 21 probe, D21S11, has previously been reported to be close to D21S1, although an uncertainty about a second possible location existed. Since both probes D21S1 and D21S11 hybridized to a single NotI fragment and yielded a similar smear pattern, this uncertainty is removed by the random-breakage mapping method.

  11. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  12. DNA sequence determinants controlling affinity, stability and shape of DNA complexes bound by the nucleoid protein Fis

    DOE PAGES

    Hancock, Stephen P.; Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C.; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-03-09

    The abundant Fis nucleoid protein selectively binds poorly related DNA sequences with high affinities to regulate diverse DNA reactions. Fis binds DNA primarily through DNA backbone contacts and selects target sites by reading conformational properties of DNA sequences, most prominently intrinsic minor groove widths. High-affinity binding requires Fis-stabilized DNA conformational changes that vary depending on DNA sequence. In order to better understand the molecular basis for high affinity site recognition, we analyzed the effects of DNA sequence within and flanking the core Fis binding site on binding affinity and DNA structure. X-ray crystal structures of Fis-DNA complexes containing variable sequencesmore » in the noncontacted center of the binding site or variations within the major groove interfaces show that the DNA can adapt to the Fis dimer surface asymmetrically. We show that the presence and position of pyrimidine-purine base steps within the major groove interfaces affect both local DNA bending and minor groove compression to modulate affinities and lifetimes of Fis-DNA complexes. Sequences flanking the core binding site also modulate complex affinities, lifetimes, and the degree of local and global Fis-induced DNA bending. In particular, a G immediately upstream of the 15 bp core sequence inhibits binding and bending, and A-tracts within the flanking base pairs increase both complex lifetimes and global DNA curvatures. Taken together, our observations support a revised DNA motif specifying high-affinity Fis binding and highlight the range of conformations that Fis-bound DNA can adopt. Lastly, the affinities and DNA conformations of individual Fis-DNA complexes are likely to be tailored to their context-specific biological functions.« less

  13. Phylo-VISTA: Interactive visualization of multiple DNA sequence alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bethel, E. Wes; Rubin, Edward M.; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-01-15

    The power of multi-sequence comparison for biological discovery is well established. The need for new capabilities to visualize and compare cross-species alignment data is intensified by the growing number of genomic sequence datasets being generated for an ever-increasing number of organisms. To be efficient these visualization algorithms must support the ability to accommodate consistently a wide range of evolutionary distances in a comparison framework based upon phylogenetic relationships. Results: We have developed Phylo-VISTA, an interactive tool for analyzing multiple alignments by visualizing a similarity measure for multiple DNA sequences. The complexity of visual presentation is effectively organized using a framework based upon interspecies phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic organization supports rapid, user-guided interspecies comparison. To aid in navigation through large sequence datasets, Phylo-VISTA leverages concepts from VISTA that provide a user with the ability to select and view data at varying resolutions. The combination of multiresolution data visualization and analysis, combined with the phylogenetic framework for interspecies comparison, produces a highly flexible and powerful tool for visual data analysis of multiple sequence alignments. Availability: Phylo-VISTA is available at http://www-gsd.lbl. gov/phylovista. It requires an Internet browser with Java Plugin 1.4.2 and it is integrated into the global alignment program LAGAN at http://lagan.stanford.edu

  14. 3D-dynamic representation of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wąż, Piotr; Bielińska-Wąż, Dorota

    2014-03-01

    A new 3D graphical representation of DNA sequences is introduced. This representation is called 3D-dynamic representation. It is a generalization of the 2D-dynamic dynamic representation. The sequences are represented by sets of "material points" in the 3D space. The resulting 3D-dynamic graphs are treated as rigid bodies. The descriptors characterizing the graphs are analogous to the ones used in the classical dynamics. The classification diagrams derived from this representation are presented and discussed. Due to the third dimension, "the history of the graph" can be recognized graphically because the 3D-dynamic graph does not overlap with itself. Specific parts of the graphs correspond to specific parts of the sequence. This feature is essential for graphical comparisons of the sequences. Numerically, both 2D and 3D approaches are of high quality. In particular, a difference in a single base between two sequences can be identified and correctly described (one can identify which base) by both 2D and 3D methods. PMID:24567158

  15. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  16. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli (update 1993).

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, M; Wahl, R; Rice, P

    1993-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E. coli available from the GENBANK and EMBL data libraries and over a period of several years independently from the literature. This is the fifth listing replacing and increasing the former listings substantially. However, in order to save space this printed version contains DNA sequence information only, if they are publically available in electronic form. The complete compilation including a full set of genetic map data and the E. coli protein index can be obtained in machine readable form from the EMBL data library (ECD release 15) as a part of the CD-ROM issue of the EMBL sequence database, released and updated every three months. After deletion of all detected overlaps a total of 2,353,635 individual bp is found to be determined till the end of April 1993. This corresponds to a total of 49.87% of the entire E. coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by 9161 bp derived from other strains of E. coli. PMID:8332520

  17. Discovering motifs in ranked lists of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Eden, Eran; Lipson, Doron; Yogev, Sivan; Yakhini, Zohar

    2007-03-23

    Computational methods for discovery of sequence elements that are enriched in a target set compared with a background set are fundamental in molecular biology research. One example is the discovery of transcription factor binding motifs that are inferred from ChIP-chip (chromatin immuno-precipitation on a microarray) measurements. Several major challenges in sequence motif discovery still require consideration: (i) the need for a principled approach to partitioning the data into target and background sets; (ii) the lack of rigorous models and of an exact p-value for measuring motif enrichment; (iii) the need for an appropriate framework for accounting for motif multiplicity; (iv) the tendency, in many of the existing methods, to report presumably significant motifs even when applied to randomly generated data. In this paper we present a statistical framework for discovering enriched sequence elements in ranked lists that resolves these four issues. We demonstrate the implementation of this framework in a software application, termed DRIM (discovery of rank imbalanced motifs), which identifies sequence motifs in lists of ranked DNA sequences. We applied DRIM to ChIP-chip and CpG methylation data and obtained the following results. (i) Identification of 50 novel putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites in yeast ChIP-chip data. The biological function of some of them was further investigated to gain new insights on transcription regulation networks in yeast. For example, our discoveries enable the elucidation of the network of the TF ARO80. Another finding concerns a systematic TF binding enhancement to sequences containing CA repeats. (ii) Discovery of novel motifs in human cancer CpG methylation data. Remarkably, most of these motifs are similar to DNA sequence elements bound by the Polycomb complex that promotes histone methylation. Our findings thus support a model in which histone methylation and CpG methylation are mechanistically linked. Overall, we

  18. Filtering and ranking techniques for automated selection of high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Wim; De Loof, Karel; De Vos, Paul; Dawyndt, Peter; De Baets, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    StrainInfo has augmented its type strain and species/subspecies passports with a recommendation for a high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequence available from the public sequence databases. These recommendations are generated by an automated pipeline that collects all candidate 16S rRNA gene sequences for a prokaryotic type strain, filters out low-quality sequences and retains a high-quality sequence from the remaining pool. Due to thorough automation, recommendations can be renewed daily using the latest updates of the public sequence databases and the latest species descriptions. We discuss the quality criteria constructed to filter and rank available 16S rRNA gene sequences, and show how a partially ordered set (poset) ranking algorithm can be applied to solve the multi-criteria ranking problem of selecting the best candidate sequence. The proof of concept of the recommender system is validated by comparing the results of automated selection with an expert selection made in the All-Species Living Tree Project. Based on these validation results, the pipeline may reliably be applied for non-type strains and developed further for the automated selection of housekeeping genes.

  19. Development of an Automated Microfluidic System for DNA Collection, Amplification, and Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, Bethany S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2002-12-01

    This project was focused on developing and testing automated routines for a microfluidic Pathogen Detection System. The basic pathogen detection routine has three primary components; cell concentration, DNA amplification, and detection. In cell concentration, magnetic beads are held in a flow cell by an electromagnet. Sample liquid is passed through the flow cell and bacterial cells attach to the beads. These beads are then released into a small volume of fluid and delivered to the peltier device for cell lysis and DNA amplification. The cells are lysed during initial heating in the peltier device, and the released DNA is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or strand displacement amplification (SDA). Once amplified, the DNA is then delivered to a laser induced fluorescence detection unit in which the sample is detected. These three components create a flexible platform that can be used for pathogen detection in liquid and sediment samples. Future developments of the system will include on-line DNA detection during DNA amplification and improved capture and release methods for the magnetic beads during cell concentration.

  20. First paraben substituted cyclotetraphosphazene compounds and DNA interaction analysis with a new automated biosensor.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Gönül Yenilmez; Şenkuytu, Elif; İncir, Saadet Elif; Yuksel, Fatma; Ölçer, Zehra; Yıldırım, Tuba; Kılıç, Adem; Uludağ, Yıldız

    2016-06-15

    Cancer, as one of the leading causes of death in the world, is caused by malignant cell division and growth that depends on rapid DNA replication. To develop anti-cancer drugs this feature of cancer could be exploited by utilizing DNA-damaging molecules. To achieve this, the paraben substituted cyclotetraphosphazene compounds have been synthesized for the first time and their effect on DNA (genotoxicity) has been investigated. The conventional genotoxicity testing methods are laborious, take time and are expensive. Biosensor based assays provide an alternative to investigate this drug/compound DNA interactions. Here for the first time, a new, easy and rapid screening method has been used to investigate the DNA damage, which is based on an automated biosensor device that relies on the real-time electrochemical profiling (REP™) technology. Using both the biosensor based screening method and the in vitro biological assay, the compounds 9 and 11 (propyl and benzyl substituted cyclotetraphosphazene compounds, respectively), have resulted in higher DNA damage than the others with 65% and 80% activity reduction, respectively. PMID:26852202

  1. A Simulation of DNA Sequencing Utilizing 3M Post-It[R] Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Doug

    2009-01-01

    An inexpensive and equipment free approach to teaching the technical aspects of DNA sequencing. The activity described requires an instructor with a familiarity of DNA sequencing technology but provides a straight forward method of teaching the technical aspects of sequencing in the absence of expensive sequencing equipment. The final sequence…

  2. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  3. Retroviral DNA Sequences as a Means for Determining Ancient Diets

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Perez, Jessica I.; Cano, Raul J.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne; Chanlatte-Baik, Luis; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    For ages, specialists from varying fields have studied the diets of the primeval inhabitants of our planet, detecting diet remains in archaeological specimens using a range of morphological and biochemical methods. As of recent, metagenomic ancient DNA studies have allowed for the comparison of the fecal and gut microbiomes associated to archaeological specimens from various regions of the world; however the complex dynamics represented in those microbial communities still remain unclear. Theoretically, similar to eukaryote DNA the presence of genes from key microbes or enzymes, as well as the presence of DNA from viruses specific to key organisms, may suggest the ingestion of specific diet components. In this study we demonstrate that ancient virus DNA obtained from coprolites also provides information reconstructing the host’s diet, as inferred from sequences obtained from pre-Columbian coprolites. This depicts a novel and reliable approach to determine new components as well as validate the previously suggested diets of extinct cultures and animals. Furthermore, to our knowledge this represents the first description of the eukaryotic viral diversity found in paleofaeces belonging to pre-Columbian cultures. PMID:26660678

  4. Peptide Synthesis on a Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Platform.

    PubMed

    Svensen, Nina; Peersen, Olve B; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2016-09-01

    Methods for displaying large numbers of peptides on solid surfaces are essential for high-throughput characterization of peptide function and binding properties. Here we describe a method for converting the >10(7) flow cell-bound clusters of identical DNA strands generated by the Illumina DNA sequencing technology into clusters of complementary RNA, and subsequently peptide clusters. We modified the flow-cell-bound primers with ribonucleotides thus enabling them to be used by poliovirus polymerase 3D(pol) . The primers hybridize to the clustered DNA thus leading to RNA clusters. The RNAs fold into functional protein- or small molecule-binding aptamers. We used the mRNA-display approach to synthesize flow-cell-tethered peptides from these RNA clusters. The peptides showed selective binding to cognate antibodies. The methods described here provide an approach for using DNA clusters to template peptide synthesis on an Illumina flow cell, thus providing new opportunities for massively parallel peptide-based assays.

  5. Retroviral DNA Sequences as a Means for Determining Ancient Diets.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Jessica I; Cano, Raul J; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne; Chanlatte-Baik, Luis; Toranzos, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    For ages, specialists from varying fields have studied the diets of the primeval inhabitants of our planet, detecting diet remains in archaeological specimens using a range of morphological and biochemical methods. As of recent, metagenomic ancient DNA studies have allowed for the comparison of the fecal and gut microbiomes associated to archaeological specimens from various regions of the world; however the complex dynamics represented in those microbial communities still remain unclear. Theoretically, similar to eukaryote DNA the presence of genes from key microbes or enzymes, as well as the presence of DNA from viruses specific to key organisms, may suggest the ingestion of specific diet components. In this study we demonstrate that ancient virus DNA obtained from coprolites also provides information reconstructing the host's diet, as inferred from sequences obtained from pre-Columbian coprolites. This depicts a novel and reliable approach to determine new components as well as validate the previously suggested diets of extinct cultures and animals. Furthermore, to our knowledge this represents the first description of the eukaryotic viral diversity found in paleofaeces belonging to pre-Columbian cultures. PMID:26660678

  6. Chromatin reconstitution on small DNA rings. IV. DNA supercoiling and nucleosome sequence preference.

    PubMed

    Duband-Goulet, I; Carot, V; Ulyanov, A V; Douc-Rasy, S; Prunell, A

    1992-04-20

    Nucleosome formation on inverted repeats or on some alternations of purines and pyrimidines can be inhibited in vitro by DNA supercoiling through their supercoiling-induced structural transitions to cruciforms or Z-form DNA, respectively. We report here, as a result of study of single nucleosome reconstitutions on a DNA minicircle, that a physiological level of DNA supercoiling can also enhance nucleosome sequence preference. The 357 base-pair minicircle was composed of a promoter of phage SP6 RNA polymerase joined to a 256 base-pair fragment containing a sea urchin 5 S RNA gene. Nucleosome formation on the promoter was found to be enhanced on a topoisomer with in vivo superhelix density when compared to topoisomers of lower or higher superhelical densities, to the nicked circle, or to the linear DNA. In contrast, nucleosomes at other positions appeared to be insensitive to supercoiling. This observation relied on a novel procedure for the investigation of nucleosome positioning. The reconstituted circular chromatin was first linearized using a restriction endonuclease, and the linear chromatin so obtained was electrophoresed as nucleoprotein in a polyacrylamide gel. The gel showed well-fractionated bands whose mobilities were a V-like function of nucleosome positions, with the nucleosome near the middle migrating less. This behavior is similar to that previously observed for complexes of sequence-specific DNA-bending proteins with circularly permuted DNA fragments, and presumably reflects the change in the direction of the DNA axis between the entrance and the exit of the particle. Possible mechanisms for such supercoiling-induced modulation of nucleosome formation are discussed in the light of the supercoiling-dependent susceptibility to cleavage of the naked minicircle with S1 and Bal31 nucleases; and a comparison between DNase I cleavage patterns of the modulated nucleosome and of another, non-modulated, overlapping nucleosome. PMID:1314907

  7. Entropy and long-range correlations in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the structure of DNA molecules of different organisms by using the additive Markov chain approach. Transforming nucleotide sequences into binary strings, we perform statistical analysis of the corresponding "texts". We develop the theory of N-step additive binary stationary ergodic Markov chains and analyze their differential entropy. Supposing that the correlations are weak we express the conditional probability function of the chain by means of the pair correlation function and represent the entropy as a functional of the pair correlator. Since the model uses two point correlators instead of probability of block occurring, it makes possible to calculate the entropy of subsequences at much longer distances than with the use of the standard methods. We utilize the obtained analytical result for numerical evaluation of the entropy of coarse-grained DNA texts. We believe that the entropy study can be used for biological classification of living species.

  8. The sequence dependence of circular dichroism spectra of DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Arnott, S; Arnott, S

    1975-09-01

    The three satellite DNAs of Drosophila virilis, that approximate to poly d(CAAACTA)-poly d(TAGTTTG), poly d(TAAACTA)-poly d(TAGTTTA), poly d(CAAATTA)-poly d(TAATTTG), the satellite DNA of Drosophila melanogaster that approximates to poly d(AATAT)-poly d(ATATT), the synthetic DNA duplexes, poly dG-poly dC, poly d(AT)-poly d(AT), poly d(AAT)-poly d(ATT), poly d(AAC)-poly d(GTT), poly d(TAC)-poly d(GTA) and the block copolymer d(C15A15)-d(T15G15) all have circular dichroism spectra consistent with the propositions that they have the same molecular geometry in solution and that it is the kind and frequency of nucleotide triplet sequences that determines their spectral characteristics. Poly dA-poly dT is apparently an exception.

  9. Chromatin and DNA sequences in defining promoters for transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ferenc; Tora, Làszlò

    2014-03-01

    One of the key events in eukaryotic gene regulation and consequent transcription is the assembly of general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II into a functional pre-initiation complex at core promoters. An emerging view of complexity arising from a variety of promoter associated DNA motifs, their binding factors and recent discoveries in characterising promoter associated chromatin properties brings an old question back into the limelight: how is a promoter defined? In addition to position-dependent DNA sequence motifs, accumulating evidence suggests that several parallel acting mechanisms are involved in orchestrating a pattern marked by the state of chromatin and general transcription factor binding in preparation for defining transcription start sites. In this review we attempt to summarise these promoter features and discuss the available evidence pointing at their interactions in defining transcription initiation in developmental contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin and epigenetic regulation of animal development.

  10. Entropy and long-range correlations in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the structure of DNA molecules of different organisms by using the additive Markov chain approach. Transforming nucleotide sequences into binary strings, we perform statistical analysis of the corresponding "texts". We develop the theory of N-step additive binary stationary ergodic Markov chains and analyze their differential entropy. Supposing that the correlations are weak we express the conditional probability function of the chain by means of the pair correlation function and represent the entropy as a functional of the pair correlator. Since the model uses two point correlators instead of probability of block occurring, it makes possible to calculate the entropy of subsequences at much longer distances than with the use of the standard methods. We utilize the obtained analytical result for numerical evaluation of the entropy of coarse-grained DNA texts. We believe that the entropy study can be used for biological classification of living species. PMID:25213853

  11. Development of positive control materials for DNA-based detection of cystic fibrosis: Cloning and sequencing of 31 mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Iovannisci, D.; Brown, C.; Winn-Deen, E.

    1994-09-01

    The cloning and sequencing of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) now provides the opportunity for earlier detection and carrier screening through DNA-based detection schemes. To date, over 300 mutations have been reported to the CF Consortium; however, only 30 mutations have been observed frequently enough world-wide to warrant routine screening. Many of these mutations are not available as cloned material or as established tissue culture cell lines to aid in the development of DNA-based detection assays. We have therefore cloned the 30 most frequently reported mutations, plus the mutation R347H due to its association with male infertility (31 mutations, total). Two approaches were employed: direct PCR amplification, where mutations were available from patient sources, and site-directed PCR mutagenesis of normal genomic DNA to generate the remaining mutations. After amplification, products were cloned into a sequencing vector, bacterial transformants were screened by a novel method (PCR/oligonucleotide litigation assay/sequence-coded separation), and plamid DNA sequences determined by automated fluorescent methods on the Applied Biosystems 373A. Mixing of the clones allows the construction of artificial genotypes useful as positive control material for assay validation. A second round of mutagenesis, resulting in the construction of plasmids bearing multiple mutations, will be evaluated for their utility as reagent control materials in kit development.

  12. Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens.

    PubMed

    Shokralla, Shadi; Gibson, Joel F; Nikbakht, Hamid; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-09-01

    DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need for relatively high-target amplicon yield, coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes, confusion with sequences from intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia) and instances of intraindividual variability (i.e. heteroplasmy). Any of these situations can lead to failed Sanger sequencing attempts or ambiguity of the generated DNA barcodes. Here, we demonstrate the potential application of next-generation sequencing platforms for parallel acquisition of DNA barcode sequences from hundreds of specimens simultaneously. To facilitate retrieval of sequences obtained from individual specimens, we tag individual specimens during PCR amplification using unique 10-mer oligonucleotides attached to DNA barcoding PCR primers. We employ 454 pyrosequencing to recover full-length DNA barcodes of 190 specimens using 12.5% capacity of a 454 sequencing run (i.e. two lanes of a 16 lane run). We obtained an average of 143 sequence reads for each individual specimen. The sequences produced are full-length DNA barcodes for all but one of the included specimens. In a subset of samples, we also detected Wolbachia, nontarget species, and heteroplasmic sequences. Next-generation sequencing is of great value because of its protocol simplicity, greatly reduced cost per barcode read, faster throughout and added information content.

  13. Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens.

    PubMed

    Shokralla, Shadi; Gibson, Joel F; Nikbakht, Hamid; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-09-01

    DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need for relatively high-target amplicon yield, coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes, confusion with sequences from intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia) and instances of intraindividual variability (i.e. heteroplasmy). Any of these situations can lead to failed Sanger sequencing attempts or ambiguity of the generated DNA barcodes. Here, we demonstrate the potential application of next-generation sequencing platforms for parallel acquisition of DNA barcode sequences from hundreds of specimens simultaneously. To facilitate retrieval of sequences obtained from individual specimens, we tag individual specimens during PCR amplification using unique 10-mer oligonucleotides attached to DNA barcoding PCR primers. We employ 454 pyrosequencing to recover full-length DNA barcodes of 190 specimens using 12.5% capacity of a 454 sequencing run (i.e. two lanes of a 16 lane run). We obtained an average of 143 sequence reads for each individual specimen. The sequences produced are full-length DNA barcodes for all but one of the included specimens. In a subset of samples, we also detected Wolbachia, nontarget species, and heteroplasmic sequences. Next-generation sequencing is of great value because of its protocol simplicity, greatly reduced cost per barcode read, faster throughout and added information content. PMID:24641208

  14. Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens

    PubMed Central

    Shokralla, Shadi; Gibson, Joel F; Nikbakht, Hamid; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need for relatively high-target amplicon yield, coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes, confusion with sequences from intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia) and instances of intraindividual variability (i.e. heteroplasmy). Any of these situations can lead to failed Sanger sequencing attempts or ambiguity of the generated DNA barcodes. Here, we demonstrate the potential application of next-generation sequencing platforms for parallel acquisition of DNA barcode sequences from hundreds of specimens simultaneously. To facilitate retrieval of sequences obtained from individual specimens, we tag individual specimens during PCR amplification using unique 10-mer oligonucleotides attached to DNA barcoding PCR primers. We employ 454 pyrosequencing to recover full-length DNA barcodes of 190 specimens using 12.5% capacity of a 454 sequencing run (i.e. two lanes of a 16 lane run). We obtained an average of 143 sequence reads for each individual specimen. The sequences produced are full-length DNA barcodes for all but one of the included specimens. In a subset of samples, we also detected Wolbachia, nontarget species, and heteroplasmic sequences. Next-generation sequencing is of great value because of its protocol simplicity, greatly reduced cost per barcode read, faster throughout and added information content. PMID:24641208

  15. Automated method for tracing leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in confocal image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Solecki, Dr. David

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation, tracking, and tracing of neurons in video imagery are important steps in many neuronal migration studies and can be in accurate and time-consuming when performed manually. In this paper, we present an automated method for tracing the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in time-lapse image stacks acquired with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In our approach, we first locate and track the soma of the cell of interest by smoothing each frame and tracking the local maxima through the sequence. We then trace the leading process in each frame by starting at the center of the soma and stepping repeatedly in the most likely direction of the leading process. This direction is found at each step by examining second derivatives of fluorescent intensity along curves of constant radius around the current point. Tracing terminates after a fixed number of steps or when fluorescent intensity drops below a fixed threshold. We evolve the resulting trace to form an improved trace that more closely follows the approximate centerline of the leading process. We apply a similar algorithm to the trailing process of the cell by starting the trace in the opposite direction. We demonstrate our algorithm on two time-lapse confocal video sequences of migrating cerebellar granule neurons(CGNs). We show that the automated traces closely approximate ground truth traces to within 1 or 2 pixels on average. Additionally, we compute line intensity profiles of fluorescence along the automated traces and quantitatively demonstrate their similarity to manually generated profiles in terms of fluorescence peak locations.

  16. Automated method for tracing leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in confocal image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Gleason, Shaun S.; Trivedi, Niraj; Solecki, David J.

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation, tracking, and tracing of neurons in video imagery are important steps in many neuronal migration studies and can be inaccurate and time-consuming when performed manually. In this paper, we present an automated method for tracing the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in time-lapse image stacks acquired with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In our approach, we first locate and track the soma of the cell of interest by smoothing each frame and tracking the local maxima through the sequence. We then trace the leading process in each frame by starting at the center of the soma and stepping repeatedly in the most likely direction of the leading process. This direction is found at each step by examining second derivatives of fluorescent intensity along curves of constant radius around the current point. Tracing terminates after a fixed number of steps or when fluorescent intensity drops below a fixed threshold. We evolve the resulting trace to form an improved trace that more closely follows the approximate centerline of the leading process. We apply a similar algorithm to the trailing process of the cell by starting the trace in the opposite direction. We demonstrate our algorithm on two time-lapse confocal video sequences of migrating cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We show that the automated traces closely approximate ground truth traces to within 1 or 2 pixels on average. Additionally, we compute line intensity profiles of fluorescence along the automated traces and quantitatively demonstrate their similarity to manually generated profiles in terms of fluorescence peak locations.

  17. dnaMATE: a consensus melting temperature prediction server for short DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Panjkovich, Alejandro; Norambuena, Tomás; Melo, Francisco

    2005-07-01

    An accurate and robust large-scale melting temperature prediction server for short DNA sequences is dispatched. The server calculates a consensus melting temperature value using the nearest-neighbor model based on three independent thermodynamic data tables. The consensus method gives an accurate prediction of melting temperature, as it has been recently demonstrated in a benchmark performed using all available experimental data for DNA sequences within the length range of 16-30 nt. This constitutes the first web server that has been implemented to perform a large-scale calculation of melting temperatures in real time (up to 5000 DNA sequences can be submitted in a single run). The expected accuracy of calculations carried out by this server in the range of 50-600 mM monovalent salt concentration is that 89% of the melting temperature predictions will have an error or deviation of <5 degrees C from experimental data. The server can be freely accessed at http://dna.bio.puc.cl/tm.html. The standalone executable versions of this software for LINUX, Macintosh and Windows platforms are also freely available at the same web site. Detailed further information supporting this server is available at the same web site referenced above.

  18. Photocatalytic probing of DNA sequence by using TiO{sub 2}/dopamine-DNA triads.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; de la Garza, L.; Zhang, L.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Zuo, X.; Tiede, D. M.; Rajh, T.

    2007-10-15

    A method to control charge transfer reaction in DNA using hybrid nanometer-sized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was developed. In this system extended charge separation reflects the sequence of DNA and was measured using metallic silver deposition or by photocurrent response. Light-induced extended charge separation in these systems was found to be dependent on the DNA-bridge length and sequence. The yield of photocatalytic deposition of silver was studied in systems having GG accepting sites imbedded in AT runs at varying distances from the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surface. Weak distance dependence of charge separation indicative of a hole hopping through mediating adenine (A) sites was found. The quantum yield of silver deposition in the system having a GG accepting site placed 8.5 {angstrom} from the nanoparticle surface was found to be {Phi} = 0.70 (70%) and {Phi} = 0.56 (56%) for (A){sub n} and (AT){sub n/2} bridge, respectively. Hole injection to GG trapping sites as far as 70 {angstrom} from a nanoparticle surface in the absence of G hopping sites was measured. Introduction of G hopping sites increased the efficiency of hole injection. The efficiency of photocatalytic deposition of metallic silver was found to be sensitive to the presence of a single nucleobase mismatch in the DNA sequence.

  19. SeqMule: automated pipeline for analysis of human exome/genome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunfei; Ding, Xiaolei; Shen, Yufeng; Lyon, Gholson J; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly helped us identify disease-contributory variants for Mendelian diseases. However, users are often faced with issues such as software compatibility, complicated configuration, and no access to high-performance computing facility. Discrepancies exist among aligners and variant callers. We developed a computational pipeline, SeqMule, to perform automated variant calling from NGS data on human genomes and exomes. SeqMule integrates computational-cluster-free parallelization capability built on top of the variant callers, and facilitates normalization/intersection of variant calls to generate consensus set with high confidence. SeqMule integrates 5 alignment tools, 5 variant calling algorithms and accepts various combinations all by one-line command, therefore allowing highly flexible yet fully automated variant calling. In a modern machine (2 Intel Xeon X5650 CPUs, 48 GB memory), when fast turn-around is needed, SeqMule generates annotated VCF files in a day from a 30X whole-genome sequencing data set; when more accurate calling is needed, SeqMule generates consensus call set that improves over single callers, as measured by both Mendelian error rate and consistency. SeqMule supports Sun Grid Engine for parallel processing, offers turn-key solution for deployment on Amazon Web Services, allows quality check, Mendelian error check, consistency evaluation, HTML-based reports. SeqMule is available at http://seqmule.openbioinformatics.org. PMID:26381817

  20. SeqMule: automated pipeline for analysis of human exome/genome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunfei; Ding, Xiaolei; Shen, Yufeng; Lyon, Gholson J; Wang, Kai

    2015-09-18

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly helped us identify disease-contributory variants for Mendelian diseases. However, users are often faced with issues such as software compatibility, complicated configuration, and no access to high-performance computing facility. Discrepancies exist among aligners and variant callers. We developed a computational pipeline, SeqMule, to perform automated variant calling from NGS data on human genomes and exomes. SeqMule integrates computational-cluster-free parallelization capability built on top of the variant callers, and facilitates normalization/intersection of variant calls to generate consensus set with high confidence. SeqMule integrates 5 alignment tools, 5 variant calling algorithms and accepts various combinations all by one-line command, therefore allowing highly flexible yet fully automated variant calling. In a modern machine (2 Intel Xeon X5650 CPUs, 48 GB memory), when fast turn-around is needed, SeqMule generates annotated VCF files in a day from a 30X whole-genome sequencing data set; when more accurate calling is needed, SeqMule generates consensus call set that improves over single callers, as measured by both Mendelian error rate and consistency. SeqMule supports Sun Grid Engine for parallel processing, offers turn-key solution for deployment on Amazon Web Services, allows quality check, Mendelian error check, consistency evaluation, HTML-based reports. SeqMule is available at http://seqmule.openbioinformatics.org.

  1. SeqMule: automated pipeline for analysis of human exome/genome sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunfei; Ding, Xiaolei; Shen, Yufeng; Lyon, Gholson J.; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly helped us identify disease-contributory variants for Mendelian diseases. However, users are often faced with issues such as software compatibility, complicated configuration, and no access to high-performance computing facility. Discrepancies exist among aligners and variant callers. We developed a computational pipeline, SeqMule, to perform automated variant calling from NGS data on human genomes and exomes. SeqMule integrates computational-cluster-free parallelization capability built on top of the variant callers, and facilitates normalization/intersection of variant calls to generate consensus set with high confidence. SeqMule integrates 5 alignment tools, 5 variant calling algorithms and accepts various combinations all by one-line command, therefore allowing highly flexible yet fully automated variant calling. In a modern machine (2 Intel Xeon X5650 CPUs, 48 GB memory), when fast turn-around is needed, SeqMule generates annotated VCF files in a day from a 30X whole-genome sequencing data set; when more accurate calling is needed, SeqMule generates consensus call set that improves over single callers, as measured by both Mendelian error rate and consistency. SeqMule supports Sun Grid Engine for parallel processing, offers turn-key solution for deployment on Amazon Web Services, allows quality check, Mendelian error check, consistency evaluation, HTML-based reports. SeqMule is available at http://seqmule.openbioinformatics.org. PMID:26381817

  2. Nucleotide sequence of equine caspase-1 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Wardlow, S; Penha-Goncalves, M N; Argyle, D J; Onions, D E; Nicolson, L

    1999-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases which have important roles in activation of cytokines and in apoptosis. Caspase-1, or interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), promotes maturation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) by proteolytic cleavage of precursor forms to generate biologically active peptides. We report the cloning and sequencing of equine caspase-1 cDNA. Equine caspase-1 is 405 amino acids in length and has 72% and 63% identity to human and mouse caspase-1, respectively, at the amino acid level. Sites of proteolytic cleavage and catalytic activity as identified in human caspase-1, are conserved. PMID:10376217

  3. Nonlinear analysis of correlations in Alu repeat sequences in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yi; Huang, Yanzhao; Li, Mingfeng; Xu, Ruizhen; Xiao, Saifeng

    2003-12-01

    We report on a nonlinear analysis of deterministic structures in Alu repeats, one of the richest repetitive DNA sequences in the human genome. Alu repeats contain the recognition sites for the restriction endonuclease AluI, which is what gives them their name. Using the nonlinear prediction method developed in chaos theory, we find that all Alu repeats have novel deterministic structures and show strong nonlinear correlations that are absent from exon and intron sequences. Furthermore, the deterministic structures of Alus of younger subfamilies show panlike shapes. As young Alus can be seen as mutation free copies from the “master genes,” it may be suggested that the deterministic structures of the older subfamilies are results of an evolution from a “panlike” structure to a more diffuse correlation pattern due to mutation.

  4. Ribbon channel plate rotating drum DNA sequencing device.

    PubMed

    Douthart, R J; Welt, M; Walling, L

    1996-01-01

    A new design DNA sequencing electrophoresis device is described. The device, called the ribbon channeled plate rotating drum (rprd), consists of two major components, the plate assembly and the drum assembly. The plate assembly contains a machined or etched plate of individual micro-channels called the ribbon channeled plate. The ribbon channeled plate and other components of the plate assembly combine the advantages of thin gels and capillary arrays in a single unit with few of the disadvantages. The other major component of rprd is the drum assembly, which facilitates direct blotting onto deposition membranes affixed to a large plastic drum. The drum with attached membrane and deposited electrophoretically resolved ladders is easily moved to special units facilitating downstream processing and detection. The drum unit, although versatile, is specifically designed to be used with multiplex sequencing. PMID:8907517

  5. [Mitochondrial DNA sequence variations of Keriyan in the Taklamakan desert].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ran-Hui; Cui, Yin-Qiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2003-05-01

    The Keriyans live in the center of the Taklamakan desert of Xinjiang Province and they have never married with outsiders. Nobody knows clearly how they immigrated here and who was their origin. The mtDNA hypervariable segment I sequences were sequenced in 75 Keriyans. Seventy-one unique HVS I types were identified, varying at 68 nucleotide positions. Nucleotide diversity and the mean pairwise differences of Keriyan are intermediate between those reported for Eastern and Western populations. Keriyan's low Tajima's D statistics and bell-shaped pairwise-difference distributions can be interpreted as the hallmark of an ancient population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis shows Central Asian populations occupy a position intermediate between the Eastern and Western populations, moreover, the Keriyan presents shorter genetic distances to Xinjiang Uighur and Uighur in other places than to other populations.

  6. Nucleotide sequence of HS-beta satellite DNA from kangaroo rat Dipodomys ordii.

    PubMed

    Fry, K; Poon, R; Whitcome, P; Idriss, J; Salser, W; Mazrimas, J; Hatch, F

    1973-09-01

    The sequence of the highly repetitive satellite HS-beta DNA fraction from kangaroo rat Dipodomys ordii was determined independently by RNA and DNA sequencing techniques. A basic iterated sequence of 10 nucleotides with several mutational variations was found. Base-composition data are consistent with the proposed sequence and revealed a high content of 5-methylcytosine. DNA and RNA sequencing techniques used gave identical results, showing that the fidelity of synthesis of riboguanidine-substituted DNA under our conditions is adequate for nucleotide sequence studies.

  7. PDNAsite: Identification of DNA-binding Site from Protein Sequence by Incorporating Spatial and Sequence Context.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiyun; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Hongpeng; Kong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space. Subsequently, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was applied to remove the redundancies in the feature space. Finally, a predictor (PDNAsite) was developed through the integration of the support vector machines (SVM) classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA-62 and the PDNA-224 datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein-DNA recognition and their binding ability. The comparison between our proposed PDNAsite method and the existing methods indicate that PDNAsite outperforms most of the existing methods and is a useful tool for DNA-binding site identification. A web-server of our predictor (http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn:8080/PDNAsite/) is made available for free public accessible to the biological research community. PMID:27282833

  8. PDNAsite: Identification of DNA-binding Site from Protein Sequence by Incorporating Spatial and Sequence Context

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiyun; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Hongpeng; Kong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space. Subsequently, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was applied to remove the redundancies in the feature space. Finally, a predictor (PDNAsite) was developed through the integration of the support vector machines (SVM) classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA-62 and the PDNA-224 datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein-DNA recognition and their binding ability. The comparison between our proposed PDNAsite method and the existing methods indicate that PDNAsite outperforms most of the existing methods and is a useful tool for DNA-binding site identification. A web-server of our predictor (http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn:8080/PDNAsite/) is made available for free public accessible to the biological research community. PMID:27282833

  9. Sequence dependence of isothermal DNA amplification via EXPAR

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jifeng; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Ramírez-Borrero, Alissa J.; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph; Niemz, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is becoming increasingly important for molecular diagnostics. Therefore, new computational tools are needed to facilitate assay design. In the isothermal EXPonential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), template sequences with similar thermodynamic characteristics perform very differently. To understand what causes this variability, we characterized the performance of 384 template sequences, and used this data to develop two computational methods to predict EXPAR template performance based on sequence: a position weight matrix approach with support vector machine classifier, and RELIEF attribute evaluation with Naïve Bayes classification. The methods identified well and poorly performing EXPAR templates with 67–70% sensitivity and 77–80% specificity. We combined these methods into a computational tool that can accelerate new assay design by ruling out likely poor performers. Furthermore, our data suggest that variability in template performance is linked to specific sequence motifs. Cytidine, a pyrimidine base, is over-represented in certain positions of well-performing templates. Guanosine and adenosine, both purine bases, are over-represented in similar regions of poorly performing templates, frequently as GA or AG dimers. Since polymerases have a higher affinity for purine oligonucleotides, polymerase binding to GA-rich regions of a single-stranded DNA template may promote non-specific amplification in EXPAR and other nucleic acid amplification reactions. PMID:22416064

  10. Two Dimensional Yau-Hausdorff Distance with Applications on Comparison of DNA and Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Kun; Yang, Xiaoqian; Kong, Qin; Yin, Changchuan; He, Rong L.; Yau, Stephen S.-T.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing DNA or protein sequences plays an important role in the functional analysis of genomes. Despite many methods available for sequences comparison, few methods retain the information content of sequences. We propose a new approach, the Yau-Hausdorff method, which considers all translations and rotations when seeking the best match of graphical curves of DNA or protein sequences. The complexity of this method is lower than that of any other two dimensional minimum Hausdorff algorithm. The Yau-Hausdorff method can be used for measuring the similarity of DNA sequences based on two important tools: the Yau-Hausdorff distance and graphical representation of DNA sequences. The graphical representations of DNA sequences conserve all sequence information and the Yau-Hausdorff distance is mathematically proved as a true metric. Therefore, the proposed distance can preciously measure the similarity of DNA sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences by the Yau-Hausdorff distance show the accuracy and stability of our approach in similarity comparison of DNA or protein sequences. This study demonstrates that Yau-Hausdorff distance is a natural metric for DNA and protein sequences with high level of stability. The approach can be also applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences by graphic representations, as well as general two dimensional shape matching. PMID:26384293

  11. {open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, B.R.; Chaplin, D.D. |

    1994-09-01

    The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

  12. Cloning, characterization, and DNA sequence of a human cDNA encoding neuropeptide tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Minth, C D; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M; Dixon, J E

    1984-01-01

    In vitro translation of the RNA isolated from a human pheochromocytoma demonstrated that this tumor contained a mRNA encoding a 10.5-kDa protein, which was immunoprecipitated with antiserum raised against porcine neuropeptide Y. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pUC8. Transformants containing the neuropeptide Y cDNA were identified using the mixed hybridization probe d[A-(A,G)-(A,G)-T-T-(A,G,T)-A-T-(A,G)-T-A-(A,G)-T-G]. The probe sequences were based on the known amino acid sequence, His-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Leu, found in porcine neuropeptide Y. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was determined and contained 86 and 174 bases in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, respectively. The coding sequence consisted of 291 bases, suggesting a precursor to neuropeptide Y that was 97 amino acids long (10,839 Da). The deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor suggested that there were at least two sites of proteolytic processing, which would generate three peptides having 28 (signal peptide), 36 (human neuropeptide Y), and 30 (COOH-terminal peptide) amino acid residues. A partial NH2-terminal sequence obtained by Edman degradation of the immunoprecipitated in vitro translation product identified the positions of methionine and leucine in the first 30 residues of the prepropeptide. A highly sensitive single-stranded complementary mRNA hybridization probe specific for neuropeptide Y mRNA was prepared using the bacteriophage SP6 promoter. This probe was used to identify a mRNA corresponding to neuropeptide Y of approximately 800 bases. Images PMID:6589611

  13. A new method of representing DNA sequences which combines ease of visual analysis with machine readability.

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, J E; Jellis, C H; Rickwood, D

    1986-01-01

    A new method of representing DNA sequences has been devised which is termed stave projection. Compared with other formats for showing the base sequences of DNA, this method greatly enhances the ease of visual analysis of the sequences of bases and it is also in a machine readable form. Using this method it is possible to identify and annotate all of the functional features found in DNA sequences. PMID:3003680

  14. The Orion GN and C Data-Driven Flight Software Architecture for Automated Sequencing and Fault Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ellis; Hart, Jeremy; Odegard, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CET) is being designed to include significantly more automation capability than either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). In particular, the vehicle flight software has requirements to accommodate increasingly automated missions throughout all phases of flight. A data-driven flight software architecture will provide an evolvable automation capability to sequence through Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C) flight software modes and configurations while maintaining the required flexibility and human control over the automation. This flexibility is a key aspect needed to address the maturation of operational concepts, to permit ground and crew operators to gain trust in the system and mitigate unpredictability in human spaceflight. To allow for mission flexibility and reconfrgurability, a data driven approach is being taken to load the mission event plan as well cis the flight software artifacts associated with the GN&C subsystem. A database of GN&C level sequencing data is presented which manages and tracks the mission specific and algorithm parameters to provide a capability to schedule GN&C events within mission segments. The flight software data schema for performing automated mission sequencing is presented with a concept of operations for interactions with ground and onboard crew members. A prototype architecture for fault identification, isolation and recovery interactions with the automation software is presented and discussed as a forward work item.

  15. Complete genome sequence of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Cusano, Roberto; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this study. The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 109,811 bp, which encode a total of 109 genes, including 74 proteins, 3 rRNAs and 31 tRNAs. Moreover, introns are not detected and all genes are present in single copy. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana cpDNA is 65.9%, the coding sequence is 59.1% and a large inverted repeat (IR) is not observed.

  16. Base sequence effects on interactions of aromatic mutagens with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1991-09-19

    Within this period, we have completed our investigations on the thermodynamic characteristics and base sequence dependence of duplex formation of benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts. Different 11-mer oligonucleotides containing covalently bound BPDE moieties at the exocyclic amino group of a single guanine base were utilized in these studies. Last year, in the three-year progress report, some preliminary data were discussed. A final account is provided here. New techniques were developed for assessing the preferred orientations of the enantiomers of (+)-BPDE and ({minus})-BPDE relative to the 5in {r arrow} 3in polarity of DNA strands; these investigations were prompted by predictions derived from our computer modeling studies. Significant progress was made towards synthesizing BPDE-adenine adducts in base sequence-specific oligonucleotides. We failed, on the other hand, to synthesize nitrosopyrene-oligonucleotide adducts because of intrinsic low reactivities of the nitrenium derivative ions with oligonucleotides. Nature was against us in this effort. Therefore, this particular goal to be abandoned. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. DNA sequencing using differential extension with nucleotide subsets (DENS).

    PubMed Central

    Raja, M C; Zevin-Sonkin, D; Shwartzburd, J; Rozovskaya, T A; Sobolev, I A; Chertkov, O; Ramanathan, V; Lvovsky, L; Ulanovsky, L E

    1997-01-01

    Here we describe template directed enzymatic synthesis of unique primers, avoiding the chemical synthesis step in primer walking. We have termed this conceptually new technique DENS (differential extension with nucleotide subsets). DENS works by selectively extending a short primer, making it a long one at the intended site only. The procedure starts with a limited initial extension of the primer (at 20-30 degrees C) in the presence of only two out of the four possible dNTPs. The primer is extended by 6-9 bases or longer at the intended priming site, which is deliberately selected, (as is the two-dNTP set), to maximize the extension length. The subsequent termination reaction at 60-65 degrees C then accepts the extended primer at the intended site, but not at alternative sites, where the initial extension (if any) is generally much shorter. DENS allows the use of primers as long as 8mers (degenerate in two positions) which prime much more strongly than modular primers involving 5-7mers and which (unlike the latter) can be used with thermostable polymerases, thus allowing cycle-sequencing with dye-terminators compatible with Taq DNA polymerase, as well as making double-stranded DNA sequencing more robust. PMID:9016632

  18. Hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences in the Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus.

    PubMed

    Hanotte, O; Burke, T; Armour, J A; Jeffreys, A J

    1991-04-01

    We report here for the first time the large-scale isolation of hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences from a non-human species, the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). A size-selected genomic DNA fraction, rich in hypervariable minisatellites, was cloned into Charomid 9-36. This library was screened using two multilocus hypervariable probes, 33.6 and 33.15 and also, in a "probe-walking" approach, with five of the peafowl minisatellites initially isolated. Forty-eight positively hybridizing clones were characterized and found to originate from 30 different loci, 18 of which were polymorphic. Five of these variable minisatellite loci were studied further. They all showed Mendelian inheritance. The heterozygosities of these loci were relatively low (range 22-78%) in comparison with those of previously cloned human loci, as expected in view of inbreeding in our semicaptive study population. No new length allele mutations were observed in families and the mean mutation rate per locus is low (less than 0.004, 95% confidence maximum). These loci were also investigated by cross-species hybridization in related taxa. The ability of the probes to detect hypervariable sequences in other species within the same avian family was found to vary, from those probes that are species-specific to those that are apparently general to the family. We also illustrate the potential usefulness of these probes for paternity analysis in a study of sexual selection, and discuss the general application of specific hypervariable probes in behavioral and evolutionary studies.

  19. Field guide to next-generation DNA sequencers.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of available 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation DNA sequencing platforms is increasing rapidly. Costs for these systems range from < $100,000 to more than $1,000,000, with instrument run times ranging from minutes to weeks. Extensive trade-offs exist among these platforms. I summarize the major characteristics of each commercially available platform to enable direct comparisons. In terms of cost per megabase (Mb) of sequence, the Illumina and SOLiD platforms are clearly superior (≤ $0.10/Mb vs. > $10/Mb for 454 and some Ion Torrent chips). In terms of cost per nonmultiplexed sample and instrument run time, the Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent platforms excel, with the 454 GS Junior and Illumina MiSeq also notable in this regard. All platforms allow multiplexing of samples, but details of library preparation, experimental design and data analysis can constrain the options. The wide range of characteristics among available platforms provides opportunities both to conduct groundbreaking studies and to waste money on scales that were previously infeasible. Thus, careful thought about the desired characteristics of these systems is warranted before purchasing or using any of them. Updated information from this guide will be maintained at: http://dna.uga.edu/ and http://tomato.biol.trinity.edu/blog/.

  20. Hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences in the Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus.

    PubMed

    Hanotte, O; Burke, T; Armour, J A; Jeffreys, A J

    1991-04-01

    We report here for the first time the large-scale isolation of hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences from a non-human species, the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). A size-selected genomic DNA fraction, rich in hypervariable minisatellites, was cloned into Charomid 9-36. This library was screened using two multilocus hypervariable probes, 33.6 and 33.15 and also, in a "probe-walking" approach, with five of the peafowl minisatellites initially isolated. Forty-eight positively hybridizing clones were characterized and found to originate from 30 different loci, 18 of which were polymorphic. Five of these variable minisatellite loci were studied further. They all showed Mendelian inheritance. The heterozygosities of these loci were relatively low (range 22-78%) in comparison with those of previously cloned human loci, as expected in view of inbreeding in our semicaptive study population. No new length allele mutations were observed in families and the mean mutation rate per locus is low (less than 0.004, 95% confidence maximum). These loci were also investigated by cross-species hybridization in related taxa. The ability of the probes to detect hypervariable sequences in other species within the same avian family was found to vary, from those probes that are species-specific to those that are apparently general to the family. We also illustrate the potential usefulness of these probes for paternity analysis in a study of sexual selection, and discuss the general application of specific hypervariable probes in behavioral and evolutionary studies. PMID:1674723

  1. Phylogenomics of phrynosomatid lizards: conflicting signals from sequence capture versus restriction site associated DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Leaché, Adam D; Chavez, Andreas S; Jones, Leonard N; Grummer, Jared A; Gottscho, Andrew D; Linkem, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    Sequence capture and restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) are popular methods for obtaining large numbers of loci for phylogenetic analysis. These methods are typically used to collect data at different evolutionary timescales; sequence capture is primarily used for obtaining conserved loci, whereas RADseq is designed for discovering single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) suitable for population genetic or phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic questions that span both "recent" and "deep" timescales could benefit from either type of data, but studies that directly compare the two approaches are lacking. We compared phylogenies estimated from sequence capture and double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for North American phrynosomatid lizards, a species-rich and diverse group containing nine genera that began diversifying approximately 55 Ma. Sequence capture resulted in 584 loci that provided a consistent and strong phylogeny using concatenation and species tree inference. However, the phylogeny estimated from the ddRADseq data was sensitive to the bioinformatics steps used for determining homology, detecting paralogs, and filtering missing data. The topological conflicts among the SNP trees were not restricted to any particular timescale, but instead were associated with short internal branches. Species tree analysis of the largest SNP assembly, which also included the most missing data, supported a topology that matched the sequence capture tree. This preferred phylogeny provides strong support for the paraphyly of the earless lizard genera Holbrookia and Cophosaurus, suggesting that the earless morphology either evolved twice or evolved once and was subsequently lost in Callisaurus. PMID:25663487

  2. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas.

  3. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

  4. Statistical methods for detecting periodic fragments in DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Period 10 dinucleotides are structurally and functionally validated factors that influence the ability of DNA to form nucleosomes, histone core octamers. Robust identification of periodic signals in DNA sequences is therefore required to understand nucleosome organisation in genomes. While various techniques for identifying periodic components in genomic sequences have been proposed or adopted, the requirements for such techniques have not been considered in detail and confirmatory testing for a priori specified periods has not been developed. Results We compared the estimation accuracy and suitability for confirmatory testing of autocorrelation, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), integer period discrete Fourier transform (IPDFT) and a previously proposed Hybrid measure. A number of different statistical significance procedures were evaluated but a blockwise bootstrap proved superior. When applied to synthetic data whose period-10 signal had been eroded, or for which the signal was approximately period-10, the Hybrid technique exhibited superior properties during exploratory period estimation. In contrast, confirmatory testing using the blockwise bootstrap procedure identified IPDFT as having the greatest statistical power. These properties were validated on yeast sequences defined from a ChIP-chip study where the Hybrid metric confirmed the expected dominance of period-10 in nucleosome associated DNA but IPDFT identified more significant occurrences of period-10. Application to the whole genomes of yeast and mouse identified ~ 21% and ~ 19% respectively of these genomes as spanned by period-10 nucleosome positioning sequences (NPS). Conclusions For estimating the dominant period, we find the Hybrid period estimation method empirically to be the most effective for both eroded and approximate periodicity. The blockwise bootstrap was found to be effective as a significance measure, performing particularly well in the problem of period detection in the

  5. SequenceL: Automated Parallel Algorithms Derived from CSP-NT Computational Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Daniel; Rushton, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    With the introduction of new parallel architectures like the cell and multicore chips from IBM, Intel, AMD, and ARM, as well as the petascale processing available for highend computing, a larger number of programmers will need to write parallel codes. Adding the parallel control structure to the sequence, selection, and iterative control constructs increases the complexity of code development, which often results in increased development costs and decreased reliability. SequenceL is a high-level programming language that is, a programming language that is closer to a human s way of thinking than to a machine s. Historically, high-level languages have resulted in decreased development costs and increased reliability, at the expense of performance. In recent applications at JSC and in industry, SequenceL has demonstrated the usual advantages of high-level programming in terms of low cost and high reliability. SequenceL programs, however, have run at speeds typically comparable with, and in many cases faster than, their counterparts written in C and C++ when run on single-core processors. Moreover, SequenceL is able to generate parallel executables automatically for multicore hardware, gaining parallel speedups without any extra effort from the programmer beyond what is required to write the sequen tial/singlecore code. A SequenceL-to-C++ translator has been developed that automatically renders readable multithreaded C++ from a combination of a SequenceL program and sample data input. The SequenceL language is based on two fundamental computational laws, Consume-Simplify- Produce (CSP) and Normalize-Trans - pose (NT), which enable it to automate the creation of parallel algorithms from high-level code that has no annotations of parallelism whatsoever. In our anecdotal experience, SequenceL development has been in every case less costly than development of the same algorithm in sequential (that is, single-core, single process) C or C++, and an order of magnitude less

  6. A filter paper-based microdevice for low-cost, rapid, and automated DNA extraction and amplification from diverse sample types.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wupeng; Zhuang, Bin; Zhang, Pengfei; Han, Junping; Li, Cai-Xia; Liu, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A plastic microfluidic device that integrates a filter disc as a DNA capture phase was successfully developed for low-cost, rapid and automated DNA extraction and PCR amplification from various raw samples. The microdevice was constructed by sandwiching a piece of Fusion 5 filter, as well as a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) membrane, between two PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) layers. An automated DNA extraction from 1 μL of human whole blood can be finished on the chip in 7 minutes by sequentially aspirating NaOH, HCl, and water through the filter. The filter disc containing extracted DNA was then taken out directly for PCR. On-chip DNA purification from 0.25-1 μL of human whole blood yielded 8.1-21.8 ng of DNA, higher than those obtained using QIAamp® DNA Micro kits. To realize DNA extraction from raw samples, an additional sample loading chamber containing a filter net with an 80 μm mesh size was designed in front of the extraction chamber to accommodate sample materials. Real-world samples, including whole blood, dried blood stains on Whatman® 903 paper, dried blood stains on FTA™ cards, buccal swabs, saliva, and cigarette butts, can all be processed in the system in 8 minutes. In addition, multiplex amplification of 15 STR (short tandem repeat) loci and Sanger-based DNA sequencing of the 520 bp GJB2 gene were accomplished from the filters that contained extracted DNA from blood. To further prove the feasibility of integrating this extraction method with downstream analyses, "in situ" PCR amplifications were successfully performed in the DNA extraction chamber following DNA purification from blood and blood stains without DNA elution. Using a modified protocol to bond the PDMS and PMMA, our plastic PDMS devices withstood the PCR process without any leakage. This study represents a significant step towards the practical application of on-chip DNA extraction methods, as well as the development of fully integrated genetic analytical systems.

  7. Automated Sanger Analysis Pipeline (ASAP): A Tool for Rapidly Analyzing Sanger Sequencing Data with Minimum User Interference

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aditya; Bhatia, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Sanger sequencing platforms, such as applied biosystems instruments, generate chromatogram files. Generally, for 1 region of a sequence, we use both forward and reverse primers to sequence that area, in that way, we have 2 sequences that need to be aligned and a consensus generated before mutation detection studies. This work is cumbersome and takes time, especially if the gene is large with many exons. Hence, we devised a rapid automated command system to filter, build, and align consensus sequences and also optionally extract exonic regions, translate them in all frames, and perform an amino acid alignment starting from raw sequence data within a very short time. In full capabilities of Automated Mutation Analysis Pipeline (ASAP), it is able to read "*.ab1" chromatogram files through command line interface, convert it to the FASTQ format, trim the low-quality regions, reverse-complement the reverse sequence, create a consensus sequence, extract the exonic regions using a reference exonic sequence, translate the sequence in all frames, and align the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences to reference nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, respectively. All files are created and can be used for further analysis. ASAP is available as Python 3.x executable at https://github.com/aditya-88/ASAP. The version described in this paper is 0.28. PMID:27790076

  8. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark T.; Grafham, Darren V.; Coffey, Alison J.; Scherer, Steven; McLay, Kirsten; Muzny, Donna; Platzer, Matthias; Howell, Gareth R.; Burrows, Christine; Bird, Christine P.; Frankish, Adam; Lovell, Frances L.; Howe, Kevin L.; Ashurst, Jennifer L.; Fulton, Robert S.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Wen, Gaiping; Jones, Matthew C.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Andrews, T. Daniel; Scott, Carol E.; Searle, Stephen; Ramser, Juliane; Whittaker, Adam; Deadman, Rebecca; Carter, Nigel P.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Gunaratne, Preethi; Havlak, Paul; Hodgson, Anne; Metzker, Michael L.; Richards, Stephen; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Ainscough, Rachael; Ambrose, Kerrie D.; Ansari-Lari, M. Ali; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ashwell, Robert I. S.; Babbage, Anne K.; Bagguley, Claire L.; Ballabio, Andrea; Banerjee, Ruby; Barker, Gary E.; Barlow, Karen F.; Barrett, Ian P.; Bates, Karen N.; Beare, David M.; Beasley, Helen; Beasley, Oliver; Beck, Alfred; Bethel, Graeme; Blechschmidt, Karin; Brady, Nicola; Bray-Allen, Sarah; Bridgeman, Anne M.; Brown, Andrew J.; Brown, Mary J.; Bonnin, David; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Buhay, Christian; Burch, Paula; Burford, Deborah; Burgess, Joanne; Burrill, Wayne; Burton, John; Bye, Jackie M.; Carder, Carol; Carrel, Laura; Chako, Joseph; Chapman, Joanne C.; Chavez, Dean; Chen, Ellson; Chen, Guan; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Zhijian; Chinault, Craig; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Clark, Sue Y.; Clarke, Graham; Clee, Chris M.; Clegg, Sheila; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin; Clifford, Karen; Cobley, Vicky; Cole, Charlotte G.; Conquer, Jen S.; Corby, Nicole; Connor, Richard E.; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Davis, Clay; Davis, John; Delgado, Oliver; DeShazo, Denise; Dhami, Pawandeep; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen; Dodsworth, Steve; Draper, Heather; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Dunham, Andrew; Dunn, Matthew; Durbin, K. James; Dutta, Ireena; Eades, Tamsin; Ellwood, Matthew; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra; Errington, Helen; Evans, Kathryn L.; Faulkner, Louisa; Francis, Fiona; Frankland, John; Fraser, Audrey E.; Galgoczy, Petra; Gilbert, James; Gill, Rachel; Glöckner, Gernot; Gregory, Simon G.; Gribble, Susan; Griffiths, Coline; Grocock, Russell; Gu, Yanghong; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hamilton, Cerissa; Hart, Elizabeth A.; Hawes, Alicia; Heath, Paul D.; Heitmann, Katja; Hennig, Steffen; Hernandez, Judith; Hinzmann, Bernd; Ho, Sarah; Hoffs, Michael; Howden, Phillip J.; Huckle, Elizabeth J.; Hume, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul J.; Hunt, Adrienne R.; Isherwood, Judith; Jacob, Leni; Johnson, David; Jones, Sally; de Jong, Pieter J.; Joseph, Shirin S.; Keenan, Stephen; Kelly, Susan; Kershaw, Joanne K.; Khan, Ziad; Kioschis, Petra; Klages, Sven; Knights, Andrew J.; Kosiura, Anna; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Laird, Gavin K.; Langford, Cordelia; Lawlor, Stephanie; Leversha, Margaret; Lewis, Lora; Liu, Wen; Lloyd, Christine; Lloyd, David M.; Loulseged, Hermela; Loveland, Jane E.; Lovell, Jamieson D.; Lozado, Ryan; Lu, Jing; Lyne, Rachael; Ma, Jie; Maheshwari, Manjula; Matthews, Lucy H.; McDowall, Jennifer; McLaren, Stuart; McMurray, Amanda; Meidl, Patrick; Meitinger, Thomas; Milne, Sarah; Miner, George; Mistry, Shailesh L.; Morgan, Margaret; Morris, Sidney; Müller, Ines; Mullikin, James C.; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Nyakatura, Gerald; O’Dell, Christopher N.; Okwuonu, Geoffery; Palmer, Sophie; Pandian, Richard; Parker, David; Parrish, Julia; Pasternak, Shiran; Patel, Dina; Pearce, Alex V.; Pearson, Danita M.; Pelan, Sarah E.; Perez, Lesette; Porter, Keith M.; Ramsey, Yvonne; Reichwald, Kathrin; Rhodes, Susan; Ridler, Kerry A.; Schlessinger, David; Schueler, Mary G.; Sehra, Harminder K.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Shen, Hua; Sheridan, Elizabeth M.; Shownkeen, Ratna; Skuce, Carl D.; Smith, Michelle L.; Sotheran, Elizabeth C.; Steingruber, Helen E.; Steward, Charles A.; Storey, Roy; Swann, R. Mark; Swarbreck, David; Tabor, Paul E.; Taudien, Stefan; Taylor, Tineace; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Karen; Thorpe, Andrea; Timms, Kirsten; Tracey, Alan; Trevanion, Steve; Tromans, Anthony C.; d’Urso, Michele; Verduzco, Daniel; Villasana, Donna; Waldron, Lenee; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Qiaoyan; Warren, James; Warry, Georgina L.; Wei, Xuehong; West, Anthony; Whitehead, Siobhan L.; Whiteley, Mathew N.; Wilkinson, Jane E.; Willey, David L.; Williams, Gabrielle; Williams, Leanne; Williamson, Angela; Williamson, Helen; Wilming, Laurens; Woodmansey, Rebecca L.; Wray, Paul W.; Yen, Jennifer; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Zoghbi, Huda; Zorilla, Sara; Buck, David; Reinhardt, Richard; Poustka, Annemarie; Rosenthal, André; Lehrach, Hans; Meindl, Alfons; Minx, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence. PMID:15772651

  9. The evolution processes of DNA sequences, languages and carols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Jürgen; Henkel, Dorothea; Mika, Klaus

    2001-04-01

    The sequences of bases A, T, C and G of about 100 enolase, secA and cytochrome DNA were analyzed for attractive or repulsive interactions by the numbers T 1,T 2,T 3; r of nearest, next-nearest and third neighbor bases of the same kind and the concentration r=other bases/analyzed base. The area of possible T1, T2 values is limited by the linear borders T 2=2T 1-2, T 2=0 or T1=0 for clustering, attractive or repulsive interactions and the border T2=-2 T1+2(2- r) for a variation from repulsive to attractive interactions at r⩽2. Clustering is preferred by most bases in sequences of enolases and secA’ s. Major deviations with repulsive interactions of some bases are observed for archaea bacteria in secA and for highly developed animals and the human species in enolase sequences. The borders of the structure map for enthalpy stabilized structures with maximum interactions are approached in few cases. Most letters of the natural languages and some music notes are at the borders of the structure map.

  10. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Mark T; Grafham, Darren V; Coffey, Alison J; Scherer, Steven; McLay, Kirsten; Muzny, Donna; Platzer, Matthias; Howell, Gareth R; Burrows, Christine; Bird, Christine P; Frankish, Adam; Lovell, Frances L; Howe, Kevin L; Ashurst, Jennifer L; Fulton, Robert S; Sudbrak, Ralf; Wen, Gaiping; Jones, Matthew C; Hurles, Matthew E; Andrews, T Daniel; Scott, Carol E; Searle, Stephen; Ramser, Juliane; Whittaker, Adam; Deadman, Rebecca; Carter, Nigel P; Hunt, Sarah E; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Gunaratne, Preethi; Havlak, Paul; Hodgson, Anne; Metzker, Michael L; Richards, Stephen; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Ainscough, Rachael; Ambrose, Kerrie D; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ashwell, Robert I S; Babbage, Anne K; Bagguley, Claire L; Ballabio, Andrea; Banerjee, Ruby; Barker, Gary E; Barlow, Karen F; Barrett, Ian P; Bates, Karen N; Beare, David M; Beasley, Helen; Beasley, Oliver; Beck, Alfred; Bethel, Graeme; Blechschmidt, Karin; Brady, Nicola; Bray-Allen, Sarah; Bridgeman, Anne M; Brown, Andrew J; Brown, Mary J; Bonnin, David; Bruford, Elspeth A; Buhay, Christian; Burch, Paula; Burford, Deborah; Burgess, Joanne; Burrill, Wayne; Burton, John; Bye, Jackie M; Carder, Carol; Carrel, Laura; Chako, Joseph; Chapman, Joanne C; Chavez, Dean; Chen, Ellson; Chen, Guan; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Zhijian; Chinault, Craig; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Clark, Sue Y; Clarke, Graham; Clee, Chris M; Clegg, Sheila; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin; Clifford, Karen; Cobley, Vicky; Cole, Charlotte G; Conquer, Jen S; Corby, Nicole; Connor, Richard E; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Davis, Clay; Davis, John; Delgado, Oliver; Deshazo, Denise; Dhami, Pawandeep; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen; Dodsworth, Steve; Draper, Heather; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Dunham, Andrew; Dunn, Matthew; Durbin, K James; Dutta, Ireena; Eades, Tamsin; Ellwood, Matthew; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra; Errington, Helen; Evans, Kathryn L; Faulkner, Louisa; Francis, Fiona; Frankland, John; Fraser, Audrey E; Galgoczy, Petra; Gilbert, James; Gill, Rachel; Glöckner, Gernot; Gregory, Simon G; Gribble, Susan; Griffiths, Coline; Grocock, Russell; Gu, Yanghong; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hamilton, Cerissa; Hart, Elizabeth A; Hawes, Alicia; Heath, Paul D; Heitmann, Katja; Hennig, Steffen; Hernandez, Judith; Hinzmann, Bernd; Ho, Sarah; Hoffs, Michael; Howden, Phillip J; Huckle, Elizabeth J; Hume, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul J; Hunt, Adrienne R; Isherwood, Judith; Jacob, Leni; Johnson, David; Jones, Sally; de Jong, Pieter J; Joseph, Shirin S; Keenan, Stephen; Kelly, Susan; Kershaw, Joanne K; Khan, Ziad; Kioschis, Petra; Klages, Sven; Knights, Andrew J; Kosiura, Anna; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Laird, Gavin K; Langford, Cordelia; Lawlor, Stephanie; Leversha, Margaret; Lewis, Lora; Liu, Wen; Lloyd, Christine; Lloyd, David M; Loulseged, Hermela; Loveland, Jane E; Lovell, Jamieson D; Lozado, Ryan; Lu, Jing; Lyne, Rachael; Ma, Jie; Maheshwari, Manjula; Matthews, Lucy H; McDowall, Jennifer; McLaren, Stuart; McMurray, Amanda; Meidl, Patrick; Meitinger, Thomas; Milne, Sarah; Miner, George; Mistry, Shailesh L; Morgan, Margaret; Morris, Sidney; Müller, Ines; Mullikin, James C; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Nyakatura, Gerald; O'Dell, Christopher N; Okwuonu, Geoffery; Palmer, Sophie; Pandian, Richard; Parker, David; Parrish, Julia; Pasternak, Shiran; Patel, Dina; Pearce, Alex V; Pearson, Danita M; Pelan, Sarah E; Perez, Lesette; Porter, Keith M; Ramsey, Yvonne; Reichwald, Kathrin; Rhodes, Susan; Ridler, Kerry A; Schlessinger, David; Schueler, Mary G; Sehra, Harminder K; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Shen, Hua; Sheridan, Elizabeth M; Shownkeen, Ratna; Skuce, Carl D; Smith, Michelle L; Sotheran, Elizabeth C; Steingruber, Helen E; Steward, Charles A; Storey, Roy; Swann, R Mark; Swarbreck, David; Tabor, Paul E; Taudien, Stefan; Taylor, Tineace; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Karen; Thorpe, Andrea; Timms, Kirsten; Tracey, Alan; Trevanion, Steve; Tromans, Anthony C; d'Urso, Michele; Verduzco, Daniel; Villasana, Donna; Waldron, Lenee; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Qiaoyan; Warren, James; Warry, Georgina L; Wei, Xuehong; West, Anthony; Whitehead, Siobhan L; Whiteley, Mathew N; Wilkinson, Jane E; Willey, David L; Williams, Gabrielle; Williams, Leanne; Williamson, Angela; Williamson, Helen; Wilming, Laurens; Woodmansey, Rebecca L; Wray, Paul W; Yen, Jennifer; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Zoghbi, Huda; Zorilla, Sara; Buck, David; Reinhardt, Richard; Poustka, Annemarie; Rosenthal, André; Lehrach, Hans; Meindl, Alfons; Minx, Patrick J; Hillier, Ladeana W; Willard, Huntington F; Wilson, Richard K; Waterston, Robert H; Rice, Catherine M; Vaudin, Mark; Coulson, Alan; Nelson, David L; Weinstock, George; Sulston, John E; Durbin, Richard; Hubbard, Tim; Gibbs, Richard A; Beck, Stephan; Rogers, Jane; Bentley, David R

    2005-03-17

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

  11. Automating Genomic Data Mining via a Sequence-based Matrix Format and Associative Rule Set

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D; Johnson, David; Gruenwald, Le

    2005-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of information encoded in each genome – enough to create living, responsive and adaptive organisms. Raw sequence data alone is not enough to understand function, mechanisms or interactions. Changes in a single base pair can lead to disease, such as sickle-cell anemia, while some large megabase deletions have no apparent phenotypic effect. Genomic features are varied in their data types and annotation of these features is spread across multiple databases. Herein, we develop a method to automate exploration of genomes by iteratively exploring sequence data for correlations and building upon them. First, to integrate and compare different annotation sources, a sequence matrix (SM) is developed to contain position-dependant information. Second, a classification tree is developed for matrix row types, specifying how each data type is to be treated with respect to other data types for analysis purposes. Third, correlative analyses are developed to analyze features of each matrix row in terms of the other rows, guided by the classification tree as to which analyses are appropriate. A prototype was developed and successful in detecting coinciding genomic features among genes, exons, repetitive elements and CpG islands. PMID:16026599

  12. Automating genomic data mining via a sequence-based matrix format and associative rule set.

    PubMed

    Wren, Jonathan D; Johnson, David; Gruenwald, Le

    2005-07-15

    There is an enormous amount of information encoded in each genome--enough to create living, responsive and adaptive organisms. Raw sequence data alone is not enough to understand function, mechanisms or interactions. Changes in a single base pair can lead to disease, such as sickle-cell anemia, while some large megabase deletions have no apparent phenotypic effect. Genomic features are varied in their data types and annotation of these features is spread across multiple databases. Herein, we develop a method to automate exploration of genomes by iteratively exploring sequence data for correlations and building upon them. First, to integrate and compare different annotation sources, a sequence matrix (SM) is developed to contain position-dependant information. Second, a classification tree is developed for matrix row types, specifying how each data type is to be treated with respect to other data types for analysis purposes. Third, correlative analyses are developed to analyze features of each matrix row in terms of the other rows, guided by the classification tree as to which analyses are appropriate. A prototype was developed and successful in detecting coinciding genomic features among genes, exons, repetitive elements and CpG islands.

  13. Quantitation of DNA sequences in environmental PCR products by a multiplexed, bead-based method.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Alexander; Lowe, Mary

    2002-02-01

    A first application of a multiplexed, bead-based method is described for determining the abundances of target sequences in an environmental PCR product. Target sequences as little as 0.3% of the total amount of DNA can be quantified. Tests were conducted on 16S ribosomal DNA sequences from microorganisms collected from contaminated groundwater. PMID:11823255

  14. Challenges in DNA motion control and sequence readout using nanopore devices

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Spencer; Wanunu, Meni

    2016-01-01

    Nanopores are being hailed as a potential next-generation DNA sequencer that could provide cheap, high-throughput DNA analysis. In this review we present a detailed summary of the various sensing techniques being investigated for use in DNA sequencing and mapping applications. A crucial impasse to the success of nanopores as a reliable DNA analysis tool is the fast and stochastic nature of DNA translocation. We discuss the incorporation of biological motors to step DNA through a pore base-by-base, as well as the many experimental modifications attempted for the purpose of slowing and controlling DNA transport. PMID:25642629

  15. Generation of single-stranded DNA by the polymerase chain reaction and its application to direct sequencing of the HLA-DQA locus.

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, U B; Erlich, H A

    1988-01-01

    Single-copy sequences can be enzymatically amplified from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. By using unequal molar amounts of the two amplification primers, it is possible in a single step to amplify a single-copy gene and produce an excess of single-stranded DNA of a chosen strand for direct sequencing or for use as a hybridization probe. Further, individual alleles in a heterozygote can be sequenced directly by using allele-specific oligonucleotides either in the amplification reaction or as sequencing primers. By using these methods, we have studied the allelic diversity at the HLA-DQA locus and its association with the serologically defined HLA-DR and -DQ types. This analysis has revealed a total of eight alleles and three additional haplotypes. This procedure has wide applications in screening for mutations in human genes and facilitates the linking of enzymatic amplification of genes to automated sequencing. Images PMID:3174659

  16. Transforming DNA sequences of human hepatocellular carcinomas, their distribution and relationship with hepatitis B virus sequence in human hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Modali, R; Parks, J B; Taub, J V

    1988-12-01

    Several related human transforming DNA sequences, hhc, and a putative normal liver homologue, c-hhc, have been molecularly cloned from the genomic DNAs of individual African and Asian hepatomas and from normal liver respectively. hhcM (Mahlavu) and hhcK3 (Korean), but not c-hhc, transformed NIH3T3 cells in DNA-mediated gene transfer assays. Transformed cells were found tumorigenic in athymic NIH Swiss nu/nu mice. In view of recent epidemiological studies implicating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection early in life as causative for the eventual development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in humans in Southeast Asia, the Far-East, and certain areas of Africa, we hereby analyzed the relationship between these hhcs and HBV in a survey of 20 hepatomas for DNA sequences homologous to hhcM and HBV by sequential hybridizations against [32p]hhcM and [32p]HBV probes. hhcM related DNA sequence were found highly amplified in 80% of the 20 hepatomas but HBV DNA sequence was rare or low. hhcM lends itself as a marker for human hepatomas. However, overall results indicated that patients with integrated HBV DNA sequences showed high copy number of hhcM sequence. Furthermore, EcoR1-restricted hepatoma DNAs showed that HBV and hhcM DNA sequences resided at different fragments in hepatomas. Our results suggest that HBV contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis probably via an activation mechanism involving possibly an integration or transient interaction of HBV DNA with hepatocyte DNA sequences, leading to recombination and eventual amplifications of the hhcM sequence in Mahlavu.

  17. Episodic Statistics of Evolutionary Substitutions in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.

    1998-03-01

    The number of molecular substitutions occurring in a DNA sequence in a given time interval is described by a fractional-difference equation whose statistics are described by a truncated Levy distribution and which has an inverse power law correlation function. This is an empirically motivated stochastic model of molecular evolution and does not address the evolutionary mechanisms that lead to substitutions. The Levy stable process yields a Fano Factor, the ratio of the variance to the mean in the number of molecular substitutions, that increases as a power law in time. This prediction agrees with the observed statistics across 49 different genes in mammals. This model of molecular evolution is episodic and is consistent with the punctuated equilibrium model of macroevolution without making additional statistical assumptions.

  18. Sequence-specific fluorescence detection of DNA by polyamide-thiazole orange conjugates.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Eric J; Olenyuk, Bogdan; Dervan, Peter B

    2005-11-30

    Fluorescent methods to detect specific double-stranded DNA sequences without the need for denaturation may be useful in the field of genetics. Three hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides 2-4 that target their respective sequences 5'-WGGGWW-3', 5'-WGGCCW-3', and 5'-WGWWCW-3' (W = A or T) were conjugated to thiazole orange dye at the C-termini to examine their fluorescence properties in the presence and absence of match duplex DNA. The conjugates fluoresce weakly in the absence of DNA but showed significant enhancement (>1000-fold) upon the addition of 1 equiv of match DNA and only slight enhancement with the addition of mismatch DNA. The polyamide-dye conjugates bound specific DNA sequences with high affinity (Ka > 10(8) M(-1)) and unwound the DNA duplex through intercalation (unwinding angle, phi, approximately 8 degrees). This new class of polyamides provides a method to specifically detect DNA sequences without denaturation.

  19. Rapid removal of unincorporated label and proteins from DNA sequencing reactions.

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, T; Sektas, M

    1996-04-01

    This article presents a simple and rapid method for removal of unincorporated label and proteins from DNA sequencing reactions by using Wizard purification resin. This method can be successfully applied for preparation of end-labeled oligonucleotides free of unincorporated label, which is important in experiments (including DNA sequencing) when the level of background should be as low as possible. Also, this method is effective in removal of proteins from DNA sequencing reactions. PMID:8734430

  20. An automated alkaline elution system: DNA damage induced by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, G; Holme, J A; Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Dybing, E

    1988-11-01

    An automated alkaline elution system for the detection of DNA damage has been developed. After manual application of samples, which is completed within 5 min, the subsequent supply of liquids, changes in flow rates, and temperature are controlled automatically. The system operates 16 filters and may easily be expanded. The sensitivity of the fluorometric DNA determinations with the Hoechst 33258 dye is increased by using an elution buffer (20 mM Na2EDTA, pH 12.50) with low background fluorescence. DNA is determined using an automated setup similar to the one recently presented by Sterzel et al. (1985, Anal. Biochem. 147, 462-467). The most significant modification is the use of a neutralization buffer which allows variations in the pH of eluted fractions. This change increases the sensitivity of the DNA measurements. The automated alkaline elution system was evaluated using the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in a study of its genotoxic effects in the testes and the kidneys. Significant DNA damage was induced in testicular cells by 2.5 microM DBCP (1 h) in vitro and 85 mumol/kg DBCP ip (3 h) in vivo. The damage appeared after short treatment times (10 min in vivo). Variations in the observed DBCP response in vivo were largely due to interanimal variations. The automated alkaline elution system proved to be a sensitive assay also for the detection of DNA damage in kidney nuclei prepared from rats exposed to DBCP. Provided that kidney nuclei from untreated rats, mice, or hamster were kept ice-cold until lysing, 85-100% of their DNA was retained after 16 h of elution, indicating highly intact DNA. Under the same conditions, guinea pig DNA was rapidly degraded unless the nuclei were prepared in a buffer with a higher concentration of Na2EDTA (20 mM). PMID:3239754