Science.gov

Sample records for automated nuclear chemistry

  1. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg B. Egorov; Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2004-06-01

    This research program is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and trans-uranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste (LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radiochemical measurement principles, which entails integration of sample treatment and separation chemistries and radiometric detection within a single functional analytical instrument. Nuclear waste process streams are particularly challenging for rapid analytical methods due to the complex, high-ionic-strength, caustic brine sample matrix, the presence of interfering radionuclides, and the variable and uncertain speciation of the radionuclides of interest. As a result, matrix modification, speciation control, and separation chemistries are required for use in automated process analyzers. Significant knowledge gaps exist relative to the design of chemistries for such analyzers so that radionuclides can be quantitatively and rapidly separated and analyzed in solutions derived from low-activity waste processing operations. This research is addressing these knowledge gaps in the area of separation science, nuclear detection, and analytical chemistry and instrumentation.

  2. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2006-07-20

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodoology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors.

  3. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  4. Automation in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reader, John C

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation can make a significant improvement in productivity at each stage of the drug discovery process, if it is incorporated into an efficient overall process. Automated chemistry has evolved rapidly from the 'combinatorial' techniques implemented in many industrial laboratories in the early 1990's which focused primarily on the hit discovery phase, and were highly dependent on solid-phase techniques and instrumentation derived from peptide synthesis. Automated tools and strategies have been developed which can impact the hit discovery, hit expansion and lead optimization phases, not only in synthesis, but also in reaction optimization, work-up, and purification of compounds. This article discusses the implementation of some of these techniques, based especially on experiences at Millennium Pharmaceuticals Research and Development Ltd.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  7. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  8. Automated Combinatorial Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Christopher J.; Hanne, Larry F.

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment has been developed in which students each synthesize a combinatorial library of 48 hydrazones with the aid of a liquid-handling robot. Each product is then subjected to a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay to assess its antibacterial activity. Students gain experience working with automation and at the…

  9. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  10. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  11. Nuclear Chemistry, Science (Experimental): 5316.62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Russell R.

    This nuclear chemistry module includes topics on atomic structure, instability of the nucleus, detection strengths and the uses of radioactive particles. Laboratory work stresses proper use of equipment and safe handling of radioactive materials. Students with a strong mathematics background may consider this course as advanced work in chemistry.…

  12. Development and diffusion of automated clinical chemistry analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, H.; Fineberg, H. V.

    1984-08-01

    The development and diffusion of automated clinical chemistry analyzers are described as an example of the process of technological change in medicine. This involves an elaboration and refinement of the conceptual framework, a historical description of development and use of three classes of analyzer, an investigation of user innovation, and the use of survey data to study patterns of diffusion. The emerging theory of development and diffusion differs from traditional theory in significant respects, assigning a more prominent and active role to the user in development, and characterizing development and diffusion as incremental and iterative rather than discrete and sequential.

  13. Weld controller for automated nuclear service welding

    SciTech Connect

    Barfield, K.L.; Strubhar, P.M.; Green, D.I.

    1995-12-31

    B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT) uses many different types of weld heads for automated welding in the commercial nuclear service industry. Some weld heads are purchased as standard items, while others are custom designed and fabricated by BWNT requiring synchronized multiaxis motion control. BWNT recently completed a development program to build a common weld controller that interfaces to all types of weld heads used by BWNT. Their goal was to construct a system that had the flexibility to add different modules to increase the capability of the controller as different application needs become necessary. The benefits from having a common controller are listed. This presentation explains the weld controller system and the types of applications to which it has been applied.

  14. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  15. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  16. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  17. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  18. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  19. Automated method of tracing proton tracks in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jin-lu; Li, Hong-yun; Song, Ji-wen; Zhang, Jian-fu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhong-bing; Liu, Jin-liang; Liu, Lin-yue

    2015-07-01

    The low performance of the manual recognition of proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions has limited its application to energy spectrum measurement of a pulsed neutron source. We developed an automated microscope system to trace proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions. Given a start point on the proton track of interest, the microscope system can automatically trace and record the entire track using an image processing algorithm. Tests indicate that no interaction of the operator is needed in tracing the entire track. This automated microscope greatly reduces the labor of the operator and increases the efficiency of track data collection in nuclear emulsion.

  20. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  1. Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY83

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the annual reports of the Nuclear Chemistry Division is to provide a timely summary of research activities pursued by members of the Division during the preceding year. Throughout, details are kept to a minimum; readers desiring additional information are encouraged to read the referenced documents or contact the authors. The Introduction presents an overview of the Division's scientific and technical programs. Next is a section of short articles describing recent upgrades of the Division's major facilities, followed by sections highlighting scientific and technical advances. These are grouped under the following sections: nuclear explosives diagnostics; geochemistry and environmental sciences; safeguards technology and radiation effect; and supporting fundamental science. A brief overview introduces each section. Reports on research supported by a particular program are generally grouped together in the same section. The last section lists the scientific, administrative, and technical staff in the Division, along with visitors, consultants, and postdoctoral fellows. It also contains a list of recent publications and presentations. Some contributions to the annual report are classified and only their abstracts are included in this unclassified portion of the report (UCAR-10062-83/1); the full article appears in the classified portion (UCAR-10062-83/2).

  2. Automated Water Chemistry Control at University of Virginia Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krone, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technologically advanced aquatic and fitness center at the University of Virginia. Discusses the imprecise water chemistry control at the former facility and its intensive monitoring requirements. Details the new chemistry control standards initiated in the new center, which ensure constant chlorine and pH levels. (RJM)

  3. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  4. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  5. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  6. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  7. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  8. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  9. UNESCO Chemistry Teaching Project in Asia: Experiments on Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhabanandana, Salag

    This teacher's guide on nuclear science is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of some of the concepts in nuclear chemistry including radioactivity, types of disintegration, radioactive decay and growth, and tracer techniques. The relevant experiments involving the use of radioisotopes are presented in the second part. The…

  10. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  11. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome. PMID:22317420

  12. Operator-based metric for nuclear operations automation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, G.L.; Miao, A.X.; Kalkan, A.

    1995-04-01

    Continuing advances in real-time computational capabilities will support enhanced levels of smart automation and AI-based decision-aiding systems in the nuclear power plant (NPP) control room of the future. To support development of these aids, we describe in this paper a research tool, and more specifically, a quantitative metric, to assess the impact of proposed automation/aiding concepts in a manner that can account for a number of interlinked factors in the control room environment. In particular, we describe a cognitive operator/plant model that serves as a framework for integrating the operator`s information-processing capabilities with his procedural knowledge, to provide insight as to how situations are assessed by the operator, decisions made, procedures executed, and communications conducted. Our focus is on the situation assessment (SA) behavior of the operator, the development of a quantitative metric reflecting overall operator awareness, and the use of this metric in evaluating automation/aiding options. We describe the results of a model-based simulation of a selected emergency scenario, and metric-based evaluation of a range of contemplated NPP control room automation/aiding options. The results demonstrate the feasibility of model-based analysis of contemplated control room enhancements, and highlight the need for empirical validation.

  13. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis.

  14. The Crisis in Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry Education

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D C

    2005-10-13

    A brief summary of the current status of radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry in the U. S. and abroad will be given. Current and future needs for scientists in these fields, especially in the U. S., will be discussed. Challenges that must be met in order to reverse the ''catastrophic'' downward trend in the numbers of students, faculty, and university programs in radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry will be considered, and some potential ways to reinvigorate and expand relevant university research and educational programs will be suggested.

  15. The Living Textbook of Nuclear Chemistry: A Peer-Reviewed, Web-Based, Education Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, W.; Gallant, A.; Joiner, C.

    2004-01-01

    The recent developments in nuclear chemistry education are presented and an attempt is made to collect supplemental materials relating to the study and practice of nuclear chemistry. The Living Textbook of Nuclear Chemistry functions as an authoritative Web site with supplemental material for teaching nuclear and radiochemistry.

  16. Superheavy Element Nuclear Chemistry at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Kaji, Daiya; Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Kudou, Yuki; Morimoto, Kouji; Morita, Kosuke; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Yoneda, Akira; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Komori, Yukiko; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Sato, Nozomi; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2010-05-12

    A gas-jet transport system has been coupled to the RIKEN gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS to startup superheavy element (SHE) chemistry at RIKEN. The performance of the system was appraised using an isotope of element 104, {sup 261}Rf, produced in the {sup 248}Cm({sup 18}O,5n){sup 261}Rf reaction. Alpha-particles of {sup 261}Rf separated with GARIS and extracted to a chemistry laboratory were successfully identified with a rotating wheel apparatus for alpha spectrometry. The setting parameters such as the magnetic field of the separator and the gas-jet conditions were optimized. The present results suggest that the GARIS/gas-jet system is a promising approach for exploring new frontiers in SHE chemistry: (i) the background radioactivities of unwanted reaction products are strongly suppressed, (ii) the intense beam is absent in the gas-jet chamber and hence high gas-jet efficiency is achieved, and (iii) the beam-free condition also allows for investigations of new chemical systems.

  17. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.

    2005-06-01

    Comparison of different pulse shape discrimination methods was performed under two different experimental conditions and the best method was identified. Beta/gamma discrimination of 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs was performed using a phoswich detector made of BC400 (2.5 cm OD x 1.2 cm) and BGO (2.5 cm O.D. x 2.5 cm ) scintillators. Alpha/gamma discrimination of 210Po and 137Cs was performed using a CsI:Tl (2.8 x 1.4 x 1.4 cm3) scintillation crystal. The pulse waveforms were digitized with a DGF-4c (X-Ray Instrumentation Associates) and analyzed offline with IGOR Pro software (Wavemetrics, Inc.). The four pulse shape discrimination methods that were compared include: rise time discrimination, digital constant fraction discrimination, charge ratio, and constant time discrimination (CTD) methods. The CTD method is the ratio of the pulse height at a particular time after the beginning of the pulse to the time at the maximum pulse height. The charge comparison method resulted in a Figure of Merit (FoM) of 3.3 (9.9 % spillover) and 3.7 (0.033 % spillover) for the phoswich and the CsI:Tl scintillator setups, respectively. The CTD method resulted in a FoM of 3.9 (9.2 % spillover) and 3.2 (0.25 % spillover), respectively. Inverting the pulse shape data typically resulted in a significantly higher FoM than conventional methods, but there was no reduction in % spillover values. This outcome illustrates that the FoM may not be a good scheme for the quantification of a system to perform pulse shape discrimination. Comparison of several pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods was performed as a means to compare traditional analog and digital PSD methods on the same scintillation pulses. The X-ray Instrumentation Associates DGF-4C (40 Msps, 14-bit) was used to digitize waveforms from a CsI:Tl crystal and BC400/BGO phoswich detector.

  18. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    SciTech Connect

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-31

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m{sup 2}/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  19. Automated Track Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Cherry, M. L.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.; Kolganova, E. D.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B. S.; Olszewski, A.; Pozharova, E. A.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.

    1998-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject back- ground and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities approx. 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-208 beam at CERN. Automatically reconstructed track lists agree with our best manual measurements to 3%. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties.

  20. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m2/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  1. The 40th AAAS Gordon Conference on nuclear chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1991-06-27

    I am pleased to speak at the Fortieth Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry. I served as Chairman of the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry held June 23--27, 1952, at New Hampton, New Hampshire. In my remarks, during which I shall quote from my journal, I shall describe some of the background leading up to the first Gordon Conference on Nuclear Chemistry and my attendance at the first seven Gordon Conferences during the period 1952 through 1958. I shall also quote my description of my appearance as the featured speaker at the Silver Anniversary of the Gordon Research Conferences on December 27, 1956 held at the Commodore Hotel in New York City. I shall begin with reference to my participation in the predecessor to the Gordon Conferences, the Gibson Island Research Conferences 45 years ago, on Thursday, June 20, 1946, as a speaker. This was 15 years after the start of these conferences in 1931. Neil Gordon played a leading role in these conferences, which were named (in 1948) in his honor -- the Gordon Research Conferences -- soon after they were moved to Colby Junior College, New London, New Hampshire in 1947. W. George Parks became Director in 1947, Alexander Cruickshank became Assistant Director in 1947 and Director in 1968.

  2. Three Types of Programed Learning and the Conventional Teaching of the Nuclear Chemistry Portion of the High School Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnowski, Vincent S.

    Compared was the learning and retention of facts and principles of nuclear chemistry in the high school chemistry course using three forms of programed materials, and the conventional lecture-demonstration method of teaching. Groups using the programs gained significantly more than the control group, and among the three forms of programs, the…

  3. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-01

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  4. A Unique Master's Program in Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Nordlund, Anders

    2009-08-19

    The need for engineers and scientists who can ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy is large in Sweden and internationally. Chalmers University of Technology is therefore launching a new 2-year master's program in Nuclear Engineering, with start from the autumn of 2009. The program is open to Swedish and foreign students. The program starts with compulsory courses dealing with the basics of nuclear chemistry and physics, radiation protection, nuclear power and reactors, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear waste management and nuclear safety and security. There are also compulsory courses in nuclear industry applications and sustainable energy futures. The subsequent elective courses can be chosen freely but there is also a possibility to choose informal tracks that concentrate on nuclear chemistry or reactor technology and physics. The nuclear chemistry track comprises courses in e.g. chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and transactinides, solvent extraction, radioecology and radioanalytical chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals. The program is finished with a one semester thesis project. This is probably a unique master program in the sense of its combination of deep courses in both nuclear technology and nuclear chemistry.

  5. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenke, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Luo, B.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Maag, L.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on Earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size") against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a tremendous self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests Earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with massive sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of Northern America and Eurasia to chilling coldness. In the

  6. Functionalized Polymers-Emerging Versatile Tools for Solution-Phase Chemistry and Automated Parallel Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, Andreas; Monenschein, Holger; Wittenberg, Rüdiger

    2001-02-16

    As part of the dramatic changes associated with the need for preparing compound libraries in pharmaceutical and agrochemical research laboratories, industry searches for new technologies that allow for the automation of synthetic processes. Since the pioneering work by Merrifield polymeric supports have been identified to play a key role in this field however, polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis which utilizes immobilized reagents and catalysts has only recently begun to flourish. Polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis has various advantages over conventional solution-phase chemistry, such as the ease of separation of the supported species from a reaction mixture by filtration and washing, the opportunity to use an excess of the reagent to force the reaction to completion without causing workup problems, and the adaptability to continuous-flow processes. Various strategies for employing functionalized polymers stoichiometrically have been developed. Apart from reagents that are covalently or ionically attached to the polymeric backbone and which are released into solution in the presence of a suitable substrate, scavenger reagents play an increasingly important role in purifying reaction mixtures. Employing functionalized polymers in solution-phase synthesis has been shown to be extremely useful in automated parallel synthesis and multistep sequences. So far, compound libraries containing as many as 88 members have been generated by using several polymer-bound reagents one after another. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that complex natural products like the alkaloids (+/-)-oxomaritidine and (+/-)-epimaritidine can be prepared by a sequence of five and six consecutive polymer-assisted steps, respectively, and the potent analgesic compound (+/-)-epibatidine in twelve linear steps ten of which are based on functionalized polymers. These developments reveal the great future prospects of polymer-assisted solution-phase synthesis.

  7. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  8. On-demand droplet loading for automated organic chemistry on digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav J; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Chen, Supin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-21

    Organic chemistry applications on digital microfluidic devices often involve reagents that are volatile or sensitive and must be introduced to the chip immediately before use. We present a new technique for automated, on-demand loading of ~1 μL droplets from large (~1 mL), sealed, off-chip reservoirs to a digital microfluidic chip in order to address this challenge. Unlike aqueous liquids which generally are non-wetting to the hydrophobic surface and must be actively drawn into the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip by electrode activation, organic liquids tend to be wetting and can spontaneously flood the chip, and hence require a retracting force for controlled liquid delivery. Using a combination of compressed inert gas and gravity to exert driving and retracting forces on the liquid, the simple loading technique enables precise loading of droplets of both wetting and non-wetting liquids in a reliable manner. A key feature from a practical point of view is that all of the wetted parts are inexpensive and potentially disposable, thus avoiding cross-contamination in chemical and biochemical applications. We provide a theoretical treatment of the underlying physics, discuss the effect of geometry and liquid properties on its performance, and show repeatable reagent loading using the technique. Its versatility is demonstrated with the loading of several aqueous and non-aqueous liquids on an EWOD digital microfluidic device.

  9. High throughput Sr isotope analysis using an automated column chemistry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, G. N.; Fernandez, D.

    2011-12-01

    A new method has been developed for rapidly measuring 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios using an autosampler that automates column chemistry for Sr purification. The autosampler, a SC2 DX with FAST2 valve block, produced by Elemental Scientific, Inc., utilizes a pair of six-way valves, a vacuum, and a peristaltic pump to load a sample from an autosampler tube onto the Eichrom Sr Resin in the separation column. The autosampler then elutes the sample from the column directly into the spray chamber of the mass spectrometer. Measurements are made on a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune ICP-MS. Sample-blank pairs require approximately 30 minutes for analysis. Normal throughput for the system is 24 samples and 11 standards per day. Adjustment of the pump speed allows for rapid loading of the column followed by a 3-minute data acquisition period with no fractionation of the Sr being eluted from the column. All data are blank-, interference-, and normalization-corrected online using 86Sr/88Sr = 0.1194. Analytical precision on a typical 66 ng/g analysis is ±0.00003 (2σ SE). Reproducibility of the SRM987 Sr standard (66 ng/g) over the course of a typical sequence is ±0.00004 (2σ SD, n=11). For comparison, offline column separation of the SRM987 Sr standard (66 ng/g) was conducted and measured using the same instrument method, yielding a reproducibility of ±0.00004 (2σ SD, n=7). The long-term average of the SRM987 standard (10-200 ng/g) utilizing the online column chemistry method is 0.71027 ± 0.00010 (2σ SD, n=239). A small memory effect has been measured by alternating spiked samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.67465) with the SRM987 standard. The bias measured in this test (87Sr/86Sr +0.00006) slightly exceeds the 2σ standard reproducibility for a typical run with sample and standard concentrations near 66 ng/g, but is within the 2σ long-term reproducibility of the method. The optimal concentration range for the offline column chemistry system is 50-250 ng/g Sr. Sample concentrations above 250

  10. Development of a framework of human-centered automation for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Haney, L.N.

    1993-01-01

    Introduction of automated systems into control rooms for advanced reactor designs is often justified on the basis of increased efficiency and reliability, without a detailed assessment of how the new technologies will influence the role of the operator. Such a technology-centered'' approach carries with it the risk that entirely new mechanisms for human error will be introduced, resulting in some unpleasant surprises when the plant goes into operation. The aviation industry has experienced some of these surprises since the introduction of automated systems into the cockpits of advanced technology aircraft. Pilot errors have actually been induced by automated systems, especially when the pilot doesn't fully understand what the automated systems are doing during all modes of operation. In order to structure the research program for investigating these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a framework for human-centered automation. This framework is described in the NASA document Human-Centered Aircraft Automation Philosophy by Charles Billings. It is the thesis of this paper that a corresponding framework of human-centered automation should be developed for the nuclear industry. Such a framework would serve to guide the design and regulation of automated systems for advanced reactor designs, and would help prevent some of the problems that have arisen in other applications that have followed a technology-centered'' approach.

  11. Development of a framework of human-centered automation for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Haney, L.N.

    1993-04-01

    Introduction of automated systems into control rooms for advanced reactor designs is often justified on the basis of increased efficiency and reliability, without a detailed assessment of how the new technologies will influence the role of the operator. Such a ``technology-centered`` approach carries with it the risk that entirely new mechanisms for human error will be introduced, resulting in some unpleasant surprises when the plant goes into operation. The aviation industry has experienced some of these surprises since the introduction of automated systems into the cockpits of advanced technology aircraft. Pilot errors have actually been induced by automated systems, especially when the pilot doesn`t fully understand what the automated systems are doing during all modes of operation. In order to structure the research program for investigating these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a framework for human-centered automation. This framework is described in the NASA document Human-Centered Aircraft Automation Philosophy by Charles Billings. It is the thesis of this paper that a corresponding framework of human-centered automation should be developed for the nuclear industry. Such a framework would serve to guide the design and regulation of automated systems for advanced reactor designs, and would help prevent some of the problems that have arisen in other applications that have followed a ``technology-centered`` approach.

  12. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenke, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Luo, B.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Maag, L.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size") against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a rapid self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere within a few days after emission, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with an increase in sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of North America and Eurasia to a

  13. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  14. Robotic and nuclear safety for an automated/teleoperated glove box system

    SciTech Connect

    Domning, E.E. ); McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a fully automated system to handle the processing of special nuclear materials (SNM). This work is performed in response to the new goals at the Department of Energy (DOE) for hazardous waste minimization and radiation dose reduction. This fully automated system, called the automated test bed (ATB), consists of an IBM gantry robot and automated processing equipment sealed within a glove box. While the ATB is a cold system, we are designing it as a prototype of the future hot system. We recognized that identification and application of safety requirements early in the design phase will lead to timely installation and approval of the hot system. This paper identifies these safety issues as well as the general safety requirements necessary for the safe operation of the ATB. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic

    This book is one in a series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  16. Summer schools in nuclear chemistry. Final progress report, February 15, 1991--February 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Baisden, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The summer schools conducted in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry at Brookhaven and San Jose State University are described. Course contents, special lectures, laboratory experiments, field trips, social interactions, etc. are discussed.

  17. Completely automated nuclear reactors for long-term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Ishikawa, M.; Wood, L.

    1996-01-01

    The authors discuss new types of nuclear fission reactors optimized for the generation of high-temperature heat for exceedingly safe, economic, and long-duration electricity production in large, long-lived central power stations. These reactors are quite different in design, implementation and operation from conventional light-water-cooled and -moderated reactors (LWRs) currently in widespread use, which were scaled-up from submarine nuclear propulsion reactors. They feature an inexpensive initial fuel loading which lasts the entire 30-year design life of the power-plant. The reactor contains a core comprised of a nuclear ignitor and a nuclear burn-wave propagating region comprised of natural thorium or uranium, a pressure shell for coolant transport purposes, and automatic emergency heat-dumping means to obviate concerns regarding loss-of-coolant accidents during the plant`s operational and post-operational life. These reactors are proposed to be situated in suitable environments at {approximately}100 meter depths underground, and their operation is completely automatic, with no moving parts and no human access during or after its operational lifetime, in order to avoid both error and misuse. The power plant`s heat engine and electrical generator subsystems are located above-ground.

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 13: Power Plant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Gra´inne C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing…

  20. Toward an Automated Analysis of Slow Ions in Nuclear Track Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Ambrozova, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a 252Cf source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  1. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  2. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  3. Optimization of the water chemistry of the primary coolant at nuclear power plants with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Barmin, L. F.; Kruglova, T. K.; Sinitsyn, V. P.

    2005-01-15

    Results of the use of automatic hydrogen-content meter for controlling the parameter of 'hydrogen' in the primary coolant circuit of the Kola nuclear power plant are presented. It is shown that the correlation between the 'hydrogen' parameter in the coolant and the 'hydrazine' parameter in the makeup water can be used for controlling the water chemistry of the primary coolant system, which should make it possible to optimize the water chemistry at different power levels.

  4. A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays

    PubMed Central

    Baronaite, Renata; Engelhart, Merete; Mørk Hansen, Troels; Thamsborg, Gorm; Slott Jensen, Hanne; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela

    2014-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) have traditionally been evaluated using indirect fluorescence assays (IFA) with HEp-2 cells. Quantitative immunoassays (EIA) have replaced the use of HEp-2 cells in some laboratories. Here, we evaluated ANA in 400 consecutive and unselected routinely referred patients using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique patients were compared. The majority of the results were the same between the two methods (n = 325, 84%); however, 8% (n = 30) yielded equivocal results (equivocal-negative and equivocal-positive) and 8% (n = 31) yielded divergent results (positive-negative). The results showed fairly good agreement, with Cohen's kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14–0.46), which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06–0.40) when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test. PMID:24592328

  5. Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers.

  6. Combinatorial chemistry, automation and molecular diversity: new trends in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Van Hijfte, L; Marciniak, G; Froloff, N

    1999-04-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has emerged as a set of novel strategies for the synthesis of large sets of compounds (combinatorial libraries) for biological evaluation. Within a few years combinatorial chemistry has undergone a series of changes in trends, which are closely related to two important factors in libraries: numbers and quality. While the number of compounds in a library may be easily expressed, it is a lot more difficult to indicate the degree of quality of a library. This degree of quality can be split into two aspects: purity and diversity. The changing trends in combinatorial chemistry with respect to the strategies, the technologies, the libraries themselves (numbers and purity aspects) and the molecular diversity are outlined in this paper.

  7. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  8. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…

  9. Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus.

    PubMed

    Stoskopf, Michael K; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Esler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (N = 82) between methods was 0.6 mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9 mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7 mmol/L (N = 88; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk.

  10. Automated local bright feature image analysis of nuclear proteindistribution identifies changes in tissue phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, David; Sudar, Damir; Bator, Carol; Bissell, Mina

    2006-02-01

    The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, the distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of nuclear protein distribution to decipher epigenetic relationships between nuclear structure and cell phenotype, and to unravel the mechanisms linking nuclear structure and function. We have developed imaging methods to quantify the distribution of fluorescently-stained nuclear protein NuMA in different mammary phenotypes obtained using three-dimensional cell culture. Automated image segmentation of DAPI-stained nuclei was generated to isolate thousands of nuclei from three-dimensional confocal images. Prominent features of fluorescently-stained NuMA were detected using a novel local bright feature analysis technique, and their normalized spatial density calculated as a function of the distance from the nuclear perimeter to its center. The results revealed marked changes in the distribution of the density of NuMA bright features as non-neoplastic cells underwent phenotypically normal acinar morphogenesis. In contrast, we did not detect any reorganization of NuMA during the formation of tumor nodules by malignant cells. Importantly, the analysis also discriminated proliferating non-neoplastic cells from proliferating malignant cells, suggesting that these imaging methods are capable of identifying alterations linked not only to the proliferation status but also to the malignant character of cells. We believe that this quantitative analysis will have additional applications for classifying normal and pathological tissues.

  11. Nuclear structure studies. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.B.

    1992-08-31

    New results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of [sup 114,116]I and [sup 114]Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides [sup 114,116]Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of [sup 126]Xe are also reported. A new approach to the problem of the underproduction of A = 120 nuclides in the astrophysical r-process is reported.

  12. Microwave-assisted sample treatment in a fully automated flow-based instrument: oxidation of reduced technetium species in the analysis of total technetium-99 in caustic aged nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2004-07-15

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment and removal of the gaseous reaction products and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total (99)Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total (99)Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site.

  13. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  14. Hyperfine interactions and nuclear probes in chemistry: The active interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, R. H.

    1990-08-01

    A symposium entitled “Hyperfine Interaction and Nuclear Probes in Chemistry” was held in conjunction with the 198 th. National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Miami Beach, Florida, 12 and 13 September 1989. The four half-day sessions consisted of 15 invited and 4 contributed papers, and allowed numerous opportunities for spirited discussion and information exchange, especially at the informal luncheons and pre-dinner periods, and Miami Beach proved to be a most effective venue for these activities. In the pages to follow are collected a number of the scientific reports presented at this symposium; other contributions will be published elsewhere at the discretion of the author(s).

  15. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364957

  16. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  17. Underscoring the influence of inorganic chemistry on nuclear imaging with radiometals.

    PubMed

    Zeglis, Brian M; Houghton, Jacob L; Evans, Michael J; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa; Lewis, Jason S

    2014-02-17

    Over the past several decades, radionuclides have matured from largely esoteric and experimental technologies to indispensible components of medical diagnostics. Driving this transition, in part, have been mutually necessary advances in biomedical engineering, nuclear medicine, and cancer biology. Somewhat unsung has been the seminal role of inorganic chemistry in fostering the development of new radiotracers. In this regard, the purpose of this Forum Article is to more visibly highlight the significant contributions of inorganic chemistry to nuclear imaging by detailing the development of five metal-based imaging agents: (64)Cu-ATSM, (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (89)Zr-transferrin, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, and (99m)Tc-colloids. In a concluding section, several unmet needs both in and out of the laboratory will be discussed to stimulate conversation between inorganic chemists and the imaging community.

  18. Underscoring the Influence of Inorganic Chemistry on Nuclear Imaging with Radiometals

    PubMed Central

    Zeglis, Brian M.; Houghton, Jacob L.; Evans, Michael J.; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa; Lewis, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, radionuclides have matured from largely esoteric and experimental technologies to indispensible components of medical diagnostics. Driving this transition, in part, have been mutually necessary advances in biomedical engineering, nuclear medicine, and cancer biology. Somewhat unsung has been the seminal role of inorganic chemistry in fostering the development of new radiotracers. In this regard, the purpose of this Forum Article is to more visibly highlight the significant contributions of inorganic chemistry to nuclear imaging by detailing the development of five metal-based imaging agents: 64Cu-ATSM, 68Ga-DOTATOC, 89Zr-transferrin, 99mTc-sestamibi, and 99mTc-colloids. In a concluding section, several unmet needs both in and out of the laboratory will be discussed to stimulate conversation between inorganic chemists and the imaging community. PMID:24313747

  19. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  20. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  1. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  2. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized. PMID:27573502

  3. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  4. Use of standards in nuclear analytical chemistry at ORNL - a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, F.F.

    1994-12-31

    Standards, the glue that holds empirical science together, have long been recognized as important in nuclear analytical chemistry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). From the earliest days of the nuclear analytical program at ORNL, personnel have been vigorously involved with the evaluation of decay schemes and half-lives to improve radioactive standards. One of the more interesting uses of standards at ORNL was in the Apollo program, where radionuclides were determined in moon rocks by measuring samples containing known amounts of radionuclides that simulated the actual samples in size and shape. This paper briefly reviews some of the early uses of standards at ORNL and contrasts the application of standards in some current work in multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) that uses germanium gamma-ray detectors with similar work that was performed in the 1960s that made use of NaI(Tl) detectors.

  5. Exploring hypothetical learning progressions for the chemistry of nitrogen and nuclear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Deborah McKern

    Chemistry is a bridge that connects a number of scientific disciplines. High school students should be able to determine whether scientific information is accurate, how chemistry applies to daily life, and the mechanism by which systems operate (NRC, 2012). This research focuses on describing hypothetical learning progressions for student understanding of the chemical reactions of nitrogen and nuclear processes and examines whether there is consistency in scientific reasoning between these two distinct conceptual areas. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the written products of students including homework, formative and summative tests, laboratory notebooks, reflective journals, written presentations, and discussion board contributions via Edmodo (an online program). The ten participants were 15 and 16 year old students enrolled in a general high school chemistry course. Instruction took place over a ten week period. The learning progression levels ranged from 0 to 4 and were described as missing, novice, intermediate, proficient, and expert. The results were compared to the standards set by the NRC with a lower anchor (expectations for grade 8) and upper anchor (expectations for grade 12). The results indicate that, on average, students were able to reach an intermediate level of understanding for these concepts.

  6. Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti.

    PubMed

    Stocki, T J; Blanchard, X; D'Amours, R; Ungar, R K; Fontaine, J P; Sohier, M; Bean, M; Taffary, T; Racine, J; Tracy, B L; Brachet, G; Jean, M; Meyerhof, D

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Systeme de Prelevement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of (131m,133m,133,135)Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to discern nuclear explosions from nuclear industry xenon emissions. Ambient radon background, which may adversely impact analyser sensitivity, is discussed. Upper concentration limits are reported for the apparently radioxenon free Tahiti environment. Ottawa has a complex radioxenon background due to proximity to nuclear reactors and medical isotope facilities. Meteorological models suggest that, depending on the wind direction, the radioxenon detected in Ottawa can be characteristic of the normal radioxenon background in the Eastern United States, Europe, and Japan or distinctive due to medical isotope production.

  7. SPATIALLY RESOLVED CHEMISTRY IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. THE NUCLEAR BAR IN MAFFEI 2

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-20

    We present 2''-10'' imaging of 11 transitions from 9 molecular species across the nuclear bar in Maffei 2. The data were obtained with the BIMA and OVRO interferometers. The 10 detected transitions are compared with existing CO isotopologues, HCN, CS, and millimeter continuum data. Dramatic spatial variations among the mapped species are observed across the nuclear bar. A principal component analysis is performed to characterize correlations between the transitions, star formation, and molecular column density. The analysis reveals that HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and 3 mm continuum are tightly correlated, indicating a direct connection to massive star formation. We find two main morphologically distinct chemical groups, CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HNCO comprising the grain chemistry molecules, versus HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H, molecules strong in the presence of star formation. The grain chemistry molecules, HNCO, CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO, trace hydrodynamical bar shocks. The near constancy of the HNCO/CH{sub 3}OH, SiO/CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO/HNCO ratios argues that shock properties are uniform across the nucleus. HCN/HCO{sup +}, HCN/HNC, HCN/CS, and HCN/CO ratios are explained primarily by variations in density. High HCO{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratios are correlated with the C{sub 2}H line, suggesting that this ratio may be a powerful new dense photon-dominated region probe in external galaxies. C{sub 2}H reveals a molecular outflow along the minor axis. The morphology and kinematics of the outflow are consistent with an outflow age of 6-7 Myr.

  8. A Demonstration of Automated DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Details a simulation that employs a paper-and-pencil model to demonstrate the principles behind automated DNA sequencing. Discusses the advantages of automated sequencing as well as the chemistry of automated DNA sequencing. (DDR)

  9. Process automation

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs.

  10. The Chemistry os Spent Nuclear Fuel From X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F.A. Fortner; A.J. Kropf; J.C. Cunnane

    2006-09-21

    Present and future nuclear fuel cycles will require an understanding of the complex chemistry of trace fission products and transuranium actinides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Because of the unique analytical challenges presented by SNF to the materials scientist, many of its fundamental physical and chemical properties remain poorly understood, especially on the microscopic scale. Such an understanding of the chemical states of radionuclides in SNF would benefit development of technologies for fuel monitoring, fuel performance improvement and modeling, fuel reprocessing, and spent fuel storage and disposal. We have recently demonstrated the use of synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine crystal chemical properties of actinides and fission products in extracted specimens of SNF. Information obtained includes oxidation state, chemical bond coordination, and quantitative elemental concentration and distribution. We have also used XAS in a scanning mode to obtain x-ray spectral micrographs with resolution approaching 1 micron. A brief overview of the technique will be presented, along with findings on uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium, and molybdenum in commercial PWR SNF specimens.

  11. Neutron and nuclear data revised for the 1997/98 handbook of chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1997-07-01

    The 1997/98 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics will contain revised nuclear data information dealing with scattering and absorption properties of neutrons. All of these nuclear data were recently reevaluated. The 2,200 meter per second neutron cross sections and the neutron resonance integrals evaluation was performed in conjunction with the 1997 KAPL Wall-Chart of the Nuclides to insure consistency in the recommended values in the Handbook and on the Chart. The 2,200 meters per second neutron cross sections presented in the Handbook correspond to room temperature neutrons, 20.43 C, or a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts, (eV). Neutron resonance integrals are defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV up to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV. They are averaged over a flux spectrum with a 1/E shape. Evaluated experimental data are derived from either a direct measurement or from 1/E spectrum averaged resonance parameter information. Resonance integrals are presented for neutron capture, charged particle or neutron fission reactions. Thermal neutron scattering is used for the investigation of the static and dynamic properties of condensed matter and it requires a knowledge of neutron scattering lengths. The Handbook presents bound atom neutron coherent scattering lengths in units of fentometers. Stellar slow neutron capture processes occur in a thermal neutron spectrum with temperatures approximately 30 keV. 30 keV Maxwellian averaged neutron cross sections for astrophysical applications are a new parameter presented in the 78th edition of the Handbook. No new parameters will be added to the Table of Isotopes` nuclear information but revised values will be provided for parameters of all known nuclides of the 112 chemical elements.

  12. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twenty-first annual progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1985-08-31

    The nuclear chemistry group in the School of Chemistry continues investigating the radioactive decay of nuclei far from stability under this DOE contract. These nuclei are produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Radioactive decay represents a unique method for the population of low-energy, low-spin structures in nuclei, and new phenomena which do not occur near stability can be explored. Our research encompasses three aspects of nuclear structure: (1) nuclear spectroscopy with detailed elelt, e elt, Xelt, etc., multiparameter coincidence spectrometry; (2) on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift measurements for the determination of nuclear quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and changes in mean nuclear charge radii as a means of revealing systematic shape changes in nuclei; and (3) theoretical calculations of predictions of nuclear models for comparison with experimental level structures in nuclei studied at UNISOR. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid-Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students' writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an…

  14. Chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Warren, R.G.; Hagan, R.C.; Luedemann, G.

    1986-10-01

    The chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada is described. These tuffs contain substantial amounts of zeolites that are highly sorptive of certain radionuclides. Because of their widespread distribution, the zeolitic tuffs could provide important barriers to radionuclide migration. Physical properties of these tuffs and of their constituent zeolites are influenced by their chemical compositions. This study defines the amount of chemical variability within diagenetically altered tuffs and within diagenetic minerals at Yucca Mountain. Zeolitic tuffs at Yucca Mountain formed by diagenetic alteration of rhyolitic vitric tuffs. Despite their similar starting compositions, these tuffs developed compositions that vary both vertically and laterally. Widespread chemical variations were the result of open-system chemical diagenesis in which chemical components of the tuffs were mobilized and redistributed by groundwaters. Alkalies, alkaline earths, and silica were the most mobile elements during diagenesis. The zeolitic tuffs can be divided into three compositional groups: (1) calcium- and magnesium-rich tuffs associated with relatively thin zones of alteration in the unsaturated zone; (2) tuffs in thick zones of alteration at and below the water table that grade laterally from sodic compositions on the western side of Yucca Mountain to calcic compositions on the eastern side; and (3) potassic tuffs at the north end of Yucca Mountain. Physical properties of tuffs and their consistuent zeolites at Yucca Mountain may be affected by variations in compositions. Properties important for assessment of repository performance include behavior and ion exchange.

  15. Novel detection schemes of nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging: applications from analytical chemistry to molecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Harel, Elad; Schröder, Leif; Xu, Shoujun

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-established analytical technique in chemistry. The ability to precisely control the nuclear spin interactions that give rise to the NMR phenomenon has led to revolutionary advances in fields as diverse as protein structure determination and medical diagnosis. Here, we discuss methods for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance experiments, moving away from the paradigm of traditional NMR by separating the encoding and detection steps of the experiment. This added flexibility allows for diverse applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip flow imaging and biological sensors to optical detection of magnetic resonance imaging at low magnetic fields. We aim to compare and discuss various approaches for a host of problems in material science, biology, and physics that differ from the high-field methods routinely used in analytical chemistry and medical imaging.

  16. Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

  17. Applications of dynamic nuclear polarization to the study of reactions and reagents in organic and biomolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Christian; Bowen, Sean

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is an important spectroscopic tool for the identification and structural characterization of molecules in chemistry and biochemistry. The most significant limitation of NMR compared to other spectroscopies is its relatively low sensitivity, which thus often requires long measurement times or large amounts of sample. A way of increasing sensitivity of single scan NMR spectra by several orders of magnitude is through hyperpolarization of nuclear spins. Dynamic nuclear polarization allows hyperpolarization of most spins in small molecules encountered in chemistry and biochemistry. NMR spectra of small amounts of samples from natural source, or from chemical synthesis can readily be acquired. Perhaps more interestingly, the availability of the entire hyperpolarized NMR signal in one single scan allows the measurement of transient processes in real time, if applied together with a stopped-flow technique. Through observation of chemical shift, different reactant and product species can be distinguished, and kinetics and mechanisms, for example in enzyme catalyzed reactions, can be elucidated. Real-time hyperpolarization-enhanced NMR is uniquely amenable to correlating atomic positions not only through space, but also over time between reactant and product species. Such correlations carry mechanistic information about a reaction, and can prove reaction pathways. Applications of this technique are emerging in different areas of chemistry concerned with rapid reactions, including not only enzymatic processes, but also chemical catalysis and protein folding.

  18. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. PMID:27474315

  19. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste.

  20. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  1. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  2. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  3. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  4. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid–Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students’ writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid–base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student explanations were rated by two independent raters. Responses were also analyzed using SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys and a custom library of science-related terms and lexical categories relevant to the assessment item. These analyses revealed conceptual connections made by students, student difficulties explaining these topics, and the heterogeneity of student ideas. We validated the lexical analysis by correlating student interviews with the lexical analysis. We used discriminant analysis to create classification functions that identified seven key lexical categories that predict expert scoring (interrater reliability with experts = 0.899). This study suggests that computerized lexical analysis may be useful for automatically categorizing large numbers of student open-ended responses. Lexical analysis provides instructors unique insights into student thinking and a whole-class perspective that are difficult to obtain from multiple-choice questions or reading individual responses. PMID:22949425

  5. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  6. Automated Radioanalytical System Incorporating Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation, Chemical Separation, and Online Radiometric Detection for the Monitoring of Total 99Tc in Nuclear Waste Processing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total 99Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the 99Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of 99Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of 99Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  7. Weiss lecture. Applications of the radiation chemistry of water: acid rain and nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Buxton, G V

    1991-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of water is sufficiently well known under ambient conditions that it is widely used to study the chemistry of free radicals in aqueous solution. One topical application described here is the hydroxyl radical-driven oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid in cloudwater to form acid rain. Another area of current interest is the effects of radiation on the cooling water of pressurized water reactors at ca. 300 degrees C. In studying these effects new information is also being gained on the fundamental processes in the radiation chemistry of water and on the kinetics of fast reactions.

  8. Automated detection of the left ventricular region in gated nuclear cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, A E; Arzi, M; Sau, J; Champier, J; Hadj-Moussa, S; Besson, J E; Sappey-Marinier, D; Itti, R; Mallet, J J

    1996-04-01

    An approach to automated outlining the left ventricular contour and its bounded area in gated isotopic ventriculography is proposed. Its purpose is to determine the ejection fraction (EF), an important parameter for measuring cardiac function. The method uses a modified version of the fuzzy C-means (MFCM) algorithm and a labeling technique. The MFCM algorithm is applied to the end diastolic (ED) frame and then the (FCM) is applied to the remaining images in a "box" of interest. The MFCM generates a number of fuzzy clusters. Each cluster is a substructure of the heart (left ventricle,...). A cluster validity index to estimate the optimum clusters number present in image data point is used. This index takes account of the homogeneity in each cluster and is connected to the geometrical property of data set. The labeling is only performed to achieve the detection process in the ED frame. Since the left ventricle (LV) cluster has the greatest area of the cardiac images sequence in ED phase, a framing operation is performed to obtain, automatically, the "box" enclosing the LV cluster. THe EF assessed in 50 patients by the proposed method and a semi-automatic one, routinely used, are presented. A good correlation between the two methods EF values is obtained (R = 0.93). The LV contour found has been judged very satisfactory by a team of trained clinicians. PMID:8626193

  9. Heat Transfer Salts for Nuclear Reactor Systems - Chemistry Control, Corrosion Mitigation, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Peterson, Per; Calderoni, Pattrick; Scheele, Randall; Casekka, Andrew; McNamara, Bruce

    2015-01-22

    -evaluate thermophysical properties of flibe and flinak. Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has focused on evaluating the fluorinating gas nitrogen trifluoride as a potential salt purification agent. Work there was performed on removing hydroxides and oxides from flinak salt under controlled conditions. Lastly, the University of California Berkeley has spent considerable time designing and simulating reactor components with fluoride salts at high temperatures. Despite the hurdles presented by the innate chemical hazards, considerable progress has been made. The stage has been set to perform new research on salt chemical control which could advance the fluoride salt cooled reactor concept towards commercialization. What were previously thought of as chemical undesirable, but nuclear certified, alloys have been shown to be theoretically compatible with fluoride salts at high temperatures. This preliminary report has been prepared to communicate the construction of the basic infrastructure required for flibe, as well as suggest original research to performed at the University of Wisconsin. Simultaneously, the contents of this report can serve as a detailed, but introductory guide to allow anyone to learn the fundamentals of chemistry, engineering, and safety required to work with flibe salt.

  10. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  11. Development of an automated platform for the verification, testing, processing and benchmarking of Evaluated Nuclear Data at the NEA Data Bank. Status of the NDEC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.

    2016-03-01

    Modern nuclear data Quality Assurance (QA) is, in practice, a multistage process that aims at establishing a thorough assessment of the validity of the physical information contained in an evaluated nuclear data file as compared to our best knowledge of available experimental data and theoretical models. It should systematically address the performance of the evaluated file against available pertinent integral experiments, with proper and prior verification that the information encoded in the evaluation is accurately processed and reconstructed for the application conditions. The aim of the NDEC (Nuclear Data Evaluation Cycle) platform currently being developed by the Data Bank is to provide a correct and automated handling of these diverse QA steps in order to facilitate the expert human assessment of evaluated nuclear data files, both by the evaluators and by the end users of nuclear data.

  12. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  13. Automated quantification of DNA demethylation effects in cells via 3D mapping of nuclear signatures and population homogeneity assessment.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-07-01

    Today's advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study, topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n = 163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler's (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar, and dissimilar. Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (approximately 100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e., the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has proven to be a more

  14. Automated interpretation of nuclear and electrical well loggings for basalt characterization (case study from southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Four kinds of basalt have been identified: hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay, based on a statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept. The statistical conditions for such basalt characterization have been programmed in the present research to automatically interpret the well logging data for establishing and predicting the lithological cross-section of the studied well. A specific computer program has been written in Delphi for such purposes. The program is flexible and it can be used for other well logging applications by changing the statistical conditions and the well logging parameters. The program has been successfully tested on the Kodanah well logging data in southern Syria.

  15. Evaluation Of Automated Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Relaxometry For Analysis Of Silicone Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    M. H. Wilson

    2009-10-02

    Screening studies and Design of Experiments (DoE) were performed to evaluate measurement variation of a new, non-destructive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) test system designed to assess age-induced degradation of Outer Pressure Pads (OPP). The test method and results from 54,275 measurements are described. A reduction in measurement error was obtained after metal support struts were replaced with plastic support struts adjacent to the front position of the test chamber. However, remaining interference and a lack of detecting any age-related degradation prevent the use of the NMR system as a non-destructive surveillance test for OPPs. A cursory evaluation of the system with cellular silicone samples obtained more uniform results with increased error as measurements approached the sample’s edge.

  16. Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes four activities that use graphing calculators to model nuclear-decay phenomena. Students ultimately develop a notion about the radioactive waste produced by nuclear fission. These activities are in line with national educational standards and allow for the integration of science and mathematics. Contains 13 references. (Author/WRM)

  17. AUTOMATED LEAK DETECTION OF BURIED TANKS USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CALENDINE S; SCHOFIELD JS; LEVITT MT; FINK JB; RUCKER DF

    2011-03-30

    At the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington State, the Department of Energy oversees the containment, treatment, and retrieval of liquid high-level radioactive waste. Much of the waste is stored in single-shelled tanks (SSTs) built between 1943 and 1964. Currently, the waste is being retrieved from the SSTs and transferred into newer double-shelled tanks (DSTs) for temporary storage before final treatment. Monitoring the tanks during the retrieval process is critical to identifying leaks. An electrically-based geophysics monitoring program for leak detection and monitoring (LDM) has been successfully deployed on several SSTs at the Hanford site since 2004. The monitoring program takes advantage of changes in contact resistance that will occur when conductive tank liquid leaks into the soil. During monitoring, electrical current is transmitted on a number of different electrode types (e.g., steel cased wells and surface electrodes) while voltages are measured on all other electrodes, including the tanks. Data acquisition hardware and software allow for continuous real-time monitoring of the received voltages and the leak assessment is conducted through a time-series data analysis. The specific hardware and software combination creates a highly sensitive method of leak detection, complementing existing drywell logging as a means to detect and quantify leaks. Working in an industrial environment such as the Hanford site presents many challenges for electrical monitoring: cathodic protection, grounded electrical infrastructure, lightning strikes, diurnal and seasonal temperature trends, and precipitation, all of which create a complex environment for leak detection. In this discussion we present examples of challenges and solutions to working in the tank farms of the Hanford site.

  18. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  19. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  20. Chemistry of zirconium related to the behavior of nuclear fuel cladding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cubicciotti, D.

    1980-03-26

    Studies of the chemistry of the zirconium-iodine and zirconium-oxygen systems were undertaken to elucidate their thermodynamics and kinetics. It is anticipated that the results obtained will lead to an improved understanding of the chemical processes involved in chemically assisted fuel rod failures. This project not only has classified the thermodynamics of both the gas phase and the solids in the zirconium-iodine system, it has also provided valuable information on the chemisorption of iodine and of oxygen on zirconium surfaces at high temperatures. In addition, the kinetics of reactions on zirconium surfaces were studied. These results have already been helpful in understanding the stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy.

  1. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    PubMed

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-01

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  2. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  3. Chem I Supplement. Chemistry Related to Isolation of High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Choppin, Gregory R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. Describes several waste disposal plans developed by various nations. Outlines the multiple-barrier concept of isolation in deep geological questions associated with the implementation of such a method. (TW)

  4. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  5. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    SciTech Connect

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P

    2009-05-18

    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  6. Experience gained at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant with development and introduction of a unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulka, S. K.; Rosnovskii, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes was developed at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. The system consists of several interconnected subsystems, which can be developed and put in operation in a stage-wise manner. As of the first quarter of 2013, the subsystems for accounting liquid and solid radioactive wastes, very low-active wastes, and tracers have been developed. The experience gained from the development and putting in use of these systems showed that this is an efficient, timely, and much needed software product.

  7. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  8. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  9. Chemistry and biochemistry of 13C hyperpolarized magnetic resonance using dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Keshari, Kayvan R.; Wilson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of transient chemical phenomena by conventional NMR has proved elusive, particularly for non-1H nuclei. For 13C, hyperpolarization using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique has emerged as a powerful means to improve SNR. The recent development of rapid dissolution DNP methods has facilitated previously impossible in vitro and in vivo study of small molecules. This review presents the basics of the DNP technique, identification of appropriate DNP substrates, and approaches to increase hyperpolarized signal lifetimes. Also addressed are the biochemical events to which DNP-NMR has been applied, with descriptions of several probes that have met with in vivo success. PMID:24363044

  10. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  11. Nuclear chemistry progress report, Oregon State University. August 1, 1995--August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the authors summarize the highlights of the work done between August 1, 1995, and August 1, 1996. The work reported herein is the result of a collaborative effort between the nuclear chemists at Oregon State University and many other individuals and research groups. Each project discussed was the result of a joint effort of the groups, interchanging roles in data acquisition and analysis. The work described is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/nucleon), and intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ion reactions. Their work in the low energy regime included: the first US studies of fusion utilizing radioactive beams. Half of their effort was spent in the study of intermediate energy nuclear collisions. Among the accomplishments were: the establishment of a systematics of angular momentum transfer in peripheral collisions; completion of the first portion of high resolution studies of heavy residue formation in reactions induced by 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au utilizing the MSU A1200 separator; synthesis of several new neutron-deficient nuclides in reactions of 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au with heavy targets (Ti, Zr and Au); their participation in exclusive studies of heavy residue formation in the reaction of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au in which it was found that the residues had large associated particle multiplicities indicating their formation in highly dissipative collisions, and that particle emission leading to residue formation relative to fission was favored as the dissipated energy increased.

  12. A lead user of instruments in science: John D. Roberts and the adaptation of nuclear magnetic resonance to organic chemistry, 1955-1975.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    During the 1960s organic chemistry underwent a spectacular transformation as a result of the introduction of high-tech instruments. In this process, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) became an important analytical technique in organic chemistry. The theme of this essay is the relationship of Varian Associates of Palo Alto, California, the major manufacturer of NMR spectrometers up to the 1970s, with one early and crucial user, the organic chemist John D. Roberts, who was based at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Roberts's research and teaching contributed to the fast and smooth acceptance of NMR in organic chemistry. He embraced the role of mediator between the instrument manufacturer, which had expertise mainly in physics and electrical engineering, and the customers, who were mostly organic chemists. This essay focuses on the tactics used by Roberts and James N. Shoolery at Varian Associates to implement novel types of instrumentation and on the modes of cooperation between instrument manufacturer and academic scientist.

  13. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-01

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  14. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-01

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  15. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  16. Automation of dimethylation after guanidination labeling chemistry and its compatibility with common buffers and surfactants for mass spectrometry-based shotgun quantitative proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Andy; Tang, Yanan; Chen, Lu; Li, Liang

    2013-07-25

    Isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a major analytical platform for quantitative proteome analysis. Incorporation of isotopes used to distinguish samples plays a critical role in the success of this strategy. In this work, we optimized and automated a chemical derivatization protocol (dimethylation after guanidination, 2MEGA) to increase the labeling reproducibility and reduce human intervention. We also evaluated the reagent compatibility of this protocol to handle biological samples in different types of buffers and surfactants. A commercially available liquid handler was used for reagent dispensation to minimize analyst intervention and at least twenty protein digest samples could be prepared in a single run. Different front-end sample preparation methods for protein solubilization (SDS, urea, Rapigest™, and ProteaseMAX™) and two commercially available cell lysis buffers were evaluated for compatibility with the automated protocol. It was found that better than 94% desired labeling could be obtained in all conditions studied except urea, where the rate was reduced to about 92% due to carbamylation on the peptide amines. This work illustrates the automated 2MEGA labeling process can be used to handle a wide range of protein samples containing various reagents that are often encountered in protein sample preparation for quantitative proteome analysis.

  17. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred

  18. Automation and quality in analytical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Valcarcel, M.; Rios, A.

    1994-05-01

    After a brief introduction to the generic aspects of automation in analytical laboratories, the different approaches to quality in analytical chemistry are presented and discussed to establish the following different facets emerging from the combination of quality and automation: automated analytical control of quality of products and systems; quality control of automated chemical analysis; and improvement of capital (accuracy and representativeness), basic (sensitivity, precision, and selectivity), and complementary (rapidity, cost, and personnel factors) analytical features. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of this marriage of convenience in present and future analytical chemistry. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  20. Special Report: Chemistry of Comets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)

  1. An Exhibition on Everyday Chemistry. Communicating Chemistry to the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucko, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a recent addition to the Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) known as "Everyday Chemistry." This permanent exhibit on modern chemistry incorporates demonstrations of chemical reactions in ways intended to enhance public understanding. Describes the six cases in the exhibit and the automated aspects of their demonstrations. (TW)

  2. Minatom of Russia Situation and Crisis Center and the Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Berchik,V P; Kasumova,L A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    Under the Situation and Crisis Center (SCC) management, the Information Analytical Center (IAC) of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) of Russia was created to oversee the operation of the Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS). During 2000, the FIS achieved an important milestone in its development: the basic functions of the information system were implemented. This includes placing into operation the collecting and processing of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) information from the enterprises reporting to the FIS. The FIS began working with 14 Russian enterprises to develop and implement full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). In 2001, the system will expand to include enterprise-level inventory information for all enterprises using nuclear materials in Russia. For this reason, at the end of 2000 through the beginning of 2001, five separate training sessions were held for over 100 enterprise personnel responsible for preparation and transfer of the reports to the FIS. Through the assistance of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program, information systems for the accounting of nuclear materials are being installed at Russia enterprises. In creating the program for modernization of the Russian Federation State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear material, the SCC conducted a survey of the enterprises to determine the readiness of their internal MC&A systems for reporting to the FIS. Based on the information from the survey and the results of the projects on creation of local information systems at Russian enterprises, the analysis of information and the technical aspects of MC&A systems identified deficiencies that were analyzed and recommendations for eliminating these deficiencies were proposed. The concentration of analytical and administrative functions at the

  3. Cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1988-01-01

    The aims and methods of aircraft cockpit automation are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Consideration is given to the mixed pilot reception of increased automation, government concern with the safety and reliability of highly automated aircraft, the formal definition of automation, and the ground-proximity warning system and accidents involving controlled flight into terrain. The factors motivating automation include technology availability; safety; economy, reliability, and maintenance; workload reduction and two-pilot certification; more accurate maneuvering and navigation; display flexibility; economy of cockpit space; and military requirements.

  4. Understanding the Atomic-Level Chemistry and Structure of Oxide Deposits on Fuel Rods in Light Water Nuclear Reactors Using First Principles Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Zs.; O'Brien, C. J.; Brenner, D. W.; Andersson, D. A.; Stanek, C. R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of recent studies are discussed in which first principles calculations at the atomic level have been used to expand the thermodynamic database for science-based predictive modeling of the chemistry, composition and structure of unwanted oxides that deposit on the fuel rods in pressurized light water nuclear reactors. Issues discussed include the origin of the particles that make up deposits, the structure and properties of the deposits, and the forms by which boron uptake into the deposits can occur. These first principles approaches have implications for other research areas, such as hydrothermal synthesis and the stability and corrosion resistance of other materials under other extreme conditions.

  5. Measurement instruments for automatically monitoring the water chemistry of reactor coolant at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors. Selection of measurement instruments and experience gained from their operation at Russian and foreign NPSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu. A.

    2007-12-01

    An analytical review is given of Russian and foreign measurement instruments employed in a system for automatically monitoring the water chemistry of the reactor coolant circuit and used in the development of projects of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors and the nuclear station project AES 2006. The results of experience gained from the use of such measurement instruments at nuclear power stations operating in Russia and abroad are presented.

  6. Structural characterization of AlON by {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and quantum chemistry method[Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Min, X.M.; Nan, C.W.; Pei, X.M.; Ren, H.L.

    1999-07-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a nitrogen-stabilized defective spinel phase of alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}{sub 3}). Its structure has not been well understood so far. Solid-state {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum chemistry calculation are used to characterize {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlON ceramics in the present study. The resonance spectra clearly show different units (e.g., [AlN{sub 4}], [AlO{sub 4}] and [AlO{sub 6}]) and vary with composition. The calculation shows that the vacancy located at octahedral site is more stable than that located at the tetrahedral site, and nitrogen atoms preferentially replace oxygen atoms in the tetrahedral site, which is in agreement with the experimental analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance.

  7. Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-08-27

    Chapter 14 for the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis. The techniques and examples described in this chapter demonstrate that modern fluidic techniques and instrumentation can be used to develop automated radiochemical separation workstations. In many applications, these can be mechanically simple and key parameters can be controlled from software. If desired, many of the fluidic components and solution can be located remotely from the radioactive samples and other hot sample processing zones. There are many issues to address in developing automated radiochemical separation that perform reliably time after time in unattended operation. These are associated primarily with the separation and analytical chemistry aspects of the process. The relevant issues include the selectivity of the separation, decontamination factors, matrix effects, and recoveries from the separation column. In addition, flow rate effects, column lifetimes, carryover from one sample to another, and sample throughput must be considered. Nevertheless, successful approaches for addressing these issues have been developed. Radiochemical analysis is required not only for processing nuclear waste samples in the laboratory, but also for at-site or in situ applications. Monitors for nuclear waste processing operations represent an at-site application where continuous unattended monitoring is required to assure effective process radiochemical separations that produce waste streams that qualify for conversion to stable waste forms. Radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and long term stewardship represent an application where at-site or in situ measurements will be most effective. Automated radiochemical analyzers and sensors have been developed that demonstrate that radiochemical analysis beyond the analytical laboratory is both possible and practical.

  8. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  9. Automation in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huber, A R; Méndez, A; Brunner-Agten, S

    2013-01-01

    Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances.

  10. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  11. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  12. A Two-Year Automated Dripwater Chemistry Study in a Remote Cave in the Tropical South Pacific: Using [Cl-] as a Conservative Tracer for Seasalt Contribution of Major Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Sinclair, D. J.; Stoll, H. M.; Carvajal, C. P.; Sweeney, J. R.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Speleothem δ18O can be used as a terrestrial archive of climate variability, offering insight into rapid changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation that impact terrestrial weather patterns [1]. However, separating δ18O 'amount', 'source', and 'temperature' effects is a challenge that requires the use of complementary rainfall proxies, such as trace element (X/Ca) ratios. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are well understood in continental caves, providing information about wet-vs-dry hydrologic conditions within the epikarst [2], the strength and timing of cave ventilation [3], and evapotranspiration above the cave in arid climates [4]. However, there are few detailed investigations of maritime caves where dripwater X/Ca ratios are impacted by seaspray [5, 6]. Here we present results from a novel two-year automated dripwater monitoring program in a remote cave on the Island of Niue in the tropical south Pacific. High-resolution cave monitoring traditionally requires frequent site visits; monitoring this remote location required the development of new sampling strategies. The cave was instrumented for micrometeorology, dripwater δ18O and δD, and dripwater chemistry. Because of its maritime location, seaspray represents a significant contribution to karst waters. By using [Cl-] as a conservative tracer for seaspray input, we calculate that seasalt in the modern dripwater accounts for 20% of the Ca and Sr, and up to 85~95% of the Mg and Na, respectively. Applying seasalt corrections, we find that increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios correlate with enriched dripwater δ18O values, consistent with the amount effect and prior-calcite-precipitation (PCP). This short-term calibration suggests that when rainfall amount is driving speleothem chemistry in this cave, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios should strongly covary with δ18O, a result we will apply to interpretation of speleothem climate records being generated from Niue. [1] Lachniet, (2009) QSR 28, 412-432; [2] Tremaine and Froelich

  13. Automated detection of dual p16/Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity in liquid-based Pap tests for improved cervical cancer risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Joseph, Anika O; Walts, Ann E; Bose, Shikha

    2012-05-01

    The Papanicolau (Pap) test is a routine cytological procedure for early detection of dysplastic lesions in cervical epithelium. A reliable screening method is crucial for triage of women at risk; however manual screening and interpretation are associated with relatively low sensitivity and substantial interobserver diagnostic variability. P16 and Ki67 biomarkers have been recently proposed as adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) associated dysplasias to supplement the morphological characteristics of cells by additional colorimetric features. In this study, an automated technique for the evaluation of dual p16/Ki67 immunoreactivity in cervical cell nuclei is introduced. Smears stained with p16 and Ki67 antibodies were digitized, and analyzed by algorithms we developed. Gradient-based radial symmetry operator and adaptive processing of symmetry image were employed to obtain the nuclear mask. This step was followed by the extraction of features including pixel data and immunoreactivity signature from each nucleus. The features were analyzed by two support vector machine classifiers to assign a nucleus into one of four types of immunoreactivity: p16 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(-)), Ki67 positive (p16(-)/Ki67(+)), dual p16/Ki67 positive (p16(+)/Ki67(+)) and negative (p16(-)/Ki67(-)), respectively. Results obtained by our method correlated well with readings by two cytopathologists (n = 18,068 cells); p16(+)/Ki67(+) nuclei were classified with respective precisions of 77.1% and 82.6%. Specificity in identification of p16(-)/Ki67(-) nuclei was better than 99.5%, and the sensitivity in detection of all immunopositive nuclei was 86.3 and 89.4%, respectively. We found that the quantitative characterization of immunoreactivity provided by the additional highlighting of classified nuclei can positively impact the efficacy and screening outcome of the Pap test.

  14. The Use and Evaluation of Scaffolding, Student Centered-Learning, Behaviorism, and Constructivism to Teach Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and IR Spectroscopy in a Two-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Kimberly; Lewallen, Denver W.; Leatherman, Jennifer; Maxwell, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry have been introduced at the beginning of the first-semester organic chemistry lab course at this university. Starting in 2008, each individual student was given 20 unique homework problems that consisted of multiple-choice [superscript 1]H NMR and IR problems…

  15. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  16. Molecular simulations of polycation-DNA binding exploring the effect of peptide chemistry and sequence in nuclear localization sequence based polycations.

    PubMed

    Elder, Robert M; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2013-10-10

    Gene therapy relies on the delivery of DNA into cells, and polycations are one class of vectors enabling efficient DNA delivery. Nuclear localization sequences (NLS), cationic oligopeptides that target molecules for nuclear entry, can be incorporated into polycations to improve their gene delivery efficiency. We use simulations to study the effect of peptide chemistry and sequence on the DNA-binding behavior of NLS-grafted polycations by systematically mutating the residues in the grafts, which are based on the SV40 NLS (peptide sequence PKKKRKV). Replacing arginine (R) with lysine (K) reduces binding strength by eliminating arginine-DNA interactions, but placing R in a less hindered location (e.g., farther from the grafting point to the polycation backbone) has surprisingly little effect on polycation-DNA binding strength. Changing the positions of the hydrophobic proline (P) and valine (V) residues relative to the polycation backbone changes hydrophobic aggregation within the polycation and, consequently, changes the conformational entropy loss that occurs upon polycation-DNA binding. Since conformational entropy loss affects the free energy of binding, the positions of P and V in the grafts affect DNA binding affinity. The insight from this work guides synthesis of polycations with tailored DNA binding affinity and, in turn, efficient DNA delivery.

  17. Detection of O-propargyl-puromycin with SUMO and ubiquitin by click chemistry at PML-nuclear bodies during abortive proteasome activities.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Naoki; Matsumoto, Hotaru; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-05-27

    The amino-nucleoside antibiotic, puromycin, acts by covalently linking to elongating polypeptide chains on ribosomes to generate prematurely terminated immature polypeptides. The trafficking of puromycin-conjugated (puromycylated) immature polypeptides within cell has, however, remained elusive. In this study, using O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro), the distribution of puromycylated polypeptides was assessed in HeLa cells by click chemistry. Under standard culture conditions, OP-Puro signals were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus with the highest concentrations in the nucleolus. Intriguingly, when proteasome activities were aborted using MG132, OP-Puro signals began to accumulate at promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in addition to the nucleolus. We also found promiscuous association of OP-Puro signals with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at PML-NBs, but not at the nucleolus, during abortive proteasome activities. This study reveals a previously unknown distribution of OP-Puro that argues for a nuclear function in regulating immature protein homeostasis.

  18. Quantitative x-ray diffraction analyses of samples used for sorption studies by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being investigated to determine its suitability to host our nation`s first geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of an effort to determine how radionuclides will interact with rocks at Yucca Mountain, the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (INC) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted numerous batch sorption experiments using core samples from Yucca Mountain. In order to understand better the interaction between the rocks and radionuclides, we have analyzed the samples used by INC with quantitative x-ray diffraction methods. Our analytical methods accurately determine the presence or absence of major phases, but we have not identified phases present below {approximately}1 wt %. These results should aid in understanding and predicting the potential interactions between radionuclides and the rocks at Yucca Mountain, although the mineralogic complexity of the samples and the lack of information on trace phases suggest that pure mineral studies may be necessary for a more complete understanding. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Environmental Chemistry in the High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Carole

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the incorporation of environmental chemistry topics into the traditional high school chemistry curriculum. Describes and provides lesson plans for the sulfur cycle and acid rain, and radioactivity and nuclear energy. Considers possible laboratory experiments. (CW)

  20. The spin chemistry and magnetic resonance of H2@C60. From the Pauli principle to trapping a long lived nuclear excited spin state inside a buckyball.

    PubMed

    Turro, Nicholas J; Chen, Judy Y-C; Sartori, Elena; Ruzzi, Marco; Marti, Angel; Lawler, Ronald; Jockusch, Steffen; López-Gejo, Juan; Komatsu, Koichi; Murata, Yasujiro

    2010-02-16

    the host C(60) can "communicate" with the chemical world surrounding it. This world includes both the "walls" of the incarcerating host (the carbon atom "bricks" that compose the wall) and the "outside" world beyond the atoms of the host walls, namely, the solvent molecules and selected paramagnetic molecules added to the solvent that will have special spin interactions with the H(2) inside the complex. In this Account, we describe the temperature dependence of the equilibrium of the interconversion of oH(2)@C(60) and pH(2)@C(60) and show how elemental dioxygen, O(2), a ground-state triplet, is an excellent paramagnetic spin catalyst for this interconversion. We then describe an exploration of the spin spectroscopy and spin chemistry of H(2)@C(60). We find that H(2)@C(60) and its isotopic analogs, HD@C(60) and D(2)@C(60), provide a rich and fascinating platform on which to investigate spin spectroscopy and spin chemistry. Finally, we consider the potential extension of spin chemistry to another molecule with spin isomers, H(2)O, and the potential applications of the use of pH(2)@C(60) as a source of latent massive nuclear polarization.

  1. AutoLab: a robotics solution for flexible laboratory automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nizam; Sowmya, Arcot

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a proposal to develop a flexible automation system for sample preparation and analysis in a chemistry laboratory without human assistance. The key to such automation is a robot arm, centrally placed with respect to a series of work stations containing balances, mixers, dispensers, centrifuges and analytical instruments. Object handling at each station and sample movement from one station to another is performed by the robot arm according to user-programmed procedures. The research emphasizes the analysis and modular decomposition of chemistry procedures, modeling the procedures in a computer system and integrating this model with robot arm and other instrumentation hardware involved in a complete automation of a chemistry laboratory.

  2. Automated Nuclear Data Test Suite

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-09

    Provides python routines to create a database of test problems in a user-defined directory tree, to query the database using user-defined parameters, to generate a list of test urns, to automatically run with user-defined particle transport codes. Includes natural isotope abundance data, and a table of benchmark effective for fast critical assemblies. Does not include input decks, cross-section libraries, or particle transport codes.

  3. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  4. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  5. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  6. Automated dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1989-04-06

    An automated dispenser having a conventional pipette attached to an actuating cylinder through a flexible cable for delivering precise quantities of a liquid through commands from remotely located computer software. The travel of the flexible cable is controlled by adjustable stops and a locking shaft. The pipette can be positioned manually or by the hands of a robot. 1 fig.

  7. Automating Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  8. Engineering Design and Automation in the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some design and automation-related projects ongoing within the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. AET uses a diverse set of technical capabilities to develop and apply processes and technologies to applications for a variety of customers both internal and external to the Laboratory. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) represents a new paradigm for the processing of nuclear material from retired weapon systems in an environment that seeks to minimize the radiation dose to workers. To achieve this goal, ARIES relies upon automation-based features to handle and process the nuclear material. Our Chemical Process Development Team specializes in fuzzy logic and intelligent control systems. Neural network technology has been utilized in some advanced control systems developed by team members. Genetic algorithms and neural networks have often been applied for data analysis. Enterprise modeling, or discrete event simulation, as well as chemical process simulation has been employed for chemical process plant design. Fuel cell research and development has historically been an active effort within the AET organization. Under the principal sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the Fuel Cell Team is now focusing on technologies required to produce fuel cell compatible feed gas from reformation of a variety of conventional fuels (e.g., gasoline, natural gas), principally for automotive applications. This effort involves chemical reactor design and analysis, process modeling, catalyst analysis, as well as full scale system characterization and testing. The group's Automation and Robotics team has at its foundation many years of experience delivering automated and robotic systems for nuclear, analytical chemistry, and bioengineering applications. As an integrator of commercial systems and a developer of unique custom-made systems, the team currently supports the automation

  9. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  10. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions]. Nuclear chemistry progress report, August 1, 1990--August 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ``best`` semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  11. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of chemistry to be used in chemistry courses of secondary schools. Three experiments concerning differential thermal analysis are among these notes presented. (HM)

  14. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  15. Colour Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  17. Automated lithocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, Andreas; Deuter, Armin

    1990-06-01

    Integration and automation have gained more and more ground in modern IC-manufacturing. It is difficult to make a direct calculation of the profit these investments yield. On the other hand, the demands to man, machine and technology have increased enormously of late; it is not difficult to see that only by means of integration and automation can these demands be coped with. Here are some salient points: U the complexity and costs incurred by the equipment and processes have got significantly higher . owing to the reduction of all dimensions, the tolerances within which the various process steps have to be carried out have got smaller and smaller and the adherence to these tolerances more and more difficult U the cycle time has become more and more important both for the development and control of new processes and, to a great extent, for a rapid and reliable supply to the customer. In order that the products be competitive under these conditions, all sort of costs have to be reduced and the yield has to be maximized. Therefore, the computer-aided control of the equipment and the process combined with an automatic data collection and a real-time SPC (statistical process control) has become absolutely necessary for successful IC-manufacturing. Human errors must be eliminated from the execution of the various process steps by automation. The work time set free in this way makes it possible for the human creativity to be employed on a larger scale in stabilizing the processes. Besides, a computer-aided equipment control can ensure the optimal utilization of the equipment round the clock.

  18. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  19. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  20. Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J.

    2012-12-19

    The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

  1. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics. (PLG)

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  3. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  4. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  5. Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

  6. Robotic automation of the environmental chemical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1994-04-01

    To date, automation of the environmental chemical laboratory has been a slow and tedious affair. In many, of our domestic analytical laboratories, automation consists of no more than analytical instrumentation coupled to an autosampling device. When we look into the future environmental needs of our nation, and indeed the world, it is apparent that we will not be able to keep up with the drastically increasing sample load without automated analyses. Stricter regulatory requirements on the horizon will potentially mandate staggering changes in sampling and characterization requirements. The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US government`s Department of Energy (DOE) to address these issues. By application of a new robotics paradigm, based on an integrated production chemistry foundation applied to analytical chemistry, the CAA will use standardized modular instruments called Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to provide flexible and standardized automation systems. By promoting the commercialization of this technology, CAA will provide the integrated robotics systems necessary to meet the coming remediation demands. This multilaboratory program is within the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) of the Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  7. Proceedings: 2001 PWR/BWR Plant Chemistry Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2001 Plant Chemistry Conference, which brought together approximately 100 industry representatives to discuss experiences and issues regarding nuclear plant chemistry at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  8. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities.

  9. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  10. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  11. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  12. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  13. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  15. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  16. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  17. Automation: triumph or trap?

    PubMed

    Smythe, M H

    1997-01-01

    Automation, a hot topic in the laboratory world today, can be a very expensive option. Those who are considering implementing automation can save time and money by examining the issues from the standpoint of an industrial/manufacturing engineer. The engineer not only asks what problems will be solved by automation, but what problems will be created. This article discusses questions that must be asked and answered to ensure that automation efforts will yield real and substantial payoffs.

  18. Flight-deck automation - Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role of human factors in flight-deck automation, identifies problem areas, and suggests design guidelines. Flight-deck automation using microprocessor technology and display systems improves performance and safety while leading to a decrease in size, cost, and power consumption. On the other hand negative factors such as failure of automatic equipment, automation-induced error compounded by crew error, crew error in equipment set-up, failure to heed automatic alarms, and loss of proficiency must also be taken into account. Among the problem areas discussed are automation of control tasks, monitoring of complex systems, psychosocial aspects of automation, and alerting and warning systems. Guidelines are suggested for designing, utilising, and improving control and monitoring systems. Investigation into flight-deck automation systems is important as the knowledge gained can be applied to other systems such as air traffic control and nuclear power generation, but the many problems encountered with automated systems need to be analyzed and overcome in future research.

  19. A two-year automated dripwater chemistry study in a remote cave in the tropical south Pacific: Using [Cl-] as a conservative tracer for seasalt contribution of major cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, Darrel M.; Sinclair, Daniel J.; Stoll, Heather M.; Lagerström, Maria; Carvajal, Carlos P.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2016-07-01

    Stalagmite Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are commonly interpreted as proxies for past hydrologic conditions and are often used to supplement carbon and oxygen stable isotope records. While the processes that control these element ratios, including water-rock interaction, dripwater residence time, and upstream precipitation of calcite, are well understood in continental caves, there have been few investigations of dripwater Element/Ca (X/Ca) evolution in coastal marine caves where seasalt can have a strong influence on the incoming Mg/Ca ratio. We instrumented a marine cave on the remote South Pacific island of Niue to record daily cave microclimate, as well as weekly-integrated drip rates, dripwater oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and dripwater chemistry over a period of twenty-two months. Using chloride as a conservative tracer for sea-spray, we calculate that seasalt input accounts for a large portion of dripwater Na, SO4, and Mg (89%, 93%, and 85% respectively) and a smaller portion of the Ca and Sr (19% and 17%). During the second year of this study a gradual decrease (by ∼18%) in dripwater chlorinity was observed, suggesting that an epikarst-hosted seasalt aerosol inventory was being diluted over time. Minor element to calcium ratios for B, K, Cl, SO4, Mg, Na, Sr, and Fe all strongly covary over the observation period, suggesting that although sea-spray plays a significant role in modulating incoming drip chemistry, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) dominates chemical evolution within the epikarst. During a prolonged drought episode, evaporative enrichments in dripwater δD and δ18O (+4‰ and 0.5‰, respectively) were observed to coincide with increased cation and anion concentrations, strong Ca removal via PCP, and increases in Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios (28% and 34%, respectively), suggesting that concomitant enrichment in speleothem δ18O and X/Ca ratios may be interpreted as multi-proxy evidence for dry climate conditions. We use modern dripwater chemistry and

  20. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  1. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  2. Automated optical microscopy of coated particle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D; Price, Jeffery R; Pappano, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental technological advances have occurred during the 20 year hiatus in US research on coated particle nuclear fuel. As part of the recent US Department of Energy s Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has utilized advancements in computer automation, digital imaging, and image analysis to modernize US optical microscopy techniques for coated particle nuclear fuel. Automated optical microscopy has enabled detailed and objective analysis of individual particles (hundreds of measurements per particle) and of large sample sizes that far exceed the capabilities of conventional manual microscopy methods (analysis of 1500-5000 particles is common). Demonstrative examples of the capabilities of this automated optical microscopy are given for: (a) shadow imaging of kernels, coated fuel particles, and graphite matrix overcoated particles and (b) cross-sectional analysis of coated fuel particles to determine layer thicknesses.

  3. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  4. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  5. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  6. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  7. Shoe-String Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  8. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems.

  9. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  10. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated... Circular No. A-130, Revised, Transmittal No. 4, Appendix III, “Security of Federal Automated...

  14. Recent trends in laboratory automation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M L; Stinger, T

    2001-05-01

    The impact of robotics and automation on the pharmaceutical industry over the last two decades has been significant. In the last ten years, the emphasis of laboratory automation has shifted from the support of manufactured products and quality control of laboratory applications, to research and development. This shift has been the direct result of an increased emphasis on the identification, development and eventual marketing of innovative new products. In this article, we will briefly identify and discuss some of the current trends in laboratory automation in the pharmaceutical industry as they apply to research and development, including screening, sample management, combinatorial chemistry, ADME/Tox and pharmacokinetics.

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  17. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  18. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  3. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  4. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  5. The problem of optimizing the water chemistry used in the primary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station equipped with VVER reactors under the conditions of longer fuel cycle campaigns and increased capacity of power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafutdinov, R. B.; Kharitonova, N. L.

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that the optimal water chemistry of the primary coolant circuit must be substantiated while introducing measures aimed at increasing the power output in operating power units and for the project called AES-2006/AES TOI (a typical optimized project of a nuclear power station with enhanced information support). The experience gained from operation of PWR reactors with an elongated fuel cycle at an increased level of power is analyzed. Conditions under which boron compounds are locally concentrated on the fuel rod surfaces (the hideout phenomenon) and axial offset anomaly occurs are enlisted, and the influence of lithium on the hideout in the pores of deposits on the surfaces of fuel assemblies is shown.

  6. The coordination chemistry of technetium and rhenium and applications to nuclear medicines. [Annual] technical report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zubieta, J.

    1993-12-31

    The dramatic dependence of Re-binding to functionalized hydrazines on the nature of the coligands associated with the metal site has led to an examination of alkoxy and thiolato ligand types. The observation that multidentate thiolate ligands are highly effective in this latter role suggests the design and synthesis of new chelating polythiolate ligands with high binding affinities for radiometallic nuclides and of functionalized polythiolate ligands for the preparation of radionuclide-conjugated antibodies or peptides and the preparation and characterization of their complexes not only with the Group 7 metals Tc and Re but with the Group 13 metals Ga and In, which also possess radionuclides with useful properties. Since the rational design of these novel bifunctional conjugates requires a fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of relevant metals with polythiolate ligands whose syntheses and properties remain unexplored, effort has been directed toward the preparation of novel polythiolate ligands and the characterization of their complexes with Group 7 and Group 13 metals. This report describes studies on several complementary aspects of the coordination chemistry of the pyridinethiolate derived ligands 2-HSC{sub 5}NH{sub 3}-SiR{sub 3}, 2-HSC{sub 5}NH{sub 3}-6-SiR{sub 3} and 2-HSC{sub 5}NH{sub 2}-3,6-SiR{sub 3} and the potentially bifunctional polythiolate ligand HOOCCH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH){sub 3} have been synthesized; of several aspects of rhenium-hydrazido and rhenium-thiolate chemistry have been developed; of Ga and In complexes of the 2-pyridinethiolate class of ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized; and of the general coordination properties of the 2-pyrithinethiolate and related ligand types.

  7. AttoPhotoChemistry. Probing ultrafast electron dynamics by the induced nuclear motion: The prompt and delayed predissociation of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskatel, B. H.; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics simulation that includes the nuclear motion exhibit a prompt, few fs, dissociation of electronically attosecond excited N2 in addition to the slow dissociation evident from spectral line broadening in well resolved spectra. The simulations show that nuclear motion can probe early times electron dynamics. The separation of time scales is mimicked by a model study fashioned like chemical kinetics of unimolecular dissociation. The physical origin of the separation into prompt and delayed decay is argued to be the same in the vibrational and the present case, namely that there are more bound than dissociative channels.

  8. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of circumstellar chemistry are discussed for both red-giant and protostellar winds. The generalized photochemical model is able to account for the recently discovered silicon-bearing molecules in the prototypical, C-rich, AGB star IRC + 10216. The surprising occurrence of CO in protostellar winds that are largely atomic is interpreted to be the result of the high density and the rapid decrease of the temperature with distance that is expected for such winds.

  9. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  10. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  11. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    PubMed

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  12. Limitations of automated remnant lipoprotein cholesterol assay for diagnostic use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I wish to comment on the limitations of automated remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemL-C) assay reported in Clinical Chemistry. Remnants are lipoprotein particles produced after newly formed triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) of either hepatic or intestinal origin enter the plasma space and unde...

  13. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics. (DLC)

  14. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. M.; Del Cul, G. D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed.

  15. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. M.; Delcul, G. D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D. H.

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed.

  16. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. M.; Del Cul, G. D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D. H.

    1995-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  17. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  18. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  19. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D; Elliott, A; Ganzberger, M; Hauk, T; Matzel, E; Ryall, F

    2004-07-09

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation efforts and framework to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researcher's ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or 'tiers' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the 'raw materials' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly unpredictable event

  20. Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations using an automated biasing procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.; Hoffman, T.J.; Childs, R.L.; Parks, C.V.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an automated biasing procedure for Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations within the SCALE system - a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation. The SCALE system was conceived and funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to satisfy a strong need for performing standardized criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of nuclear systems.

  1. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  2. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  3. Work and Programmable Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  4. Automation and Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuta, Kenneth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    These three articles address issues in library cataloging that are affected by automation: (1) the impact of automation and bibliographic utilities on professional catalogers; (2) the effect of the LASS microcomputer software on the cost of authority work in cataloging at the University of Arizona; and (3) online subject heading and classification…

  5. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  6. More Benefits of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  7. Educating Archivists for Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Lisa B.

    1988-01-01

    Archivists indicate they want to learn more about automation in archives, the MARC AMC (Archival and Manuscripts Control) format, and emerging computer technologies; they look for educational opportunities through professional associations, publications, and college coursework; future archival automation education needs include standards, shared…

  8. Automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin

    1988-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems focus on the automation of control systems for the Space Station and mission operations. Telerobotics focuses on automation for in-space servicing, assembly, and repair. The Autonomous Systems and Telerobotics each have a planned sequence of integrated demonstrations showing the evolutionary advance of the state-of-the-art. Progress is briefly described for each area of concern.

  9. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  10. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  11. Automation in Immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  12. Automation in immunohematology.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  13. Automation in immunohematology.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  14. Chemistry for the Liberal Arts Student: An Ostrich in Danger of Extinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Russell

    1981-01-01

    Described is an environmental chemistry course for nonscience majors at McNeese State University. The course emphasizes consumer chemistry. Topics discussed include prescription drugs, refinery processes, nuclear chemistry and chemistry and the environment. Texts, supplementary materials and a detailed course outline are included. (DS)

  15. Archaeological Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1983-01-01

    Research projects and methodology in archeochemistry are discussed. Topics include radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, amino acid dating, obsidian hydration dating, bone studies, metals/metallurgy, pottery, stone/glass, and future directions. Includes reports on funding, insights into nuclear waste/environmental problems provided by…

  16. Provocative Opinion: Descriptive Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Brian E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses many of the distinctions that chemists draw between theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry, along with the tendency for chemical educators to adopt the type of chemistry they feel is most important to teach. Uses examples to argue that theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry are, at the bottom line, the same. (TW)

  17. New insights into the structure and chemistry of Titan's tholins via 13C and 15N solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenne, S.; Coelho, C.; Anquetil, C.; Szopa, C.; Quirico, E.; Bonhomme, C.

    2012-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is characterized by a dense atmosphere, mainly composed of N2 (ca. 97 %) and CH4 (ca. 2 %). In the upper atmosphere, methane and nitrogen molecules undergo dissociation under the influence of solar UV radiation and electron impacts, followed by recombination reactions leading to a large variety of organic molecules. Some of these compounds form a thick, orange-coloured haze composed of solid organic aerosols that subsequently fall to the surface or remain in suspension in the atmosphere. To gain insight into the chemical composition and structural nature of these complex organic compounds, analogous materials, termed Titan's tholins, are produced in the laboratory, in particular using plasma discharge in gaseous N2 - CH4 mixtures with similar proportions as in Titan's atmosphere. Titan's tholins have been analysed using a wide variety of techniques which provided a wealth of information about potential functional groups and structural building blocks present within the tholin samples. Taken together, the results converge on a structure based on a CxHyNz chemistry that can contain a variety of C-C, C-N, N-H etc single or multiple bonds. It is now necessary to build on that information to refine the chemical and structural models for the Titan's tholins. Here we used solid state NMR techniques to investigate the carbon and nitrogen bonding environments in a 13C- and 15Nenriched sample.

  18. Integrating automated systems with modular architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Salit, M.L.; Guenther, F.R.; Kramer, G.W. ); Griesmeyer, J.M. )

    1994-03-15

    The modularity project of the Consortium for Automated Analytical Laboratory Systems, or CAALS, has been working to define and produce specifications with which manufacturers of analytical equipment can produce products suited for integration into automated systems. A set of standards that will allow subsystems to be configured into robust, useful, controllable systems in a stylized, consistent manner will facilitate the development and integration process. Such standards could ultimately allow an analytical chemist to select devices from a heterogeneous set of vendors and integrate those devices into a work cell to perform chemical methods without further invention, computer programming, or engineering. Our approach to this formidable task is to view analytical chemistry in an abstract fashion, forming a generic model from the understanding of what it is we do. In this article, we report on the generic model and the integration architecture we have developed to implement it. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The contaminant analysis automation project: The implementation of a new automation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, T.H.; Hollen, R.M.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Project is implementing a new automation strategy. The basis of this new strategy is a fully modular architecture, which provides a {open_quotes}plug-and-play{close_quotes} environment for the laboratory chemist to rapidly put together a functioning system for automating sample preparation, sample analysis, and data interpretation. The basic building block of this architecture is the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The CAA Project is currently implementing this new automation strategy in an environmental chemistry application. Two Environmental Protection Agency methods, EPA SW846 3540 and 3550, followed by method EPA 8080 as chromatography (GC) analysis, followed by computer assisted data interpretation are the objective of this implementation. Several SLMs perform automated sample preparation of soil samples, a commercially available GC analyzes the samples, and a suite of software modules assist the analyst in interpreting the data and making the determinations. In this paper, we present the progress of the project and some results generated by our system thus far.

  20. Systematic review automation technologies.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico

    2014-07-09

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time.

  1. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  2. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  3. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  4. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  5. Studies related to primitive chemistry. A proton and nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance amino acid and nucleic acid constituents and a and their possible relation to prebiotic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.; Cohen, E. A.; Shiller, A. M.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were made to determine the applicability of this technique for the study of interactions between monomeric and polymeric amino acids with monomeric nucleic acid bases and nucleotides. Proton NMR results for aqueous solutions (D2O) demonstrated interactions between the bases cytosine and adenine and acidic and aromatic amino acids. Solutions of 5'-AMP admixed with amino acids exhibited more complex behavior but stacking between aromatic rings and destacking at high amino acids concentration was evident. The multisite nature of 5'-AMP was pointed out. Chemical shift changes for adenine and 5'-AMP with three water soluble polypeptides demonstrated that significant interactions exist. It was found that the linewidth-pH profile of each amino acid is unique. It is concluded that NMR techniques can give significant and quantitative data on the association of amino acid and nucleic acid constituents.

  6. Inorganic crown: the host-guest chemistry of a high nuclearity 'Celtic-ring' isopolyoxotungstate [H12W36O120]12-.

    PubMed

    Long, De-Liang; Brücher, Oliver; Streb, Carsten; Cronin, Leroy

    2006-06-21

    A range of complexes based on the high-nuclearity [W36] isopolyoxotungstate cluster, [H12W36O120]12-, with a triangular topology has been isolated by using the organic cation, protonated triethanolamine. In analogy to an 18-crown-6 crown ether with six oxygen donors on a ring, the cluster can form alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes [M within W36] (M = K+, Rb+, Cs+, NH4+, Sr2+ and Ba2+, 1-6, respectively). Compounds 1-6 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy. Comparisons between the structures of 1-6 and 18-crown-6 as well as the symmetry directing influence of the organo-cations in the isolation of the overall cluster architecture are discussed.

  7. Automation synthesis modules review.

    PubMed

    Boschi, S; Lodi, F; Malizia, C; Cicoria, G; Marengo, M

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of (68)Ga labelled tracers has changed the diagnostic approach to neuroendocrine tumours and the availability of a reliable, long-lived (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator has been at the bases of the development of (68)Ga radiopharmacy. The huge increase in clinical demand, the impact of regulatory issues and a careful radioprotection of the operators have boosted for extensive automation of the production process. The development of automated systems for (68)Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations.

  8. Successes and Techniques Associated with Teaching the Chemistry of Radioactive Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Donald H.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a chemistry course that is built around the topic of radioactive waste and encompasses a large number of chemistry concepts including redox, equilibrium, kinetics, nuclear energy, and the periodic chart. (JRH)

  9. MASS: An automated accountability system

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, F.

    1994-08-01

    All Department of Energy contractors who manage accountable quantities of nuclear materials are required to implement an accountability system that tracks, and records the activities associated with those materials. At Los Alamos, the automated accountability system allows data entry on computer terminals and data base updating as soon as the entry is made. It is also able to generate all required reports in a timely Fashion. Over the last several years, the hardware and software have been upgraded to provide the users with all the capability needed to manage a large variety of operations with a wide variety of nuclear materials. Enhancements to the system are implemented as the needs of the users are identified. The system has grown with the expanded needs of the user; and has survived several years of changing operations and activity. The user community served by this system includes processing, materials control and accountability, and nuclear material management personnel. In addition to serving the local users, the accountability system supports the national data base (NMMSS). This paper contains a discussion of several details of the system design and operation. After several years of successful operation, this system provides an operating example of how computer systems can be used to manage a very dynamic data management problem.

  10. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  11. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  12. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  13. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  14. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  15. Extended utility of molten-salt chemistry: unprecedented synthesis of a water-soluble salt-inclusion solid comprised of high-nuclearity vanadium oxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Queen, Wendy L; West, J Palmer; Hudson, Joan; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2011-11-01

    Polyoxometallates (POMs) are desirable in materials applications ranging from uses as catalysts in selective oxidation reactions to molecular-like building blocks for the preparation of new extended solids. With the use of an unprecedented approach involving high temperature, molten salt methods, a fascinating series of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) that contain high nuclearity POMs has been isolated for the first time. Cs(11)Na(3)(V(15)O(36))Cl(6) (1) was synthesized using the eutectic NaCl/CsCl flux (mp 493 °C) which serves as a reactive solvent in crystal growth and allows for the SIS formation. Its framework can be viewed as an "ionic" lattice composed of alternately packed counterions of Cl-centered [V(15)O(36)Cl](9-) clusters (V15; S = 11/2) and multinuclear [Cs(9)Na(3)Cl(5)](7+) cations. In light of the structural analysis, 1 was proven to be soluble in water giving rise to a dark green solution that is similar in color to single crystals of the title compound. Infrared spectroscopy of the solid formed from fast evaporation of the solution supports the presence of dissolved V15 clusters. Also noteworthy is the magnetization of 1 at 2 K, which reveals an s-shaped plot resembling that of superparamagnetic materials.

  16. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  17. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  18. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  19. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  20. Vibronic Transitions in the X-Sr Series (X=Li, Na, K, Rb): on the Accuracy of Nuclear Wavefunctions Derived from Quantum Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ralf; Pototschnig, Johann V.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2016-06-01

    Research on ultracold molecules has seen a growing interest recently in the context of high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum computation. The preparation of molecules in low vibrational levels of the ground state is experimentally challenging, and typically achieved by population transfer using excited electronic states. On the theoretical side, highly accurate potential energy surfaces are needed for a correct description of processes such as the coherent de-excitation from the highest and therefore weakly bound vibrational levels in the electronic ground state via couplings to electronically excited states. Particularly problematic is the correct description of potential features at large intermolecular distances. Franck-Condon overlap integrals for nuclear wavefunctions in barely bound vibrational states are extremely sensitive to inaccuracies of the potential at long range. In this study, we compare the predictions of common, wavefunction-based ab initio techniques for a known de-excitation mechanism in alkali-alkaline earth dimers. It is the aim to analyze the predictive power of these methods for a preliminary evaluation of potential cooling mechanisms in heteronuclear open shell systems which offer the experimentalist an electric as well as a magnetic handle for manipulation. The series of X-Sr molecules, with X = Li, Na, K and Rb, has been chosen for a direct comparison. Quantum degenerate mixtures of Rb and Sr have already been produced, making this combination very promising for the production of ultracold molecules. B. Pasquiou, A. Bayerle, S. M. Tzanova, S. Stellmer, J. Szczepkowski, M. Parigger, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, Phys. Rev. A, 2013, 88, 023601

  1. Computerized nuclear material system at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Tischhauser, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    SNLA developed and implemented a nuclear material control and accountability system on an HP 3000 minicomputer. The Sandia Nuclear Materials Computer System (SNMCS) which became operative in January 1980 provides: control of shipments and receivals of nuclear material, control of internal transfers of nuclear material, automated inventory with a bar code system, control of inventory adjustments, automated reporting/transmitting to other contractors and operations offices, automated ledgers and journals for material weights and costs, and interface to the Albuquerque Operations Office (ALO) Automated 741 System.

  2. Current status and future prospects for enabling chemistry technology in the drug discovery process

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Stevan W.; Hutchins, Charles W.; Talaty, Nari N.

    2016-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in the implementation of enabling chemistry technologies into the drug discovery process. Areas covered include parallel synthesis chemistry, high-throughput experimentation, automated synthesis and purification methods, flow chemistry methodology including photochemistry, electrochemistry, and the handling of “dangerous” reagents. Also featured are advances in the “computer-assisted drug design” area and the expanding application of novel mass spectrometry-based techniques to a wide range of drug discovery activities. PMID:27781094

  3. Automated Wildfire Detection Through Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jerry; Borne, Kirk; Thomas, Brian; Huang, Zhenping; Chi, Yuechen

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires have a profound impact upon the biosphere and our society in general. They cause loss of life, destruction of personal property and natural resources and alter the chemistry of the atmosphere. In response to the concern over the consequences of wildland fire and to support the fire management community, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) located in Camp Springs, Maryland gradually developed an operational system to routinely monitor wildland fire by satellite observations. The Hazard Mapping System, as it is known today, allows a team of trained fire analysts to examine and integrate, on a daily basis, remote sensing data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensors and generate a 24 hour fire product for the conterminous United States. Although assisted by automated fire detection algorithms, N O M has not been able to eliminate the human element from their fire detection procedures. As a consequence, the manually intensive effort has prevented NOAA from transitioning to a global fire product as urged particularly by climate modelers. NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland is helping N O M more fully automate the Hazard Mapping System by training neural networks to mimic the decision-making process of the frre analyst team as well as the automated algorithms.

  4. Monitored Retrievable Storage/Multi-Purpose Canister analysis: Simulation and economics of automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Stringer, J.B.

    1994-03-01

    Robotic automation is examined as a possible alternative to manual spent nuclear fuel, transport cask and Multi-Purpose canister (MPC) handling at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Automation of key operational aspects for the MRS/MPC system are analyzed to determine equipment requirements, through-put times and equipment costs is described. The economic and radiation dose impacts resulting from this automation are compared to manual handling methods.

  5. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  6. Materials Testing and Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  7. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “factor slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  8. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  9. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  10. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  11. Automated fiber pigtailing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, O. T.; Lowry, M. E.; Lu, S. Y.; Nelson, D. C.; Nikkel, D. J.; Pocha, M. D.; Young, K. D.

    1994-02-01

    The high cost of optoelectronic (OE) devices is due mainly to the labor-intensive packaging process. Manually pigtailing such devices as single-mode laser diodes and modulators is very time consuming with poor quality control. The Photonics Program and the Engineering Research Division at LLNL are addressing several issues associated with automatically packaging OE devices. A furry automated system must include high-precision fiber alignment, fiber attachment techniques, in-situ quality control, and parts handling and feeding. This paper will present on-going work at LLNL in the areas of automated fiber alignment and fiber attachment. For the fiber alignment, we are building an automated fiber pigtailing machine (AFPM) which combines computer vision and object recognition algorithms with active feedback to perform sub-micron alignments of single-mode fibers to modulators and laser diodes. We expect to perform sub-micron alignments in less than five minutes with this technology. For fiber attachment, we are building various geometries of silicon microbenches which include on-board heaters to solder metal-coated fibers and other components in place; these designs are completely compatible with an automated process of OE packaging. We have manually attached a laser diode, a thermistor, and a thermo-electric heater to one of our microbenches in less than 15 minutes using the on-board heaters for solder reflow; an automated process could perform this same exercise in only a few minutes. Automated packaging techniques such as these will help lower the costs of OE devices.

  12. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  13. Ground based automated telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Thompson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendation that a ground-based automated telescope of the 2-meter class be built for remote multiuser use as a natural facility. Experience dictates that a primary consideration is a time shared multitasking operating system with virtual memory overlayed with a real time priority interrupt. The primary user facility is a remote terminal networked to the single computer. Many users must have simultaneous time shared access to the computer for program development. The telescope should be rapid slewing, and hence a light weight construction. Automation allows for the closed loop pointing error correction independent of extreme accuracy of the mount.

  14. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  15. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  16. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  17. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  18. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  19. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  20. Nuclear Science Curriculum and Curriculum para la Ciencia Nuclear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL.

    This document presents a course in the science of nuclear energy, units of which may be included in high school physics, chemistry, and biology classes. It is intended for the use of teachers whose students have already completed algebra and chemistry or physics. Included in this paper are the objectives of this course, a course outline, a…

  1. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in...

  2. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  3. Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  4. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  5. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  6. Library Automation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffady, William

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the current state of computer applications in six areas of library work: circulation control; descriptive cataloging; catalog maintenance and production; reference services; acquisitions; and serials control. Motives for automation are discussed, and examples of representative vendors, products, and services are given. (15 references) (LRW)

  7. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  8. Automated CCTV Tester

    2000-09-13

    The purpose of an automated CCTV tester is to automatically and continuously monitor multiple perimeter security cameras for changes in a camera's measured resolution and alignment (camera looking at the proper area). It shall track and record the image quality and position of each camera and produce an alarm when a camera is out of specification.

  9. Blastocyst microinjection automation.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Grant, Edward; Thresher, Randy; Kluckman, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Blastocyst microinjections are routinely involved in the process of creating genetically modified mice for biomedical research, but their efficiency is highly dependent on the skills of the operators. As a consequence, much time and resources are required for training microinjection personnel. This situation has been aggravated by the rapid growth of genetic research, which has increased the demand for mutant animals. Therefore, increased productivity and efficiency in this area are highly desired. Here, we pursue these goals through the automation of a previously developed teleoperated blastocyst microinjection system. This included the design of a new system setup to facilitate automation, the definition of rules for automatic microinjections, the implementation of video processing algorithms to extract feedback information from microscope images, and the creation of control algorithms for process automation. Experimentation conducted with this new system and operator assistance during the cells delivery phase demonstrated a 75% microinjection success rate. In addition, implantation of the successfully injected blastocysts resulted in a 53% birth rate and a 20% yield of chimeras. These results proved that the developed system was capable of automatic blastocyst penetration and retraction, demonstrating the success of major steps toward full process automation.

  10. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  11. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  12. Mining Your Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Patricia M., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four articles address issues of collecting, compiling, reporting, and interpreting statistics generated by automated library systems for administrative decision making. Topics include using a management information system to forecast growth and assess areas for downsizing; statistics for collection development and analysis; and online system…

  13. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  14. Automating Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavulla, Timothy A.

    1986-01-01

    The Wichita, Kansas, Public Schools' Food Service Department Project Reduction in Paperwork (RIP) is designed to automate certain paperwork functions, thus reducing cost and flow of paper. This article addresses how RIP manages free/reduced meal applications and meets the objectives of reducing paper and increasing accuracy, timeliness, and…

  15. Automated Estimating System (AES)

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, D.A.

    1989-09-01

    This document describes Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System, a personal computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Engineering Division. Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System is capable of running in a multiuser environment across a token ring network. The token ring network makes possible services and applications that will more fully integrate all aspects of information processing, provides a central area for large data bases to reside, and allows access to the data base by multiple users. Version 3.1 of the Automated Estimating System also has been enhanced to include an Assembly pricing data base that may be used to retrieve cost data into an estimate. A WBS Title File program has also been included in Version 3.1. The WBS Title File program allows for the creation of a WBS title file that has been integrated with the Automated Estimating System to provide WBS titles in update mode and in reports. This provides for consistency in WBS titles and provides the capability to display WBS titles on reports generated at a higher WBS level.

  16. Automated Administrative Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrie, M. D.; Jarrett, J. R.; Reising, S. A.; Hodge, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved productivity and more effective response to information requirements for internal management, NASA Centers, and Headquarters resulted from using automated techniques. Modules developed to provide information on manpower, RTOPS, full time equivalency, and physical space reduced duplication, increased communication, and saved time. There is potential for greater savings by sharing and integrating with those who have the same requirements.

  17. Automating Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James

    1996-01-01

    Presents a four-phase plan for small libraries strategizing for automation: inventory and weeding, data conversion, implementation, and enhancements. Other topics include selecting a system, MARC records, compatibility, ease of use, industry standards, searching capabilities, support services, system security, screen displays, circulation modules,…

  18. CLAN Automation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Library and Archives, Carson City.

    The Central Libraries Automated Network (CLAN) of Nevada is a cooperative system which shares circulation, cataloging, and acquisitions systems and numerous online databases. Its mission is to provide public access to information and efficient library administration through shared computer systems, databases, and telecommunications. This document…

  19. Automated EEG acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Automated self-contained portable device can be used by technicians with minimal training. Data acquired from patient at remote site are transmitted to centralized interpretation center using conventional telephone equipment. There, diagnostic information is analyzed, and results are relayed back to remote site.

  20. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  1. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  2. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  3. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  4. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  5. Initial development of an automated task analysis profiling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output.

  6. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.; Zavaljevski, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Miron, A.; Jupperman, D.

    2004-12-31

    Utilities perform eddy current tests on nuclear power plant steam generator (SG) tubes to detect degradation. This report summarizes the status of ongoing research to develop signal processing algorithms that automate analysis of eddy current test data. The research focuses on analyzing array probe data for detecting, classifying, and characterizing degradation in SG tubes.

  7. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  8. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  9. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  10. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  11. Environmental Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackland, Thomas; And Others

    The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…

  12. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  13. Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

  14. School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

  15. Molten salt chemistry: An introduction and selected applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Marassi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The major fundamental topics covered are the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts. The applied aspects include the chemistry of aluminium production, electrodeposition using molten salts, and molten salt batteries and fuel cells.

  16. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  17. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  18. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  19. Automated theorem proving.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, David A

    2014-03-01

    Automated theorem proving is the use of computers to prove or disprove mathematical or logical statements. Such statements can express properties of hardware or software systems, or facts about the world that are relevant for applications such as natural language processing and planning. A brief introduction to propositional and first-order logic is given, along with some of the main methods of automated theorem proving in these logics. These methods of theorem proving include resolution, Davis and Putnam-style approaches, and others. Methods for handling the equality axioms are also presented. Methods of theorem proving in propositional logic are presented first, and then methods for first-order logic. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:115-128. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1269 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304304

  20. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  1. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures.

  2. The automation of science.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-01

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge. PMID:19342587

  3. Compact reactor design automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassersharif, Bahram; Gaeta, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual compact reactor design automation experiment was performed using the real-time expert system G2. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the utility of an expert system in design; in particular, reactor design. The experiment consisted of the automation and integration of two design phases: reactor neutronic design and fuel pin design. The utility of this approach is shown using simple examples of formulating rules to ensure design parameter consistency between the two design phases. The ability of G2 to communicate with external programs even across networks provides the system with the capability of supplementing the knowledge processing features with conventional canned programs with possible applications for realistic iterative design tools.

  4. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  5. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  6. Fog, cloud, and dew chemistry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, M.R.

    1989-02-28

    The spatial and temporal variations of fog/cloud chemistry were determined in the San Joaquin Valley, in the Los Angeles Basin, and in the Santa Barbara Channel area using automated fog- and cloudwater collectors that were designed and constructed for the project. A significant correlation was observed between the average nighttime cloud- and fogwater loadings of H/sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup /minus// and the maximum levels of O/sub 3//sup /minus//. Higher aldehydes, a series of dicarbonyls, and a variety of sulfonic acid salts formed by reaction of S(IV) and aldehydes were quantitatively determined in the droplet phase.

  7. Automated Testing System

    2006-05-09

    ATS is a Python-language program for automating test suites for software programs that do not interact with thier users, such as scripted scientific simulations. ATS features a decentralized approach especially suited to larger projects. In its multinode mode it can utilize many nodes of a cluster in order to do many test in parallel. It has features for submitting longer-running tests to a batch system and would have to be customized for use elsewhere.

  8. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  9. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  10. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  11. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  12. Automation in biological crystallization.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  13. Automation in biological crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  14. Cuby: An integrative framework for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Cuby is a computational chemistry framework written in the Ruby programming language. It provides unified access to a wide range of computational methods by interfacing external software and it implements various protocols that operate on their results. Using structured input files, elementary calculations can be combined into complex workflows. For users, Cuby provides a unified and userfriendly way to automate their work, seamlessly integrating calculations carried out in different computational chemistry programs. For example, the QM/MM module allows combining methods across the interfaced programs and the builtin molecular dynamics engine makes it possible to run a simulation on the resulting potential. For programmers, it provides high-level, object-oriented environment that allows rapid development and testing of new methods and computational protocols. The Cuby framework is available for download at http://cuby4.molecular.cz. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841135

  15. Cuby: An integrative framework for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Cuby is a computational chemistry framework written in the Ruby programming language. It provides unified access to a wide range of computational methods by interfacing external software and it implements various protocols that operate on their results. Using structured input files, elementary calculations can be combined into complex workflows. For users, Cuby provides a unified and userfriendly way to automate their work, seamlessly integrating calculations carried out in different computational chemistry programs. For example, the QM/MM module allows combining methods across the interfaced programs and the builtin molecular dynamics engine makes it possible to run a simulation on the resulting potential. For programmers, it provides high-level, object-oriented environment that allows rapid development and testing of new methods and computational protocols. The Cuby framework is available for download at http://cuby4.molecular.cz. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The paradox of automation and the role of human centered design

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the philosophy of Human Centered Automation (HCA), and how the Nuclear Power Industry (NPI) can take advantage of the history of HCA in other fields. The integration of humans into complex, automated systems has not received the design priority that it should. Operators seem to be viewed almost like any other problem: Design the right automation, and the problem will go away. Such a philosophy prevents the human from being integrated totally into the control process. The nuclear power industry is by no means unique in its need to solve the problem of non-linar, human performance. Designers in other fields are struggling with the same issue: ``What should the role of humans be in a complex, automated system?`` This report presents the philosophy of HCA, examines the paradox of automation, and the role that human centered design has played in dealing with it.

  17. The paradox of automation and the role of human centered design

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the philosophy of Human Centered Automation (HCA), and how the Nuclear Power Industry (NPI) can take advantage of the history of HCA in other fields. The integration of humans into complex, automated systems has not received the design priority that it should. Operators seem to be viewed almost like any other problem: Design the right automation, and the problem will go away. Such a philosophy prevents the human from being integrated totally into the control process. The nuclear power industry is by no means unique in its need to solve the problem of non-linar, human performance. Designers in other fields are struggling with the same issue: What should the role of humans be in a complex, automated system '' This report presents the philosophy of HCA, examines the paradox of automation, and the role that human centered design has played in dealing with it.

  18. A "dose on demand" Biomarker Generator for automated production of [(18)F]F(-) and [(18)F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, V; Watson, J; Gali, H; Matlock, G; McFarland, A; Bailey, J; Anzellotti, A

    2014-07-01

    The University of Oklahoma-College of Pharmacy has installed the first Biomarker Generator (BG75) comprising a self-shielded 7.5-MeV proton beam positive ion cyclotron and an aseptic automated chemistry production and quality control module for production of [(18)F]F(-) and clinical [(18)F]FDG. Performance, reliability, and safety of the system for the production of "dose on demand" were tested over several months. No-carrier-added [(18)F]F(-) was obtained through the (18)O(p,n)(18)F nuclear reaction by irradiation (20-40 min) of a >95% enriched [(18)O]H2O target (280 μl) with a 7.5-MeV proton beam (3.5-5.0 μA). Automated quality control tests were performed on each dose. The HPLC-based analytical methods were validated against USP methods of quality control. [(18)F]FDG produced by BG75 was tested in a mouse tumor model implanted with H441 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. After initial installment and optimization, the [(18)F]F(-) production has been consistent since March 2011 with a maximum production of 400 to 450 mCi in a day. The average yield is 0.61 mCi/min and 0.92 mCi/min at 3.8 µA and 5 µA, respectively. The current target window has held up for over 25 weeks against >400 bombardment cycles. [(18)F]FDG production has been consistent since June 2012 with an average of six doses/day in an automated synthesis mode (RCY≈50%). The release criteria included USP-specified limits for pH, residual solvents (acetonitrile/ethanol), kryptofix, radiochemical purity/identity, and filter integrity test. The entire automated operation generated minimal radiation exposure hazard to the operator and environment. As expected, [(18)F]FDG produced by BG75 was found to delineate tumor volume in a mouse model of xenograft tumor. In summary, production and quality control of "[(18)F]FDG dose on demand" have been accomplished in an automated and safe manner by the first Biomarker Generator. The implementation of a cGMP quality system is under way towards the ANDA submission

  19. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced. PMID:26860297

  20. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  1. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  2. Automation in organizations: Eternal conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some ideas on and insights into the problems associated with automation in organizations are presented with emphasis on the concept of automation, its relationship to the individual, and its impact on system performance. An analogy is drawn, based on an American folk hero, to emphasize the extent of the problems encountered when dealing with automation within an organization. A model is proposed to focus attention on a set of appropriate dimensions. The function allocation process becomes a prominent aspect of the model. The current state of automation research is mentioned in relation to the ideas introduced. Proposed directions for an improved understanding of automation's effect on the individual's efficiency are discussed. The importance of understanding the individual's perception of the system in terms of the degree of automation is highlighted.

  3. DESIGN OF SMALL AUTOMATION WORK CELL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C. TURNER; J. PEHL; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National

  4. Automation of the LANL ARIES lathe glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P. C.; Staab, T. A.; Nelson, D. C.; Santistevan, W. W.; Brown, W. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an automation system required for material handling within a glovebox. The Advanced Recovery and Integration Extraction System (ARIES) located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) enables workers to dismantle nuclear weapons, separating the plutonium from other weapon components. The ARIES line consists of several gloveboxes that allow the 'pit' or trigger of a nuclear weapon to be dismantled and the plutonium stored in a safe form. The Lathe glovebox is the first step in the ARIES line and is used to cut the pit open to be dismantled. There are several methods for doing this, however there are advantages to using the lathe over other methods for this process. In general, this system will give the ARIES line the capability to handle a wider range of pit types. The system consists of a lathe, a 4 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robot, a glovebox that houses them, and a universal controller that resides outside the glovebox and controls all equipment. This paper will present the design and possible implementation of this lathe automation system. It will cover the system requirements, the mechanical hardware used within the glovebox, the control system and software, and operation procedures for various tasks.

  5. Automated SIMS Isotopic Analysis Of Small Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L.; Alexander, C.; Gyngard, F.; Morgand, A.; Zinner, E. K.

    2009-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of sub-μm to μm sized dust grains are of increasing interest in cosmochemistry, nuclear forensics and terrestrial aerosol research. Because of its high sensitivity and spatial resolution, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the tool of choice for measuring isotopes in such small samples. Indeed, SIMS has enabled an entirely new sub-field of astronomy: presolar grains in meteorites. In recent years, the development of the Cameca NanoSIMS ion probe has extended the reach of isotopic measurements to particles as small as 100 nm in diameter, a regime where isotopic precision is strongly limited by the total number of atoms in the sample. Many applications require obtaining isotopic data on large numbers of particles, necessitating the development of automated techniques. One such method is isotopic imaging, wherein images of multiple isotopes are acquired, each containing multiple dispersed particles, and image processing is used to determine isotopic ratios for individual particles. This method is powerful, but relatively inefficient for raster-based imaging on the NanoSIMS. Modern computerized control of instrumentation has allowed for another approach, analogous to commercial automated SEM-EDS particle analysis systems, in which images are used solely to locate particles followed by fully automated grain-by-grain analysis. The first such system was developed on the Carnegie Institution’s Cameca ims-6f, and was used to generate large databases of presolar grains. We have recently developed a similar system for the NanoSIMS, whose high sensitivity allows for smaller grains to be analyzed with less sample consumption than is possible with the 6f system. The 6f and NanoSIMS systems are functionally identical: an image of dispersed grains is obtained with sufficient statistical precision for an algorithm to identify the positions of individual particles, the primary ion beam is deflected to each particle in turn and rastered in a small

  6. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  7. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  8. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  9. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  10. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  11. The Automated Medical Office

    PubMed Central

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency. PMID:21233899

  12. Automated Hazard Analysis

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  13. The automated medical office.

    PubMed

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  14. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  15. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  16. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  17. Automated System Marketplace 1995: The Changing Face of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Jeff; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses trends in the automated system marketplace with specific attention to online vendors and their customers: academic, public, school, and special libraries. Presents vendor profiles; tables and charts on computer systems and sales; and sidebars that include a vendor source list and the differing views on procuring an automated library…

  18. The first 110 years of laboratory automation: technologies, applications, and the creative scientist.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Prior to the widespread availability of electronic components after the Second World War, laboratory automation was constructed by end users and designed for specific tasks, mostly filtration, percolation, and washing operations. The earliest mention of automation in the chemical literature of the United States was in 1875, announcing a device to wash filtrates unattended. In the years that followed, a small number of commercial automated devices were sold, including large grinders for the preparation of coal samples. Around 1900, power stations began adopting automated carbon dioxide analysis. The development of electrical equipment for conductivity measurements enabled the first commercial, automated gas detection instruments for laboratory and field use around the time of the First World War. The growth of industrial production in the 1920s led to a desire for automated testing equipment, and the growing rubber industry was among the more successful early adapters. Photoelectric cells were first used in the early 1930s to create automatic titrators, and by the 1950s, automatic titration encompassed coulometric, potentiometric, and photometric devices. Combinations of chart recorders, photocells, and timers created other types of automated equipment such as stills and fraction collectors. The first true stand-alone automation for the laboratory included clinical chemistry analyzers, introduced during the 1950s.

  19. The first 110 years of laboratory automation: technologies, applications, and the creative scientist.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Prior to the widespread availability of electronic components after the Second World War, laboratory automation was constructed by end users and designed for specific tasks, mostly filtration, percolation, and washing operations. The earliest mention of automation in the chemical literature of the United States was in 1875, announcing a device to wash filtrates unattended. In the years that followed, a small number of commercial automated devices were sold, including large grinders for the preparation of coal samples. Around 1900, power stations began adopting automated carbon dioxide analysis. The development of electrical equipment for conductivity measurements enabled the first commercial, automated gas detection instruments for laboratory and field use around the time of the First World War. The growth of industrial production in the 1920s led to a desire for automated testing equipment, and the growing rubber industry was among the more successful early adapters. Photoelectric cells were first used in the early 1930s to create automatic titrators, and by the 1950s, automatic titration encompassed coulometric, potentiometric, and photometric devices. Combinations of chart recorders, photocells, and timers created other types of automated equipment such as stills and fraction collectors. The first true stand-alone automation for the laboratory included clinical chemistry analyzers, introduced during the 1950s. PMID:22893633

  20. Maneuver Automation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  1. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  2. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. PMID:22265230

  3. American Nuclear Society 1994 student conference eastern region

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains abstracts from the 1994 American Nuclear Society Student Conference. The areas covered by these abstracts are: fusion and plasma physics; nuclear chemistry; radiation detection; reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; and corrosion science and waste issues.

  4. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  5. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  6. Chemistry/Hematology Reporting Via the File Manager

    PubMed Central

    Tatarczuk, J. R.; Ginsburg, R. E.; Wu, A.; Schauble, M.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized reporting system was implemented to replace a simple manual cumulative laboratory chemistry report. Modification and expansion of the system was carried out with user participation, and the system now forms the nucleus for a complete automated laboratory system. It is linked to a master patient file which when fully developed will provide a suitable basis for a complete patient clinical information system. ANSI standard MUMPS was utilized and modules were developed and implemented in a serial fashion.

  7. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  8. Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    Major resources exist that can be used to develop or upgrade programs in community colleges and technical institutes that educate robotics/automated systems technicians. The first category of resources is Economic, Social, and Education Issues. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report, "Automation and the Workplace," presents analyses of…

  9. Automated Test-Form Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  10. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  11. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  12. Automating a clinical management system.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B; Braun, D

    1990-06-01

    Automating the clinical documentation of a home health care agency will prove crucial as the industry continues to grow and becomes increasingly complex. Kimberly Quality Care, a large, multi-office home care company, made a major commitment to the automation of its clinical management documents.

  13. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  14. Progress Toward Automated Cost Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses efforts to develop standard system of automated cost estimation (ACE) and computer-aided design (CAD). Advantage of system is time saved and accuracy enhanced by automating extraction of quantities from design drawings, consultation of price lists, and application of cost and markup formulas.

  15. Automated Circulation. SPEC Kit 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Of the 64 libraries responding to a 1978 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey, 37 indicated that they used automated circulation systems; half of these were commercial systems, and most were batch-process or combination batch process and online. Nearly all libraries without automated systems cited lack of funding as the reason for not…

  16. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Oxstrand, Johanna H.; Le Blanc, Katya L.

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  17. The logic of automated glycan assembly.

    PubMed

    Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-05-19

    polysaccharides as large as 30-mers. Fast, reliable access to defined glycans that are ready for conjugation has given rise to glycan arrays, glycan probes, and synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines. While an ever increasing variety of glycans are accessible by automated synthesis, further methodological advances in carbohydrate chemistry are needed to make all possible glycans found in nature. These tools begin to fundamentally impact the medical but also materials aspects of the glycosciences. PMID:25871824

  18. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the…

  19. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  20. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  1. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  2. Minicourses in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lygre, D. G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes nine minicourses in chemistry designed to acquaint the non-science major with practical applications of chemistry in everyday experiences. Each course consists of daily classes for two weeks for one credit and is offered on a credit/no credit basis. (MLH)

  3. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  4. Chemistry and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  5. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  6. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  7. Stratospheric chemistry and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael; Garcia, Maria M.

    1990-01-01

    A Chemical Tracer Model (CTM) that can use wind field data generated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) is developed to implement chemistry in the three dimensional GCM of the middle atmosphere. Initially, chemical tracers with simple first order losses such as N2O are used. Successive models are to incorporate more complex ozone chemistry.

  8. Career Options in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  9. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  10. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  11. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  12. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  13. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  14. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  15. Protein fabrication automation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, J. Colin; Lape, Janel; Sayed, Mahmood A.; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2007-01-01

    Facile “writing” of DNA fragments that encode entire gene sequences potentially has widespread applications in biological analysis and engineering. Rapid writing of open reading frames (ORFs) for expressed proteins could transform protein engineering and production for protein design, synthetic biology, and structural analysis. Here we present a process, protein fabrication automation (PFA), which facilitates the rapid de novo construction of any desired ORF from oligonucleotides with low effort, high speed, and little human interaction. PFA comprises software for sequence design, data management, and the generation of instruction sets for liquid-handling robotics, a liquid-handling robot, a robust PCR scheme for gene assembly from synthetic oligonucleotides, and a genetic selection system to enrich correctly assembled full-length synthetic ORFs. The process is robust and scalable. PMID:17242375

  16. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  17. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks. PMID:10153839

  18. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  19. Expedition automated flow fluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikun, V. A.; Salyuk, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an apparatus and operation of automated flow-through dual-channel fluorometer for studying the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter, and the fluorescence of phytoplankton cells with open and closed reaction centers in sea areas with oligotrophic and eutrophic water type. The step-by step excitation by two semiconductor lasers or two light-emitting diodes is realized in the current device. The excitation wavelengths are 405nm and 532nm in the default configuration. Excitation radiation of each light source can be changed with different durations, intensities and repetition rate. Registration of the fluorescence signal carried out by two photo-multipliers with different optical filters of 580-600 nm and 680-700 nm band pass diapasons. The configuration of excitation sources and spectral diapasons of registered radiation can be changed due to decided tasks.

  20. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  1. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks.

  2. [From automation to robotics].

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  3. Berkeley automated supernova search

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  4. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  5. Protein fabrication automation.

    PubMed

    Cox, J Colin; Lape, Janel; Sayed, Mahmood A; Hellinga, Homme W

    2007-03-01

    Facile "writing" of DNA fragments that encode entire gene sequences potentially has widespread applications in biological analysis and engineering. Rapid writing of open reading frames (ORFs) for expressed proteins could transform protein engineering and production for protein design, synthetic biology, and structural analysis. Here we present a process, protein fabrication automation (PFA), which facilitates the rapid de novo construction of any desired ORF from oligonucleotides with low effort, high speed, and little human interaction. PFA comprises software for sequence design, data management, and the generation of instruction sets for liquid-handling robotics, a liquid-handling robot, a robust PCR scheme for gene assembly from synthetic oligonucleotides, and a genetic selection system to enrich correctly assembled full-length synthetic ORFs. The process is robust and scalable.

  6. Automated calorimeter testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; James, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Calorimeter Testing System (ACTS) is a portable measurement device that provides an independent measurement of all critical parameters of a calorimeter system. The ACTS was developed to improve productivity and performance of Mound-produced calorimeters. With ACTS, an individual with minimal understanding of calorimetry operation can perform a consistent set of diagnostic measurements on the system. The operator can identify components whose performance has deteriorated by a simple visual comparison of the current data plots with previous measurements made when the system was performing properly. Thus, downtime and out of control'' situations can be reduced. Should a system malfunction occur, a flowchart of troubleshooting procedures has been developed to facilitate quick identification of the malfunctioning component. If diagnosis is beyond the capability of the operator, the ACTS provides a consistent set of test data for review by a knowledgeable expert. The first field test was conducted at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site in early 1990. 6 figs.

  7. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  8. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafer surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.

  9. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  10. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  11. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  12. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  13. Automated imatinib immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Jan H.; Kozo, Daniel; Harney, Rebecca L.; Baldasano, Caitlin N.; Jarrah, Justin; Christner, Susan M.; Parise, Robert; Baburina, Irina; Courtney, Jodi B.; Salamone, Salvatore J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Imatinib pharmacokinetic variability and the relationship of trough concentrations with clinical outcomes have been extensively reported. Though physical methods to quantitate imatinib exist, they are not widely available for routine use. An automated homogenous immunoassay for imatinib has been developed, facilitating routine imatinib testing. Methods Imatinib-selective monoclonal antibodies, without substantial cross-reactivity to the N-desmethyl metabolite or N-desmethyl conjugates, were produced. The antibodies were conjugated to 200 nm particles to develop immunoassay reagents on the Beckman Coulter AU480™ analyzer. These reagents were analytically validated using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Method comparison to LC-MS/MS was conducted using 77 plasma samples collected from subjects receiving imatinib. Results The assay requires 4 µL of sample without pre-treatment. The non-linear calibration curve ranges from 0 to 3,000 ng/mL. With automated sample dilution, concentrations of up to 9,000 ng/mL can be quantitated. The AU480 produces the first result in 10 minutes, and up to 400 tests per hour. Repeatability ranged from 2.0 to 6.0% coefficient of variation (CV), and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 7.4% CV. Standard curve stability was two weeks and on-board reagent stability was 6 weeks. For clinical samples with imatinib concentrations from 438 – 2,691 ng/mL, method comparison with LC-MS/MS gave a slope of 0.995 with a y-intercept of 24.3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.978. Conclusion The immunoassay is suitable for quantitating imatinib in human plasma, demonstrating good correlation with a physical method. Testing for optimal imatinib exposure can now be performed on routine clinical analyzers. PMID:25551407

  14. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1986-10-21

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line has been designed and built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SAF Line will provide the capability for remote manufacture of fuel for Liquid Metal Reactors, and will supply fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The SAF process is highly automated and represents a major advancement in nuclear fuel manufacturing, offering significant improvements in product quality, productivity, safety, and accountability of Special Nuclear Materials. The construction phase of the project is complete, and testing has been initiated to accomplish start up of the plant for manufacture of FFTF fuel. This paper describes the test methodology used for SAF Line start up.

  15. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  16. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  17. Reliability-Based Design of a Safety-Critical Automation System: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Dunn, W.; Doty, L.; Frank, M. V.; Hulet, M.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In 1986, NASA funded a project to modernize the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels, including the replacement of obsolescent controls with a modern, automated distributed control system (DCS). The project effort on this system included an independent safety analysis (ISA) of the automation system. The purpose of the ISA was to evaluate the completeness of the hazard analyses which had already been performed on the Modernization Project. The ISA approach followed a tailoring of the risk assessment approach widely used on existing nuclear power plants. The tailoring of the nuclear industry oriented risk assessment approach to the automation system and its role in reliability-based design of the automation system is the subject of this paper.

  18. Hot atoms in cosmic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rossler, K; Jung, H J; Nebeling, B

    1984-01-01

    High energy chemical reactions and atom molecule interactions might be important for cosmic chemistry with respect to the accelerated species in solar wind, cosmic rays, colliding gas and dust clouds and secondary knock-on particles in solids. "Hot" atoms with energies ranging from a few eV to some MeV can be generated via nuclear reactions and consequent recoil processes. The chemical fate of the radioactive atoms can be followed by radiochemical methods (radio GC or HPLC). Hot atom chemistry may serve for laboratory simulation of the reactions of energetic species with gaseous or solid interstellar matter. Due to the effective measurement of 10(8)-10(10) atoms only it covers a low to medium dose regime and may add to the studies of ion implantation which due to the optical methods applied are necessarily in the high dose regime. Experimental results are given for the systems: C/H2O (gas), C/H2O (solid, 77 K), N/CH4 (solid, 77K) and C/NH3 (solid, 77 K). Nuclear reactions used for the generation of 2 to 3 MeV atoms are: N(p,alpha) 11C, 16O(p,alpha pn) 11C and 12C(d,n) 13N with 8 to 45 MeV protons or deuterons from a cyclotron. Typical reactions products are: CO, CO2, CH4, CH2O, CH3OH, HCOOH, NH3, CH3NH2, cyanamide, formamidine, guanidine etc. Products of hot reactions in solids are more complex than in corresponding gaseous systems, which underlines the importance of solid state reactions for the build-up of precursors for biomolecules in space. As one of the major mechanisms for product formation, the simultaneous or fast consecutive reactions of a hot carbon with two target molecules (reaction complex) is discussed.

  19. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  20. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  1. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  2. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  3. Seawater Chemistry Package

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  4. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  5. Automated Engineering Design (AED); An approach to automated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    The automated engineering design (AED) is reviewed, consisting of a high level systems programming language, a series of modular precoded subroutines, and a set of powerful software machine tools that effectively automate the production and design of new languages. AED is used primarily for development of problem and user-oriented languages. Software production phases are diagramed, and factors which inhibit effective documentation are evaluated.

  6. PyADF--a scripting framework for multiscale quantum chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Christoph R; Beyhan, S Maya; Bulo, Rosa E; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Götz, Andreas W; Kiewisch, Karin; Sikkema, Jetze; Visscher, Lucas

    2011-07-30

    Applications of quantum chemistry have evolved from single or a few calculations to more complicated workflows, in which a series of interrelated computational tasks is performed. In particular multiscale simulations, which combine different levels of accuracy, typically require a large number of individual calculations that depend on each other. Consequently, there is a need to automate such workflows. For this purpose we have developed PYADF, a scripting framework for quantum chemistry. PYADF handles all steps necessary in a typical workflow in quantum chemistry and is easily extensible due to its object-oriented implementation in the Python programming language. We give an overview of the capabilities of PYADF and illustrate its usefulness in quantum-chemical multiscale simulations with a number of examples taken from recent applications. PMID:21541961

  7. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  8. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  9. Chemistry for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  10. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  11. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  12. Magnetism in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  13. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  14. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  15. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  16. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  17. Fuzzy Control/Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuzzy control/space station automation are presented. Topics covered include: Space Station Freedom (SSF); SSF evolution; factors pointing to automation & robotics (A&R); astronaut office inputs concerning A&R; flight system automation and ground operations applications; transition definition program; and advanced automation software tools.

  18. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  19. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  20. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  1. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  2. 46 CFR 15.715 - Automated vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated vessels. 15.715 Section 15.715 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.715 Automated vessels. (a) Coast Guard acceptance of automated systems... automated system in establishing initial manning levels; however, until the system is proven reliable,...

  3. Human factors in cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid advance in microprocessor technology has made it possible to automate many functions that were previously performed manually. Several research areas have been identified which are basic to the question of the implementation of automation in the cockpit. One of the identified areas deserving further research is warning and alerting systems. Modern transport aircraft have had one after another warning and alerting systems added, and computer-based cockpit systems make it possible to add even more. Three major areas of concern are: input methods (including voice, keyboard, touch panel, etc.), output methods and displays (from traditional instruments to CRTs, to exotic displays including the human voice), and training for automation. Training for operating highly automatic systems requires considerably more attention than it has been given in the past. Training methods have not kept pace with the advent of flight-deck automation.

  4. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  5. Real Automation in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Mayero, Micaela; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We provide a package of strategies for automation of non-linear arithmetic in PVS. In particular, we describe a simplication procedure for the field of real numbers and a strategy for cancellation of common terms.

  6. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  7. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  8. Stereo vision based automated grasp planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Huber, L.; Silva, D.; Grasz, E.; Cadapan, L.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm.

  9. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  10. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  11. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment.

  12. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  13. An automation simulation testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, George E.; Sztipanovits, Janos; Biegl, Csaba; Karsai, Gabor; Springfield, James F.; Mutammara, Atheel

    1988-01-01

    The work being done in porting ROBOSIM (a graphical simulation system developed jointly by NASA-MSFC and Vanderbilt University) to the HP350SRX graphics workstation is described. New additional ROBOSIM features, like collision detection and new kinematics simulation methods are also discussed. Based on the experiences of the work on ROBOSIM, a new graphics structural modeling environment is suggested which is intended to be a part of a new knowledge-based multiple aspect modeling testbed. The knowledge-based modeling methodologies and tools already available are described. Three case studies in the area of Space Station automation are also reported. First a geometrical structural model of the station is presented. This model was developed using the ROBOSIM package. Next the possible application areas of an integrated modeling environment in the testing of different Space Station operations are discussed. One of these possible application areas is the modeling of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which is one of the most complex subsystems of the station. Using the multiple aspect modeling methodology, a fault propagation model of this system is being built and is described.

  14. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  15. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. PMID:27034378

  16. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  17. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  18. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory (AMML) 1971-1972 program involved the investigation of three separate life detection schemes. The first was a continued further development of the labeled release experiment. The possibility of chamber reuse without inbetween sterilization, to provide comparative biochemical information was tested. Findings show that individual substrates or concentrations of antimetabolites may be sequentially added to a single test chamber. The second detection system which was investigated for possible inclusion in the AMML package of assays, was nitrogen fixation as detected by acetylene reduction. Thirdly, a series of preliminary steps were taken to investigate the feasibility of detecting biopolymers in soil. A strategy for the safe return to Earth of a Mars sample prior to manned landings on Mars is outlined. The program assumes that the probability of indigenous life on Mars is unity and then broadly presents the procedures for acquisition and analysis of the Mars sample in a manner to satisfy the scientific community and the public that adequate safeguards are being taken.

  19. Programmatic mission capabilities - chemistry and metallurgy research replacement (CMRR) project

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, L Nguyen; Kornreich, Drew E; Wong, Amy S

    2011-01-04

    CMRR will have analysis capabilities that support all the nuclear-material programs and national security needs. CMRR will replace the aging CMR Building and provide a key component responsive infrastructure necessary to sustain all nuclear programs and the nuclear-weapons complex. Material characterization capabilities - evaluate the microstructures and properties of nuclear materials and provide experimental data to validate process and performance models. Analytical chemistry capabilities - provide expertise in chemical and radiochemical analysis of materials where actinide elements make up a significant portion of the sample.

  20. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  1. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Cindy; Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Automated power-distribution system monitors and controls electrical power to modules in network. Handles both 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase alternating current and 120- to 150-V direct current. Power distributed to load modules from power-distribution control units (PDCU's) via subsystem distributors. Ring busses carry power to PDCU's from power source. Needs minimal attention. Detects faults and also protects against them. Potential applications include autonomous land vehicles and automated industrial process systems.

  2. Evolution paths for advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.

  3. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  4. Twenty-ninth ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology. Abstracts of papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains separate abstracts of 55 individual papers presented at this conference. Different sections in the book are titled as follows: laser techniques; resonance ionization spectroscopy; laser applications; new developments in mass spectrometry; analytical chemistry of hazardous waste; and automation and data management. (PLG)

  5. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models.

  6. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. PMID:25666065

  7. Decision Making In A High-Tech World: Automation Bias and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Kathleen L.; Skitka, Linda J.; Burdick, Mark R.; Heers, Susan T.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Automated decision aids and decision support systems have become essential tools in many high-tech environments. In aviation, for example, flight management systems computers not only fly the aircraft, but also calculate fuel efficient paths, detect and diagnose system malfunctions and abnormalities, and recommend or carry out decisions. Air Traffic Controllers will soon be utilizing decision support tools to help them predict and detect potential conflicts and to generate clearances. Other fields as disparate as nuclear power plants and medical diagnostics are similarly becoming more and more automated. Ideally, the combination of human decision maker and automated decision aid should result in a high-performing team, maximizing the advantages of additional cognitive and observational power in the decision-making process. In reality, however, the presence of these aids often short-circuits the way that even very experienced decision makers have traditionally handled tasks and made decisions, and introduces opportunities for new decision heuristics and biases. Results of recent research investigating the use of automated aids have indicated the presence of automation bias, that is, errors made when decision makers rely on automated cues as a heuristic replacement for vigilant information seeking and processing. Automation commission errors, i.e., errors made when decision makers inappropriately follow an automated directive, or automation omission errors, i.e., errors made when humans fail to take action or notice a problem because an automated aid fails to inform them, can result from this tendency. Evidence of the tendency to make automation-related omission and commission errors has been found in pilot self reports, in studies using pilots in flight simulations, and in non-flight decision making contexts with student samples. Considerable research has found that increasing social accountability can successfully ameliorate a broad array of cognitive biases and

  8. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    chemistry expert knowledge into a computer interpretable form, preventing erroneous compound assignments and allowing automatic compound classification. The automated assignment of compounds in databases, compound structure files or text documents to their related ontology classes is possible through the integration with a chemical structure search engine. As an application example, the annotation of chemical structure files with a prototypic ontology is demonstrated. PMID:23273256

  9. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  10. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echo, M. W.

    1981-09-01

    The need was identified for a mass spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of special nuclear material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software.

  11. Designing effective human-automation-plant interfaces: a control-theoretic perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Greg A; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we propose the application of a control-theoretic framework to human-automation interaction. The framework consists of a set of conceptual distinctions that should be respected in automation research and design. We demonstrate how existing automation interface designs in some nuclear plants fail to recognize these distinctions. We further show the value of the approach by applying it to modes of automation. The design guidelines that have been proposed in the automation literature are evaluated from the perspective of the framework. This comparison shows that the framework reveals insights that are frequently overlooked in this literature. A new set of design guidelines is introduced that builds upon the contributions of previous research and draws complementary insights from the control-theoretic framework. The result is a coherent and systematic approach to the design of human-automation-plant interfaces that will yield more concrete design criteria and a broader set of design tools. Applications of this research include improving the effectiveness of human-automation interaction design and the relevance of human-automation interaction research.

  12. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  13. Automated Spectral System for Terrain Classification, Mineralogy of Vesta from the Dawn Framing Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V.; Le Corre, L.; Nathues, A.; Hall, I.; Gutierrez-Marques, P.; Hoffmann, M.

    2011-10-01

    The Dawn mission will rendezvous with asteroid (4) Vesta in July 2011. We have developed a set of equations for extracting mean pyroxene chemistry (Ferrosilite and Wollastonite) for classifying terrains on Vesta by using the Dawn Framing Camera (FC) multi-color bands. The Automated Spectral System (ASS) utilizes pseudo-Band I minima to estimate the mean pyroxene chemistry of diogenites, and basaltic eucrites. The mean pyroxene chemistries of cumulate eucrites, and howardites overlap each other on the pyroxene quadrilateral and hence are harder to distinguish. We expect our ASS to carry a bulk of the terrain classification and mineralogy workload utilizing these equations and complement the work of DawnKey (Le Corre et al., 2011, DPS/EPSC 2011). The system will also provide surface mineral chemistry layers that can be used for mapping Vesta's surface.

  14. Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz de la Pena, Arsenio; Gonzalez-Gomez, David; Munoz de la Pena, David; Gomez-Estern, Fabio; Sequedo, Manuel Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    designed for automating the collection and assessment of laboratory exercises is presented. This Web-based system has been extensively used in engineering courses such as control systems, mechanics, and computer programming. Goodle GMS allows the students to submit their results to a…

  15. Some aspects of analytical chemistry as applied to water quality assurance techniques for reclaimed water: The potential use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for automated on-line fast real-time simultaneous multi-component analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, A. C.; Macpherson, L. H.; Rey, M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential use of isotopically excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for automated on line fast real time (5 to 15 minutes) simultaneous multicomponent (up to 20) trace (1 to 10 parts per billion) analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water was examined. Three anionic elements (chromium 6, arsenic and selenium) were studied. The inherent lack of sensitivity of XRF spectrometry for these elements mandates use of a preconcentration technique and various methods were examined, including: several direct and indirect evaporation methods; ion exchange membranes; selective and nonselective precipitation; and complexation processes. It is shown tha XRF spectrometry itself is well suited for automated on line quality assurance, and can provide a nondestructive (and thus sample storage and repeat analysis capabilities) and particularly convenient analytical method. Further, the use of an isotopically excited energy dispersive unit (50 mCi Cd-109 source) coupled with a suitable preconcentration process can provide sufficient sensitivity to achieve the current mandated minimum levels of detection without the need for high power X-ray generating tubes.

  16. Residue chemistry guidelines.

    PubMed

    Olinger, C L; Schmitt, R D; Zager, E

    1993-01-01

    Residue chemistry guidelines are designed to determine what the potential residues in food are and how much may be present as a result of pesticide application, so that a tolerance level may be established. Some requirements are established to assist in the enforcement of tolerances by the USDA, FDA, and the states. I realize I have given you a quick overview of the residue chemistry requirements. There are many documents which are available if you should require more information, such as the Subdivision O Residue Chemistry Guidelines, Standard Evaluation Procedures (which are used by reviewers when evaluating the studies), the Data Reporting Guidelines (which provide guidance on preparing final reports), and the Technical Guidance from Phase III of Reregistration. We have also released various papers on studies when additional guidance is required. Most of these documents are available from NTIS. I hope you will consider this information when auditing residue chemistry studies. As I see the efforts that you, the QA professionals, have made to educate yourselves on residue chemistry studies through programs such as this meeting, I have a little more confidence in answering the question "Do you trust them?" with a "Yes." Thank you.

  17. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  18. Combining Chemistry and Music to Engage Student Interest: Using Songs to Accompany Selected Chemical Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of recorded music to add interest to a variety of lecture topics is described. Topics include the periodic table, the formation of ionic compounds, thermodynamics, carbohydrates, nuclear chemistry, and qualitative analysis. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  20. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423