Science.gov

Sample records for automated edman degradation

  1. A photothermally responsive nanoprobe for bioimaging based on Edman degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhantong; Zhang, Huimin; Lang, Lixin; Ma, Ying; He, Qianjun; Lu, Nan; Huang, Peng; Liu, Yijing; Song, Jibin; Liu, Zhibo; Gao, Shi; Ma, Qingjie; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    A new type of photothermally responsive nanoprobe based on Edman degradation has been synthesized and characterized. Under irradiation by an 808 nm laser, the heat generated by the gold nanorod core breaks the thiocarbamide structure and releases the fluorescent dye Cy5.5 with increased near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence under mild acidic conditions. This RGD modified nanoprobe is capable of fluorescence imaging of ανβ3 over-expressing U87MG cells in vitro and in vivo. This Edman degradation-based nanoprobe provides a novel strategy to design activatable probes for biomedical imaging and drug/gene delivery.A new type of photothermally responsive nanoprobe based on Edman degradation has been synthesized and characterized. Under irradiation by an 808 nm laser, the heat generated by the gold nanorod core breaks the thiocarbamide structure and releases the fluorescent dye Cy5.5 with increased near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence under mild acidic conditions. This RGD modified nanoprobe is capable of fluorescence imaging of ανβ3 over-expressing U87MG cells in vitro and in vivo. This Edman degradation-based nanoprobe provides a novel strategy to design activatable probes for biomedical imaging and drug/gene delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HPLC, MS and 1H NMR spectrum. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01400c

  2. Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method

    SciTech Connect

    Toernqvist, M.M.; Mowrer, J.; Jensen, S.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1986-04-01

    Tissue doses of cancer initiators/mutagens are suitably monitored through hemoglobin adducts formed in vivo, but the use of this method has been hampered by a lack of sufficiently simple and fast procedures. It was previously observed that when the N-terminal amino acid in hemoglobin, valine, is alkylated it is cleaved off by the Edman sequencing reagent, phenyl isothiocyanate, in the neutral-alkaline coupling medium, as opposed to the acidic medium required by normal amino acids. Based on this principle, conditions for a functioning procedure for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) determination of N-terminal alkylvalines in hemoglobin were worked out. Derivatizing the protein in formamide solution with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate, using a /sup 2/H-alkylated protein as internal standard, and applying on-column injection during analysis, permit reproducible determination of hydroxyethylvaline and other adducts down into the dose range where cancer risks may be considered acceptably low.

  3. Determination of the covalent structure of an N- and C-terminally blocked glycoprotein from endocuticle of Locusta migratoria. Combined use of plasma desorption mass spectrometry and Edman degradation to study post-translationally modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Talbo, G; Højrup, P; Rahbek-Nielsen, H; Andersen, S O; Roepstorff, P

    1991-01-30

    The complete structure of protein isolated from endocuticle of sexually mature locusts, Locusta migratoria, has been determined by a combination of automatic Edman degradation and plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The protein is extensively post-translationally modified. The N-terminal is 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) and the C-terminal proline residue is amidated. Furthermore, the protein is glycosylated by a single N-acetyl-galactosamine residue at one, two or three threonines. The N-terminal sequence was obtained by analysing the N-acetylated N,O-permethylated derivative using plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The position and type of carbohydrate were determined by combining an HPLC-based carbohydrate analysis with the peak pattern of the phenylthiohydantoin derivative in automatic sequencing and with mass information on peptides. The protein has pronounced similarity to cuticular proteins from larvae of diptera and lepidoptera, but only slight resemblance to the previously sequenced locust exocuticular proteins. This indicates a similarity between soft larval cuticles and locust endocuticle, a similarity which may extend to their mechanical properties. PMID:1997327

  4. Automated detection and location of structural degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, B.; Blakeman, E.D.; Phillips, L.D.

    1997-03-01

    The investigation of a diagnostic method for detecting and locating the source of structural degradation in mechanical systems is described in this paper. The diagnostic method uses a mathematical model of the mechanical system to define relationships between system parameters, such as spring rates and damping rates, and measurable spectral features, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. These model-defined relationships are incorporated into a neural network, which is used to relate measured spectral features to system parameters. The diagnosis of the system`s condition is performed by presenting the neural network with measured spectral features and comparing the system parameters estimated by the neural network to previously estimated values. Changes in the estimated system parameters indicate the location and severity of degradation in the mechanical system. The investigation applied the method by using computer-simulated data and data collected form a bench-top mechanical system. The effects of neural network training set size and composition on the accuracy of the model parameter estimates were investigated by using computer simulated data. The results show that diagnostic method can be applied to successfully locate and estimate the magnitude of structural changes in a mechanical system. The average error in the estimated spring rate values of the bench-top mechanical system was less than 10%. This degree of accuracy is sufficient to permit the use of this method for detecting and locating structural degradation in mechanical systems.

  5. An investigation of image compression on NIIRS rating degradation through automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Mei; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) is a subjective quantification of static image widely adopted by the Geographic Information System (GIS) community. Efforts have been made to relate NIIRS image quality to sensor parameters using the general image quality equations (GIQE), which make it possible to automatically predict the NIIRS rating of an image through automated image analysis. In this paper, we present an automated procedure to extract line edge profile based on which the NIIRS rating of a given image can be estimated through the GIQEs if the ground sampling distance (GSD) is known. Steps involved include straight edge detection, edge stripes determination, and edge intensity determination, among others. Next, we show how to employ GIQEs to estimate NIIRS degradation without knowing the ground truth GSD and investigate the effects of image compression on the degradation of an image's NIIRS rating. Specifically, we consider JPEG and JPEG2000 image compression standards. The extensive experimental results demonstrate the effect of image compression on the ground sampling distance and relative edge response, which are the major factors effecting NIIRS rating.

  6. Automated marker tracking using noisy X-ray images degraded by the treatment beam.

    PubMed

    Wisotzky, E; Fast, M F; Oelfke, U; Nill, S

    2015-06-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of automated marker tracking for the real-time detection of intrafractional target motion using noisy kilovoltage (kV) X-ray images degraded by the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. The authors previously introduced the in-line imaging geometry, in which the flat-panel detector (FPD) is mounted directly underneath the treatment head of the linear accelerator. They found that the 121 kVp image quality was severely compromised by the 6 MV beam passing through the FPD at the same time. Specific MV-induced artefacts present a considerable challenge for automated marker detection algorithms. For this study, the authors developed a new imaging geometry by re-positioning the FPD and the X-ray tube. This improved the contrast-to-noise-ratio between 40% and 72% at the 1.2 mAs/image exposure setting. The increase in image quality clearly facilitates the quick and stable detection of motion with the aid of a template matching algorithm. The setup was tested with an anthropomorphic lung phantom (including an artificial lung tumour). In the tumour one or three Calypso beacons were embedded to achieve better contrast during MV radiation. For a single beacon, image acquisition and automated marker detection typically took around 76 ± 6 ms. The success rate was found to be highly dependent on imaging dose and gantry angle. To eliminate possible false detections, the authors implemented a training phase prior to treatment beam irradiation and also introduced speed limits for motion between subsequent images.

  7. Semi-Automated Detection of Surface Degradation on Bridges Based on a Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, A.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2015-08-01

    Due to the effect of climate factors, natural phenomena and human usage, buildings and infrastructures are subject of progressive degradation. The deterioration of these structures has to be monitored in order to avoid hazards for human beings and for the natural environment in their neighborhood. Hence, on the one hand, monitoring such infrastructures is of primarily importance. On the other hand, unfortunately, nowadays this monitoring effort is mostly done by expert and skilled personnel, which follow the overall data acquisition, analysis and result reporting process, making the whole monitoring procedure quite expensive for the public (and private, as well) agencies. This paper proposes the use of a partially user-assisted procedure in order to reduce the monitoring cost and to make the obtained result less subjective as well. The developed method relies on the use of images acquired with standard cameras by even inexperienced personnel. The deterioration on the infrastructure surface is detected by image segmentation based on a level sets method. The results of the semi-automated analysis procedure are remapped on a 3D model of the infrastructure obtained by means of a terrestrial laser scanning acquisition. The proposed method has been successfully tested on a portion of a road bridge in Perarolo di Cadore (BL), Italy.

  8. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  9. Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Leinders, Suzanne M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Méndez Romero, Alejandra; Schaart, Dennis; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

  10. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection-high-resolution-mass spectrometry combined with automated data processing for studying the kinetics of oxidative thermal degradation of thyroxine in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Neu, Volker; Bielow, Chris; Reinert, Knut; Huber, Christian G

    2014-12-01

    Levothyroxine as active pharmaceutical ingredient of formulations used for the treatment of hypothyroidism is distributed worldwide and taken by millions of people. An important issue in terms of compound stability is its capability to react with ambient oxygen, especially in case of long term compound storage at elevated temperature. In this study we demonstrate that ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-HRMS) represent very useful approaches to investigate the influence of ambient oxygen on the degradation kinetics of levothyroxine in the solid state at enhanced degradation conditions. Moreover, the impurity pattern of oxidative degradation of levothyroxine is elucidated and classified with respect to degradation kinetics at different oxygen levels. Kinetic analysis of thyroxine bulk material at 100 °C reveals bi-phasic degradation kinetics with a distinct change in degradation phases dependent on the availability of oxygen. The results clearly show that contact of the bulk material to ambient oxygen is a key factor for fast compound degradation. Furthermore, the combination of time-resolved HRMS data and automated data processing is shown to allow insights into the kinetics and mechanism of impurity formation on individual compound basis. By comparing degradation profiles, four main classes of profiles linked to reaction pathways of thyroxine degradation were identifiable. Finally, we show the capability of automated data processing for the matching of different stressing conditions, in order to extract information about mechanistic similarities. As a result, degradation kinetics is influenced by factors like availability of oxygen, stressing time, or stressing temperature, while the degradation mechanisms appear to be conserved.

  11. Cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1988-01-01

    The aims and methods of aircraft cockpit automation are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Consideration is given to the mixed pilot reception of increased automation, government concern with the safety and reliability of highly automated aircraft, the formal definition of automation, and the ground-proximity warning system and accidents involving controlled flight into terrain. The factors motivating automation include technology availability; safety; economy, reliability, and maintenance; workload reduction and two-pilot certification; more accurate maneuvering and navigation; display flexibility; economy of cockpit space; and military requirements.

  12. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  13. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  14. A novel automated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of sodium risedronate and related degradation products in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2014-10-24

    A simple, sensitive and fast hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD)/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of sodium risedronate (SR) and its degradation products in new pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separations were performed on Ascentis Express HILIC 2.7μm (150mm×2.1mm, i.d.) stainless steel column (fused core). The mobile phase consisted of formate buffer solution (pH 3.4; 0.03M)/acetonitrile 42:58 and 45:55 (v/v) for granules for oral solution and effervescent tablet analysis, respectively, at a flow-rate of 0.2mL/min, setting the wavelength at 262nm. Stability characteristics of SR were evaluated by performing stress test studies. The main degradation product formed under oxidation conditions corresponding to sodium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1-oxidopyridin-3-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation parameters such as linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and selectivity were found to be highly satisfactory. Linear responses were observed in standard and in fortified placebo solutions. Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤1.1% for peak area and ≤0.2% for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Recovery studies showed good results for all the examined compounds (from 98.7 to 101.0%) with RSD ranging from 0.6 to 0.7%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 and 3ng/mL, respectively. The high stability of standard and sample solutions at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed stability indicating

  15. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  16. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  17. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  18. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  19. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Cockpit Adaptive Automation and Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of high-level automated systems in the aircraft cockpit has provided several benefits, e.g., new capabilities, enhanced operational efficiency, and reduced crew workload. At the same time, conventional 'static' automation has sometimes degraded human operator monitoring performance, increased workload, and reduced situation awareness. Adaptive automation represents an alternative to static automation. In this approach, task allocation between human operators and computer systems is flexible and context-dependent rather than static. Adaptive automation, or adaptive task allocation, is thought to provide for regulation of operator workload and performance, while preserving the benefits of static automation. In previous research we have reported beneficial effects of adaptive automation on the performance of both pilots and non-pilots of flight-related tasks. For adaptive systems to be viable, however, such benefits need to be examined jointly in the context of a single set of tasks. The studies carried out under this project evaluated a systematic method for combining different forms of adaptive automation. A model for effective combination of different forms of adaptive automation, based on matching adaptation to operator workload was proposed and tested. The model was evaluated in studies using IFR-rated pilots flying a general-aviation simulator. Performance, subjective, and physiological (heart rate variability, eye scan-paths) measures of workload were recorded. The studies compared workload-based adaptation to to non-adaptive control conditions and found evidence for systematic benefits of adaptive automation. The research provides an empirical basis for evaluating the effectiveness of adaptive automation in the cockpit. The results contribute to the development of design principles and guidelines for the implementation of adaptive automation in the cockpit, particularly in general aviation, and in other human-machine systems. Project goals

  1. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.; Zavaljevski, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Miron, A.; Jupperman, D.

    2004-12-31

    Utilities perform eddy current tests on nuclear power plant steam generator (SG) tubes to detect degradation. This report summarizes the status of ongoing research to develop signal processing algorithms that automate analysis of eddy current test data. The research focuses on analyzing array probe data for detecting, classifying, and characterizing degradation in SG tubes.

  2. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  3. Automation: triumph or trap?

    PubMed

    Smythe, M H

    1997-01-01

    Automation, a hot topic in the laboratory world today, can be a very expensive option. Those who are considering implementing automation can save time and money by examining the issues from the standpoint of an industrial/manufacturing engineer. The engineer not only asks what problems will be solved by automation, but what problems will be created. This article discusses questions that must be asked and answered to ensure that automation efforts will yield real and substantial payoffs.

  4. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  5. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  6. Shoe-String Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  7. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems.

  8. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  9. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  10. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  11. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  12. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  13. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  14. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  15. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  16. More Benefits of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  17. Educating Archivists for Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Lisa B.

    1988-01-01

    Archivists indicate they want to learn more about automation in archives, the MARC AMC (Archival and Manuscripts Control) format, and emerging computer technologies; they look for educational opportunities through professional associations, publications, and college coursework; future archival automation education needs include standards, shared…

  18. Automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin

    1988-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems focus on the automation of control systems for the Space Station and mission operations. Telerobotics focuses on automation for in-space servicing, assembly, and repair. The Autonomous Systems and Telerobotics each have a planned sequence of integrated demonstrations showing the evolutionary advance of the state-of-the-art. Progress is briefly described for each area of concern.

  19. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  20. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  1. Automation in immunohematology.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  2. Automation in immunohematology.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  3. Systematic review automation technologies.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico

    2014-07-09

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time.

  4. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  5. Automation synthesis modules review.

    PubMed

    Boschi, S; Lodi, F; Malizia, C; Cicoria, G; Marengo, M

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of (68)Ga labelled tracers has changed the diagnostic approach to neuroendocrine tumours and the availability of a reliable, long-lived (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator has been at the bases of the development of (68)Ga radiopharmacy. The huge increase in clinical demand, the impact of regulatory issues and a careful radioprotection of the operators have boosted for extensive automation of the production process. The development of automated systems for (68)Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations.

  6. Polysaccharide Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  7. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  9. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  10. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  11. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  12. Manual gas-phase isothiocyanate degradation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, W F; Frank, G

    1988-02-01

    We describe a manual gas-phase isothiocyanate degradation procedure for the primary structure determination of proteins and peptides. The proteins and peptides are applied to a polybrene-coated glass fiber filter wedged into a small glass column. The phenylisothiocyanate is directly pipetted onto the filter disk. The coupling and cleavage reactions are performed in small desiccators containing trimethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid vapors, respectively. The wash and extraction steps are performed by allowing the suitable solvents to percolate through the filter disk. The extracted anilinothiazolinone is then converted to the phenylthiohydantoin and identified by any one of a number of described methods. Our results show that this method is very sensitive and that the reactions proceed faster than those of the published automated procedure. No expensive equipment is required and the manual degradation can be performed by a laboratory assistant. A large number of samples can be simultaneously subjected to the degradation under identical conditions, making this an ideal method for physicochemical investigations into the isothiocyanate degradation. We also use this method to screen HPLC fractions after enzymatic protein fragmentation. Manually sequenced glass filters can be transferred to the automated instrument for more extended degradations.

  13. Expert systems for Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.; Firschein, O.

    1985-01-01

    The expert systems required for automating key functions of the Manned Space Station (MSS) are explored. It is necessary that the expert systems developed be flexible, degrade gracefully in the case of a failure, and be able to work with incomplete data. The AI systems will have to perform interpretation and diagnosis, design, prediction and induction, and monitoring and control functions. Both quantitative and qualitative reasoning capabilities need improvements, as do automatic verification techniques, explanation and learning capabilities, and the use of metaknowledge, i. e., knowledge about the knowledge contained in the knowledge base. Information retrieval, fault isolation and manufacturing process control demonstrations are needed to validate expert systems for the MSS.

  14. Interactive degraded document enhancement and ground truth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, G.; Agam, G.; Frieder, O.; Frieder, G.

    2008-01-01

    Degraded documents are frequently obtained in various situations. Examples of degraded document collections include historical document depositories, document obtained in legal and security investigations, and legal and medical archives. Degraded document images are hard to to read and are hard to analyze using computerized techniques. There is hence a need for systems that are capable of enhancing such images. We describe a language-independent semi-automated system for enhancing degraded document images that is capable of exploiting inter- and intra-document coherence. The system is capable of processing document images with high levels of degradations and can be used for ground truthing of degraded document images. Ground truthing of degraded document images is extremely important in several aspects: it enables quantitative performance measurements of enhancement systems and facilitates model estimation that can be used to improve performance. Performance evaluation is provided using the historical Frieder diaries collection.1

  15. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  16. Materials Testing and Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  17. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “factor slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  18. Automation in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reader, John C

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation can make a significant improvement in productivity at each stage of the drug discovery process, if it is incorporated into an efficient overall process. Automated chemistry has evolved rapidly from the 'combinatorial' techniques implemented in many industrial laboratories in the early 1990's which focused primarily on the hit discovery phase, and were highly dependent on solid-phase techniques and instrumentation derived from peptide synthesis. Automated tools and strategies have been developed which can impact the hit discovery, hit expansion and lead optimization phases, not only in synthesis, but also in reaction optimization, work-up, and purification of compounds. This article discusses the implementation of some of these techniques, based especially on experiences at Millennium Pharmaceuticals Research and Development Ltd.

  19. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  20. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  1. Automated fiber pigtailing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, O. T.; Lowry, M. E.; Lu, S. Y.; Nelson, D. C.; Nikkel, D. J.; Pocha, M. D.; Young, K. D.

    1994-02-01

    The high cost of optoelectronic (OE) devices is due mainly to the labor-intensive packaging process. Manually pigtailing such devices as single-mode laser diodes and modulators is very time consuming with poor quality control. The Photonics Program and the Engineering Research Division at LLNL are addressing several issues associated with automatically packaging OE devices. A furry automated system must include high-precision fiber alignment, fiber attachment techniques, in-situ quality control, and parts handling and feeding. This paper will present on-going work at LLNL in the areas of automated fiber alignment and fiber attachment. For the fiber alignment, we are building an automated fiber pigtailing machine (AFPM) which combines computer vision and object recognition algorithms with active feedback to perform sub-micron alignments of single-mode fibers to modulators and laser diodes. We expect to perform sub-micron alignments in less than five minutes with this technology. For fiber attachment, we are building various geometries of silicon microbenches which include on-board heaters to solder metal-coated fibers and other components in place; these designs are completely compatible with an automated process of OE packaging. We have manually attached a laser diode, a thermistor, and a thermo-electric heater to one of our microbenches in less than 15 minutes using the on-board heaters for solder reflow; an automated process could perform this same exercise in only a few minutes. Automated packaging techniques such as these will help lower the costs of OE devices.

  2. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  3. Ground based automated telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Thompson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendation that a ground-based automated telescope of the 2-meter class be built for remote multiuser use as a natural facility. Experience dictates that a primary consideration is a time shared multitasking operating system with virtual memory overlayed with a real time priority interrupt. The primary user facility is a remote terminal networked to the single computer. Many users must have simultaneous time shared access to the computer for program development. The telescope should be rapid slewing, and hence a light weight construction. Automation allows for the closed loop pointing error correction independent of extreme accuracy of the mount.

  4. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  5. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  6. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  7. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  8. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  9. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  10. Library Automation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffady, William

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the current state of computer applications in six areas of library work: circulation control; descriptive cataloging; catalog maintenance and production; reference services; acquisitions; and serials control. Motives for automation are discussed, and examples of representative vendors, products, and services are given. (15 references) (LRW)

  11. Automation in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A R; Méndez, A; Brunner-Agten, S

    2013-01-01

    Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances.

  12. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  13. Automated CCTV Tester

    2000-09-13

    The purpose of an automated CCTV tester is to automatically and continuously monitor multiple perimeter security cameras for changes in a camera's measured resolution and alignment (camera looking at the proper area). It shall track and record the image quality and position of each camera and produce an alarm when a camera is out of specification.

  14. Blastocyst microinjection automation.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Grant, Edward; Thresher, Randy; Kluckman, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Blastocyst microinjections are routinely involved in the process of creating genetically modified mice for biomedical research, but their efficiency is highly dependent on the skills of the operators. As a consequence, much time and resources are required for training microinjection personnel. This situation has been aggravated by the rapid growth of genetic research, which has increased the demand for mutant animals. Therefore, increased productivity and efficiency in this area are highly desired. Here, we pursue these goals through the automation of a previously developed teleoperated blastocyst microinjection system. This included the design of a new system setup to facilitate automation, the definition of rules for automatic microinjections, the implementation of video processing algorithms to extract feedback information from microscope images, and the creation of control algorithms for process automation. Experimentation conducted with this new system and operator assistance during the cells delivery phase demonstrated a 75% microinjection success rate. In addition, implantation of the successfully injected blastocysts resulted in a 53% birth rate and a 20% yield of chimeras. These results proved that the developed system was capable of automatic blastocyst penetration and retraction, demonstrating the success of major steps toward full process automation.

  15. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  16. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  17. Mining Your Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Patricia M., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four articles address issues of collecting, compiling, reporting, and interpreting statistics generated by automated library systems for administrative decision making. Topics include using a management information system to forecast growth and assess areas for downsizing; statistics for collection development and analysis; and online system…

  18. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  19. Automating Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavulla, Timothy A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wichita, Kansas, Public Schools' Food Service Department Project Reduction in Paperwork (RIP) is designed to automate certain paperwork functions, thus reducing cost and flow of paper. This article addresses how RIP manages free/reduced meal applications and meets the objectives of reducing paper and increasing accuracy, timeliness, and…

  20. Automated Estimating System (AES)

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, D.A.

    1989-09-01

    This document describes Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System, a personal computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Engineering Division. Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System is capable of running in a multiuser environment across a token ring network. The token ring network makes possible services and applications that will more fully integrate all aspects of information processing, provides a central area for large data bases to reside, and allows access to the data base by multiple users. Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System also has been enhanced to include an Assembly pricing data base that may be used to retrieve cost data into an estimate. A WBS Title File program has also been included in Version 3.1. The WBS Title File program allows for the creation of a WBS title file that has been integrated with the Automated Estimating System to provide WBS titles in update mode and in reports. This provides for consistency in WBS titles and provides the capability to display WBS titles on reports generated at a higher WBS level.

  1. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  2. Automating Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James

    1996-01-01

    Presents a four-phase plan for small libraries strategizing for automation: inventory and weeding, data conversion, implementation, and enhancements. Other topics include selecting a system, MARC records, compatibility, ease of use, industry standards, searching capabilities, support services, system security, screen displays, circulation modules,…

  3. CLAN Automation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Library and Archives, Carson City.

    The Central Libraries Automated Network (CLAN) of Nevada is a cooperative system which shares circulation, cataloging, and acquisitions systems and numerous online databases. Its mission is to provide public access to information and efficient library administration through shared computer systems, databases, and telecommunications. This document…

  4. Automated EEG acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Automated self-contained portable device can be used by technicians with minimal training. Data acquired from patient at remote site are transmitted to centralized interpretation center using conventional telephone equipment. There, diagnostic information is analyzed, and results are relayed back to remote site.

  5. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  6. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of automation in civil aircraft is examined in order to discern trends in the respective roles and functions of automation technology and the humans who operate these aircraft. The effects of advances in automation technology on crew reaction is considered and it appears that, though automation may well have decreased the frequency of certain types of human errors in flight, it may also have enabled new categories of human errors, some perhaps less obvious and therefore more serious than those it has alleviated. It is suggested that automation could be designed to keep the pilot closer to the control of the vehicle, while providing an array of information management and aiding functions designed to provide the pilot with data regarding flight replanning, degraded system operation, and the operational status and limits of the aircraft, its systems, and the physical and operational environment. The automation would serve as the pilot's assistant, providing and calculating data, watching for the unexpected, and keeping track of resources and their rate of expenditure.

  7. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  8. Automated theorem proving.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, David A

    2014-03-01

    Automated theorem proving is the use of computers to prove or disprove mathematical or logical statements. Such statements can express properties of hardware or software systems, or facts about the world that are relevant for applications such as natural language processing and planning. A brief introduction to propositional and first-order logic is given, along with some of the main methods of automated theorem proving in these logics. These methods of theorem proving include resolution, Davis and Putnam-style approaches, and others. Methods for handling the equality axioms are also presented. Methods of theorem proving in propositional logic are presented first, and then methods for first-order logic. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:115-128. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1269 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304304

  9. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  10. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures.

  11. The automation of science.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-01

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge. PMID:19342587

  12. Compact reactor design automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassersharif, Bahram; Gaeta, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual compact reactor design automation experiment was performed using the real-time expert system G2. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the utility of an expert system in design; in particular, reactor design. The experiment consisted of the automation and integration of two design phases: reactor neutronic design and fuel pin design. The utility of this approach is shown using simple examples of formulating rules to ensure design parameter consistency between the two design phases. The ability of G2 to communicate with external programs even across networks provides the system with the capability of supplementing the knowledge processing features with conventional canned programs with possible applications for realistic iterative design tools.

  13. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  14. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  15. Automated Testing System

    2006-05-09

    ATS is a Python-language program for automating test suites for software programs that do not interact with thier users, such as scripted scientific simulations. ATS features a decentralized approach especially suited to larger projects. In its multinode mode it can utilize many nodes of a cluster in order to do many test in parallel. It has features for submitting longer-running tests to a batch system and would have to be customized for use elsewhere.

  16. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  17. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  18. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  19. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  20. Automation in biological crystallization.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  1. Automation in biological crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  2. Automation in organizations: Eternal conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some ideas on and insights into the problems associated with automation in organizations are presented with emphasis on the concept of automation, its relationship to the individual, and its impact on system performance. An analogy is drawn, based on an American folk hero, to emphasize the extent of the problems encountered when dealing with automation within an organization. A model is proposed to focus attention on a set of appropriate dimensions. The function allocation process becomes a prominent aspect of the model. The current state of automation research is mentioned in relation to the ideas introduced. Proposed directions for an improved understanding of automation's effect on the individual's efficiency are discussed. The importance of understanding the individual's perception of the system in terms of the degree of automation is highlighted.

  3. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  4. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  5. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  6. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  7. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  8. The Automated Medical Office

    PubMed Central

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency. PMID:21233899

  9. Automated Hazard Analysis

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  10. The automated medical office.

    PubMed

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  11. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  12. Automated System Marketplace 1995: The Changing Face of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Jeff; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses trends in the automated system marketplace with specific attention to online vendors and their customers: academic, public, school, and special libraries. Presents vendor profiles; tables and charts on computer systems and sales; and sidebars that include a vendor source list and the differing views on procuring an automated library…

  13. Maneuver Automation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  14. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  15. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. PMID:22265230

  16. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  17. A Demonstration of Automated DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Details a simulation that employs a paper-and-pencil model to demonstrate the principles behind automated DNA sequencing. Discusses the advantages of automated sequencing as well as the chemistry of automated DNA sequencing. (DDR)

  18. Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    Major resources exist that can be used to develop or upgrade programs in community colleges and technical institutes that educate robotics/automated systems technicians. The first category of resources is Economic, Social, and Education Issues. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report, "Automation and the Workplace," presents analyses of…

  19. Automated Test-Form Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  20. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  1. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  2. Automating a clinical management system.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B; Braun, D

    1990-06-01

    Automating the clinical documentation of a home health care agency will prove crucial as the industry continues to grow and becomes increasingly complex. Kimberly Quality Care, a large, multi-office home care company, made a major commitment to the automation of its clinical management documents.

  3. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  4. Progress Toward Automated Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses efforts to develop standard system of automated cost estimation (ACE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Advantage of system is time saved and accuracy enhanced by automating extraction of quantities from design drawings, consultation of price lists, and application of cost and markup formulas.

  5. Automated Circulation. SPEC Kit 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Of the 64 libraries responding to a 1978 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey, 37 indicated that they used automated circulation systems; half of these were commercial systems, and most were batch-process or combination batch process and online. Nearly all libraries without automated systems cited lack of funding as the reason for not…

  6. Isolation and structural characterization of a novel peptide related to gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone from the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Wattez, C; Bulet, P; Malecha, J

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports the purification of a novel pro-opiomelanocortin derivative peptide (a gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone-like (gamma-MSH-like) molecule) from the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After reverse-phase HPLC purification, the sequence of the gamma-MSH-like peptide (YVMGHFRWDKFamide) was established by a combination of automated Edman degradation, electrospray mass spectrometry measurement, enzymatic treatment and co-elution experiments in reverse-phase HPLC with synthetic peptides.

  7. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  8. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  9. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  10. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  11. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  12. Protein fabrication automation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, J. Colin; Lape, Janel; Sayed, Mahmood A.; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2007-01-01

    Facile “writing” of DNA fragments that encode entire gene sequences potentially has widespread applications in biological analysis and engineering. Rapid writing of open reading frames (ORFs) for expressed proteins could transform protein engineering and production for protein design, synthetic biology, and structural analysis. Here we present a process, protein fabrication automation (PFA), which facilitates the rapid de novo construction of any desired ORF from oligonucleotides with low effort, high speed, and little human interaction. PFA comprises software for sequence design, data management, and the generation of instruction sets for liquid-handling robotics, a liquid-handling robot, a robust PCR scheme for gene assembly from synthetic oligonucleotides, and a genetic selection system to enrich correctly assembled full-length synthetic ORFs. The process is robust and scalable. PMID:17242375

  13. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  14. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks. PMID:10153839

  15. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  16. Expedition automated flow fluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikun, V. A.; Salyuk, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an apparatus and operation of automated flow-through dual-channel fluorometer for studying the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter, and the fluorescence of phytoplankton cells with open and closed reaction centers in sea areas with oligotrophic and eutrophic water type. The step-by step excitation by two semiconductor lasers or two light-emitting diodes is realized in the current device. The excitation wavelengths are 405nm and 532nm in the default configuration. Excitation radiation of each light source can be changed with different durations, intensities and repetition rate. Registration of the fluorescence signal carried out by two photo-multipliers with different optical filters of 580-600 nm and 680-700 nm band pass diapasons. The configuration of excitation sources and spectral diapasons of registered radiation can be changed due to decided tasks.

  17. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  18. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks.

  19. [From automation to robotics].

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  20. Berkeley automated supernova search

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  1. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  2. Protein fabrication automation.

    PubMed

    Cox, J Colin; Lape, Janel; Sayed, Mahmood A; Hellinga, Homme W

    2007-03-01

    Facile "writing" of DNA fragments that encode entire gene sequences potentially has widespread applications in biological analysis and engineering. Rapid writing of open reading frames (ORFs) for expressed proteins could transform protein engineering and production for protein design, synthetic biology, and structural analysis. Here we present a process, protein fabrication automation (PFA), which facilitates the rapid de novo construction of any desired ORF from oligonucleotides with low effort, high speed, and little human interaction. PFA comprises software for sequence design, data management, and the generation of instruction sets for liquid-handling robotics, a liquid-handling robot, a robust PCR scheme for gene assembly from synthetic oligonucleotides, and a genetic selection system to enrich correctly assembled full-length synthetic ORFs. The process is robust and scalable.

  3. Automated calorimeter testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; James, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Calorimeter Testing System (ACTS) is a portable measurement device that provides an independent measurement of all critical parameters of a calorimeter system. The ACTS was developed to improve productivity and performance of Mound-produced calorimeters. With ACTS, an individual with minimal understanding of calorimetry operation can perform a consistent set of diagnostic measurements on the system. The operator can identify components whose performance has deteriorated by a simple visual comparison of the current data plots with previous measurements made when the system was performing properly. Thus, downtime and out of control'' situations can be reduced. Should a system malfunction occur, a flowchart of troubleshooting procedures has been developed to facilitate quick identification of the malfunctioning component. If diagnosis is beyond the capability of the operator, the ACTS provides a consistent set of test data for review by a knowledgeable expert. The first field test was conducted at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site in early 1990. 6 figs.

  4. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  5. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafer surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.

  6. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  7. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  8. Automated imatinib immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Jan H.; Kozo, Daniel; Harney, Rebecca L.; Baldasano, Caitlin N.; Jarrah, Justin; Christner, Susan M.; Parise, Robert; Baburina, Irina; Courtney, Jodi B.; Salamone, Salvatore J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Imatinib pharmacokinetic variability and the relationship of trough concentrations with clinical outcomes have been extensively reported. Though physical methods to quantitate imatinib exist, they are not widely available for routine use. An automated homogenous immunoassay for imatinib has been developed, facilitating routine imatinib testing. Methods Imatinib-selective monoclonal antibodies, without substantial cross-reactivity to the N-desmethyl metabolite or N-desmethyl conjugates, were produced. The antibodies were conjugated to 200 nm particles to develop immunoassay reagents on the Beckman Coulter AU480™ analyzer. These reagents were analytically validated using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Method comparison to LC-MS/MS was conducted using 77 plasma samples collected from subjects receiving imatinib. Results The assay requires 4 µL of sample without pre-treatment. The non-linear calibration curve ranges from 0 to 3,000 ng/mL. With automated sample dilution, concentrations of up to 9,000 ng/mL can be quantitated. The AU480 produces the first result in 10 minutes, and up to 400 tests per hour. Repeatability ranged from 2.0 to 6.0% coefficient of variation (CV), and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 7.4% CV. Standard curve stability was two weeks and on-board reagent stability was 6 weeks. For clinical samples with imatinib concentrations from 438 – 2,691 ng/mL, method comparison with LC-MS/MS gave a slope of 0.995 with a y-intercept of 24.3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.978. Conclusion The immunoassay is suitable for quantitating imatinib in human plasma, demonstrating good correlation with a physical method. Testing for optimal imatinib exposure can now be performed on routine clinical analyzers. PMID:25551407

  9. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  10. Automated Engineering Design (AED); An approach to automated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    The automated engineering design (AED) is reviewed, consisting of a high level systems programming language, a series of modular precoded subroutines, and a set of powerful software machine tools that effectively automate the production and design of new languages. AED is used primarily for development of problem and user-oriented languages. Software production phases are diagramed, and factors which inhibit effective documentation are evaluated.

  11. The collagen binding domain of gelatinase A modulates degradation of collagen IV by gelatinase B.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Magda; Monaco, Susanna; Van Den Steen, Philippe E; Sbardella, Diego; Grasso, Giuseppe; Marini, Stefano; Overall, Christopher M; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Coletta, Massimo

    2009-02-20

    Type IV collagen remodeling plays a critical role in inflammatory responses, angiogenesis and metastasis. Its remodeling is executed by a family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), of which the constitutive gelatinase A (MMP2) and the inducible gelatinase B (MMP9) are key examples. Thus, in many pathological conditions, both gelatinases act together. Kinetic data are reported for the enzymatic processing at 37 degrees C of type IV collagen from human placenta by MMP9 and its modulation by the fibronectin-like collagen binding domain (CBD) of MMP2. The alpha1 and alpha2 chain components of type IV collagen were cleaved by gelatinases and identified by mass spectrometry as well as Edman sequencing. Surface plasmon resonance interaction assays showed that CBD bound type IV collagen at two topologically distinct sites. On the basis of linked-function analysis, we demonstrated that CBD of MMP2 tuned the cleavage of collagen IV by MMP9, presumably by inducing a ligand-linked structural change on the type IV collagen. At low concentrations, the CBD bound the first site and thereby allosterically modulated the binding of MMP9 to collagen IV, thus enhancing the collagenolytic activity of MMP9. At high concentrations, CBD binding to the second site interfered with MMP9 binding to collagen IV, acting as a competitive inhibitor. Interestingly, modulation of collagen IV degradation by inactive forms of MMP2 also occurred in a cell-based system, revealing that this interrelationship affected neutrophil migration across a collagen IV membrane. The regulation of the proteolytic processing by a catalytically inactive domain (i.e., CBD) suggests that the two gelatinases might cooperate in degrading substrates even when either one is inactive. This observation reinforces the idea of exosite targets for MMP inhibitors, which should include all macromolecular substrate recognition sites.

  12. Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

  13. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  14. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  15. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  16. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  17. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  18. Human factors in cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid advance in microprocessor technology has made it possible to automate many functions that were previously performed manually. Several research areas have been identified which are basic to the question of the implementation of automation in the cockpit. One of the identified areas deserving further research is warning and alerting systems. Modern transport aircraft have had one after another warning and alerting systems added, and computer-based cockpit systems make it possible to add even more. Three major areas of concern are: input methods (including voice, keyboard, touch panel, etc.), output methods and displays (from traditional instruments to CRTs, to exotic displays including the human voice), and training for automation. Training for operating highly automatic systems requires considerably more attention than it has been given in the past. Training methods have not kept pace with the advent of flight-deck automation.

  19. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  20. Real Automation in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Mayero, Micaela; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We provide a package of strategies for automation of non-linear arithmetic in PVS. In particular, we describe a simplication procedure for the field of real numbers and a strategy for cancellation of common terms.

  1. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  2. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  3. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  4. An automation simulation testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, George E.; Sztipanovits, Janos; Biegl, Csaba; Karsai, Gabor; Springfield, James F.; Mutammara, Atheel

    1988-01-01

    The work being done in porting ROBOSIM (a graphical simulation system developed jointly by NASA-MSFC and Vanderbilt University) to the HP350SRX graphics workstation is described. New additional ROBOSIM features, like collision detection and new kinematics simulation methods are also discussed. Based on the experiences of the work on ROBOSIM, a new graphics structural modeling environment is suggested which is intended to be a part of a new knowledge-based multiple aspect modeling testbed. The knowledge-based modeling methodologies and tools already available are described. Three case studies in the area of Space Station automation are also reported. First a geometrical structural model of the station is presented. This model was developed using the ROBOSIM package. Next the possible application areas of an integrated modeling environment in the testing of different Space Station operations are discussed. One of these possible application areas is the modeling of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which is one of the most complex subsystems of the station. Using the multiple aspect modeling methodology, a fault propagation model of this system is being built and is described.

  5. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  6. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. PMID:27034378

  7. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  8. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  9. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  10. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  11. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Cindy; Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Automated power-distribution system monitors and controls electrical power to modules in network. Handles both 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase alternating current and 120- to 150-V direct current. Power distributed to load modules from power-distribution control units (PDCU's) via subsystem distributors. Ring busses carry power to PDCU's from power source. Needs minimal attention. Detects faults and also protects against them. Potential applications include autonomous land vehicles and automated industrial process systems.

  12. Evolution paths for advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.

  13. DEA degradation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meisen, A.; Kennard, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Examines factors that increase diethanolamine (DEA) degradation, which reportedly depends on temperature, pressure, gas composition, amine concentration, pH of the amine solution and the presence of metal ions. Plant operators have tried to solve the problem by changing operating conditions and/or installing activated carbon filters. DEA degradation is frequently experienced in gas plants used for removing acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from light hydrocarbons. Experimental results reveal that degradation is governed by: solubility of CO/sub 2/ in the DEA solution; degree of dissociation of the DEA molecules in solution; interaction of DEA and CO/sub 2/ molecules and/or ionic complexes. Most, or all, these phenomena are affected by temperature, pressure, DEA concentration and pH. A series of tests to determine whether activated carbon is capable of removing impurities from partially degraded DEA solutions showed that this treatment did not remove any major degradation compounds from the solutions.

  14. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  15. Level of automation effects on performance, situation awareness and workload in a dynamic control task.

    PubMed

    Endsley, M R; Kaber, D B

    1999-03-01

    Various levels of automation (LOA) designating the degree of human operator and computer control were explored within the context of a dynamic control task as a means of improving overall human/machine performance. Automated systems have traditionally been explored as binary function allocations; either the human or the machine is assigned to a given task. More recently, intermediary levels of automation have been discussed as a means of maintaining operator involvement in system performance, leading to improvements in situation awareness and reductions in out-of-the-loop performance problems. A LOA taxonomy applicable to a wide range of psychomotor and cognitive tasks is presented here. The taxonomy comprises various schemes of generic control system function allocations. The functions allocated to a human operator and/or computer included monitoring displays, generating processing options, selecting an 'optimal' option and implementing that option. The impact of the LOA taxonomy was assessed within a dynamic and complex cognitive control task by measuring its effect on human/system performance, situation awareness and workload. Thirty subjects performed simulation trials involving various levels of automation. Several automation failures occurred and out-of-the-loop performance decrements were assessed. Results suggest that, in terms of performance, human operators benefit most from automation of the implementation portion of the task, but only under normal operating conditions; in contrast, removal of the operator from task implementation is detrimental to performance recovery if the automated system fails. Joint human/system option generation significantly degraded performance in comparison to human or automated option generation alone. Lower operator workload and higher situation awareness were observed under automation of the decision making portion of the task (i.e. selection of options), although human/system performance was only slightly improved. The

  16. Degradation Kinetics of VX

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2010-12-01

    O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphonothiolate (VX) is the most toxic of the conventional chemical warfare agents. It is a persistent compound, an attribute derived from its relative involatility and slow rates of hydrolysis. These properties suggest that VX can linger in an exposed environment for extended periods of time long after the air has cleared. Concern over prolonged risk from VX exposure is exacerbated by the fact that it poses a dermal contact hazard. Hence a detailed understanding of volatilization rates, and degradation pathways and rates occurring in various environments is needed. Historically, volatilization has not been considered to be an important mechanism for VX depletion, but recent studies have shown that a significant fraction of VX may volatilize, depending on the matrix. A significant body of research has been conducted over the years to unravel VX degradation reaction pathways and to quantify the rates at which they proceed. Rigorous measurement of degradation rates is frequently difficult, and thus in many cases the degradation of VX has been described in terms of half lives, while in fewer instances rate constants have been measured. This variable approach to describing degradation kinetics reflects uncertainty regarding the exact nature of the degradation mechanisms. In this review, rates of VX degradation are compared on the basis of pseudo-first order rate constants, in order to provide a basis for assessing likelihood of VX persistence in a given environment. An issue of specific concern is that one VX degradation pathway produces S-2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (known as EA2192), which is a degradation product that retains much of the original toxicity of VX. Consequently degradation pathways and rates for EA2192 are also discussed.

  17. Silk structure and degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Song, Yu-wei; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhi-jian; Pu, De-yong; Lin, Shao-qiang; Zhou, Chan; You, Hua-jian; Ma, Yan; Li, Jin-min; Yang, Li; Sung, K L Paul; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the structure of silk and its degradation properties, we have monitored the structure of silk using scanning electron microscopy and frozen sections. Raw silk and degummed raw silk were immersed in four types of degradation solutions for 156 d to observe their degradation properties. The subcutaneous implants in rats were removed after 7, 14, 56, 84, 129, and 145 d for frozen sectioning and subsequent staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.), DAPI, Beta-actin and Collagen I immunofluorescence staining. The in vitro weight loss ratio of raw silk and degummed raw silk in water, PBS, DMEM and DMEM containing 10% FBS (F-DMEM) were, respectively, 14%/11%, 12.5%/12.9%, 11.1%/14.3%, 8.8%/11.6%. Silk began to degrade after 7 d subcutaneous implantation and after 145 d non-degraded silk was still observed. These findings suggest the immunogenicity of fibroin and sericin had no essential difference. In the process of in vitro degradation of silk, the role of the enzyme is not significant. The in vivo degradation of silk is related to phagocytotic activity and fibroblasts may be involved in this process to secrete collagen. This study also shows the developing process of cocoons and raw silk. PMID:25982316

  18. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  19. Automated protein NMR resonance assignments.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Xu, Dong; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Lin, Guohui

    2003-01-01

    NMR resonance peak assignment is one of the key steps in solving an NMR protein structure. The assignment process links resonance peaks to individual residues of the target protein sequence, providing the prerequisite for establishing intra- and inter-residue spatial relationships between atoms. The assignment process is tedious and time-consuming, which could take many weeks. Though there exist a number of computer programs to assist the assignment process, many NMR labs are still doing the assignments manually to ensure quality. This paper presents (1) a new scoring system for mapping spin systems to residues, (2) an automated adjacency information extraction procedure from NMR spectra, and (3) a very fast assignment algorithm based on our previous proposed greedy filtering method and a maximum matching algorithm to automate the assignment process. The computational tests on 70 instances of (pseudo) experimental NMR data of 14 proteins demonstrate that the new score scheme has much better discerning power with the aid of adjacency information between spin systems simulated across various NMR spectra. Typically, with automated extraction of adjacency information, our method achieves nearly complete assignments for most of the proteins. The experiment shows very promising perspective that the fast automated assignment algorithm together with the new score scheme and automated adjacency extraction may be ready for practical use. PMID:16452794

  20. Space power subsystem automation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The technology issues involved in power subsystem automation and the reasonable objectives to be sought in such a program were discussed. The complexities, uncertainties, and alternatives of power subsystem automation, along with the advantages from both an economic and a technological perspective were considered. Whereas most spacecraft power subsystems now use certain automated functions, the idea of complete autonomy for long periods of time is almost inconceivable. Thus, it seems prudent that the technology program for power subsystem automation be based upon a growth scenario which should provide a structured framework of deliberate steps to enable the evolution of space power subsystems from the current practice of limited autonomy to a greater use of automation with each step being justified on a cost/benefit basis. Each accomplishment should move toward the objectives of decreased requirement for ground control, increased system reliability through onboard management, and ultimately lower energy cost through longer life systems that require fewer resources to operate and maintain. This approach seems well-suited to the evolution of more sophisticated algorithms and eventually perhaps even the use of some sort of artificial intelligence. Multi-hundred kilowatt systems of the future will probably require an advanced level of autonomy if they are to be affordable and manageable.

  1. Automated analysis of organic particles using cluster SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Greg; Zeissler, Cindy; Mahoney, Christine; Lindstrom, Abigail; Fletcher, Robert; Chi, Peter; Verkouteren, Jennifer; Bright, David; Lareau, Richard T.; Boldman, Mike

    2004-06-01

    Cluster primary ion bombardment combined with secondary ion imaging is used on an ion microscope secondary ion mass spectrometer for the spatially resolved analysis of organic particles on various surfaces. Compared to the use of monoatomic primary ion beam bombardment, the use of a cluster primary ion beam (SF 5+ or C 8-) provides significant improvement in molecular ion yields and a reduction in beam-induced degradation of the analyte molecules. These characteristics of cluster bombardment, along with automated sample stage control and custom image analysis software are utilized to rapidly characterize the spatial distribution of trace explosive particles, narcotics and inkjet-printed microarrays on a variety of surfaces.

  2. Design automation for integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, S. B.; de Geus, A. J.; Rohrer, R. A.

    1983-04-01

    Consideration is given to the development status of the use of computers in automated integrated circuit design methods, which promise the minimization of both design time and design error incidence. Integrated circuit design encompasses two major tasks: error specification, in which the goal is a logic diagram that accurately represents the desired electronic function, and physical specification, in which the goal is an exact description of the physical locations of all circuit elements and their interconnections on the chip. Design automation not only saves money by reducing design and fabrication time, but also helps the community of systems and logic designers to work more innovatively. Attention is given to established design automation methodologies, programmable logic arrays, and design shortcuts.

  3. Automated power management and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  4. Automated mapping of hammond's landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, A.L.; Brown, D.D.; Hoffer, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We automated a method for mapping Hammond's landforms over large landscapes using digital elevation data. We compared our results against Hammond's published landform maps, derived using manual interpretation procedures. We found general agreement in landform patterns mapped by the manual and the automated approaches, and very close agreement in characterization of local topographic relief. The two approaches produced different interpretations of intermediate landforms, which relied upon quantification of the proportion of landscape having gently sloping terrain. This type of computation is more efficiently and consistently applied by computer than human. Today's ready access to digital data and computerized geospatial technology provides a good foundation for mapping terrain features, but the mapping criteria guiding manual techniques in the past may not be appropriate for automated approaches. We suggest that future efforts center on the advantages offered by digital advancements in refining an approach to better characterize complex landforms. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  5. Purex diluent degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO/sub 3/ system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) molecule, not HNO/sub 3/ as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO/sub 3/ concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO/sub 2/ and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO/sub 2/ scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures.

  6. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  7. How do polymers degrade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  8. Automated gaseous criteria pollutant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    The Quality Assurance Section (QAS) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began performing automated gaseous audits of its ambient air monitoring sites in July 1996. The concept of automated audits evolved from the constant streamlining of the through-the-probe audit process. Continual audit van development and the desire to utilize advanced technology to save time and improve the accuracy of the overall audit process also contributed to the concept. The automated audit process is a computer program which controls an audit van`s ambient gas calibration system, isolated relay and analog to digital cards, and a monitoring station`s data logging system. The program instructs the audit van`s gas calibration system to deliver specified audit concentrations to a monitoring station`s instruments through their collection probe inlet. The monitoring station`s responses to the audit concentrations are obtained by the program polling the station`s datalogger through its RS-232 port. The program calculates relevant audit statistics and stores all data collected during an audit in a relational database. Planning for the development of an automated gaseous audit system began in earnest in 1993, when the CARB purchased computerized ambient air calibration systems which could be remotely controlled by computer through their serial ports. After receiving all the required components of the automated audit system, they were individually tested to confirm their correct operation. Subsequently, a prototype program was developed to perform through-the-probe automated ozone audits. Numerous simulated ozone audits documented the program`s ability to control audit equipment and extract data from a monitoring station`s data logging system. The program was later modified to incorporate the capability to perform audits for carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, methane, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.

  9. BOA: Framework for automated builds

    SciTech Connect

    N. Ratnikova et al.

    2003-09-30

    Managing large-scale software products is a complex software engineering task. The automation of the software development, release and distribution process is most beneficial in the large collaborations, where the big number of developers, multiple platforms and distributed environment are typical factors. This paper describes Build and Output Analyzer framework and its components that have been developed in CMS to facilitate software maintenance and improve software quality. The system allows to generate, control and analyze various types of automated software builds and tests, such as regular rebuilds of the development code, software integration for releases and installation of the existing versions.

  10. Advanced automation for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, R.A., Jr.; Healy, T.J.; Long, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE summer study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: an intelligent earth-sensing information system; an autonomous space exploration system; an automated space manufacturing facility; and a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by the century's end. 18 references.

  11. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  12. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  13. Automation U.S.A.: Overcoming Barriers to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Herb

    1985-01-01

    Although labor unions and inadequate technology play minor roles, the principal barrier to factory automation is "fear of change." Related problems include long-term benefits, nontechnical executives, and uncertainty of factory cost accounting. Industry support for university programs is helping to educate engineers to design, implement, and…

  14. DDE remediation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  15. Modular workcells: modern methods for laboratory automation.

    PubMed

    Felder, R A

    1998-12-01

    Laboratory automation is beginning to become an indispensable survival tool for laboratories facing difficult market competition. However, estimates suggest that only 8% of laboratories will be able to afford total laboratory automation systems. Therefore, automation vendors have developed alternative hardware configurations called 'modular automation', to fit the smaller laboratory. Modular automation consists of consolidated analyzers, integrated analyzers, modular workcells, and pre- and post-analytical automation. These terms will be defined in this paper. Using a modular automation model, the automated core laboratory will become a site where laboratory data is evaluated by trained professionals to provide diagnostic information to practising physicians. Modem software information management and process control tools will complement modular hardware. Proper standardization that will allow vendor-independent modular configurations will assure success of this revolutionary new technology.

  16. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  17. Understanding human management of automation errors

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Automation has the potential to aid humans with a diverse set of tasks and support overall system performance. Automated systems are not always reliable, and when automation errs, humans must engage in error management, which is the process of detecting, understanding, and correcting errors. However, this process of error management in the context of human-automation interaction is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the variables that contribute to error management. We examined relevant research in human-automation interaction and human error to identify critical automation, person, task, and emergent variables. We propose a framework for management of automation errors to incorporate and build upon previous models. Further, our analysis highlights variables that may be addressed through design and training to positively influence error management. Additional efforts to understand the error management process will contribute to automation designed and implemented to support safe and effective system performance. PMID:25383042

  18. Ask the experts: automation: part I.

    PubMed

    Allinson, John L; Blick, Kenneth E; Cohen, Lucinda; Higton, David; Li, Ming

    2013-08-01

    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on automation in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges that the modern bioanalyst faces when integrating automation into existing drug-development processes, the impact of automation and how they envision the modern bioanalytical laboratory changing in the near future. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into the impact of automation and the future of the constantly evolving bioanalytical laboratory.

  19. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  20. Automated Cataloging. SPEC Kit 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Results of a 1978 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicated that 68 (89%) of responding libraries utilized an automated cataloging system. Of those 68, 53 participated in the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), five in BALLOTS, and the rest in other networks or local systems. At the beginning of this collection, a concise summary…

  1. Automated species identification: why not?

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; O'Neill, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Where possible, automation has been a common response of humankind to many activities that have to be repeated numerous times. The routine identification of specimens of previously described species has many of the characteristics of other activities that have been automated, and poses a major constraint on studies in many areas of both pure and applied biology. In this paper, we consider some of the reasons why automated species identification has not become widely employed, and whether it is a realistic option, addressing the notions that it is too difficult, too threatening, too different or too costly. Although recognizing that there are some very real technical obstacles yet to be overcome, we argue that progress in the development of automated species identification is extremely encouraging that such an approach has the potential to make a valuable contribution to reducing the burden of routine identifications. Vision and enterprise are perhaps more limiting at present than practical constraints on what might possibly be achieved. PMID:15253351

  2. Fully automated solid weighing workstation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen K-F; Lu, YiFeng; Heineman, William; Palmer, Janice; Courtney, Carter

    2005-08-01

    A fully automated, solid-to-solid weighing workstation (patent pending) is described in this article. The core of this automated process is the use of an electrostatically charged pipette tip to attract solid particles on its outside surface. The particles were then dislodged into a 1.2-mL destination vial in a microbalance by spinning the pipette tip. Textures of solid that could be weighed included powder, crystalline, liquid, and semi-solid substances. The workstation can pick up submilligram quantities of sample (=0.3mg) from source vials containing as little as 1mg. The destination vials containing the samples were stored in a 96-well rack to enable subsequent automated liquid handling. Using bovine serum albumin as test solid, the coefficient of variation of the protein concentration for 48 samples is less than 6%. The workstation was used successfully to weigh out 48 different synthetic compounds. Time required for automated weighing was similar to manual weighing. The use of this workstation reduced 90% hands-on time and thus exposure to potentially toxic compounds. In addition, it minimized sample waste and reduced artifacts due to the poor solubility of compound in solvents. Moreover, it enabled compounds synthesized in milligram quantities to be weighed out and tested in biological assays.

  3. Automated Filtering of Internet Postings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Louis B.; Holland, Maurita P.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the use of dynamic data resources, such as Internet LISTSERVs or Usenet newsgroups, focuses on an experiment using an automated filtering system with Usenet newsgroups. Highlights include user satisfaction, based on retrieval size, data sources, and user interface and the need for some human mediation. (Contains two references.) (LRW)

  4. Automated analysis of oxidative metabolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automated system for the study of drug metabolism is described. The system monitors the oxidative metabolites of aromatic amines and of compounds which produce formaldehyde on oxidative dealkylation. It includes color developing compositions suitable for detecting hyroxylated aromatic amines and formaldehyde.

  5. Teacherbot: Interventions in Automated Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayne, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Promises of "teacher-light" tuition and of enhanced "efficiency" via the automation of teaching have been with us since the early days of digital education, sometimes embraced by academics and institutions, and sometimes resisted as a set of moves which are damaging to teacher professionalism and to the humanistic values of…

  6. Automating the conflict resolution process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  7. Automating a High School Restroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritner-Heir, Robbin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how one high school transformed its restrooms into cleaner and more vandal-resistant environments by automating them. Solutions discussed include installing perforated stainless steel panel ceilings, using epoxy-based paint for walls, selecting china commode fixtures instead of stainless steel, installing electronic faucets and sensors,…

  8. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  9. Safety in the Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R.; Greathouse, Lillian R.

    1990-01-01

    Office automation has introduced new hazards to the workplace: electrical hazards related to computer wiring, musculoskeletal problems resulting from use of computer terminals and design of work stations, and environmental concerns related to ventilation, noise levels, and office machine chemicals. (SK)

  10. Library Automation: Guidelines to Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Geoffrey

    As with all new programs, the costs associated with library automation must be carefully considered before implementation. This document suggests guidelines to be followed and areas to be considered in the costing of library procedures. An existing system model has been suggested as a standard (Appendix A) and a classification of library tasks…

  11. Delaware: Library Automation and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Describes automation and networking activities among Delaware libraries, including integrated library systems for public libraries, the Delaware Technical and Community College telecommunications network, Delaware Public Library Internet access planning, digital resources, a computer/technology training center, and the Delaware Center for…

  12. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  13. Automation on the Laboratory Bench.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, M.; Foucard, A.

    1978-01-01

    A kit is described for use in automation of routine chemical research procedures. The kit uses sensors to evaluate the state of the system, actuators which modify the adjustable parameters, and an organ of decision which uses the information from the sensors. (BB)

  14. Automated management for pavement inspection system (AMPIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hung Chi; Girardello, Roberto; Soeller, Tony; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2003-08-01

    An automated in-situ road surface distress surveying and management system, AMPIS, has been developed on the basis of video images within the framework of GIS software. Video image processing techniques are introduced to acquire, process and analyze the road surface images obtained from a moving vehicle. ArcGIS platform is used to integrate the routines of image processing and spatial analysis in handling the full-scale metropolitan highway surface distress detection and data fusion/management. This makes it possible to present user-friendly interfaces in GIS and to provide efficient visualizations of surveyed results not only for the use of transportation engineers to manage road surveying documentations, data acquisition, analysis and management, but also for financial officials to plan maintenance and repair programs and further evaluate the socio-economic impacts of highway degradation and deterioration. A review performed in this study on fundamental principle of Pavement Management System (PMS) and its implementation indicates that the proposed approach of using GIS concept and its tools for PMS application will reshape PMS into a new information technology-based system providing a convenient and efficient pavement inspection and management.

  15. Automated biometrics-based personal identification of the Hunter–Schreger bands of dental enamel

    PubMed Central

    Ramenzoni, Liza L; Line, Sérgio R.P

    2006-01-01

    The use of automated biometrics-based personal identification systems is a ubiquitous procedure in present times. Biometrics has certain limitations, such as in cases when bodies are decomposed, burned, or only small fragments of calcified tissues remain. Dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue of organisms and resists post-mortem degradation. It is characterized by layers of prisms of regularly alternating directions, known as Hunter–Schreger bands (HSB). In this article, we show that the pattern variation of the HSB, referred here as toothprint, can be used as a biometric-based parameter for personal identification in automated systems. PMID:16600895

  16. Illinois: Library Automation and Connectivity Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Bridget L.; Bloomberg, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of library automation in Illinois focuses on ILLINET, the Illinois Library and Information Network. Topics include automated resource sharing; ILLINET's online catalog; regional library system automation; community networking and public library technology development; telecommunications initiatives; electronic access to state government…

  17. You're a What? Automation Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, John

    2010-01-01

    Many people think of automation as laborsaving technology, but it sure keeps Jim Duffell busy. Defined simply, automation is a technique for making a device run or a process occur with minimal direct human intervention. But the functions and technologies involved in automated manufacturing are complex. Nearly all functions, from orders coming in…

  18. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  19. Flight-deck automation: Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.

  20. Automated System Marketplace 1987: Maturity and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Robert A.; Bridge, Frank R.

    1988-01-01

    This annual review of the library automation marketplace presents profiles of 15 major library automation firms and looks at emerging trends. Seventeen charts and tables provide data on market shares, number and size of installations, hardware availability, operating systems, and interfaces. A directory of 49 automation sources is included. (MES)

  1. Archives and Automation: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Rob

    This paper focuses on archives and automation, and reviews recent literature on various topics concerning archives and automation. Topics include: resistance to technology and the need to educate about automation; the change in archival theory due to the information age; problems with technology use; the history of organizing archival records…

  2. Drift Degradation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  3. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  4. Steam generator performance degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, J.T.; Dow, B.L. )

    1991-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the range and severity of steam generator performance degradation effects experienced by PWRs in the United States. The survey results were tabulated and correlated with steam generator age and design. Operating experience at several PWRs was examined in detail. The operating experience at US PWRs was compared to that of PWRs in Japan and Germany. Possible causes for the performance degradation were postulated and evaluated. The sensitivity of steam generator output pressure to changes in various parameters (such as fouling factor, average reactor coolant temperature, and percentage of steam generator tubes plugged) was calculated. These calculations were used in the evaluation of possible causes of steam generator performance degradation. Several deposit exfoliation scenarios were evaluated in terms of the calculated effect on fouling factor trends and associated steam generator output pressure trends. 15 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Hedglen, Robert E.; Jacket, Howard S.; Schwartz, Allan I.

    1991-01-01

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  6. Antifoam degradation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D. P.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Newell, D. D.; Williams, M. S.

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  7. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  8. Automation: how much is too much?

    PubMed

    Hancock, P A

    2014-01-01

    The headlong rush to automate continues apace. The dominant question still remains whether we can automate, not whether we should automate. However, it is this latter question that is featured and considered explicitly here. The suggestion offered is that unlimited automation of all technical functions will eventually prove anathema to the fundamental quality of human life. Examples of tasks, pursuits and past-times that should potentially be excused from the automation imperative are discussed. This deliberation leads us back to the question of balance in the cooperation, coordination and potential conflict between humans and the machines they create.

  9. Sensor modeling for precision ship-relative navigation in degraded visual environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjiv; Sherwin, Gary; Hoffman, Regis; Grocholsky, Benjamin; Grabe, Volker; Nalbone, Samuel; Chamberlain, Lyle; Spiker, Spencer; Bergerman, Marcel; Wilkinson, Colin; Findlay, David

    2015-05-01

    The Navy and Marine Corps will increasingly need to operate unmanned air vehicles from ships at sea. Fused multi-sensor systems are desirable to ensure these operations are highly reliable under the most demanding at-sea conditions, particularly in degraded visual environments. The US Navy Sea-Based Automated Launch & Recovery System (SALRS) program aims at enabling automated/semi-automated launch and recovery of sea-based, manned and unmanned, fixed- and rotary-wing naval aircraft, and to utilize automated or pilot-augmented flight mechanics for carefree shipboard operations. This paper describes the goals and current results of SALRS Phase 1, which aims at understanding the capabilities and limitations of various sensor types through sensor characterization, modeling, and simulation, and assessing how the sensor models can be used for aircraft navigation to provide sufficient accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability across all anticipated maritime conditions.

  10. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  11. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  12. Automating occupational protection records systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.

    1991-10-01

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs.

  13. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  14. Automation design and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in technology have greatly impacted the appearance of the modern aircraft cockpit. Where once one would see rows upon rows. The introduction of automation has greatly altered the demands on the pilots and the dynamics of aircrew task performance. While engineers and designers continue to implement the latest technological innovations in the cockpit - claiming higher reliability and decreased workload - a large percentage of aircraft accidents are still attributed to human error. Rather than being the main instigators of accidents, operators tend to be the inheritors of system defects created by poor design, incorrect installation, faulty maintenance and bad management decisions. This paper looks at some of the variables that need to be considered if we are to eliminate at least one of these inheritances - poor design. Specifically, this paper describes the first part of a comprehensive study aimed at identifying the effects of automation on crew coordination.

  15. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  16. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  17. Home automation in the workplace.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J E; Tello, S F

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units and home automation devices contribute to the independence and potential of individuals with disabilities, both at work and at home. Devices currently exist that can assist people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to control lighting, appliances, temperature, security, and telephone communications. This article highlights several possible applications for these technologies and discusses emerging technologies that will increase the benefits these devices offer people with disabilities.

  18. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  19. Convection automated logic oven control

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.

    1998-03-01

    For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.

  20. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  1. Small Business Innovations (Automated Information)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Bruce G. Jackson & Associates Document Director is an automated tool that combines word processing and database management technologies to offer the flexibility and convenience of text processing with the linking capability of database management. Originally developed for NASA, it provides a means to collect and manage information associated with requirements development. The software system was used by NASA in the design of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, as well as by other government and commercial organizations including the Southwest Research Institute.

  2. Fully automated urban traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrotin, B. M.; Hansen, G. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The replacement of the driver with an automatic system which could perform the functions of guiding and routing a vehicle with a human's capability of responding to changing traffic demands was discussed. The problem was divided into four technological areas; guidance, routing, computing, and communications. It was determined that the latter three areas being developed independent of any need for fully automated urban traffic. A guidance system that would meet system requirements was not being developed but was technically feasible.

  3. Home automation in the workplace.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J E; Tello, S F

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units and home automation devices contribute to the independence and potential of individuals with disabilities, both at work and at home. Devices currently exist that can assist people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to control lighting, appliances, temperature, security, and telephone communications. This article highlights several possible applications for these technologies and discusses emerging technologies that will increase the benefits these devices offer people with disabilities. PMID:24440955

  4. Degradative plasmids from sphingomonads.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Large plasmids ('megaplasmids') are commonly found in members of the Alphaproteobacterial family Sphingomonadaceae ('sphingomonads'). These plasmids contribute to the extraordinary catabolic flexibility of this group of organisms, which degrade a broad range of recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds. The genomes of several sphingomonads have been sequenced during the last years. In the course of these studies, also the sequences of several plasmids have been determined. The analysis of the published information and the sequences deposited in the public databases allowed a first classification of these plasmids into a restricted number of groups according to the proteins involved in the initiation of replication, plasmid partition and conjugation. The sequence comparisons demonstrated that the plasmids from sphingomonads encode for four main groups of replication initiation (Rep) proteins. These Rep proteins belong to the protein superfamilies RepA_C (Pfam 04796), Rep_3 (Pfam 01051), RPA (Pfam 10134) and HTH-36 (Pfam 13730). The 'degradative megaplasmids' pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02, pCHQ1, pISP0, and pISP1, which code for genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, carbazole, dibenzo-p-dioxin and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, carry Rep proteins which either belong to the RepA_C- (plasmids pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02), Rep-3- (plasmids pCHQ1, pISP0) or RPA-superfamily (pISP1). The classification of these 'degradative megaplasmids' into three groups is also supported by sequence comparisons of the proteins involved in plasmid partition (ParAB) and the organization of the three genes on the respective plasmids. All analysed 'degradative megaplasmids' carry genes, which might allow a conjugative transfer of the plasmids. Sequence comparisons of these genes suggest the presence of at least two types of transfer functions, which either are closer related to the tra- or vir-genes previously described for plasmids from other sources.

  5. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  6. Trust in automation: designing for appropriate reliance.

    PubMed

    Lee, John D; See, Katrina A

    2004-01-01

    Automation is often problematic because people fail to rely upon it appropriately. Because people respond to technology socially, trust influences reliance on automation. In particular, trust guides reliance when complexity and unanticipated situations make a complete understanding of the automation impractical. This review considers trust from the organizational, sociological, interpersonal, psychological, and neurological perspectives. It considers how the context, automation characteristics, and cognitive processes affect the appropriateness of trust. The context in which the automation is used influences automation performance and provides a goal-oriented perspective to assess automation characteristics along a dimension of attributional abstraction. These characteristics can influence trust through analytic, analogical, and affective processes. The challenges of extrapolating the concept of trust in people to trust in automation are discussed. A conceptual model integrates research regarding trust in automation and describes the dynamics of trust, the role of context, and the influence of display characteristics. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved designs of systems that require people to manage imperfect automation.

  7. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use was developed. The process sequence was then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of certain process steps for implementation. The steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect, both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development.

  8. The contaminant analysis automation robot implementation for the automated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, J.R.; Igou, R.E.; Urenda, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) project defines the automated laboratory as a series of standard laboratory modules (SLM) serviced by a robotic standard support module (SSM). These SLMs are designed to allow plug-and-play integration into automated systems that perform standard analysis methods (SAM). While the SLMs are autonomous in the execution of their particular chemical processing task, the SAM concept relies on a high-level task sequence controller (TSC) to coordinate the robotic delivery of materials requisite for SLM operations, initiate an SLM operation with the chemical method dependent operating parameters, and coordinate the robotic removal of materials from the SLM when its commands and events has been established to allow ready them for transport operations as well as performing the Supervisor and Subsystems (GENISAS) software governs events from the SLMs and robot. The Intelligent System Operating Environment (ISOE) enables the inter-process communications used by GENISAS. CAA selected the Hewlett-Packard Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis (ORCA) and its associated Windows based Methods Development Software (MDS) as the robot SSM. The MDS software is used to teach the robot each SLM position and required material port motions. To allow the TSC to command these SLM motions, a hardware and software implementation was required that allowed message passing between different operating systems. This implementation involved the use of a Virtual Memory Extended (VME) rack with a Force CPU-30 computer running VxWorks; a real-time multitasking operating system, and a Radiuses PC compatible VME computer running MDS. A GENISAS server on The Force computer accepts a transport command from the TSC, a GENISAS supervisor, over Ethernet and notifies software on the RadiSys PC of the pending command through VMEbus shared memory. The command is then delivered to the MDS robot control software using a Windows Dynamic Data Exchange conversation.

  9. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  10. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  11. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  12. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  13. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1994-12-31

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  14. An overview of degradable polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many degradable polymers are being investigated for research purpose or for possible commercial use. This overview provides a listing of the more important degradable polymers and their mechanisms of action. Some application areas, particularly in packaging, housewares, personal care, biomaterials...

  15. An overview of degradable polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many degradable polymers are being investigated for research purpose or for possible commercial use. This overview provides a listing of the more important degradable polymers and their mechanisms of action. Some application areas, particularly in packaging, housewares, personal care, biomaterials, ...

  16. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  17. Expert Robots For Automated Packaging And Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.; Shell, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    A variety of problems in automated packaging and processing seem ready for expert robotic solutions. Such problems as automated palletizing, bin-picking, automated stoilw and retrieval, automated kitting of parts for assembly, and automated warehousing are currently being considered. The use of expert robots which consist of specialized computer programs, manipulators and integrated sensors has been demonstrated with robot Chedkers, peg games, etc. Actual solutions for automated palletizing, pit-carb basket loading, etc. have also been developed for industrial applications at our Center. The generic concepts arising from this research will be described, unsolved problems discussed, and some important tools demonstrated. The significance of this work lies in its broad application to a host of generic industrial problems which can improve quality, reduce waste, are eliminate human injuries.

  18. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  19. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  20. Automated systems for identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Stager, C E; Davis, J R

    1992-01-01

    Automated instruments for the identification of microorganisms were introduced into clinical microbiology laboratories in the 1970s. During the past two decades, the capabilities and performance characteristics of automated identification systems have steadily progressed and improved. This article explores the development of the various automated identification systems available in the United States and reviews their performance for identification of microorganisms. Observations regarding deficiencies and suggested improvements for these systems are provided. PMID:1498768

  1. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  2. Temperature automation for a propellant mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Wilson, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis and installation of an automatic temperature controller on a propellant mixer is presented. Ultimately, the entire mixing process will come under automation, but since precise adherence to the temperature profile is very difficult to sustain manually, this was the first component to be automated. Automation is not only important for producing a uniform product, but it is necessary for envisioned space-based propellant production.

  3. New luster for space robots and automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the potential role of robotics and automation in space transportation systems. Automation development requirements are defined for projects in space exploration, global services, space utilization, and space transport. In each category the potential automation of ground operations, on-board spacecraft operations, and in-space handling is noted. The major developments of space robot technology are noted for the 1967-1978 period. Economic aspects of ground-operation, ground command, and mission operations are noted.

  4. Microbial Degradation of Asphalt1

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, U. A.; Traxler, R. W.

    1963-01-01

    Organisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Chromobacterium, and Bacillus capable of degrading asphalt were isolated by enrichment cultures. The asphalt degradation by these organisms varied from 3 to 25% after incubation for 1 week. The effects of temperature, pH, and atmosphere of incubation on asphalt degradation were investigated and were shown to vary with different organisms on the same substrate. PMID:16349633

  5. Human-centered aircraft automation: A concept and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.

  6. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  7. Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Salmonson, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus_minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

  8. Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P. ); Salmonson, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

  9. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  10. Automation and quality in analytical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Valcarcel, M.; Rios, A.

    1994-05-01

    After a brief introduction to the generic aspects of automation in analytical laboratories, the different approaches to quality in analytical chemistry are presented and discussed to establish the following different facets emerging from the combination of quality and automation: automated analytical control of quality of products and systems; quality control of automated chemical analysis; and improvement of capital (accuracy and representativeness), basic (sensitivity, precision, and selectivity), and complementary (rapidity, cost, and personnel factors) analytical features. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of this marriage of convenience in present and future analytical chemistry. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  12. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  13. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  14. Automated planar patch-clamp.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  15. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  16. Automated Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  17. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  18. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  19. Automating a residual gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrie, W. F.; Westfall, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A residual gas analyzer (RGA), a device for measuring the amounts and species of various gases present in a vacuum system is discussed. In a recent update of the RGA, it was shown that the use of microprocessors could revolutionize data acquisition and data reduction. This revolution is exemplified by the Inficon 1Q200 RGA which was selected to meet the needs of this update. The Inficon RGA and the Zilog microcomputer were interfaced in order the receive and format the digital data from the RGA. This automated approach is discussed in detail.

  20. AUTOMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Research Council, Milwaukee, WI.

    THE MANPOWER RESEARCH COUNCIL, A NONPROFIT SERVICE ORGANIZATION, HAS AS ITS OBJECTIVE THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERCHANGE AMONG THE MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES OF INFORMATION ON EMPLOYMENT, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS TRENDS AND ACTIVITIES, AND MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS. A SURVEY OF 200 MEMBER CORPORATIONS, EMPLOYING A TOTAL OF…

  1. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  5. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  6. Automation of Oklahoma School Library Media Centers: Automation at the Local Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Library and Learning Resources Section.

    This document outlines a workshop for media specialists--"School Library Automation: Solving the Puzzle"--that is designed to reduce automation anxiety and give a broad overview of the concerns confronting school library media centers planning for or involved in automation. Issues are addressed under the following headings: (1) Levels of School…

  7. Massachusetts Library Automation Survey: A Directory of Automated Operations in Massachusetts Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Eileen; Nijenberg, Caroline

    This directory is designed to provide information on automated systems and/or equipment used in libraries to provide a tool for planning future automation in the context of interlibrary cooperation considerations, and to inform the library and information community of the state of the art of automation in Massachusetts libraries. The main body is…

  8. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    PubMed

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  9. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  10. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  11. Automated experimentation in ecological networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In ecological networks, natural communities are studied from a complex systems perspective by representing interactions among species within them in the form of a graph, which is in turn analysed using mathematical tools. Topological features encountered in complex networks have been proved to provide the systems they represent with interesting attributes such as robustness and stability, which in ecological systems translates into the ability of communities to resist perturbations of different kinds. A focus of research in community ecology is on understanding the mechanisms by which these complex networks of interactions among species in a community arise. We employ an agent-based approach to model ecological processes operating at the species' interaction level for the study of the emergence of organisation in ecological networks. Results We have designed protocols of interaction among agents in a multi-agent system based on ecological processes occurring at the interaction level between species in plant-animal mutualistic communities. Interaction models for agents coordination thus engineered facilitate the emergence of network features such as those found in ecological networks of interacting species, in our artificial societies of agents. Conclusions Agent based models developed in this way facilitate the automation of the design an execution of simulation experiments that allow for the exploration of diverse behavioural mechanisms believed to be responsible for community organisation in ecological communities. This automated way of conducting experiments empowers the study of ecological networks by exploiting the expressive power of interaction models specification in agent systems. PMID:21554669

  12. Automation of surface observations program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Steve E.

    1988-01-01

    At present, surface weather observing methods are still largely manual and labor intensive. Through the nationwide implementation of Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS), this situation can be improved. Two ASOS capability levels are planned. The first is a basic-level system which will automatically observe the weather parameters essential for aviation operations and will operate either with or without supplemental contributions by an observer. The second is a more fully automated, stand-alone system which will observe and report the full range of weather parameters and will operate primarily in the unattended mode. Approximately 250 systems are planned by the end of the decade. When deployed, these systems will generate the standard hourly and special long-line transmitted weather observations, as well as provide continuous weather information direct to airport users. Specific ASOS configurations will vary depending upon whether the operation is unattended, minimally attended, or fully attended. The major functions of ASOS are data collection, data processing, product distribution, and system control. The program phases of development, demonstration, production system acquisition, and operational implementation are described.

  13. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  14. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  15. Automation and robotics human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of this report is limited to the following: (1) assessing the feasibility of the assumptions for crew productivity during the intra-vehicular activities and extra-vehicular activities; (2) estimating the appropriate level of automation and robotics to accomplish balanced man-machine, cost-effective operations in space; (3) identifying areas where conceptually different approaches to the use of people and machines can leverage the benefits of the scenarios; and (4) recommending modifications to scenarios or developing new scenarios that will improve the expected benefits. The FY89 special assessments are grouped into the five categories shown in the report. The high level system analyses for Automation & Robotics (A&R) and Human Performance (HP) were performed under the Case Studies Technology Assessment category, whereas the detailed analyses for the critical systems and high leverage development areas were performed under the appropriate operations categories (In-Space Vehicle Operations or Planetary Surface Operations). The analysis activities planned for the Science Operations technology areas were deferred to FY90 studies. The remaining activities such as analytic tool development, graphics/video demonstrations and intelligent communicating systems software architecture were performed under the Simulation & Validations category.

  16. Automated glass-fragmentation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Gaile G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a novel automated inspection process for tempered safety glass. The system is geared toward the European Community (EC) import regulations which are based on fragment count and dimensions in a fractured glass sample. The automation of this test presents two key challenges: image acquisition, and robust particle segmentation. The image acquisition must perform well both for clear and opaque glass. Opaque regions of glass are common in the American auto industry due to painted styling or adhesives (e.g. defroster cables). The system presented uses a multiple light source, reflected light imaging technique, rather than transmitted light imaging which is often used in manual versions of this inspection test. Segmentation of the glass fragments in the resulting images must produce clean and completely connected crack lines in order to compute the correct particle count. Processing must therefore be robust with respect to noise in the imaging process such as dust and glint on the glass. The system presented takes advantage of mathematical morphology algorithms, in particular the watershed algorithm, to perform robust preprocessing and segmentation. Example images and image segmentation results are shown for tempered safety glass which has been painted on the outside edges for styling purposes.

  17. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  18. Protease degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fiber populations support selective fiber degradation based on individual fiber degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:25799370

  19. To automate or not to automate: this is the question

    PubMed Central

    Cymborowski, M.; Klimecka, M.; Chruszcz, M.; Zimmerman, M. D.; Shumilin, I. A.; Borek, D.; Lazarski, K.; Joachimiak, A.; Otwinowski, Z.; Anderson, W.

    2010-01-01

    New protocols and instrumentation significantly boost the outcome of structural biology, which has resulted in significant growth in the number of deposited Protein Data Bank structures. However, even an enormous increase of the productivity of a single step of the structure determination process may not significantly shorten the time between clone and deposition or publication. For example, in a medium size laboratory equipped with the LabDB and HKL-3000 systems, we show that automation of some (and integration of all) steps of the X-ray structure determination pathway is critical for laboratory productivity. Moreover, we show that the lag period after which the impact of a technology change is observed is longer than expected. PMID:20526815

  20. To automate or not to automate : this is the question.

    SciTech Connect

    Cymborowski, M.; Klimecka, M.; Chruszcz, M.; Zimmerman, M.; Shumilin, I.; Borek, D.; Lazarski, K.; Joachimiak, A.; Otwinowski, Z.; Anderson, W.; Minor, W.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Virginia; Univ. of Texas; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-06-06

    New protocols and instrumentation significantly boost the outcome of structural biology, which has resulted in significant growth in the number of deposited Protein Data Bank structures. However, even an enormous increase of the productivity of a single step of the structure determination process may not significantly shorten the time between clone and deposition or publication. For example, in a medium size laboratory equipped with the LabDB and HKL-3000 systems, we show that automation of some (and integration of all) steps of the X-ray structure determination pathway is critical for laboratory productivity. Moreover, we show that the lag period after which the impact of a technology change is observed is longer than expected.

  1. Unraveling Curcumin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Odaine N.; Luis, Paula B.; Sintim, Herman O.; Schneider, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a dietary anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agent consisting of two methoxyphenol rings connected by a conjugated heptadienedione chain. Curcumin is unstable at physiological pH and rapidly degrades in an autoxidation reaction to a major bicyclopentadione product in which the 7-carbon chain has undergone oxygenation and double cyclization. Early degradation products (but not the final bicyclopentadione) mediate topoisomerase poisoning and possibly many other activities of curcumin, but it is not known how many and what autoxidation products are formed, nor their mechanism of formation. Here, using [14C2]curcumin as a tracer, seven novel autoxidation products, including two reaction intermediates, were isolated and identified using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. The unusual spiroepoxide and vinylether reaction intermediates are precursors to the final bicyclopentadione product. A mechanism for the autoxidation of curcumin is proposed that accounts for the addition and exchange of oxygen that have been determined using 18O2 and H218O. Several of the by-products are formed from an endoperoxide intermediate via reactions that are well precedented in lipid peroxidation. The electrophilic spiroepoxide intermediate formed a stable adduct with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that oxidative transformation is required for biological effects mediated by covalent adduction to protein thiols. The spontaneous autoxidation distinguishes curcumin among natural polyphenolic compounds of therapeutic interest; the formation of chemically diverse reactive and electrophilic products provides a novel paradigm for understanding the polypharmacological effects of curcumin. PMID:25564617

  2. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  3. The Automated Planet Finder's automation & first two years of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Laughlin, Greg; Vogt, Steven S.; Holden, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is the newest facility at Lick Observatory, comprised of a 2.4m telescope coupled with the high-resolution Levy echelle spectrograph. Purpose built for exoplanet detection and characterization, 80% of the telescope's observing time is dedicated to these science goals. The APF has demonstrated 1 m/s radial velocity precision on bright, RV standard stars and performs with the same speed-on-sky as Keck/HIRES when observing M-dwarfs.The telesope is fully automated for RV operations, using a dynamic scheduler that makes informed decisions on which targets to observe based on scientific interest, desired cadence, required precision levels and current observing conditions, all on a minute-to-minute basis. This ensures that time is not wasted chasing non-optimal targets on nights with poor conditions and enables rapid changes to the overall science observing strategy.The APF has contributed to the detection of four planetary systems in its first two years of scientific operations. Our most recent detection is that of a 6-planet system around the bright (V=5.5), nearby (d=6.5pc), K3V star HD 219134. The planets in this system have masses ranging from 3.5 to108 MEarth, with orbital periods from 3 to 2247 days. An independent detection of the inner 4 planets in this system by the HARPS-N team has shown that the 3d planet transits the star, making this system ideal for follow-up observations.I will discuss the design and implementation of the APF's dynamic scheduler, the telescope's planet detections to date, overall performance results of the telescope and our future observing strategy.

  4. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  5. Library Automation: A Measure of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molholt, Pat A.

    Findings of the study described in this report indicate that the attitudes of library school students toward library automation were not changed significantly by a semester of relevant coursework. It has been hypothesized that these students would have a somewhat negative attitude toward automation, but that through relevant course instruction…

  6. At the intersection of automation and culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, P. J.; Wiener, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The crash of an automated passenger jet at Nagoya, Japan, in 1995, is used as an example of crew error in using automatic systems. Automation provides pilots with the ability to perform tasks in various ways. National culture is cited as a factor that affects how a pilot and crew interact with each other and equipment.

  7. Workflow Automation: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management has proven to be a sustainable competitive advantage for many organizations. Knowledge management systems are abundant, with multiple functionalities. The literature reinforces the use of workflow automation with knowledge management systems to benefit organizations; however, it was not known if process automation yielded…

  8. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  9. An Automated Library Circulation System: A Justification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Charles B.

    This report for an automated circulation control system to replace the currently used automated off-line batch system discusses the general requirements for the requested system, the equipment needed, the planned uses and design of the proposed system, its utilization, its expected benefits, its estimated costs, the alternatives considered, and…

  10. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  11. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  12. What's New in the Library Automation Arena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Reviews trends in library automation based on vendors at the 1998 American Library Association Annual Conference. Discusses the major industry trend, a move from host-based computer systems to the new generation of client/server, object-oriented, open systems-based automation. Includes a summary of developments for 26 vendors. (LRW)

  13. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  14. Perspective on Automation: Three Talks to Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert; And Others

    These papers take the view that automation impinges upon our socio-psychological as well as economic existence and we must take drastic measures to survive. Robert Theobald, presenting evidence that automation brings job displacement, suggests that we face the choice of trying to insure enough jobs, or of taking advantage of the new free time to…

  15. SAF line pellet gaging. [Secure Automated Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length.

  16. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  17. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C. Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-28

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested.

  18. 33 CFR 161.21 - Automated reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automated reporting. 161.21...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.21 Automated... required to make continuous, all stations, AIS broadcasts, in lieu of voice Position Reports, to...

  19. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  20. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  1. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after... service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided. (b)...

  2. 33 CFR 161.21 - Automated reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automated reporting. 161.21...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.21 Automated... required to make continuous, all stations, AIS broadcasts, in lieu of voice Position Reports, to...

  3. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  4. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.445 Section 238.445 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.445 Automated monitoring. (a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor...

  5. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after... service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided. (b)...

  6. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after... service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided. (b)...

  7. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after... service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided. (b)...

  8. 33 CFR 161.21 - Automated reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated reporting. 161.21...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.21 Automated... required to make continuous, all stations, AIS broadcasts, in lieu of voice Position Reports, to...

  9. 33 CFR 161.21 - Automated reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated reporting. 161.21...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.21 Automated... required to make continuous, all stations, AIS broadcasts, in lieu of voice Position Reports, to...

  10. 33 CFR 161.21 - Automated reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automated reporting. 161.21...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.21 Automated... required to make continuous, all stations, AIS broadcasts, in lieu of voice Position Reports, to...

  11. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after... service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided. (b)...

  12. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  13. Screening library evolution through automation of solution preparation.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, U; Höhn, F; Hueber, M; Girod, M; Engeloch, C; Popov, M; Muckenschnabel, I

    2007-08-01

    The quality of the compound library is a critical success factor in every high-throughput screening campaign. Screening solutions have to be prepared with a high level of process control to ensure the correct identity and initial concentration of each compound. However, even under optimized storage conditions, a certain level of degradation in solution cannot be avoided. Therefore, regular quality control and eventual removal of solutions from the screening deck is necessary. Because solution preparation, especially the weighing of compounds, is a tedious and often manual task, a regular resolubilization of compounds is difficult to achieve. By complete automation of the solution preparation, the authors have laid the foundation for a life cycle management of screening solutions. They demonstrate how a combination of quality and process control leads to a continuous improvement of the screening library. In presenting an automation concept, they show how a series of innovative process optimizations led to a high-performance system that achieves full industrialization of solution preparation.

  14. Automated subject-specific, hexahedral mesh generation via image registration

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Ford, James C.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Flashman, Laura A.; McAllister, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Generating subject-specific, all-hexahedral meshes for finite element analysis continues to be of significant interest in biomechanical research communities. To date, most automated methods “morph” an existing atlas mesh to match with a subject anatomy, which usually result in degradation in mesh quality because of mesh distortion. We present an automated meshing technique that produces satisfactory mesh quality and accuracy without mesh repair. An atlas mesh is first developed using a script. A subject-specific mesh is generated with the same script after transforming the geometry into the atlas space following rigid image registration, and is transformed back into the subject space. By meshing the brain in 11 subjects, we demonstrate that the technique’s performance is satisfactory in terms of both mesh quality (99.5% of elements had a scaled Jacobian >0.6 while <0.01% were between 0 and 0.2) and accuracy (average distance between mesh boundary and geometrical surface was 0.07 mm while <1% greater than 0.5mm). The combined computational cost for image registration and meshing was <4 min. Our results suggest that the technique is effective for generating subject-specific, all-hexahedral meshes and that it may be useful for meshing a variety of anatomical structures across different biomechanical research fields. PMID:21731153

  15. Hazardous-waste degradation by wood-degrading fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. The competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects one's ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemicals. Competence is often specified by the ability of the organisms to convert toxic chemicals to non toxic entities and most desirably to carbon dioxide. A wood degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated to determine its role as a degrader of toxic waste materials. Due to its widely recognized ability to degrade lignin, a persistent biogenic polymer, and the non specific enzyme systems supporting such activity, it was thought to have great promise as a toxic waste degrader.

  16. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics.

    PubMed

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A

    2000-05-01

    Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (1997), and the creation of disease management companies. Major technology drivers include outcomes optimization and phenotypically targeted drugs. Constant cost pressures in the clinical laboratory have forced diagnostic manufacturers into less than optimal profitability states. Laboratory automation can be a tool for the improvement of laboratory services and may decrease costs. The key to improvement of laboratory services is implementation of the correct automation technology. The design of this technology should be driven by required functionality. Automation design issues should be centered on the understanding of the laboratory and its relationship to healthcare delivery and the business and operational processes in the clinical laboratory. Automation design philosophy has evolved from a hardware-based approach to a software-based approach. Process control software to support repeat testing, reflex testing, and transportation management, and overall computer-integrated manufacturing approaches to laboratory automation implementation are rapidly expanding areas. It is clear that hardware and software are functionally interdependent and that the interface between the laboratory automation system and the laboratory information system is a key component. The cost-effectiveness of automation solutions suggested by vendors, however, has been difficult to evaluate because the number of automation installations are few and the precision with which operational data have been collected to determine payback is suboptimal. The trend in automation has moved from total laboratory automation to a

  17. Principles and methods for automated palynology.

    PubMed

    Holt, K A; Bennett, K D

    2014-08-01

    Pollen grains are microscopic so their identification and quantification has, for decades, depended upon human observers using light microscopes: a labour-intensive approach. Modern improvements in computing and imaging hardware and software now bring automation of pollen analyses within reach. In this paper, we provide the first review in over 15 yr of progress towards automation of the part of palynology concerned with counting and classifying pollen, bringing together literature published from a wide spectrum of sources. We consider which attempts offer the most potential for an automated palynology system for universal application across all fields of research concerned with pollen classification and counting. We discuss what is required to make the datasets of these automated systems as acceptable as those produced by human palynologists, and present suggestions for how automation will generate novel approaches to counting and classifying pollen that have hitherto been unthinkable.

  18. Automation of the longwall mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R. W.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-01-01

    Cost effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to underground coal mining were identified. The longwall analysis commenced with a general search for government and industry experience of mining automation technology. A brief industry survey was conducted to identify longwall operational, safety, and design problems. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state of the art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system.

  19. Automation literature: A brief review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

  20. Automation concepts for large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R.; Aichele, D.; Lanier, R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop a methodology for analyzing, selecting, and implementing automation functions for multi-hundred-kW photovoltaic power systems intended for manned space station. The study involved identification of generic power system elements and their potential faults, definition of automation functions and their resulting benefits, and partitioning of automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground. Automation to a varying degree was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are indefinite lifetime, modular growth, high performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user load equipment, on-orbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. Functions that are good candidates for automation via expert system approach includes battery management and electrical consumables management.

  1. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the accuracy of the

  2. Automation of the longwall mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-11-01

    The longwall automation study presented is the first phase of a study to evaluate mining automation opportunities. The objective was to identify cost-effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to understand coal mining. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan-line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state-of-the-art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system. The final cost benefit analysis of all of the automation areas indicated a total net national benefit (profit) of roughly $200 million to the longwall mining industry if all automation candidates were installed. This cost benefit represented an approximate order of magnitude payback on the research and development (R and D) investment. In conclusion, it is recommended that the shearer operation be automated first because it provides a large number of other sensor inputs required for face alignment (i.e., shields and conveyor). Automation of the shield and conveyor pan-line advance is suggested as the next step since both the shearer and face alignment operations contributed the greatest time delays to the overall system downtime.

  3. Induction of PAH degradation in a phenanthrene-degrading pseudomonad

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, W.T.; Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    Recent evidence suggests that different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) substrates are metabolized by common enzymes in PAH-degrading bacteria, implying that inducers for low-molecular-weight PAH degradation may coinduce for the metabolism of higher-molecular-weight compounds. The authors have tested this hypothesis with a well-characterized PAH-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas saccharophila P-15. Growth of P-15 on salicylate, a metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, and a known inducer for naphthalene degradation, induced the metabolism of both substrates. Several potential inducers were then tested for their effects on metabolism of the four-ring compounds pyrene and fluoranthene, neither of which is a growth substrate for P-15, but both of which can be metabolized by this organism. Incubation of P-15 in the presence of phenanthrene or salicylate induced the metabolism of pyrene and fluoranthene in resting-cell assays. Catechol, another intermediate of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation, did not induce the metabolism of either compound and interfered with the inducing effect of salicylate. These results have implications for strategies designed to maintain PAH degradation in contaminated environments, particularly for compounds that are degraded slowly or are degraded only by nongrowth metabolism.

  4. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  5. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, N. P. F.; Farrell, T.; Goodwin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13×61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  6. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  7. Automated quantitative analysis for pneumoconiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Zhao, Bin; Mino, Masako

    1998-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis for pneumoconiosis is presented. In this paper Japanese standard radiographs of pneumoconiosis are categorized by measuring the area density and the number density of small rounded opacities. And furthermore the classification of the size and shape of the opacities is made from the measuring of the equivalent radiuses of each opacity. The proposed method includes a bi- level unsharp masking filter with a 1D uniform impulse response in order to eliminate the undesired parts such as the images of blood vessels and ribs in the chest x-ray photo. The fuzzy contrast enhancement is also introduced in this method for easy and exact detection of small rounded opacities. Many simulation examples show that the proposed method is more reliable than the former method.

  8. The automated ground network system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  9. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  10. Productivity goals drive office automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, A. P.; Kurzhals, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Office automation (OA) steps being taken by NASA to improve efficiency in communications between centers and personnel are outlined. NASA centers are currently linked by satellite for electronic mail and scheduling through dumb and intelligent terminals. The implementation of teleconferencing with interactive graphics transmitted between dial-up terminals is being examined in a pilot program, and interactive data bases are already in operation, with an on-line summary data base being planned for NASA headquarters. The NASA Recon on-line service is operating with citations of over 2,200,000 aeronautics and astronautics research documents and 300,000 scientific books accessed by over 250 terminals around the U.S. The emphasis for all the OA systems is on user-friendly design and minimizing the required input for entry and access.

  11. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  12. Automated design of flexible linkers.

    PubMed

    Manion, Charles; Arlitt, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew I; Tumer, Irem; Stone, Rob; Greaney, P Alex

    2016-03-14

    This paper presents a method for the systematic and automated design of flexible organic linkers for construction of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) in which flexibility, compliance, or other mechanically exotic properties originate at the linker level rather than from the framework kinematics. Our method couples a graph grammar method for systematically generating linker like molecules with molecular dynamics modeling of linkers' mechanical response. Using this approach we have generated a candidate pool of >59,000 hypothetical linkers. We screen linker candidates according to their mechanical behaviors under large deformation, and extract fragments common to the most performant candidate materials. To demonstrate the general approach to MOF design we apply our system to designing linkers for pressure switching MOFs-MOFs that undergo reversible structural collapse after a stress threshold is exceeded. PMID:26687337

  13. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  14. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  15. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  16. Automated seizure detection using EKG.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Changes in heart rate, most often increases, are associated with the onset of epileptic seizures and may be used in lieu of cortical activity for automated seizure detection. The feasibility of this aim was tested on 241 clinical seizures from 81 subjects admitted to several Epilepsy Centers for invasive monitoring for evaluation for epilepsy surgery. The performance of the EKG-based seizure detection algorithm was compared to that of a validated algorithm applied to electrocorticogram (ECoG). With the most sensitive detection settings [threshold T: 1.15; duration D: 0 s], 5/241 seizures (2%) were undetected (false negatives) and with the highest [T: 1.3; D: 5 s] settings, the number of false negative detections rose to 34 (14%). The rate of potential false positive (PFP) detections was 9.5/h with the lowest and 1.1/h with the highest T, D settings. Visual review of 336 ECoG segments associated with PFPs revealed that 120 (36%) were associated with seizures, 127 (38%) with bursts of epileptiform discharges and only 87 (26%) were true false positives. Electrocardiographic (EKG)-based seizure onset detection preceded clinical onset by 0.8 s with the lowest and followed it by 13.8 s with the highest T, D settings. Automated EKG-based seizure detection is feasible and has potential clinical utility given its ease of acquisition, processing, high signal/noise and ergonomic advantages viz-a-viz EEG (electroencephalogram) or ECoG. Its use as an "electronic" seizure diary will remedy in part, the inaccuracies of those generated by patients/care-givers in a cost-effective manner.

  17. A data-driven multiplicative fault diagnosis approach for automation processes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haiyang; Zhang, Kai; Ding, Steven X; Chen, Zhiwen; Lei, Yaguo

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new data-driven method for diagnosing multiplicative key performance degradation in automation processes. Different from the well-established additive fault diagnosis approaches, the proposed method aims at identifying those low-level components which increase the variability of process variables and cause performance degradation. Based on process data, features of multiplicative fault are extracted. To identify the root cause, the impact of fault on each process variable is evaluated in the sense of contribution to performance degradation. Then, a numerical example is used to illustrate the functionalities of the method and Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness from the statistical viewpoint. Finally, to show the practical applicability, a case study on the Tennessee Eastman process is presented.

  18. Absorber coatings' degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

  19. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. PMID:24780273

  20. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Hübert, S.

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20 % up to about 80 %. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given.

  1. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  2. Degraded Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  3. Flight-deck automation - Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role of human factors in flight-deck automation, identifies problem areas, and suggests design guidelines. Flight-deck automation using microprocessor technology and display systems improves performance and safety while leading to a decrease in size, cost, and power consumption. On the other hand negative factors such as failure of automatic equipment, automation-induced error compounded by crew error, crew error in equipment set-up, failure to heed automatic alarms, and loss of proficiency must also be taken into account. Among the problem areas discussed are automation of control tasks, monitoring of complex systems, psychosocial aspects of automation, and alerting and warning systems. Guidelines are suggested for designing, utilising, and improving control and monitoring systems. Investigation into flight-deck automation systems is important as the knowledge gained can be applied to other systems such as air traffic control and nuclear power generation, but the many problems encountered with automated systems need to be analyzed and overcome in future research.

  4. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  5. Automated Cognome Construction and Semi-automated Hypothesis Generation

    PubMed Central

    Voytek, Jessica B.; Voytek, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Modern neuroscientific research stands on the shoulders of countless giants. PubMed alone contains more than 21 million peer-reviewed articles with 40–50,000 more published every month. Understanding the human brain, cognition, and disease will require integrating facts from dozens of scientific fields spread amongst millions of studies locked away in static documents, making any such integration daunting, at best. The future of scientific progress will be aided by bridging the gap between the millions of published research articles and modern databases such as the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). To that end, we have analyzed the text of over 3.5 million scientific abstracts to find associations between neuroscientific concepts. From the literature alone, we show that we can blindly and algorithmically extract a “cognome”: relationships between brain structure, function, and disease. We demonstrate the potential of data-mining and cross-platform data-integration with the ABA by introducing two methods for semiautomated hypothesis generation. By analyzing statistical “holes” and discrepancies in the literature we can find understudied or overlooked research paths. That is, we have added a layer of semi-automation to a part of the scientific process itself. This is an important step toward fundamentally incorporating data-mining algorithms into the scientific method in a manner that is generalizable to any scientific or medical field. PMID:22584238

  6. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  7. Application of advanced technology to space automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Lowrie, J. W.; Hughes, C. A.; Stephens, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Automated operations in space provide the key to optimized mission design and data acquisition at minimum cost for the future. The results of this study strongly accentuate this statement and should provide further incentive for immediate development of specific automtion technology as defined herein. Essential automation technology requirements were identified for future programs. The study was undertaken to address the future role of automation in the space program, the potential benefits to be derived, and the technology efforts that should be directed toward obtaining these benefits.

  8. Administrative automation in a scientific environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although the scientific personnel at GSFC were advanced in the development and use of hardware and software for scientific applications, resistance to the use of automation or purchase of terminals, software and services, specifically for administrative functions was widespread. The approach used to address problems and constraints and plans for administrative automation within the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate are delineated. Accomplishments thus far include reduction of paperwork and manual efforts; improved communications through telemail and committees; additional support staff; increased awareness at all levels on ergonomic concerns and the need for training; better equipment; improved ADP skills through experience; management commitment; and an overall strategy for automating.

  9. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  10. Automated maintenance of embryonic stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Terstegge, Stefanie; Laufenberg, Iris; Pochert, Jörg; Schenk, Sabine; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Endl, Elmar; Brüstle, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) technology provides attractive perspectives for generating unlimited numbers of somatic cells for disease modeling and compound screening. A key prerequisite for these industrial applications are standardized and automated systems suitable for stem cell processing. Here we demonstrate that mouse and human ESC propagated by automated culture maintain their mean specific growth rates, their capacity for multi-germlayer differentiation, and the expression of the pluripotency-associated markers SSEA-1/Oct-4 and Tra-1-60/Tra-1-81/Oct-4, respectively. The feasibility of ESC culture automation may greatly facilitate the use of this versatile cell source for a variety of biomedical applications.

  11. CFD Process Automation Using Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This talk summarizes three applications of the overset grid method for CFD using some level of automated grid generation, flow solution and post-processing. These applications are 2D high-lift airfoil analysis (INS2D code), turbomachinery applications (ROTOR2/3 codes), and subsonic transport wing/body configurations (OVERFLOW code). These examples provide a forum for discussing the advantages and disadvantages of overset gridding for use in an automated CFD process. The goals and benefits of the automation incorporated in each application will be described, as well as the shortcomings of the approaches.

  12. Implementation of and experiences with new automation.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, I; Kim, D

    2000-01-01

    In an environment where cost, timeliness, and quality drives the business, it is essential to look for answers in technology where these challenges can be met. In the Novartis Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Department, automation and robotics have become just the tools to meet these challenges. Although automation is a relatively new concept in our department, we have fully embraced it within just a few years. As our company went through a merger, there was a significant reduction in the workforce within the Quality Assurance Department through voluntary and involuntary separations. However the workload remained constant or in some cases actually increased. So even with reduction in laboratory personnel, we were challenged internally and from the headquarters in Basle to improve productivity while maintaining integrity in quality testing. Benchmark studies indicated the Suffern site to be the choice manufacturing site above other facilities. This is attributed to the Suffern facility employees' commitment to reduce cycle time, improve efficiency, and maintain high level of regulatory compliance. One of the stronger contributing factors was automation technology in the laboratoriess, and this technology will continue to help the site's status in the future. The Automation Group was originally formed about 2 years ago to meet the demands of high quality assurance testing throughput needs and to bring our testing group up to standard with the industry. Automation began with only two people in the group and now we have three people who are the next generation automation scientists. Even with such a small staff,we have made great strides in laboratory automation as we have worked extensively with each piece of equipment brought in. The implementation process of each project was often difficult because the second generation automation group came from the laboratory and without much automation experience. However, with the involvement from the users at 'get-go', we were

  13. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  14. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  15. Membrane Degradation Accelerated Stress Test

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.

    2015-01-21

    These are a set of slides that deal with membrane degradation accelerated stress test. Specifically, the following topics are covered: membrane degradation FCTT drive cycle; membrane ASTs; current membrane ASTs damage mechanisms; proposed membrane AST, RH cycling in H2/Air; current proposed AST; 2min/2min AST damage mechanism; 30sec/45sec RH cycling at OCV.

  16. Remote inhibition of polymer degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Polymer degradation has been explored on the basis of synergistic infectious and inhibitive interaction between separate materials. A dual stage chemiluminescence detection system with individually controlled hot stages was applied to probe for interaction effects during polymer degradation in an oxidizing environment. Experimental confirmation was obtained that volatile antioxidants can be transferred over a relatively large distance. The thermal degradation of a polypropylene (PP) sample receiving traces of inhibitive antioxidants from a remote source is delayed. Similarly, volatiles from two stabilized elastomers were also capable of retarding a degradation process remotely. This observation demonstrates inhibitive cross-talk as a novel interactive phenomenon between different polymers and is consequential for understanding general polymer interactions, fundamental degradation processes and long-term aging effects of multiple materials in a single environment.

  17. Degradation of carbofuran by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2009-04-01

    Degradation of commercial grade carbofuran (2, 3 dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7 benzo furanyl-N-methyl carbamate) in aqueous solution by ozone oxidation was investigated using bench scale experiments. The degradation rate was strongly influenced by the ozone dosage, pH, initial concentration of carbofuran and contact time of ozonation. Carbofuran solution of 200ppm concentration was degraded by 79% within 10 minutes consuming 87 mg of ozone at pH 4. The associated TOC reduction was observed to be 53%. Ammonium (20 mg/L) and nitrate (30 mg/L) ions were detected in the effluent as degradation products of ozonation. The results support the effectiveness of ozonation for degradation of organic pesticides such as carbofuran.

  18. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  19. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  20. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  1. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  2. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  3. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  4. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which a...

  5. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  6. Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

  7. 47 CFR 80.385 - Frequencies for automated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for automated systems. 80.385... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Automated Systems § 80.385 Frequencies for automated systems. This section describes the carrier frequencies for the Automated Maritime...

  8. 19 CFR 24.25 - Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse... processing and Automated Clearinghouse. (a) Description. Statement processing is a voluntary automated program for participants in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), allowing the grouping of...

  9. 19 CFR 24.25 - Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse... processing and Automated Clearinghouse. (a) Description. Statement processing is a voluntary automated program for participants in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), allowing the grouping of...

  10. 19 CFR 24.25 - Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse... processing and Automated Clearinghouse. (a) Description. Statement processing is a voluntary automated program for participants in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), allowing the grouping of...

  11. 19 CFR 24.25 - Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statement processing and Automated Clearinghouse... processing and Automated Clearinghouse. (a) Description. Statement processing is a voluntary automated program for participants in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), allowing the grouping of...

  12. An Automated Imaging System for Radiation Biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Garty, Guy; Bigelow, Alan W.; Repin, Mikhail; Turner, Helen C.; Bian, Dakai; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Taveras, Maria; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here an automated imaging system developed at the Center for High Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry. The imaging system is built around a fast, sensitive sCMOS camera and rapid switchable LED light source. It features complete automation of all the steps of the imaging process and contains built-in feedback loops to ensure proper operation. The imaging system is intended as a back end to the RABiT – a robotic platform for radiation biodosimetry. It is intended to automate image acquisition and analysis for four biodosimetry assays for which we have developed automated protocols: The Cytokinesis Blocked Micronucleus assay, the γ-H2AX assay, the Dicentric assay (using PNA or FISH probes) and the RABiT-BAND assay. PMID:25939519

  13. An automated photolithography facility for IC's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Report discusses subsystems that will constitute fully-automated photolithography facility for IC's. Facility being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center will produce ultrareliable IC's with minimal human intervention.

  14. Computer automation for feedback system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical techniques and explanations of various steps used by an automated computer program to design feedback systems are summarized. Special attention was given to refining the automatic evaluation suboptimal loop transmission and the translation of time to frequency domain specifications.

  15. Impact of automation on mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Rockwood, Alan

    2015-10-23

    Mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS and LC-MS/MS) is an analytical technique that has rapidly grown in popularity in clinical practice. In contrast to traditional technology, mass spectrometry is superior in many respects including resolution, specificity, multiplex capability and has the ability to measure analytes in various matrices. Despite these advantages, LC-MS/MS remains high cost, labor intensive and has limited throughput. This specialized technology requires highly trained personnel and therefore has largely been limited to large institutions, academic organizations and reference laboratories. Advances in automation will be paramount to break through this bottleneck and increase its appeal for routine use. This article reviews these challenges, shares perspectives on essential features for LC-MS/MS total automation and proposes a step-wise and incremental approach to achieve total automation through reducing human intervention, increasing throughput and eventually integrating the LC-MS/MS system into the automated clinical laboratory operations.

  16. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer.

  17. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  18. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Automation

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony K.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Chang, Tim C.; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic automation – the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels – generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology’s use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  19. Continuous Monitoring, Automated Analyses, and Sampling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, C. P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature, covering publications of 1976-77. This series covers: (1) monitoring strategies and sampling protocols; (2) continuous monitoring applications; (3) biological monitoring systems; and (4) automated analysis. A list of 57 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. The new frontier for pharmacy automation.

    PubMed

    Burke, M

    1994-11-01

    The retail pharmacy industry, long a leader in applying EDI, is preparing to use automation in several new areas. For example, pharmacists will be able to interact electronically with physicians' offices and access clinical information.

  1. Provider automation. Focusing on the big picture.

    PubMed

    Watson, S

    1995-06-01

    St. Vincent's Hospital in Birmingham, Ala., is preparing for a new world of health care by creating an enterprisewide information systems strategy rather than developing automation solutions for departmental "islands."

  2. Automation of data acquisition in electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi

    2013-01-01

    General considerations for using automation software for acquiring high-resolution images of 2D crystals under low-dose conditions are presented. Protocol modifications specific to this application in Leginon are provided.

  3. Library Automation: A State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, John

    1979-01-01

    Presents a summary of the status of library automation in the late 1970s including the major problems facing libraries as they move to computer-based systems. The developments of the 1980s are also discussed. (Author/MBR)

  4. Problems and Failures in Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes ten papers presented during the 15th annual clinic entitled "Problems and Failures in Library Automation," sponsored by the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Graduate School of Library Science. (MBR)

  5. Applications of an automated programming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.; Masotto, Thomas K.

    1991-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The Automated Programming Subsystem is the core of the CSDL CASE system. The Automated Programming Subsystem allows an engineer to describe software specifications as hierarchical engineering block diagrams, a natural design technique for the specification of real-time software. The objective of the Automated Programming Subsystem is to capture completely and consistently both logical and schematic information as diagrams are developed, and then to automatically transform this information into source code (Ada or C) and documentation. The Automated Programming Subsystem of CSDL CASE has been used on many applications, from small to moderate size. Six of these applications are described in this paper.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Effective Dental Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieb, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    Considered are aspects of effective dental automation, including integrating "islands of computing"; definition of a dental record; common nomenclature; an enabling architecture; capturing data at its source; computer-assisted software engineering; and system security. (DB)

  7. Image segmentation for automated dental identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj Said, Eyad; Nassar, Diaa Eldin M.; Ammar, Hany H.

    2006-02-01

    Dental features are one of few biometric identifiers that qualify for postmortem identification; therefore, creation of an Automated Dental Identification System (ADIS) with goals and objectives similar to the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) has received increased attention. As a part of ADIS, teeth segmentation from dental radiographs films is an essential step in the identification process. In this paper, we introduce a fully automated approach for teeth segmentation with goal to extract at least one tooth from the dental radiograph film. We evaluate our approach based on theoretical and empirical basis, and we compare its performance with the performance of other approaches introduced in the literature. The results show that our approach exhibits the lowest failure rate and the highest optimality among all full automated approaches introduced in the literature.

  8. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol), it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature) were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the robot can autonomously

  9. Toward automated interpretation of integrated information: Managing "big data" for NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Elizabeth; Lesthaeghe, Tyler; Holland, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Large scale automation of NDE processes is rapidly maturing, thanks to recent improvements in robotics and the rapid growth of computer power over the last twenty years. It is fairly straightforward to automate NDE data collection itself, but the process of NDE remains largely manual. We will discuss three threads of technological needs that must be addressed before we are able to perform automated NDE. Spatial context, the first thread, means that each NDE measurement taken is accompanied by metadata that locates the measurement with respect to the 3D physical geometry of the specimen. In this way, the geometry of the specimen acts as a database key. Data context, the second thread, means that we record why the data was taken and how it was measured in addition to the NDE data itself. We will present our software tool that helps users interact with data in context, Databrowse. Condition estimation, the third thread, is maintaining the best possible knowledge of the condition (serviceability, degradation, etc.) of an object or part. In the NDE context, we can prospectively use Bayes' Theorem to integrate the data from each new NDE measurement with prior knowledge. These tools, combined with robotic measurements and automated defect analysis, will provide the information needed to make high-level life predictions and focus NDE measurements where they are needed most.

  10. Automation and hypermedia technology applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupin, Joseph H.; Ng, Edward W.; James, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper represents a progress report on HyLite (Hypermedia Library technology): a research and development activity to produce a versatile system as part of NASA's technology thrusts in automation, information sciences, and communications. HyLite can be used as a system or tool to facilitate the creation and maintenance of large distributed electronic libraries. The contents of such a library may be software components, hardware parts or designs, scientific data sets or databases, configuration management information, etc. Proliferation of computer use has made the diversity and quantity of information too large for any single user to sort, process, and utilize effectively. In response to this information deluge, we have created HyLite to enable the user to process relevant information into a more efficient organization for presentation, retrieval, and readability. To accomplish this end, we have incorporated various AI techniques into the HyLite hypermedia engine to facilitate parameters and properties of the system. The proposed techniques include intelligent searching tools for the libraries, intelligent retrievals, and navigational assistance based on user histories. HyLite itself is based on an earlier project, the Encyclopedia of Software Components (ESC) which used hypermedia to facilitate and encourage software reuse.

  11. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  12. Triangulation methods for automated docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, John W.

    1996-01-01

    An automated docking system must have a reliable method for determining range and orientation of the passive (target) vehicle with respect to the active vehicle. This method must also provide accurate information on the rates of change of range to and orientation of the passive vehicle. The method must be accurate within required tolerances and capable of operating in real time. The method being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center employs a single TV camera, a laser illumination system and a target consisting, in its minimal configuration, of three retro-reflectors. Two of the retro-reflectors are mounted flush to the same surface, with the third retro-reflector mounted to a post fixed midway between the other two and jutting at a right angle from the surface. For redundancy, two additional retroreflectors are mounted on the surface on a line at right angles to the line containing the first two retro-reflectors, and equally spaced on either side of the post. The target vehicle will contain a large target for initial acquisition and several smaller targets for close range.

  13. Automated videography for residential communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Andrew F.; Neustaedter, Carman; Blose, Andrew C.

    2010-02-01

    The current widespread use of webcams for personal video communication over the Internet suggests that opportunities exist to develop video communications systems optimized for domestic use. We discuss both prior and existing technologies, and the results of user studies that indicate potential needs and expectations for people relative to personal video communications. In particular, users anticipate an easily used, high image quality video system, which enables multitasking communications during the course of real-world activities and provides appropriate privacy controls. To address these needs, we propose a potential approach premised on automated capture of user activity. We then describe a method that adapts cinematography principles, with a dual-camera videography system, to automatically control image capture relative to user activity, using semantic or activity-based cues to determine user position and motion. In particular, we discuss an approach to automatically manage shot framing, shot selection, and shot transitions, with respect to one or more local users engaged in real-time, unscripted events, while transmitting the resulting video to a remote viewer. The goal is to tightly frame subjects (to provide more detail), while minimizing subject loss and repeated abrupt shot framing changes in the images as perceived by a remote viewer. We also discuss some aspects of the system and related technologies that we have experimented with thus far. In summary, the method enables users to participate in interactive video-mediated communications while engaged in other activities.

  14. FAST AUTOMATED DECOUPLING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE-WANG,J.J.

    2005-05-16

    Coupling correction is essential for the operational performance of RHIC. The independence of the transverse degrees of freedom makes diagnostics and tune control easier, and it is advantageous to operate an accelerator close to the coupling resonance to minimize nearby nonlinear sidebands. An automated coupling correction application iDQmini has been developed for RHIC routine operations. The application decouples RHIC globally by minimizing the tune separation through finding the optimal settings of two orthogonal skew quadrupole families. The program iDQmini provides options of automatic, semi-automatic and manual decoupling operations. It accesses tune information from all RHIC tune measurement systems: the PLL (phase lock loop), the high frequency Schottky system and the tune meter. It also supplies tune and skew quadrupole scans, finding the minimum tune separation, display the real time results and interface with the RHIC control system. We summarize the capabilities of the coupling correction application iDQmini, and discuss the operational protections incorporated in the program.

  15. POSE Algorithms for Automated Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Howard, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    POSE (relative position and attitude) can be computed in many different ways. Given a sensor that measures bearing to a finite number of spots corresponding to known features (such as a target) of a spacecraft, a number of different algorithms can be used to compute the POSE. NASA has sponsored the development of a flash LIDAR proximity sensor called the Vision Navigation Sensor (VNS) for use by the Orion capsule in future docking missions. This sensor generates data that can be used by a variety of algorithms to compute POSE solutions inside of 15 meters, including at the critical docking range of approximately 1-2 meters. Previously NASA participated in a DARPA program called Orbital Express that achieved the first automated docking for the American space program. During this mission a large set of high quality mated sensor data was obtained at what is essentially the docking distance. This data set is perhaps the most accurate truth data in existence for docking proximity sensors in orbit. In this paper, the flight data from Orbital Express is used to test POSE algorithms at 1.22 meters range. Two different POSE algorithms are tested for two different Fields-of-View (FOVs) and two different pixel noise levels. The results of the analysis are used to predict future performance of the POSE algorithms with VNS data.

  16. An automated mapping satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoreses, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    Topographic maps are compiled by manually operated stereoplotters that recreate the geometry of two wide-angle overlapping stereo frame photographs. Continuous imaging systems such as strip cameras, electro-optical scanners, or linear arrays of detectors (push brooms) can also create stereo coverage from which topography can be compiled; however, the instability of an aircraft in the atmosphere makes this approach impractical. The benign environment of space permits a satellite to orbit the Earth with very high stability as long as no local perturbing forces are involved. Solid-state linear-array sensors have no moving parts and create no perturbing force on the satellite. Digital data from highly stabilized stereo linear arrays are amenable to simplified processing to produce both planimetric imagery and elevation data. A proposed satellite, called MAPSAT, could accomplish automated mapping in near real time. Image maps as large as 1:50,000 scale with contours as close as 20-m interval may be produced from MAPSAT data.

  17. Automated Observing at the UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, P. N.; Bridger, A.; Krisciunas, K. L.

    The cooled grating spectrometer, CGS4, is an advanced infra-red spectrometer operating in the 1 -- 5 microns region at resolving powers of 300 < lamb/del(lamb) < 20000. The power of the instrument, the demands of the data reduction system and the quantity of data it can produce have led to the development of a sophisticated software system that can automatically configure the instrument and telescope, maximise the source signal, take and archive the data, and reduce the observations in real-time. The combined software system has an `uptime' at the telescope of >99.5%. After the successful commissioning of this instrument during 1991 and 1992, a programme to upgrade the system has been implemented which will extend and adapt the CGS4 software to control and reduce data from UKIRT's near infra-red camera IRCAM. This new single automated system will be capable of controlling both instruments and will lead to better support and maintenance. The upgrade of both instruments to arrays within the next year relies on this system being operational. We will review the four elements of the system ( data acquisition, data reduction, auto-archiving and auto-peakup ) and report the latest developments.

  18. Intelligent automated surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Ke-Thia; Gelsey, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our research is to produce a flexible, general grid generator for automated use by other programs, such as numerical optimizers. The current trend in the gridding field is toward interactive gridding. Interactive gridding more readily taps into the spatial reasoning abilities of the human user through the use of a graphical interface with a mouse. However, a sometimes fruitful approach to generating new designs is to apply an optimizer with shape modification operators to improve an initial design. In order for this approach to be useful, the optimizer must be able to automatically grid and evaluate the candidate designs. This paper describes and intelligent gridder that is capable of analyzing the topology of the spatial domain and predicting approximate physical behaviors based on the geometry of the spatial domain to automatically generate grids for computational fluid dynamics simulators. Typically gridding programs are given a partitioning of the spatial domain to assist the gridder. Our gridder is capable of performing this partitioning. This enables the gridder to automatically grid spatial domains of wide range of configurations.

  19. Programs Automate Complex Operations Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, just off the east coast of Florida on Merritt Island, has been the starting place of every human space flight in NASA s history. It is where the first Americans left Earth during Project Mercury, the terrestrial departure point of the lunar-bound Apollo astronauts, as well as the last solid ground many astronauts step foot on before beginning their long stays aboard the International Space Station. It will also be the starting point for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars and temporary host of the new Ares series rockets designed to take us there. Since the first days of the early NASA missions, in order to keep up with the demands of the intricate and critical Space Program, the launch complex - host to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, two launch pads, and myriad support facilities - has grown increasingly complex to accommodate the sophisticated technologies needed to manage today s space missions. To handle the complicated launch coordination safely, NASA found ways to automate mission-critical applications, resulting in streamlined decision-making. One of these methods, management software called the Control Monitor Unit (CMU), created in conjunction with McDonnell Douglas Space & Defense Systems, has since left NASA, and is finding its way into additional applications.

  20. Algorithms for automated DNA assembly

    PubMed Central

    Densmore, Douglas; Hsiau, Timothy H.-C.; Kittleson, Joshua T.; DeLoache, Will; Batten, Christopher; Anderson, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Generating a defined set of genetic constructs within a large combinatorial space provides a powerful method for engineering novel biological functions. However, the process of assembling more than a few specific DNA sequences can be costly, time consuming and error prone. Even if a correct theoretical construction scheme is developed manually, it is likely to be suboptimal by any number of cost metrics. Modular, robust and formal approaches are needed for exploring these vast design spaces. By automating the design of DNA fabrication schemes using computational algorithms, we can eliminate human error while reducing redundant operations, thus minimizing the time and cost required for conducting biological engineering experiments. Here, we provide algorithms that optimize the simultaneous assembly of a collection of related DNA sequences. We compare our algorithms to an exhaustive search on a small synthetic dataset and our results show that our algorithms can quickly find an optimal solution. Comparison with random search approaches on two real-world datasets show that our algorithms can also quickly find lower-cost solutions for large datasets. PMID:20335162

  1. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  2. Radiologist and automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    1999-07-01

    Significant advances are being made in the area of automated medical image analysis. Part of the progress is due to the general advances being made in the types of algorithms used to process images and perform various detection and recognition tasks. A more important reason for this growth in medical image analysis processes, may be due however to a very different reason. The use of computer workstations, digital image acquisition technologies and the use of CRT monitors for display of medical images for primary diagnostic reading is becoming more prevalent in radiology departments around the world. With the advance in computer- based displays, however, has come the realization that displaying images on a CRT monitor is not the same as displaying film on a viewbox. There are perceptual, cognitive and ergonomic issues that must be considered if radiologists are to accept this change in technology and display. The bottom line is that radiologists' performance must be evaluated with these new technologies and image analysis techniques in order to verify that diagnostic performance is at least as good with these new technologies and image analysis procedures as with film-based displays. The goal of this paper is to address some of the perceptual, cognitive and ergonomic issues associated with reading radiographic images from digital displays.

  3. MASS: An automated accountability system

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, F.

    1994-08-01

    All Department of Energy contractors who manage accountable quantities of nuclear materials are required to implement an accountability system that tracks, and records the activities associated with those materials. At Los Alamos, the automated accountability system allows data entry on computer terminals and data base updating as soon as the entry is made. It is also able to generate all required reports in a timely Fashion. Over the last several years, the hardware and software have been upgraded to provide the users with all the capability needed to manage a large variety of operations with a wide variety of nuclear materials. Enhancements to the system are implemented as the needs of the users are identified. The system has grown with the expanded needs of the user; and has survived several years of changing operations and activity. The user community served by this system includes processing, materials control and accountability, and nuclear material management personnel. In addition to serving the local users, the accountability system supports the national data base (NMMSS). This paper contains a discussion of several details of the system design and operation. After several years of successful operation, this system provides an operating example of how computer systems can be used to manage a very dynamic data management problem.

  4. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  5. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  6. Scientific Process Automation Improves Data Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.

    2009-09-30

    This is an article written for the September 09 Scientific Computing magazine about the work of the Scientific Process Automation team of The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program. The SPA team is focused on developing and deploying automated workflows for a variety of computational science domains. Scientific workflows are the formalization of a scientific process that is frequently and repetitively performed.

  7. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  8. Space science experimentation automation and support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frainier, Richard J.; Groleau, Nicolas; Shapiro, Jeff C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines recent work done at the NASA Ames Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory on automation and support of science experiments on the US Space Shuttle in low earth orbit. Three approaches to increasing the science return of these experiments using emerging automation technologies are described: remote control (telescience), science advisors for astronaut operators, and fully autonomous experiments. The capabilities and limitations of these approaches are reviewed.

  9. PC-based automation system streamlines operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.

    1995-10-01

    The continued emergence of PC-based automation systems in the modern compressor station is driving the need for personnel who have the special skills need to support them. However, the dilemma is that operating budget restraints limit the overall number of people available to operate and maintain compressor stations. An ideal solution is to deploy automation systems which can be easily understood and supported by existing compressor station personnel. This paper reviews such a system developed by Waukesha-Pearce Industries, Inc.

  10. Using automated planning for sensorweb response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Sherwood, Rob; Jones, Jeremy; Grosvenor, Sandy; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Descloitres, Jacques; Justice, Chris; Sohlberg, Rob; Wright, Rob; Flynn, Luke; Harris, Andy; Brakenridge, Robert; Cacquard, Sebastien; Nghiem, Son; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to link these science event detection systems with an automated response system to retarget remote sensing assets to observe these important but transient science events. Of course, automated mission planning is a key element of the overall tracking and response system. We describe the current prototype system which utilizes the Earth Observing One spacecraft, MODIS flying on Terra and Aqua, QuickSCAT, GOES, and AVHRR platforms as well as future plans for expansion.

  11. Automation for deep space vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1991-01-01

    Information on automation for deep space vehicle monitoring is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on automation goals and strategy; the Monitor Analyzer of Real-time Voyager Engineering Link (MARVEL); intelligent input data management; decision theory for making tradeoffs; dynamic tradeoff evaluation; evaluation of anomaly detection results; evaluation of data management methods; system level analysis with cooperating expert systems; the distributed architecture of multiple expert systems; and event driven response.

  12. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-10-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  13. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-08-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  14. Visions of Automation and Realities of Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Quite a lot of people envision automation as the solution to many of the problems in aviation and air transportation today, across all sectors: commercial, private, and military. This paper explains why some recent experiences with complex, highly-integrated, automated systems suggest that this vision will not be realized unless significant progress is made over the current state-of-the-practice in software system development and certification.

  15. Compact, Automated, Frequency-Agile Microspectrofluorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.; Guignon, Ernest F.

    1995-01-01

    Compact, reliable, rugged, automated cell-culture and frequency-agile microspectrofluorimetric apparatus developed to perform experiments involving photometric imaging observations of single live cells. In original application, apparatus operates mostly unattended aboard spacecraft; potential terrestrial applications include automated or semiautomated diagnosis of pathological tissues in clinical laboratories, biomedical instrumentation, monitoring of biological process streams, and portable instrumentation for testing biological conditions in various environments. Offers obvious advantages over present laboratory instrumentation.

  16. Computer Programs For Automated Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Computer programs developed for use in controlling automated welding system described in MFS-28578. Together with control computer, computer input and output devices and control sensors and actuators, provide flexible capability for planning and implementation of schemes for automated welding of specific workpieces. Developed according to macro- and task-level programming schemes, which increases productivity and consistency by reducing amount of "teaching" of system by technician. System provides for three-dimensional mathematical modeling of workpieces, work cells, robots, and positioners.

  17. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D; Elliott, A; Ganzberger, M; Hauk, T; Matzel, E; Ryall, F

    2004-07-09

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation efforts and framework to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researcher's ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or 'tiers' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the 'raw materials' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly unpredictable event

  18. Automated DNA extraction of single dog hairs without roots for mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Bram; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Opdekamp, Anouschka; Decorte, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Dogs are intensely integrated in human social life and their shed hairs can play a major role in forensic investigations. The overall aim of this study was to validate a semi-automated extraction method for mitochondrial DNA analysis of telogenic dog hairs. Extracted DNA was amplified with a 95% success rate from 43 samples using two new experimental designs in which the mitochondrial control region was amplified as a single large (± 1260 bp) amplicon or as two individual amplicons (HV1 and HV2; ± 650 and 350 bp) with tailed-primers. The results prove that the extraction of dog hair mitochondrial DNA can easily be automated to provide sufficient DNA yield for the amplification of a forensically useful long mitochondrial DNA fragment or alternatively two short fragments with minimal loss of sequence in case of degraded samples.

  19. Automating linear accelerator quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhause, Tobias; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Farrey, Karl; Ritter, Timothy; DeMarco, John; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Popple, Richard; Sharma, Vijeshwar; Park, SungYong; Perez, Mario; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. Methods: The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. Results: For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The

  20. Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alinger, Matthew

    2013-09-30

    This final report summarizes the progress made during the October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-NT0004109 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled “Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes”. The primary objective of this program is to develop a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Strategies to mitigate performance degradation are developed and implemented. In addition, thermal spray manufacturing of SOFCs is explored. Combined, this work establishes a basis for cost-effective SOFC cells.

  1. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  2. Transition Flight Control Room Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which we feel can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: The Fuel Cell Monitoring System (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the Shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multi-threaded procedures which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL). AGCOMPL is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on Shuttle or Space Station telemetry and trajectory data. The design of a system which will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. A generic message management (GMM) system. GMM is being designed as a message management system for real-time applications which send advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occurs and in assisting the developer in devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, while determining the feasibility of a given approach, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application and tool building activities.

  3. Transition flight control room automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welborn, Curtis Ray

    1990-01-01

    The Workstation Prototype Laboratory is currently working on a number of projects which can have a direct impact on ground operations automation. These projects include: (1) The fuel cell monitoring system (FCMS), which will monitor and detect problems with the fuel cells on the shuttle. FCMS will use a combination of rules (forward/backward) and multithreaded procedures, which run concurrently with the rules, to implement the malfunction algorithms of the EGIL flight controllers. The combination of rule-based reasoning and procedural reasoning allows us to more easily map the malfunction algorithms into a real-time system implementation. (2) A graphical computation language (AGCOMPL) is an experimental prototype to determine the benefits and drawbacks of using a graphical language to design computations (algorithms) to work on shuttle or space station telemetry and trajectory data. (3) The design of a system will allow a model of an electrical system, including telemetry sensors, to be configured on the screen graphically using previously defined electrical icons. This electrical model would then be used to generate rules and procedures for detecting malfunctions in the electrical components of the model. (4) A generic message management (GMM) system is being designed for real-time applications as a message management system which sends advisory messages to a user. The primary purpose of GMM is to reduce the risk of overloading a user with information when multiple failures occur and to assist the developer in the devising an explanation facility. The emphasis of our work is to develop practical tools and techniques, including identification of appropriate software tools to support research, application, and tool building activities, while determining the feasibility of a given approach.

  4. Automated verification of system configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, W. H., Jr.; Baker, S. P.; Blalock, A. V.

    1991-05-01

    Errors in field wiring can result in significant correction costs (if the errors are discovered prior to use), in erroneous or unusable data (if the errors are not discovered in time), or in serious accidents (if the errors corrupt critical data). Detailed field wiring checkout rework are tedious and expensive, but they are essential steps in the quality assurance process for large, complex instrumentation and control systems. A recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) development, the CONFiguration IDEnification System (CONFIDES) automates verification of field wiring. In CONFIDES, an identifier module is installed on or integrated into each component (e.g., sensor, actuator, cable, distribution panel) to be verified. Interrogator modules, controlled by a personal computer (PC), are installed at the connections of the field wiring to the inputs of the data acquisition and control system (DACS). Interrogator modules poll the components connected to each channel of the DACS and can determine the path taken by each channel's signal to or from the end device for that channel. The system will provide not only the identification (ID) code for the cables and patch panels in the path to a particular sensor or actuator but for individual cable conductor IDs as well. One version of the system uses existing signal wires for communications between CONFIDES modules. Another, more powerful version requires a single dedicated conductor in each cable. Both version can operate with or without instrument power applied and neither interferes with the normal operation of the DACS. Identifier modules can provide a variety of information including status and calibration data.

  5. 78 FR 44142 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image System (DIS) and Simplified Entry... certain Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) participants to submit electronic images of a specific set... requirements, and test development and evaluation methods. DATES: The modified DIS test will commence...

  6. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a... required advance ocean and rail data through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This notice... application period for participation, outlines the development and evaluation methodology to be used,...

  7. Danger! Automation at Work; Report of the State of Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, William

    The 74th Illinois General Assembly created the Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress to study and analyze the economic and social effects of automation and other technological changes on industry, commerce, agriculture, education, manpower, and society in Illinois. Commission members visited industrial plants and business…

  8. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  9. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

  10. Reductive Degradation: Versatile, Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article discusses the use of reductive degradation as an economical and effective treatment of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Comparisons with activated carbon treatment show lower capital equipment and treatment costs. (CS)

  11. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    PubMed

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  12. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi.

  13. Degradation monitoring using probabilistic inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpay, Bulent

    In order to increase safety and improve economy and performance in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the source and extent of component degradations should be identified before failures and breakdowns occur. It is also crucial for the next generation of NPPs, which are designed to have a long core life and high fuel burnup to have a degradation monitoring system in order to keep the reactor in a safe state, to meet the designed reactor core lifetime and to optimize the scheduled maintenance. Model-based methods are based on determining the inconsistencies between the actual and expected behavior of the plant, and use these inconsistencies for detection and diagnostics of degradations. By defining degradation as a random abrupt change from the nominal to a constant degraded state of a component, we employed nonlinear filtering techniques based on state/parameter estimation. We utilized a Bayesian recursive estimation formulation in the sequential probabilistic inference framework and constructed a hidden Markov model to represent a general physical system. By addressing the problem of a filter's inability to estimate an abrupt change, which is called the oblivious filter problem in nonlinear extensions of Kalman filtering, and the sample impoverishment problem in particle filtering, we developed techniques to modify filtering algorithms by utilizing additional data sources to improve the filter's response to this problem. We utilized a reliability degradation database that can be constructed from plant specific operational experience and test and maintenance reports to generate proposal densities for probable degradation modes. These are used in a multiple hypothesis testing algorithm. We then test samples drawn from these proposal densities with the particle filtering estimates based on the Bayesian recursive estimation formulation with the Metropolis Hastings algorithm, which is a well-known Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC). This multiple hypothesis testing

  14. Hardware flexibility of laboratory automation systems: analysis and new flexible automation architectures.

    PubMed

    Najmabadi, Peyman; Goldenberg, Andrew A; Emili, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Development of flexible laboratory automation systems has attracted tremendous attention in recent years as biotechnology scientists perform diverse types of protocols and tend to continuously modify them as part of their research. This article is a system level study of hardware flexibility of laboratory automation architectures for high-throughput automation of various sample preparation protocols. Hardware flexibility (system components' adaptability to protocol variations) of automation systems is addressed through the introduction of three main parametric flexibility measures functional, structural, and throughput. A new quantitative measurement method for these parameters in the realm of the Axiomatic Theory is introduced in this article. The method relies on defining probability of success functions for flexibility parameters and calculating their information contents. As flexibility information content decreases, automation system flexibility increases.

  15. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  16. Ubiquitin as a degradation signal.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Bartel, B; Seufert, W; Varshavsky, A

    1992-01-01

    For many short-lived eukaryotic proteins, conjugation to ubiquitin, yielding a multiubiquitin chain, is an obligatory pre-degradation step. The conjugated ubiquitin moieties function as a 'secondary' signal for degradation, in that their posttranslational coupling to a substrate protein is mediated by amino acid sequences of the substrate that act as a primary degradation signal. We report that the fusion protein ubiquitin--proline--beta-galactosidase (Ub-P-beta gal) is short-lived in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae because its N-terminal ubiquitin moiety functions as an autonomous, primary degradation signal. This signal mediates the formation of a multiubiquitin chain linked to Lys48 of the N-terminal ubiquitin in Ub-P-beta gal. The degradation of Ub-P-beta gal is shown to require Ubc4, one of at least seven ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in S.cerevisiae. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that a monoubiquitin moiety can function as an autonomous degradation signal. This generally applicable, cis-acting signal can be used to manipulate the in vivo half-lives of specific intracellular proteins. Images PMID:1311250

  17. Degradation and resilience of soils

    PubMed Central

    Lal, R.

    1997-01-01

    Debate on global soil degradation, its extent and agronomic impact, can only be resolved through understanding of the processes and factors leading to establishment of the cause-effect relationships for major soils, ecoregions, and land uses. Systematic evaluation through long-term experimentation is needed for establishing quantitative criteria of (i) soil quality in relation to specific functions; (ii) soil degradation in relation to critical limits of key soil properties and processes; and (iii) soil resilience in relation to the ease of restoration through judicious management and discriminate use of essential input. Quantitative assessment of soil degradation can be obtained by evaluating its impact on productivity for different land uses and management systems. Interdisciplinary research is needed to quantify soil degradation effects on decrease in productivity, reduction in biomass, and decline in environment quality throught pollution and eutrophication of natural waters and emission of radiatively-active gases from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Data from long-term field experiments in principal ecoregions are specifically needed to (i) establish relationships between soil quality versus soil degradation and soil quality versus soil resilience; (ii) identify indicators of soil quality and soil resilience; and (iii) establish critical limits of important properties for soil degradation and soil resilience. There is a need to develop and standardize techniques for measuring soil resilience.

  18. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability.

  19. Agalma: an automated phylogenomics workflow

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past decade, transcriptome data have become an important component of many phylogenetic studies. They are a cost-effective source of protein-coding gene sequences, and have helped projects grow from a few genes to hundreds or thousands of genes. Phylogenetic studies now regularly include genes from newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as publicly available transcriptomes and genomes. Implementing such a phylogenomic study, however, is computationally intensive, requires the coordinated use of many complex software tools, and includes multiple steps for which no published tools exist. Phylogenomic studies have therefore been manual or semiautomated. In addition to taking considerable user time, this makes phylogenomic analyses difficult to reproduce, compare, and extend. In addition, methodological improvements made in the context of one study often cannot be easily applied and evaluated in the context of other studies. Results We present Agalma, an automated tool that constructs matrices for phylogenomic analyses. The user provides raw Illumina transcriptome data, and Agalma produces annotated assemblies, aligned gene sequence matrices, a preliminary phylogeny, and detailed diagnostics that allow the investigator to make extensive assessments of intermediate analysis steps and the final results. Sequences from other sources, such as externally assembled genomes and transcriptomes, can also be incorporated in the analyses. Agalma is built on the BioLite bioinformatics framework, which tracks provenance, profiles processor and memory use, records diagnostics, manages metadata, installs dependencies, logs version numbers and calls to external programs, and enables rich HTML reports for all stages of the analysis. Agalma includes a small test data set and a built-in test analysis of these data. In addition to describing Agalma, we here present a sample analysis of a larger seven-taxon data set. Agalma is available for download at https

  20. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  1. Robotic automation of the environmental chemical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1994-04-01

    To date, automation of the environmental chemical laboratory has been a slow and tedious affair. In many, of our domestic analytical laboratories, automation consists of no more than analytical instrumentation coupled to an autosampling device. When we look into the future environmental needs of our nation, and indeed the world, it is apparent that we will not be able to keep up with the drastically increasing sample load without automated analyses. Stricter regulatory requirements on the horizon will potentially mandate staggering changes in sampling and characterization requirements. The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US government`s Department of Energy (DOE) to address these issues. By application of a new robotics paradigm, based on an integrated production chemistry foundation applied to analytical chemistry, the CAA will use standardized modular instruments called Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to provide flexible and standardized automation systems. By promoting the commercialization of this technology, CAA will provide the integrated robotics systems necessary to meet the coming remediation demands. This multilaboratory program is within the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) of the Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  2. Role of automation in the ACRV operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) will provide the Space Station Freedom with contingency means of return to earth (1) of one disabled crew member during medical emergencies, (2) of all crew members in case of accidents or failures of SSF systems, and (3) in case of interruption of the Space Shuttle flights. A wide range of vehicle configurations and system approaches are currently under study. The Program requirements focus on minimizing life cycle costs by ensuring simple operations, built-in reliability and maintainability. The ACRV philosophy of embedded operations is based on maximum use of existing facilities, resources and processes, while minimizing the interfaces and impacts to the Space Shuttle and Freedom programs. A preliminary integrated operations concept based on this philosophy and covering the ground, flight, mission support, and landing and recovery operations has been produced. To implement the ACRV operations concept, the underlying approach has been to rely on vehicle autonomy and automation, to the extent possible. Candidate functions and processes which may benefit from current or near-term automation and robotics technologies are identified. These include, but are not limited to, built-in automated ground tests and checkouts; use of the Freedom and the Orbiter remote manipulator systems, for ACRV berthing; automated passive monitoring and performance trend analysis, and periodic active checkouts during dormant periods. The major ACRV operations concept issues as they relate to the use of automation are discussed.

  3. Perl Tools for Automating Satellite Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, David; Haar, Therese; McDonald, James

    2000-01-01

    The freeware scripting language Pert offers many opportunities for automating satellite ground systems for new satellites as well as older, in situ systems. This paper describes a toolkit that has evolved from of the experiences gained by using Pert to automate the ground system for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and for automating some of the elements in the Earth Observing System Data and Operations System (EDOS) ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). CGRO is an older ground system that was forced to automate because of fund cuts. Three 8 hour shifts were cut back to one 8 hour shift, 7 days per week. EDOS supports a new mission called Terra, launched December 1999 that requires distribution and tracking of mission-critical reports throughout the world. Both of these ground systems use Pert scripts to process data and display it on the Internet as well as scripts to coordinate many of the other systems that make these ground systems work as a coherent whole. Another task called Automated Multimodal Trend Analysis System (AMTAS) is looking at technology for isolation and recovery of spacecraft problems. This effort has led to prototypes that seek to evaluate various tools and technology that meet at least some of the AMTAS goals. The tools, experiences, and lessons learned by implementing these systems are described here.

  4. Flight deck automation: Promises and realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Susan D. (Editor); Orlady, Harry W. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

  5. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of protein crystals is almost always a necessary step in the determination of a protein structure using X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, protein crystals are usually fragile and susceptible to damage during the harvesting process. For this reason, protein crystal harvesting is the single step that remains entirely dependent on skilled human intervention. Automation has been implemented in the majority of other stages of the structure-determination pipeline, including cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and data collection. The gap in automation between crystallization and data collection results in a bottleneck in throughput and presents unfortunate opportunities for crystal damage. Several automated protein crystal harvesting systems have been developed, including systems utilizing microcapillaries, microtools, microgrippers, acoustic droplet ejection and optical traps. However, these systems have yet to be commonly deployed in the majority of crystallography laboratories owing to a variety of technical and cost-related issues. Automation of protein crystal harvesting remains essential for harnessing the full benefits of fourth-generation synchrotrons, free-electron lasers and microfocus beamlines. Furthermore, automation of protein crystal harvesting offers several benefits when compared with traditional manual approaches, including the ability to harvest microcrystals, improved flash-cooling procedures and increased throughput. PMID:24637746

  6. Distribution automation applications of fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold; Johnston, A.; Friend, H.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for interest and research in distribution automation are discussed. The communication requirements of distribution automation are examined and shown to exceed the capabilities of power line carrier, radio, and telephone systems. A fiber optic based communication system is described that is co-located with the distribution system and that could satisfy the data rate and reliability requirements. A cost comparison shows that it could be constructed at a cost that is similar to that of a power line carrier system. The requirements for fiber optic sensors for distribution automation are discussed. The design of a data link suitable for optically-powered electronic sensing is presented. Empirical results are given. A modeling technique that was used to understand the reflections of guided light from a variety of surfaces is described. An optical position-indicator design is discussed. Systems aspects of distribution automation are discussed, in particular, the lack of interface, communications, and data standards. The economics of distribution automation are examined.

  7. Automated administration of intermittent intravenous doses.

    PubMed

    Lutomski, D M; Schwartz-Fulton, J; Rivera, J O

    1985-11-01

    The cost difference of administering cimetidine 300 mg via intravenous piggyback (IVPB) every six hours by a conventional separate container system versus using an automated intermittent i.v. administration system was evaluated. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 documented the amount of drug waste with the two systems, and phase 2 examined the practical use of the IVAC Multi Dose System. Nurses who administered the medication using the multiple-dose system completed a questionnaire on its operation. A materials cost analysis was performed to compare the two methods. The two systems were found to have approximately equivalent amounts of drug waste over the 30-day evaluation period of phase 1. The mean percentage of doses wasted was 12.2% with the conventional single-dose minibag method and 12.7% with the automated multiple-dose method. The multiple-dose system had a lower cost per dose of cimetidine ($2.25 versus $3.47). These savings appear to outweigh the cost of the additional equipment necessary for the automated system. The majority of nurses preferred the multiple-dose system. Potential problems encountered in accurately delivering doses with the multiple-dose automated system were identified, and possible solutions are suggested. The use of an automated multiple-dose i.v. administration system can potentially decrease the materials cost portion of drug administration. The total impact on hospital costs needs to be evaluated, and other comparisons with alternative administration systems need to be performed.

  8. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting.

    PubMed

    Deller, Marc C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    The harvesting of protein crystals is almost always a necessary step in the determination of a protein structure using X-ray crystallographic techniques. However, protein crystals are usually fragile and susceptible to damage during the harvesting process. For this reason, protein crystal harvesting is the single step that remains entirely dependent on skilled human intervention. Automation has been implemented in the majority of other stages of the structure-determination pipeline, including cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and data collection. The gap in automation between crystallization and data collection results in a bottleneck in throughput and presents unfortunate opportunities for crystal damage. Several automated protein crystal harvesting systems have been developed, including systems utilizing microcapillaries, microtools, microgrippers, acoustic droplet ejection and optical traps. However, these systems have yet to be commonly deployed in the majority of crystallography laboratories owing to a variety of technical and cost-related issues. Automation of protein crystal harvesting remains essential for harnessing the full benefits of fourth-generation synchrotrons, free-electron lasers and microfocus beamlines. Furthermore, automation of protein crystal harvesting offers several benefits when compared with traditional manual approaches, including the ability to harvest microcrystals, improved flash-cooling procedures and increased throughput. PMID:24637746

  9. Automated Searches for Extragalactic Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnley, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    Classical novae (CNe) are interacting binary systems in which the white dwarf undergoes unpredictable explosive outbursts. The energy of a nova outburst is only surpassed by that of gamma-ray bursts, supernovae and a small number of luminous blue variables. However, the outbursts of CNe are far more common than any of these other stars. Due to their brightness and occurrence in both Population I and Population II systems, novae are potentially important as extragalactic distance indicators and tools in the exploration of binary star evolution in galaxies. The POINT-AGAPE survey is an optical search for gravitational micro-lensing events towards the Andromeda galaxy (M31). As well as micro-lensing, the survey is sensitive to many different classes of variable stars and transients, including CNe. In this work we describe the automated detection and selection pipeline used to identify M31 CNe and we present the resulting catalogue of 20 strong CN candidates observed over three seasons. The CNe we discover are observed both in the M31 bulge region as well as over a wide area of the M31 disc. Nine of the CNe are caught during the final rise phase (which is often missed in Galactic novae) and all are well sampled in at least two colours. The excellent light-curve coverage has allowed us to detect and classify CNe over a wide range of speed classes, from very fast to very slow. Among the light curves is, for example, a moderately fast CN exhibiting entry into a deep transition minimum, followed by its final decline. We have also observed in detail a very slow CN which faded by only 0.01 mag day^{-1} over a 150 day period. The CN catalogue constitutes a uniquely well-sampled and objectively-selected data set with which to study the statistical properties of CNe in M31. As a by-product, we have detected other interesting variable objects, including one of the longest period and most luminous Mira variables. An analysis of the MMRD relationship in M31 was performed using the

  10. Space station automation study-satellite servicing, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissinger, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for automated satellite servicing operations aboard the NASA space station were studied. The three major tasks addressed: (1) servicing requirements (satellite and space station elements) and the role of automation; (2) assessment of automation technology; and (3) conceptual design of servicing facilities on the space station. It is found that many servicing functions cloud benefit from automation support; and the certain research and development activities on automation technologies for servicing should start as soon as possible. Also, some advanced automation developments for orbital servicing could be effectively applied to U.S. industrial ground based operations.

  11. Formal verification of human-automation interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.

  12. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    PubMed

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  13. Automated optimization techniques for aircraft synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Application of numerical optimization techniques to automated conceptual aircraft design is examined. These methods are shown to be a general and efficient way to obtain quantitative information for evaluating alternative new vehicle projects. Fully automated design is compared with traditional point design methods and time and resource requirements for automated design are given. The NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program (ACSYNT) is described with special attention to calculation of the weight of a vehicle to fly a specified mission. The ACSYNT procedures for automatically obtaining sensitivity of the design (aircraft weight, performance and cost) to various vehicle, mission, and material technology parameters are presented. Examples are used to demonstrate the efficient application of these techniques.

  14. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  15. Automated optical microscopy of coated particle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D; Price, Jeffery R; Pappano, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental technological advances have occurred during the 20 year hiatus in US research on coated particle nuclear fuel. As part of the recent US Department of Energy s Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has utilized advancements in computer automation, digital imaging, and image analysis to modernize US optical microscopy techniques for coated particle nuclear fuel. Automated optical microscopy has enabled detailed and objective analysis of individual particles (hundreds of measurements per particle) and of large sample sizes that far exceed the capabilities of conventional manual microscopy methods (analysis of 1500-5000 particles is common). Demonstrative examples of the capabilities of this automated optical microscopy are given for: (a) shadow imaging of kernels, coated fuel particles, and graphite matrix overcoated particles and (b) cross-sectional analysis of coated fuel particles to determine layer thicknesses.

  16. Automated Sequence Processor: Something Old, Something New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara; Schrock, Mitchell; Fisher, Forest; Himes, Terry

    2012-01-01

    High productivity required for operations teams to meet schedules Risk must be minimized. Scripting used to automate processes. Scripts perform essential operations functions. Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) was a grass-roots task built to automate the command uplink process System engineering task for ASP revitalization organized. ASP is a set of approximately 200 scripts written in Perl, C Shell, AWK and other scripting languages.. ASP processes/checks/packages non-interactive commands automatically.. Non-interactive commands are guaranteed to be safe and have been checked by hardware or software simulators.. ASP checks that commands are non-interactive.. ASP processes the commands through a command. simulator and then packages them if there are no errors.. ASP must be active 24 hours/day, 7 days/week..

  17. j5 DNA assembly design automation.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Modern standardized methodologies, described in detail in the previous chapters of this book, have enabled the software-automated design of optimized DNA construction protocols. This chapter describes how to design (combinatorial) scar-less DNA assembly protocols using the web-based software j5. j5 assists biomedical and biotechnological researchers construct DNA by automating the design of optimized protocols for flanking homology sequence as well as type IIS endonuclease-mediated DNA assembly methodologies. Unlike any other software tool available today, j5 designs scar-less combinatorial DNA assembly protocols, performs a cost-benefit analysis to identify which portions of an assembly process would be less expensive to outsource to a DNA synthesis service provider, and designs hierarchical DNA assembly strategies to mitigate anticipated poor assembly junction sequence performance. Software integrated with j5 add significant value to the j5 design process through graphical user-interface enhancement and downstream liquid-handling robotic laboratory automation.

  18. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  19. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  20. Automated MAD and MIR structure solution.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, T C; Berendzen, J

    1999-04-01

    Obtaining an electron-density map from X-ray diffraction data can be difficult and time-consuming even after the data have been collected, largely because MIR and MAD structure determinations currently require many subjective evaluations of the qualities of trial heavy-atom partial structures before a correct heavy-atom solution is obtained. A set of criteria for evaluating the quality of heavy-atom partial solutions in macromolecular crystallography have been developed. These have allowed the conversion of the crystal structure-solution process into an optimization problem and have allowed its automation. The SOLVE software has been used to solve MAD data sets with as many as 52 selenium sites in the asymmetric unit. The automated structure-solution process developed is a major step towards the fully automated structure-determination, model-building and refinement procedure which is needed for genomic scale structure determinations. PMID:10089316

  1. Automation technology for aerospace power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of spacecraft power systems coupled with limited space/ground communications necessitate increasingly automated onboard control systems. Research in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence has developed methods and techniques for constructing man-machine systems with problem-solving expertise in limited domains which may contribute to the automation of power systems. Since these systems perform tasks which are typically performed by human experts they have become known as Expert Systems. A review of the current state of the art in expert systems technology is presented, and potential applications in power systems management are considered. It is concluded that expert systems appear to have significant potential for improving the productivity of operations personnel in aerospace applications, and in automating the control of many aerospace systems.

  2. Automated Cryocooler Monitor and Control System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britchcliffe, Michael J.; Conroy, Bruce L.; Anderson, Paul E.; Wilson, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This software is used in an automated cryogenic control system developed to monitor and control the operation of small-scale cryocoolers. The system was designed to automate the cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier system described in "Automated Cryocooler Monitor and Control System" (NPO-47246), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 35, No. 5 (May 2011), page 7a. The software contains algorithms necessary to convert non-linear output voltages from the cryogenic diode-type thermometers and vacuum pressure and helium pressure sensors, to temperature and pressure units. The control function algorithms use the monitor data to control the cooler power, vacuum solenoid, vacuum pump, and electrical warm-up heaters. The control algorithms are based on a rule-based system that activates the required device based on the operating mode. The external interface is Web-based. It acts as a Web server, providing pages for monitor, control, and configuration. No client software from the external user is required.

  3. Advanced field automation in the Tuscaloosa trend

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Tuscaloosa Automated Production System (TAPS) was developed in response to the difficult producing environment of the Tuscaloosa deep gas trend. It has subsequently been expanded to include a waterflood project in a shallow oil field. This paper illustrates how TAPS transforms field automation into a simple tool that the entire staff can use to optimize and analyze field conditions. Examples of features such as the annunciator, schematic diagrams, and process control demonstrate the system's ability to aid in field operations. Other options including online history, real time data graphs, and automatic reporting show how automation is used to analyze field conditions. Four years of experience have proven these features enable both field and office staffs, that have no ''computer''training, to use the system as an integral part of the daily producing routine.

  4. Automated Image Registration for the Future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, W. J.

    2008-08-01

    A primary problem facing all surveys or archives of astronomical images remains the automated registration of the images. Images often have pointing errors not accounted for in their headers or metadata, errors which need to be removed in order to successfully combine them into a single, deeper, more scientifically valuable product. The primary techniques rely on either matching catalogs of positions or performing cross-correlation on images. Each of these techniques can only be applied successfully to limited sets of astronomical data. This talk will review the primary techniques currently used for image registration and identify their most obvious limitations for use in automated registration. A new algorithm merging the best of these techniques with a proven technique developed outside of astronomy will be explored as an example of a new paradigm for solving the problem of automated and robust image registration.

  5. Automated data entry system: performance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a system for extracting bibliographic fields from scanned pages in biomedical journals to populate MEDLINE, the flagship database of the national Library of Medicine (NLM), and heavily used worldwide. This system consists of automated processes to extract the article title, author names, affiliations and abstract, and manual workstations for the entry of other required fields such as pagination, grant support information, databank accession numbers and others needed for a completed bibliographic record in MEDLINE. Labor and time data are given for (1) a wholly manual keyboarding process to create the records, (2) an OCR-based system that requires all fields except the abstract to be manually input, and (3) a more automated system that relies on document image analysis and understanding techniques for the extraction of several fields. It is shown that this last, most automated, approach requires less than 25% of the labor effort in the first, manual, process.

  6. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  7. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  8. Wood-degrading fungi as degraders of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    The biological detoxification of hazardous waste is largely an underdeveloped technology. Bacterial species are known to possess a variety of detoxification skills, apparently associated with the need to survive. Single bacterial species may not have the ability to convert a toxicant to carbon dioxide and water. With the use of bacterial communities, there is the feature that each species of the consortium plays a role in the overall degradation of the waste with the inadequacies of one covered by the abilities of another. The stability of such consortia is of some concern since there may be environmental effects that permit the selection of certain members over others resulting in the loss or slowing of the degradation process. The use of fungi to degrade waste materials has not been investigated to any extent until recently. From the perspective of sewage treatment, filamentous fungi were to be avoided due to processing problems and in some cases fungi found in sewage can be pathogenic.

  9. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  10. Experience of automation failures in training: effects on trust, automation bias, complacency and performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David

    2016-06-01

    This work examined the effects of operators' exposure to various types of automation failures in training. Forty-five participants were trained for 3.5 h on a simulated process control environment. During training, participants either experienced a fully reliable, automatic fault repair facility (i.e. faults detected and correctly diagnosed), a misdiagnosis-prone one (i.e. faults detected but not correctly diagnosed) or a miss-prone one (i.e. faults not detected). One week after training, participants were tested for 3 h, experiencing two types of automation failures (misdiagnosis, miss). The results showed that automation bias was very high when operators trained on miss-prone automation encountered a failure of the diagnostic system. Operator errors resulting from automation bias were much higher when automation misdiagnosed a fault than when it missed one. Differences in trust levels that were instilled by the different training experiences disappeared during the testing session. Practitioner Summary: The experience of automation failures during training has some consequences. A greater potential for operator errors may be expected when an automatic system failed to diagnose a fault than when it failed to detect one.

  11. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. PMID:23931839

  12. Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities - MRW Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mathew; Bowen, Brian; Coles, Dwight; Cleal, Thomas; Quarles, Elliott; Gurule, Kaitlyn; Kagie, Matthew

    2014-09-18

    The Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities consists the these three components: MAD: Utility designed to automate the deployment of java applications to multiple java application servers. The product contains a front end web utility and backend deployment scripts. MAR: Web front end to maintain and update the components inside database. MWR-Encrypt: Web utility to convert a text string to an encrypted string that is used by the Oracle Weblogic application server. The encryption is done using the built in functions if the Oracle Weblogic product and is mainly used to create an encrypted version of a database password.

  13. Automated Help System For A Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, George P.; Schulbach, Catherine H.; Younkin, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Expert-system software developed to provide automated system of user-helping displays in supercomputer system at Ames Research Center Advanced Computer Facility. Users located at remote computer terminals connected to supercomputer and each other via gateway computers, local-area networks, telephone lines, and satellite links. Automated help system answers routine user inquiries about how to use services of computer system. Available 24 hours per day and reduces burden on human experts, freeing them to concentrate on helping users with complicated problems.

  14. Automated clinical system for chromosome analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Friedan, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic chromosome analysis system is provided wherein a suitably prepared slide with chromosome spreads thereon is placed on the stage of an automated microscope. The automated microscope stage is computer operated to move the slide to enable detection of chromosome spreads on the slide. The X and Y location of each chromosome spread that is detected is stored. The computer measures the chromosomes in a spread, classifies them by group or by type and also prepares a digital karyotype image. The computer system can also prepare a patient report summarizing the result of the analysis and listing suspected abnormalities.

  15. The NASA automation and robotics technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1986-01-01

    The development and objectives of the NASA automation and robotics technology program are reviewed. The objectives of the program are to utilize AI and robotics to increase the probability of mission success; decrease the cost of ground control; and increase the capability and flexibility of space operations. There is a need for real-time computational capability; an effective man-machine interface; and techniques to validate automated systems. Current programs in the areas of sensing and perception, task planning and reasoning, control execution, operator interface, and system architecture and integration are described. Programs aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of telerobotics and system autonomy are discussed.

  16. Microprocessor system for automated sensory irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, M. S.

    1980-11-01

    A microprocessor controlled system which provides automatic acquisition and reduction of respiration data produced in sensory irritation studies has been developed. A microprocessor controlled system replaces a manual method where respiration patterns were recorded on a polygraph and then manually counted. A typical experiment consists of a twenty minute exposure and requires two hours to manually reduce the data. The new automated system reduces the data in a few seconds freeing the operator for other tasks. Statistical analysis of the reduced data and tabulation and plotting of results are also provided. Monitoring of the critical steps in the experiment are perfored by the automated system to insure the integrity of the experiments.

  17. Beyond Commissioning: The Role of Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2005-02-01

    This article takes a brief look at the benefits of commissioning and describes a vision of the future where most of the objectives of commissioning will be accomplished automatically by capabilities built into the building systems themselves. Commissioning will become an activity that's performed continuously rather than periodically, and only repairs requiring replacement or overhaul of equipment will require manual intervention. The article then identifies some of the technologies that will be needed to realize this vision and ends with a call for all involved in the enterprise of building commissioning and automation to embrace and dedicate themselves to a future of automated commissioning.

  18. Available hardware for automated entry control

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-11-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Three questions are immediately raised when automated entry control is considered: What hardware is available How much does it cost How effective is it in maintaining security Ongoing work at Sandia National Labs is attempting to answer these questions and establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. 14 refs.

  19. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D.; Dozier, J.; Frew, J.

    1983-01-01

    While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.

  20. Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.