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Sample records for automatic milking systems

  1. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  2. [Automatic milking systems--quality assurance of milk for drinking].

    PubMed

    Redetzky, R; Hamann, J

    2004-07-01

    German consumers trust the safety and the quality of milk and milk products. Compared with other animal products, e. g. meat and meat products, their confidence is justified in so far as milk and milk products cause only few foodborne diseases in Germany, although 80 percent of all German cows develop at least one case of mastitis per lactation. Due to financial reasons, more and more German dairy farmers are forced to initiate a time-saving rationalization of their workflow. Therefore, automatic milking systems (AMS) are used increasingly, even though the costs of purchase result in a slow pick-up in sales. Moreover, AMS do not comply with legal requirements. Thus, an additional regular, the so called "catalogue of measures", had to be enacted to ensure the hygienic harmlessness of milk produced by AMS. This is the first time, that udder health at individual cow level was related to milk quality beyond merely clinical signs. Together with technical innovations for an improved health monitoring at cow and herd level as well as the implementation of quality assurance programs based on prevention, this improvement offers good prospects to produce not only a hygienically harmless, but also a physiologically composed milk and therefore a qualitatively high-grade milk from healthy cows. Being the vehicle of the most recent improvements in technology, AMS do have the potential to make a crucial contribution to this development.

  3. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production.

  4. Feeding behavior, milking behavior, and milk yields of cows milked in a parlor versus an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W

    2003-04-01

    This study compared feeding and milking behavior and milk yields for cows housed in the same barn, fed the same ration, but milked with a conventional milking parlor (parlor) or automatic milking system (robot). Behavioral data were videotaped hourly 1 d/mo for 9 mo. Feeding behavior patterns differed and were more variable for parlor cows than for robot cows. Both groups had low feeding rates at night and early morning. Feeding activity increased after milking and feed delivery for parlor cows. Milking and feeding activity in the robot system increased after human intervention at 7 a.m.; feed bunk activity peaked 3 h later and remained relatively constant from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Percentages of cows at the feed bunk were significantly greater for robot cows than parlor cows only at 10 a.m. and 9 p.m. Batch milking of parlor cows with free access to feed, vs. sequential milking of robot cows, with restricted movement to feed by a one-way gate system, resulted in higher peak percentages of cows at the bunk for parlor cows. Lower, more consistent percentages of cows eating at one time suggests that less bunk space may be needed for cows in robotic milking systems. Higher percentages of cows were observed in the robot from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. and again from 3 to 7 p.m. Percentages of cows in the robot holding area were greatest from 8 to 11 a.m. and 3 to 6 p.m. and were lowest from midnight to 6 a.m. Milk production over 39 d in summer for subsets of cows was slightly but significantly higher (26.4 vs. 25.8 +/- 0.2 kg/d) for cows in the robot group. Milking frequency, days in milk, parity, and maximum air temperature for 3 d (-2 d to day of observation) affected milk yield comparisons. Results have implications for design of feeding and handling facilities used with automated milking systems.

  5. Technical note: variation in daily milk yield calculations for dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P P; Pettersson, G; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K M; Norell, L

    2010-03-01

    An accurate estimation of the daily milk yield of dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system is not obvious because of variations in milking intervals and frequencies. Daily harvested milk varies substantially, and developing a method to be used for estimating daily milk production is of great importance. Three calculation methods (simple, semiadvanced, and advanced) were used. The simple method calculated rough daily milk production by summing up the yield per day. The semiadvanced used yield in combination with time since last milking to calculate the milk production per hour between milking; an average of the milk production per hour over the day was calculated and multiplied by 24. The advanced method calculated the milk production from midnight to midnight by using information about yield and time since last milking to calculate the exact milk production. The results show a clear preference for the advanced calculation method because the variation [variation for the advanced method=ln(1.79) for first lactation and ln(2.28) for later lactations] between days was reduced significantly (3 to 4 times lower compared with the simple method). Variation in daily harvested milk can be used as a management tool.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of the first automatic milking system for buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Caria, M; Tangorra, F M; Leonardi, S; Bronzo, V; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of buffaloes to automatic milking, examining the relationships between milking interval, milk production, and milking time for this species. A total of 7,550 milking records from an average of 40 buffaloes milked by an automatic milking system (AMS) were analyzed during a 3-mo experimental period at a commercial farm with Italian Mediterranean buffaloes in southern Italy. Date and time of animal identification, milk yield, milking duration, milking interval, and average milk flow rate were determined for each milking. The results were also used to predict the maximum number of milkings per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS for different levels of milk production. The average interval period between 2 consecutive milkings was 10.3 h [standard deviation (SD) 3.3]. Overall, 3.4 and 25.7% of the milkings had an interval of ≤ 6 h or >12 h, respectively. Milking duration averaged 8.3 min per buffalo per milking (SD 2.7). The average milk flow rate was 1.3 kg/min (SD 0.5) at a milk yield of 2.8 kg per milking (SD 1.4). Assuming that the milking station is occupied 80% of the time, the number of milkings ranged from 136 to 152 per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS ranged from 59 to 66 when the production level increased from 2 to 5 kg of milk per milking. Automatic milking systems are suitable for buffalo, opening new options for the management of dairy buffalo farms. PMID:24393174

  7. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  8. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  9. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    PubMed

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology.

  10. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    PubMed

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology. PMID:27423956

  11. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  12. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  13. Evaluation of milk enzymes and electrolytes, plasma metabolites, and oxidative status in twin cows milked in an automatic milking system or twice daily in a conventional milking parlor.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Terzano, M G; Speroni, M; Migliorati, L; Capelletti, M; Calza, F; Bianchi, L; Pirlo, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of automatic milking (AM) on milk enzymes and minerals related to mammary epithelial integrity in comparison with twice-daily conventional milking (CM). One cow from each of 6 pairs of twins was assigned to be milked with AM or with CM throughout first lactation. Milk production was recorded and milk samples were collected at 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 wk of lactation (WOL) to determine fat and protein content, somatic cell count, pH, plasminogen (pl) and plasmin (Pl) activities, Na, K, and Cl. Body condition score was monitored; blood samples were collected to determine energy-related metabolites in the first third of lactation (14 WOL), and plasma oxidative status throughout lactation. Overall mean and standard deviation of milking frequency (MF) in AM were 2.69 and 0.88, respectively. Milk production, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count did not differ between milking systems. The pl and pl+Pl activities were lesser in AM than in CM. Milk pH was greater in AM than in CM. Milk Na, K, Na/K ratio, and Cl did not differ across the whole lactation. Milk pH had a positive correlation with milk Pl activity (r = 0.41), Na (r = 0.37), and Cl (r = 0.40) concentration, and negative correlation with the log(10) of pl/Pl ratio (r = -0.47). The milk Na/K ratio had a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with milk Pl activity. Milking system (MS) did not seem to affect mammary epithelial permeability. The differences in enzymatic (proteolytic) activity due to the MS, probably related to daily MF, lead one to suppose that the quality of the protein fraction for the cheese-making process was preserved better with AM than with CM, even if differences in pH might negatively interfere. No difference was detected in BCS, and in plasma concentration of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, whereas plasma cholesterol concentration during the first 10 WOL was lesser in AM than CM. Oxidative status, measured by plasma

  14. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Swedish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher H

    2011-08-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated with increased peak yield. High milking frequency averaged across the whole lactation was associated with increased peak yield in both cows and heifers, and with improved lactation persistency in cows only. This resulted in total lactation yield that was 21% greater in the high quartile cows compared with the low. PMID:21774865

  15. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  16. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  17. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    PubMed

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures.

  18. Effects of an automatic postmilking teat dipping system on new intramammary infections and iodine in milk.

    PubMed

    Galton, D M

    2004-01-01

    A technology of automatically applying a postmilking teat dip via the milking machine prior to machine detachment was compared to manual postmilking teat dipping with a teat dip cup for effects on new IMI and iodine content in milk. One hundred twenty Holstein cows were experimentally challenged in a 22-wk trial with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus and 148 Holstein cows were experimentally challenged with Streptococcus uberis in another 22-wk trial. The bacterial suspensions were applied to teats of all of the cows after premilking udder preparation and immediately prior to milking machine attachment. In both trials, cows were divided among four treatments: no postmilking teat dipping; manual postmilking teat dipping with a proven efficacious iodophor teat dip; manual postmilking teat dipping with an iodophor teat dip formulated for an automatic postmilking teat dipping system; and automatically postmilking teat dipping via milking machines with an iodophor teat dip formulated for the automatic postmilking teat dipping system. The postmilking teat dipping treatments reduced new Staph. aureus IMI by 64.5, 76.5, and 88.2%; new Strep. agalactiae IMI by 61.5, 77.8, and 94.4%; and new Strep. uberis IMI by 63.5, 82.5, and 93.8%, respectively, against the treatment of no postmilking teat dipping. The treatment applying the postmilking teat dip automatically via milking machines had the lowest number of new IMI caused by the three pathogens. Teat end and teat skin condition were characterized as normal at the end of the study with no differences between treatments. There were no differences with regard to iodine content in milk between treatments. PMID:14765830

  19. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  20. Dairy cow behavior affects the availability of an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Ananyeva, K; Siegford, J M

    2012-04-01

    Facility design can affect the accessibility of an automatic milking system (AMS). In particular, gates and alleys positioned around the AMS may affect cow traffic and cow behavior, potentially affecting the duration of time the AMS is available for milking. Eighty-four Holstein cows of various parities and days in milk were randomly divided between 2 groups, each group having access to its own AMS. Cow locations and behaviors in the AMS entrance and exit areas, as well as in the adjacent holding area, were recorded continuously for 14 d. Cows receiving a "no-milking" decision (i.e., cow is rejected from the milking stall due to a recent milking event) took longer to exit the milking stall (18.2±1.33 s), and were more likely to circle and re-enter the AMS (0.8±0.15) compared with cows receiving a milking decision (16.2±1.09 s; 0.2±0.03). Cows exiting the AMS hesitated for long periods when another cow was near the exit gate (192.93±1.11 s) or in the general holding area (101.04±1.07 s). Cows in late lactation had a greater probability of hesitating in the exit alley for long periods (0.55±0.09) compared with cows in early lactation (0.15±0.07), regardless of whether cows were in the holding area. Primiparous cows were more likely to block other cows trying to exit (0.60±0.13) compared with multiparous cows (0.29±0.09). Occasionally, blocking events led to "back-up" events, in which the AMS became unavailable for new cow access due to a back up of cows through the exit alley into the milking stall. The AMS was empty (not occupied) for 10 and 18% (groups 1 and 2, respectively) of the day; therefore, it was possible that back-up events would simply reduce the amount of time the AMS was empty. The duration of back-up events and AMS empty events had a negative relationship in group 1 (r=-0.74), but no such relationship was observed in group 2. The differences in time budgets between the 2 groups suggest that the effect of back-up events on AMS availability may

  1. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: Grazeable Forage Options

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges to increase milk production in a large pasture-based herd with an automatic milking system (AMS) is to grow forages within a 1-km radius, as increases in walking distance increases milking interval and reduces yield. The main objective of this study was to explore sustainable forage option technologies that can supply high amount of grazeable forages for AMS herds using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. Three different basic simulation scenarios (with irrigation) were carried out using forage crops (namely maize, soybean and sorghum) for the spring-summer period. Subsequent crops in the three scenarios were forage rape over-sown with ryegrass. Each individual simulation was run using actual climatic records for the period from 1900 to 2010. Simulated highest forage yields in maize, soybean and sorghum- (each followed by forage rape-ryegrass) based rotations were 28.2, 22.9, and 19.3 t dry matter/ha, respectively. The simulations suggested that the irrigation requirement could increase by up to 18%, 16%, and 17% respectively in those rotations in El-Niño years compared to neutral years. On the other hand, irrigation requirement could increase by up to 25%, 23%, and 32% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in El-Nino years compared to La-Nina years. However, irrigation requirement could decrease by up to 8%, 7%, and 13% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in La-Nina years compared to neutral years. The major implication of this study is that APSIM models have potentials in devising preferred forage options to maximise grazeable forage yield which may create the opportunity to grow more forage in small areas around the AMS which in turn will minimise walking distance and milking interval and thus increase milk production. Our analyses also suggest that simulation analysis may provide decision support during climatic uncertainty. PMID:25924963

  2. Association of standing and lying behavior patterns and incidence of intramammary infection in dairy cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Deming, J A; Rodenburg, J; Seguin, G; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W

    2011-08-01

    The standing and lying behavior patterns of dairy cows, particularly the length of time cows spend standing after milking, have the potential to influence the incidence of intramammary infection (IMI). The objectives were to describe the standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an automatic milking system (AMS) and to determine how these patterns relate to the incidence of IMI. One hundred and eleven lactating Holstein dairy cows were monitored over a 4-mo period. These cows were kept in a sand-bedded freestall barn with 2 pens, each with a free cow traffic AMS. Feed was delivered once daily, and pushed up 2 to 3 times daily. Quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological culture from each cow once every 4 wk. A new IMI was defined as a positive culture sample following a negative culture. For 7 d before each of the last 3 milk samplings, standing and lying behavior, and times of milking and feed manipulation (feed delivery and push up) were recorded. Daily lying time and lying bout length were negatively related with milk yield (r=-0.23 and -0.20, respectively) and milking frequency (r=-0.32 and -0.20, respectively); milk yield was positively related to milking frequency (r=0.58). Feed manipulation near the time cows were milked (1h before 2h after) resulted in the longest post-milking standing times (mean=86 min; 95% confidence interval=78, 94 min), whereas feed manipulation occurring outside that time frame resulted in shorter post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 171 new IMI were detected. Of these new IMI detected, those caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci were the only ones associated with post-milking standing time; as post-milking standing time increased past 2.5h after milking, the odds of acquiring a new IMI tended to also increase. In summary, standing and lying behavior patterns of cows milked with an AMS were affected by both feed manipulation and their milking activity. Further, the post-milking standing

  3. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Clark, C. E. F.; Garcia, S. C.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’) and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary

  4. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  5. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  6. Invited review: udder health of dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Hovinen, M; Pyörälä, S

    2011-02-01

    Automatic milking (AM) is increasing in modern dairy farming, and over 8,000 farms worldwide currently use this technology. Automatic milking system is designed to replace conventional milking managed by a milker in a milking parlor or in tie stalls. Cows are generally milked more frequently in AM than in conventional milking, and milking is quarter-based instead of udder-based. Despite improvements in the milking process and often building of a new barn before the introduction of AM, udder health of the cows has not improved; on the contrary, problems may appear following conversion from conventional milking to AM. This review focuses on udder health of dairy cows in AM, and we discuss several aspects of cow and milking management in AM associated with udder health. Finally, adequate management methods in AM are suggested. According to several studies comparing udder health between automatic and conventional milking or comparing udder health before and after the introduction of automatic milking in the same herds, udder health has deteriorated during the first year or more after the introduction of AM. Automatic detection of subclinical and clinical mastitis and cleaning the teats before milking are challenges of AM. Failures in mastitis detection and milking hygiene pose a risk for udder health. These risk factors can partly be controlled by management actions taken by the farmer, but AM also needs further technical development. To maintain good udder health in AM, it is imperative that the barn is properly designed to keep the cows clean and the cow traffic flowing. Milking frequency must be maintained for every cow according to its stage of lactation and milk production. Careful observation of the cows and knowledge of how to use all data gathered from the system are also important. "Automatic" does not mean that the role of a competent herdsman is in any way diminished. PMID:21257025

  7. Welfare assessment based on metabolic and endocrine aspects in primiparous cows milked in a parlor or with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Calza, F; Speroni, M; Bertoni, G; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    An automatic milking system (AMS) was compared with a traditional milking parlor (MP) to evaluate metabolic and psycho-physiological aspects of animal welfare. Twenty Italian Friesian heifers were allocated to 2 groups of 10 cows each after calving and maintained in the same free-stall barn. The first group was milked twice daily in a MP; the second group was milked in a single box AMS. Feed and diet characteristics were analyzed. Health status and body condition score (BCS) were evaluated in each cow. Blood samples were obtained from -14 to 154 d in milk (DIM) to determine metabolic profile and basal concentrations of cortisol in plasma. Data collected from 10 cows per group were processed. No significant difference was detected in milk yield, BCS, and energy-related metabolites (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and triglycerides) from cows in MP or in AMS during the first 22 wk of lactation. These results, jointly with the absence of significant differences in plasma metabolites related to protein metabolism, mineral metabolism, and liver function during the first 22 wk of lactation, indicates that cows in AMS did not suffer metabolically. Greater basal concentrations of plasma cortisol in AMS cows, even if absolute values were considered to be in an acceptable range, might indicate chronic stress in these primiparous cows. Further research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  8. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  9. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  10. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  11. Technical note: Assessment of milk temperature measured by automatic milking systems as an indicator of body temperature and fever in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pohl, A; Heuwieser, W; Burfeind, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether milk temperature (MT) measured by automatic milking system (AMS) is a reliable indicator of body temperature of dairy cows and whether cows with fever could be detected. Data loggers (Minilog 8, Vemco Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada) measuring body temperature were inserted for 7 ± 1 d into the vaginal cavity of 31 dairy cows and programmed to take 1 reading/min. Milk temperature was recorded at each milking event by the AMS, and values from the vaginal loggers were paired with the corresponding MT. The correlation (r) between vaginal temperature (VT) and MT was 0.52. Vaginal temperature was higher (39.1 ± 0.4°C) than MT (38.6 ± 0.7°C) with a mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.6°C. The ability of MT to identify cows with fever was assessed using 2 approaches. In the first approach, VT could indicate fever at any time of the day, whereas MT could display fever only during the milking events of a given day. Different definitions of fever based on thresholds of VT and duration exceeding these thresholds were constructed. Different thresholds of MT were tested to distinguish between cows with and without fever. The combination of 39.0°C as a threshold for MT and 39.5°C for at least 2h/d as a threshold for VT resulted in the highest combination of sensitivity (0.65) and specificity (0.65). In the second approach, we evaluated whether MT could identify cows with fever at a given milking event. A threshold of MT >38.7°C delivered the best combination of sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.66) when fever was defined as VT ≥39.5°C. Therefore, MT measured by AMS can be indicative of fever in dairy cows to a limited extent.

  12. Stress responses during milking; comparing conventional and automatic milking in primiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hopster, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Van der Werf, J T N; Korte, S M; Macuhova, J; Korte-Bouws, G; van Reenen, C G

    2002-12-01

    A comparative study was performed to evaluate the differences in behavioral and physiological stress responses during milking between cows that were milked by an automated milking system (AM-cows) and cows that were milked in a conventional tandem parlor (TM-cows). In a randomized design, 36 primiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were observed and blood sampled (1-min intervals) individually during milking. AM-cows spent less time standing with their heads outside the feeding trough than TM-cows and had a lower heart rate. In addition, AM-cows had lower maximum plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during milking. No differences were found in the number of steps. After tactile stimulation of the teats either by hand or by the cleaning brush, mean oxytocin concentrations did not differ. In AM-cows, however, elevated oxytocin levels were prolonged at the end of milking. Averaged over the first five blood samples, AM-cows tended to have higher plasma cortisol concentrations than TM-cows, but median fecal concentrations of the cortisol metabolite dioxoandrostane were comparable. Maximum quarter milk flow, maximum udder milk flow and residual milk as a percentage of the total milk volume was comparable. From this study it is concluded that behavioral and physiological responses, both in automatically and in conventionally milked cows, were relatively low and were typical for cows being milked. We therefore conclude that, as far as the welfare of the dairy cow during milking is concerned, automatic milking and conventional milking are equally acceptable. PMID:12512594

  13. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    PubMed

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  14. Success of interventions in mastitis problems with Staphylococcus aureus after the introduction of an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J; Johler, S; Merz, A; Stalder, U; Hässig, M

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often the cause of mastitis problems in dairy herds and causes great economic losses. In this study, isolates from a dairy herd with a known S. aureus mastitis problem were examined by means of molecular methods (spa typing, PFGE, and DNA microarray) to investigate their epidemiological relationship and the success of intervention measures. The investigated dairy farm has a herd size of 60 cows and uses a fully automated milking system for milk production. A S. aureus strain, which contaminated the automated milking system and was subsequently spread among the herd through the latter, was suspected to be the origin of the mastitis problem within the herd. Thanks to the applied molecular methods, the common origin of the S. aureus isolates from the collected milk and swab samples could be shown. By culling chronically infected cows, optimising dry cow management and ensuring reliable intermediate cluster disinfection, the bulk milk somatic cell count improved. PMID:26753327

  15. Individual variation and repeatability of methane production from dairy cows estimated by the CO₂ method in automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Cornou, C; Madsen, J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual variation, repeatability and correlation of methane (CH4) production from dairy cows measured during 2 different years. A total of 21 dairy cows with an average BW of 619 ± 14.2 kg and average milk production of 29.1 ± 6.5 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) were used in the 1st year. During the 2nd year, the same cows were used with an average BW of 640 ± 8.0 kg and average milk production of 33.4 ± 6.0 kg/day (mean ± s.d.). The cows were housed in a loose housing system fitted with an automatic milking system (AMS). A total mixed ration was fed to the cows ad libitum in both years. In addition, they were offered concentrate in the AMS based on their daily milk yield. The CH4 and CO2 production levels of the cows were analysed using a Gasmet DX-4030. The estimated dry matter intake (EDMI) was 19.8 ± 0.96 and 23.1 ± 0.78 (mean ± s.d.), and the energy-corrected milk (ECM) production was 30.8 ± 8.03 and 33.7 ± 5.25 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively. The EDMI and ECM had a significant influence (P<0.001) on the CH4 (l/day) yield during both years. The daily CH4 (l/day) production was significantly higher (P<0.05) during the 2nd year compared with the 1st year. The EDMI (described by the ECM) appeared to be the key factor in the variation of CH4 release. A correlation (r=0.54) of CH4 production was observed between the years. The CH4 (l/day) production was strongly correlated (r=0.70) between the 2 years with an adjusted ECM production (30 kg/day). The diurnal variation of CH4 (l/h) production showed significantly lower (P<0.05) emission during the night (0000 to 0800 h). The between-cows variation of CH4 (l/day, l/kg EDMI and l/kg ECM) was lower compared with the within-cow variation for the 1st and 2nd years. The repeatability of CH4 production (l/day) was 0.51 between 2 years. In conclusion, a higher EDMI (kg/day) followed by a higher ECM (kg/day) showed a higher CH4 production

  16. Individual variation and repeatability of methane production from dairy cows estimated by the CO₂ method in automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Cornou, C; Madsen, J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual variation, repeatability and correlation of methane (CH4) production from dairy cows measured during 2 different years. A total of 21 dairy cows with an average BW of 619 ± 14.2 kg and average milk production of 29.1 ± 6.5 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) were used in the 1st year. During the 2nd year, the same cows were used with an average BW of 640 ± 8.0 kg and average milk production of 33.4 ± 6.0 kg/day (mean ± s.d.). The cows were housed in a loose housing system fitted with an automatic milking system (AMS). A total mixed ration was fed to the cows ad libitum in both years. In addition, they were offered concentrate in the AMS based on their daily milk yield. The CH4 and CO2 production levels of the cows were analysed using a Gasmet DX-4030. The estimated dry matter intake (EDMI) was 19.8 ± 0.96 and 23.1 ± 0.78 (mean ± s.d.), and the energy-corrected milk (ECM) production was 30.8 ± 8.03 and 33.7 ± 5.25 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively. The EDMI and ECM had a significant influence (P<0.001) on the CH4 (l/day) yield during both years. The daily CH4 (l/day) production was significantly higher (P<0.05) during the 2nd year compared with the 1st year. The EDMI (described by the ECM) appeared to be the key factor in the variation of CH4 release. A correlation (r=0.54) of CH4 production was observed between the years. The CH4 (l/day) production was strongly correlated (r=0.70) between the 2 years with an adjusted ECM production (30 kg/day). The diurnal variation of CH4 (l/h) production showed significantly lower (P<0.05) emission during the night (0000 to 0800 h). The between-cows variation of CH4 (l/day, l/kg EDMI and l/kg ECM) was lower compared with the within-cow variation for the 1st and 2nd years. The repeatability of CH4 production (l/day) was 0.51 between 2 years. In conclusion, a higher EDMI (kg/day) followed by a higher ECM (kg/day) showed a higher CH4 production

  17. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-06-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially 'concentrating' feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  18. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  19. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied.

  20. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied. PMID:26411595

  1. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bijl, R; Kooistra, S R; Hogeveen, H

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared with farms using a conventional milking system (CMS) based on real accounting data. In total, 62 farms (31 using an AMS and 31 using a CMS) were analyzed for the year 2003 in a case control study. Differences between the years 2002 and 2003 also were analyzed by comparing a subgroup of 16 farms with an AMS and 16 farms with a CMS. Matching was based on the time of investment in a milking system (same year), the total milk production per year, and intensity of land use (kg/ha). Results from 2003 showed that the farms with an AMS used, on average, 29% less labor than farms with a CMS. In contrast, farms using a CMS grew faster (37,132 kg of milk quota and 5 dairy cows) than farms with an AMS (-3,756 kg milk quota and 0.5 dairy cows) between 2002 and 2003. Dairy farmers with a CMS had larger (euro7,899) revenues than those with an AMS. However, no difference in the margin on dairy production was detected, partly because of numerically greater (euro6,822) variable costs on CMS farms. Dairy farms were compared financially based on the amount of money that was available for rent, depreciation, interest, labor, and profit (RDILP). The CMS farms had more money (euro15,566) available for RDILP than the AMS farms. This difference was caused by larger fixed costs (excluding labor) for the AMS farms, larger contractor costs (euro6,422), and larger costs for gas, water, and electricity (euro1,549). Differences in costs for contractors and for gas, water, and electricity were statistically significant. When expressed per full-time employee, AMS farms had greater revenues, margins, and gross margins per full-time employee than did CMS farms. This resulted in a substantially greater

  2. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bijl, R; Kooistra, S R; Hogeveen, H

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared with farms using a conventional milking system (CMS) based on real accounting data. In total, 62 farms (31 using an AMS and 31 using a CMS) were analyzed for the year 2003 in a case control study. Differences between the years 2002 and 2003 also were analyzed by comparing a subgroup of 16 farms with an AMS and 16 farms with a CMS. Matching was based on the time of investment in a milking system (same year), the total milk production per year, and intensity of land use (kg/ha). Results from 2003 showed that the farms with an AMS used, on average, 29% less labor than farms with a CMS. In contrast, farms using a CMS grew faster (37,132 kg of milk quota and 5 dairy cows) than farms with an AMS (-3,756 kg milk quota and 0.5 dairy cows) between 2002 and 2003. Dairy farmers with a CMS had larger (euro7,899) revenues than those with an AMS. However, no difference in the margin on dairy production was detected, partly because of numerically greater (euro6,822) variable costs on CMS farms. Dairy farms were compared financially based on the amount of money that was available for rent, depreciation, interest, labor, and profit (RDILP). The CMS farms had more money (euro15,566) available for RDILP than the AMS farms. This difference was caused by larger fixed costs (excluding labor) for the AMS farms, larger contractor costs (euro6,422), and larger costs for gas, water, and electricity (euro1,549). Differences in costs for contractors and for gas, water, and electricity were statistically significant. When expressed per full-time employee, AMS farms had greater revenues, margins, and gross margins per full-time employee than did CMS farms. This resulted in a substantially greater

  3. The association of subclinical hypocalcemia, negative energy balance and disease with bodyweight change during the first 30 days post-partum in dairy cows milked with automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8 mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) > 0.7 mEq/L or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34 kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6 kg/day BW loss vs. <1.9 kg/day, respectively). Normocalcemic parity 2 animals with either NEB or disease lost the most weight (>5 kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (≤4.5 kg/day). In parity ≥ 3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7 kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (≤3.3 kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group.

  4. Validating the accuracy of activity and rumination monitor data from dairy cows housed in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Arceo, M E; Karcher, E L; Siegford, J M

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral observations are important in detecting illness, injury, and reproductive status as well as performance of normal behaviors. However, conducting live observations in extensive systems, such as pasture-based dairies, can be difficult and time consuming. Activity monitors, such as those created for use with automatic milking systems (AMS), have been developed to automatically and remotely collect individual behavioral data. Each cow wears a collar transponder for identification by the AMS, which can collect data on individual activity and rumination. The first aim of this study was to examine whether cow activity levels as reported by the AMS activity monitor (ACT) are accurate compared with live observations and previously validated pedometers [IceQube (IQ), IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK]. The second aim of the study was to determine if the AMS rumination monitors (RUM) provide an accurate account of time spent ruminating compared with live observations. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows with pasture access were fitted with ACT, RUM, and IQ. Continuous focal observations (0600-2000 h) generated data on lying and active behaviors (standing and walking), as well as rumination. Activity recorded by live observation and IQ included walking and standing, whereas IQ steps measured cow movement (i.e., acceleration). Active behaviors were analyzed separately and in combination to ascertain exactly what behavioral components contributed to calculation of ACT "activity." Pearson correlations (rp) were computed between variables related to ACT, RUM, IQ, and live observations of behavior. A linear model was used to assess significance differences in the correlation coefficients of the 4 most relevant groups of variables. Significant but moderate correlations were found between ACT and observations of walking (r(p)=0.61), standing (r(p)=0.46), lying (r(p)=-0.57), and activity (r(p)=0.52), and between ACT and IQ steps (r(p)=0.75) and activity (r(p)=0.58) as well as between

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Short communication: Effect of automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster flushing on the milking work routine.

    PubMed

    Ohnstad, I; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Hogewerf, P; de Koning, C A J M; Barkema, H W

    2012-05-01

    The importance of a consistent and comprehensive milking routine as a critical component of any mastitis control program is well documented. However, as pressure on time increases, farmers are faced with 3 options: (1) adjust the milking routine to suit the time available, (2) undertake the task less thoroughly, or (3) examine which elements of the milking routine can be automated and substitute capital expenditure for labor. A study was undertaken on 5 farms in the United Kingdom in October and November 2007 to assess the effect on milking time of installing a commercial automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster back flushing system (ADF). Two of the farms recruited for the study were intending to purchase the ADF system in the near future and 3 farms had already invested in the technology. The farms ranged in size from 120 to 550 cows and included three 90° rapid exit parlors, a herringbone parlor, and an abreast parlor. All 5 farms were visited for 2 successive milkings before the ADF was installed or disabled, and a detailed time and motion analysis was undertaken. After ADF was installed or the system reactivated, a further 2 milkings were monitored. All monitored farms showed a measurable reduction in milking time after the ADF system was installed. However, the magnitude of the reduction was greater than would be expected by simply removing the elements of postmilking teat disinfection and cluster sanitization. The benefits of ADF are greater than simply disinfecting teats and back flushing clusters and the time saving obtained may allow a more structured milking routine that may have additional benefits in terms of mastitis prevention and control. PMID:22541484

  8. Automatic payload deployment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

    2010-04-01

    The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Designing the automatic milking farm in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I

    2004-03-01

    A mathematical simulation model was used to assist 5 farmers in developing design criteria for inclusion of robotic milking systems in each farm situation. The barn layout influences arrivals of cows to the milking robot as well as other cow traffic and must be carefully planned. Each farmer had individual objectives and consequently unique design criteria that determined the optimal solution. Planning factors addressed by simulations on these farms included: 1) optimal cow cooling locations; 2) optimal facility allocation in expanding dairies; 3) concentrate feeder locations and feeding management; 4) number of feeders--based on expected rations; 5) use of a robot in an open cowshed without free stalls; 6) number of robots needed, currently and in the future; 7) eight robots working in harmony; 8) robot locations that allow for expansion; 9) floor space needed in each barn section including maternity and veterinary treatment areas; 10) location of bottlenecks that limit efficiency or expansion; and 11) cow traffic routine as affected by management practices, feed allocation, and farm layout. The simulation allowed farmers to receive a course in managing a "virtual robotic milking farm" before installation of the barn. Therefore, each could be more confident that his future barn would work properly under his unique local conditions and management practices. One farm checked 2 yr after construction achieved an average daily robot utilization of 84%, nearly matching the 85% projected before the barn was built. Important variables considered in the simulations were facility allocation, cow space needed in each farm area, robot utilization, number of cows, milk yield, milk flow rate, feeding method and timing, robot location and orientation, and farm physical layout.

  10. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  11. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  12. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  13. Effect of automatic cluster removers on milking efficiency and teat condition of Manchega ewes.

    PubMed

    Bueso-Ródenas, J; Romero, G; Arias, R; Rodríguez, A M; Díaz, J R

    2015-06-01

    Milking operations represent more than 50% of the work on a dairy ewe farm. The implementation of automatic cluster removers (ACR) is gaining popularity, as it allows the operator to avoid manual cluster detachments, simplifying the milking routines. The aim of this study was to discover the effect on the milking of Manchega ewes over an entire lactation period by using this type of devices, set up with 2 different combinations of milk flow threshold (MF) and delay time (DT) and comparing them with the traditional method using manual cluster removal. During a 15-d pre-experimental period, the animals were milked without ACR and sampling was performed to select 108 ewes and distribute them into 3 groups of similar characteristics according to their parity, milk yield, milking duration, and mammary gland sanitary status. Later, each group was milked for a duration of 4 mo in 3 different conditions: 1 with manual cluster removal, the second setting the ACR at MF 150 g/min and DT 20 s, and the third setting the ACR at MF 200 g/min and DT 10 s. Samplings of milking fraction, milking duration, milk composition, mammary gland sanitary status, teat-end status, and vacuum level in the short milk tubes during milking were performed. The use of ACR limited the vacuum drops in the short milk tubes and the edema in the teat end after milking, although no reduction in the number of new cases of mastitis was observed and the milk composition did not change. Moreover, it was noted that the use of ACR set with MF 150 g/min and DT 20 s was more efficient than the manual cluster removal, as it obtained a similar amount of extracted milk but took less time. Conversely, the use of ACR set with MF 200 g/min and DT 10 s involved a higher reduction in individual milking duration and the milking duration of groups of animals but reduced milk extracted.

  14. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  15. A low cost instrumentation system to analyze different types of milk adulteration.

    PubMed

    Das, Siuli; Sivaramakrishna, Mulinti; Biswas, Karabi; Goswami, Bhaswati

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the design of a complete instrumentation system to detect different types of milk adulteration has been reported. A simple to use indicator type readout device is reported which can be used by milk community people. A low cost microcontroller based automatic sensing system is also reported to detect 'synthetic milk', which has been reconstructed after adulterating the milk with 'liquid-whey'.

  16. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  17. Gas chromatographic determination of N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using an automatic solid-phase extraction system.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2011-07-13

    A reliable analytical method was presented for the simultaneous determination of six N-nitrosamines, nine aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The sample treatment includes the precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile, centrifugation, solvent changeover by evaporation, and continuous solid-phase extraction for cleanup and preconcentration purposes. Samples (5 g) containing 0.15-500 ng of each amine were analyzed, and low detection limits (15-130 ng/kg) were achieved. Recoveries for milk and dairy products samples spiked with 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg ranged from 92% to 101%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviation values below 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to determine amine residues in several milk types (human breast, cow, and goat) and dairy products.

  18. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  19. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  20. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  1. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  2. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  3. Automatic tools for system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    As spacecraft control and other space-related ground systems become increasingly complex, the effort required in testing and validation also increases. Implementation of a spacecraft control system normally involves a number of incremental deliveries. In addition kernel or general purpose software may also be involved, which must itself be considered in the integration and testing program. Tools can be used to assist this testing. These can reduce the effort required or alternatively they can ensure that for a given level of effort, a better job is done. Great benefit could be derived by automating certain types of testing (interactive software) which up to now has been performed manually at a terminal. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study examines means of automating spacecraft control system testing, evaluates relevant commercial tools and aims to prototype basic automatic testing functions.

  4. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  5. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  6. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  7. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of

  8. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  9. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  10. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary.

  11. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  12. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  14. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  15. An automatic LCD panel quality detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bianfang; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Automatic detection using computer vision expands rapidly along with the development of image processing technology. In this paper, we developed a rapid LCD quality detection system for automobile instrument panel production, which has wide range of usage and good stability.Our automatic detection system consists of four parts: panel fixture, signal generator module, image acquisition module and image processing software. Experiments demonstrated that our system is feasible, efficient and fast compared to manual detection.

  16. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  17. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  18. Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.

  19. Automatic Refilling System For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, Aristides; Sansebastian, Mark; Geagen, Jay; Warner, Brent

    1990-01-01

    Cryogenic experiments left unattended for days. System automatically replenishes liquid helium in cryogenic experimental apparatus as liquid evaporates. Automatic filling system transfers liquid helium from storage vessel to experimental apparatus under computer control. Gaseous helium from cylinder supplies pumping pressure. Circuit senses level of liquid helium by sensing voltage across measuring resistors in series with silicon resistance thermometers (SRT's). Low voltage indicates SRT covered, while high voltage indicates uncovered.

  20. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  1. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  2. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5170 Breast milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a...

  3. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  4. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  5. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  8. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  9. Step behaviour and autonomic nervous system activity in multiparous dairy cows during milking in a herringbone milking system.

    PubMed

    Kézér, F L; Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural and cardiac responses of multiparous dairy cows (n=24) during milking in a 2×4 stall herringbone milking system were evaluated in this study. Heart rate (HR), parasympathetic tone index (high frequency component, HF) of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance indicator LF/HF ratio (the ratio of the low frequency (LF) and the HF component) were analysed. Measurement periods were established as follows: (1) standing calm (baseline), (2) udder preparation, (3) milking, (4) waiting after milking in the milking stall and (5) in the night (2 h after milking). Step behaviour was recorded and calculated per minute for the three phases of the milking process (udder preparation, milking and waiting after milking). HR was higher during udder preparation and milking compared with baseline (P=0.03, 0.027, respectively). HF was significantly lower than baseline levels during waiting in the milking stall after milking (P=0.009), however, during udder preparation, milking and 2 h after milking did not differ from baseline (P>0.05, in either case). LF/HF during the three phases of the milking process differed neither from baseline levels nor from each other. Steps occurred more often during waiting after milking than during udder preparation (P=0.042) or during milking (23; P=0.017). Our results suggest that the milking procedure itself was not stressful for these animals. After milking (following the removal of the last teat cup and before leaving the milking stall), both decreased parasympathetic tone (lower HF) and increased stepping rate indicated a sensitive period for animals during this phase.

  10. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  11. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  12. Automatic stereoscopic system for person recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murynin, Alexander B.; Matveev, Ivan A.; Kuznetsov, Victor D.

    1999-06-01

    A biometric access control system based on identification of human face is presented. The system developed performs remote measurements of the necessary face features. Two different scenarios of the system behavior are implemented. The first one assumes the verification of personal data entered by visitor from console using keyboard or card reader. The system functions as an automatic checkpoint, that strictly controls access of different visitors. The other scenario makes it possible to identify visitors without any person identifier or pass. Only person biometrics are used to identify the visitor. The recognition system automatically finds necessary identification information preliminary stored in the database. Two laboratory models of recognition system were developed. The models are designed to use different information types and sources. In addition to stereoscopic images inputted to computer from cameras the models can use voice data and some person physical characteristics such as person's height, measured by imaging system.

  13. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Kyozaire, J K; Veary, C M; Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F

    2005-06-01

    In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1% were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3%), compared with 43.3% and 36.7% infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7% of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3% of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16,450 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36,300 CFU/ml) or hand-milking (48,000 CFU/ml). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  14. Automatic Positioning System of Small Agricultural Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Natalchenko, A. S.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The present article discusses automatic positioning systems of agricultural robots used in field works. The existing solutions in this area have been analyzed. The article proposes an original solution, which is easy to implement and is characterized by high- accuracy positioning.

  15. Automatic Guidance System for Welding Torches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Wall, W.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Digital system automatically guides welding torch to produce squarebutt, V-groove and lap-joint weldments within tracking accuracy of +0.2 millimeter. Television camera observes and traverses weld joint, carrying welding torch behind. Image of joint digitized, and resulting data used to derive control signals that enable torch to track joint.

  16. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  17. Automatic oscillator frequency control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  18. Automatic system for computer program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. B.; Elliott, R. W.; Arseven, S.; Colunga, D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on a project to design an automatic system for computer program documentation aids was made to determine what existing programs could be used effectively to document computer programs. Results of the study are included in the form of an extensive bibliography and working papers on appropriate operating systems, text editors, program editors, data structures, standards, decision tables, flowchart systems, and proprietary documentation aids. The preliminary design for an automated documentation system is also included. An actual program has been documented in detail to demonstrate the types of output that can be produced by the proposed system.

  19. 14 CFR 171.263 - Localizer automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Localizer automatic monitor system. 171.263... System (ISMLS) § 171.263 Localizer automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS localizer equipment must provide an automatic monitor system that transmits a warning to designated local and remote control...

  20. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  1. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  2. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  3. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  4. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  5. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  6. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  8. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown systems (AES) that are modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply...

  9. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown (AES) systems modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply for...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  12. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  13. A Robot Based Automatic Paint Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, R. M.; Claridge, J. F.

    1988-06-01

    The final inspection of manufactured goods is a labour intensive activity. The use of human inspectors has a number of potential disadvantages; it can be expensive, the inspection standard applied is subjective and the inspection process can be slow compared with the production process. The use of automatic optical and electronic systems to perform the inspection task is now a growing practice but, in general, such systems have been applied to small components which are accurately presented. Recent advances in vision systems and robot control technology have made possible the installation of an automated paint inspection system at the Austin Rover Group's plant at Cowley, Oxford. The automatic inspection of painted car bodies is a particularly difficult problem, but one which has major benefits. The pass line of the car bodies is ill-determined, the surface to be inspected is of varying surface geometry and only a short time is available to inspect a large surface area. The benefits, however, are due to the consistent standard of inspection which should lead to lower levels of customer complaints and improved process feedback. The Austin Rover Group initiated the development of a system to fulfil this requirement. Three companies collaborated on the project; Austin Rover itself undertook the production line modifications required for body presentation, Sira Ltd developed the inspection cameras and signal processing system and Unimation (Europe) Ltd designed, supplied and programmed the robot system. Sira's development was supported by a grant from the Department of Trade and Industry.

  14. Draft Automatic Data Acquisition System Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) Plan has been prepared in support of the requirement for detailed site characterization of the Deaf Smith County candidate repository site in salt, and describes the data acquisition system which will be used for unattended data collection from the geotechnical instrumentation installed at the site. Section 1.1 discusses the programmatic background to the plan, Section 1.2 presents the scope and purpose of the plan, and the organization of the document is given in Section 1.3. 31 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Automatic recording of daily walkover liveweight of dairy cattle at pasture in the first 100 days in milk.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, J I; Stevenson, M A; Williamson, N B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Otley, T

    2011-09-01

    Daily walkover liveweight (WoLW) records (n=79,697) from 463 pasture-fed dairy cows from a single dairy herd in the lower North Island of New Zealand were recorded over the first 100 d of lactation. The aims of this study were to (1) describe LW records retrieved by a standalone automatic Wo daily weighing system; (2) describe the frequency and nature of outlier LW records measured by the system and develop an approach for excluding identified outlier LW records; (3) quantify the agreement between cow LW measured using the Wo system and those measured statically; and (4) describe the autocorrelation between daily LW measurements to provide an indication of how frequently management decisions need to be reviewed to effectively monitor cow LW change in the early-lactation period. The standard deviation of daily LW measurements across parities was 17 kg, on average. A near perfect association between LW measured statically and WoLW (concordance correlation coefficient 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.0) was observed. After controlling for the effect of LW at calving and long-term LW change using a mixed-effects linear regression model, the autocorrelation between WoLW recorded on successive days was 0.21, decaying to zero by 8 d. This study shows that by using a standalone automatic Wo weighing system positioned in the exit race of a rotary milking parlor, it was possible to record LW of individual cows on a daily basis and, with controlled cow flow over the weighing platform (allowing for sufficient succession distance to prevent congestion), results were similar to those recorded using conventional, static weighing techniques using the same scales. Based on the autocorrelation analyses, we recommend that LW are recorded on a daily basis to allow changes in physiological status such as the onset of acute illness or estrus to be detected. For managerial purposes, such as using LW change as a guide for adjusting the herd feeding program, we recommend a 7-d decision interval to

  16. Automatic flue gas heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.A.

    1983-02-22

    An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

  17. Automatic parameter optimization in inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Peeyush

    1997-08-01

    Automatic inspection systems for IC mark, package and lead inspection are being widely used as in-process controls and check points. Here their primary function is not only to inspect and sort out defective parts but also to provide feedback on how well a process such as marking or trim and form is performing. Inspection results of every part inspected are often accumulated in a statistical process control (SPC) program that can monitor drifts in the process. Not all drifts are caused by problems in the process itself. For example the mark contrast on a package may be reduced not only because of some problem with the marking process but also because of changes in the mold compound of the package or changes in the light intensity of the inspection system. In latter case a statistical tool such as the SPC program may alert the user of a process drift and he will have to retune, recalibrate or change the parameters of the inspection system. Often the change in parameter is done by trail-and-error. A change too much or too little can result in excess overkill or even escapes. Alternatively the statistical data itself can be used to suggest the user what changes should be made to the inspection parameters. This method of automatic parameter optimization is discussed in detail in this paper. A mark inspection system is chosen as a specific example on how to apply this method.

  18. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  19. Automatic balancing system with laser unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A balancing plant for miniature rotor gyroscopes was developed, using a pulsed laser for material removal in order to perform the necessary measurements and balancing processes in one single operation. The plant, consisting of five units, is depicted and illustrated by graphs and photographs. The tests were intended to check the machine, to get experimental data, and to investigate the possibilities of this technology. As compared to conventional procedures, this automatic balancing process with laser compensation is rationalized, is faster, is cheaper, and provides a higher balancing quality. The test results confirm the system reliability as well as the process advantages.

  20. Developing Automatic Controllers for sprinkler irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playán, E.; Salvador, R.; Cavero, J.; López, C.; Lecina, S.; Zapata, N.

    2012-04-01

    The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is quickly gaining attention. The automation of irrigation execution (through irrigation controllers) is now widespread. However, the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry/remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. These developments can greatly benefit from the combination of irrigation system and crop models, and from the interaction with agrometeorological databases, hydraulic models of pressurized collective distribution networks, weather forecasts and management databases for water users associations. Prospects for the development of such systems in collective sprinkler irrigation systems are analyzed in this presentation. Additionally, experimental results are presented on the application of these concepts to a hydrant irrigating a solid-set irrigated maize field.

  1. Evaluation of an automatic markup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Condit, Allen; Borsack, Julie

    1995-03-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, we present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device we use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Our automatic markup program, which we call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy is compared to the output of our markup system to determine its correctness.

  2. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  3. An evaluation of an automatic markup system

    SciTech Connect

    Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

    1995-04-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

  4. Expert system for automatically correcting OCR output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Borsack, Julie; Condit, Allen

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a new expert system for automatically correcting errors made by optical character recognition (OCR) devices. The system, which we call the post-processing system, is designed to improve the quality of text produced by an OCR device in preparation for subsequent retrieval from an information system. The system is composed of numerous parts: an information retrieval system, an English dictionary, a domain-specific dictionary, and a collection of algorithms and heuristics designed to correct as many OCR errors as possible. For the remaining errors that cannot be corrected, the system passes them on to a user-level editing program. This post-processing system can be viewed as part of a larger system that would streamline the steps of taking a document from its hard copy form to its usable electronic form, or it can be considered a stand alone system for OCR error correction. An earlier version of this system has been used to process approximately 10,000 pages of OCR generated text. Among the OCR errors discovered by this version, about 87% were corrected. We implement numerous new parts of the system, test this new version, and present the results.

  5. Farm technical efficiency under a tradable milk quota system.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Tiffin, R; Balcombe, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper incorporates the milk quota system into technical efficiency analysis of dairy farms in England and Wales. Our approach accounts for milk quota trade, allowing an investigation of the relationship between the way in which milk quota market is used by farmers and technical efficiency. In addition, several explanatory variables for inefficiency were used. Results obtained from a Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis show that the way in which farmers use the milk quota market is linked to farm efficiency. Other aspects such as environmental payments received by the farmer are linked to inefficiency.

  6. AUTOMATIC CALIBRATING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, E.L.; Rodgers, G.W.

    1958-01-01

    An automatic system for calibrating a number of pressure transducers is described. The disclosed embodiment of the invention uses a mercurial manometer to measure the air pressure applied to the transducer. A servo system follows the top of the mercury column as the pressure is changed and operates an analog- to-digital converter This converter furnishes electrical pulses, each representing an increment of pressure change, to a reversible counterThe transducer furnishes a signal at each calibration point, causing an electric typewriter and a card-punch machine to record the pressure at the instant as indicated by the counter. Another counter keeps track of the calibration points so that a number identifying each point is recorded with the corresponding pressure. A special relay control system controls the pressure trend and programs the sequential calibration of several transducers.

  7. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170 Section 866.5170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  9. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  10. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  11. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  12. 33 CFR 401.20 - Automatic Identification System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' maritime Differential Global Positioning System radiobeacon services; or (7) The use of a temporary unit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Identification System. (a) Each of the following vessels must use an Automatic Identification System...

  13. An efficient automatic firearm identification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.

    2014-06-01

    Automatic firearm identification system (AFIS) is highly demanded in forensic ballistics to replace the traditional approach which uses comparison microscope and is relatively complex and time consuming. Thus, several AFIS have been developed for commercial and testing purposes. However, those AFIS are still unable to overcome some of the drawbacks of the traditional firearm identification approach. The goal of this study is to introduce another efficient and effective AFIS. A total of 747 firing pin impression images captured from five different pistols of same make and model are used to evaluate the proposed AFIS. It was demonstrated that the proposed AFIS is capable of producing firearm identification accuracy rate of over 95.0% with an execution time of less than 0.35 seconds per image.

  14. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  15. Rain sensor for automatic systems on vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Alexandru; Vasile, Irina; Nistor, Adrian; Vladareanu, Luige; Pantazica, Mihaela; Caldararu, Florin; Bonea, Andreea; Drumea, Andrei; Plotog, Ioan

    2010-11-01

    Despite the fact that today vehicles are easier to drive and more reliable, the drivers' carefulness is diverted by a large number of factors (road conditions, traffic conditions, phone calls, navigation systems etc.). The automatic system of controlling the windscreen wipers meets exactly one of the carelessness factors. A rain sensor makes the activation of the system of windscreen wipers to become something that you turn on and forget about it. This completely automated system activated by rain measures the rain intensity and also the necessity to turn on the windscreen wipers and with what velocity. Using an advanced optical system, analogue signal processing and a control algorithm, this technology offers more safety and comfort on different weather conditions. The sensor beams an infrared light on the windshield at an angle carefully chosen. If the windshield is dry, the beam is reflected back in the sensor. If on the glass there are rain drops, they will reflect the light in different directions (the wetter the windshield is, the least of the beam ray is reflected back in the sensor).

  16. Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J.; Fleger, S.; Barnes V.

    2010-11-07

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

  17. Milk miRNAs: simple nutrients or systemic functional regulators?

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T; Hartmann, Peter E; John, Swen Malte; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Cordain, Loren; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Milk is rich in miRNAs that appear to play important roles in the postnatal development of all mammals. Currently, two competing hypotheses exist: the functional hypothesis, which proposes that milk miRNAs are transferred to the offspring and exert physiological regulatory functions, and the nutritional hypothesis, which suggests that these molecules do not reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient, but merely provide nutrition without conferring active regulatory signals to the offspring. The functional hypothesis is based on indirect evidence and requires further investigation. The nutritional hypothesis is primarily based on three mouse models, which are inherently problematic: 1) miRNA-375 KO mice, 2) miRNA-200c/141 KO mice, and 3) transgenic mice presenting high levels of miRNA-30b in milk. This article presents circumstantial evidence that these mouse models may all be inappropriate to study the physiological traffic of milk miRNAs to the newborn mammal, and calls for new studies using more relevant mouse models or human milk to address the fate and role of milk miRNAs in the offspring and the adult consumer of cow's milk. PMID:27330539

  18. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  19. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  20. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  1. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  2. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  3. System for Automatic Generation of Examination Papers in Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridenfalk, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed for automatic generation of problems and solutions for examinations in a university distance course in discrete mathematics and tested in a pilot experiment involving 200 students. Considering the success of such systems in the past, particularly including automatic assessment, it should not take long before such systems are…

  4. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  5. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  6. Comparison of two milk pricing systems and their effect on milk price and milk revenue of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Ward, R; De Vries, A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-06-01

    A study was conducted to investigate determinates of how milk pricing system, farm location, farm size, and month and year affected farm milk price (FMP), farm milk revenue (FMR) and loss in FMR of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand. A total of 58,575 milk price and 813,636 milk yield records from 1034 farms were collected from November of 2004 to June of 2006. Farms were located in the districts of Muaklek, Pak Chong, Wang Muang, and Kaeng Khoi. A fixed linear model was used to analyze milk price of farms. Two pricing systems were defined as 1 = base price plus additions/deductions for milk fat percentage, solids-non-fat, and bacterial score, and 2 = same as 1 plus bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC). Farm size (small, medium, and large) was based on the number of cows milked per day of farms. Results showed that FMP were lower (P < 0.05) in pricing system 1 than pricing system 2. Most small farms had higher (P < 0.05) milk prices than medium and large farms across both pricing systems. Large farms lost more milk revenue due to deductions from bacterial score and BTSCC than small and medium farms.

  7. Automatic Aircraft Collision Avoidance System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor); McWherter, Shaun (Inventor); Willhite, Jaimie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a system and method of compressing a DTM to be used in an Auto-GCAS system using a semi-regular geometric compression algorithm. In general, the invention operates by first selecting the boundaries of the three dimensional map to be compressed and dividing the three dimensional map data into regular areas. Next, a type of free-edged, flat geometric surface is selected which will be used to approximate terrain data of the three dimensional map data. The flat geometric surface is used to approximate terrain data for each regular area. The approximations are checked to determine if they fall within selected tolerances. If the approximation for a specific regular area is within specified tolerance, the data is saved for that specific regular area. If the approximation for a specific area falls outside the specified tolerances, the regular area is divided and a flat geometric surface approximation is made for each of the divided areas. This process is recursively repeated until all of the regular areas are approximated by flat geometric surfaces. Finally, the compressed three dimensional map data is provided to the automatic ground collision system for an aircraft.

  8. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  9. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively disengaged by each pilot to prevent it from interfering with control of the rotorcraft. (b) Unless there...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively disengaged by each pilot to prevent it from interfering with control of the rotorcraft. (b) Unless there...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively disengaged by each pilot to prevent it from interfering with the control of the rotorcraft. (b) Unless...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively disengaged by each pilot to prevent it from interfering with the control of the rotorcraft. (b) Unless...

  13. Automatic Thesaurus Generation for an Electronic Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This research reports an algorithmic approach to the automatic generation of thesauri for electronic community systems. The techniques used include term filtering, automatic indexing, and cluster analysis. The Worm Community System, used by molecular biologists studying the nematode worm C. elegans, was used as the testbed for this research.…

  14. AUTOMATISM.

    PubMed

    MCCALDON, R J

    1964-10-24

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed "automatism". Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of "automatism".

  15. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y

    1989-05-16

    A hydraulic control system is described for an automatic transmission including hydraulic servos for clutches and brakes to engage and disengage components in the transmission gear mechanism and having a forward clutch hydraulic servo and a brake hydraulic servo, and a manual valve, comprising:a modulator valve for adjusting line pressure to a predetermined modulator pressure; a control valve adapted to be shifted in response to signals based on positions of the manual valve and the vehicle running condition; a first oil path connected between the control valve and the manual valve as a line pressure oil path; the control valve including a first port connecting to the forward clutch hydraulic servo; a second oil path connected between the control valve and the brake hydraulic servo; and a shift valve situated in the second oil path, the shift valve not operating during a low speed vehicle condition, the shift valve being adapted to connect the second oil path when the shift valve shifts to a low speed position and to disconnect the oil path when the shift valve shifts to a high speed position.

  16. Lockup control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.

    1989-04-25

    A lockup control system for an automatic transmission is described, comprising: means for detecting the rotational speed of at least one of the input and the output shaft of the change gearing; means for detecting the rotational speed of the output shaft of the onboard engine; means for detecting a ratio of the rotational speed of the output shaft over the rotational speed of the input shaft of the torque converter on the basis of the rotational speeds of the change gearing and the engine; means for generating an engine status signals representing an operating status of the engine; means for storing information which is to be referenced when determining the activation of the lockup and which corresponds to an engine operating status; means for reading the reference information which corresponds to a particular engine operating status; means for comparing a ratio of the rotational speed of the output shaft over the rotational speed of the input shaft; means for storing the rotational speed of the change gearing; and means operative to compare the rotational speed detected by the first speed detecting means against a rotational speed which is stored in the memory.

  17. Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipin, R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  19. Remote weapon station for automatic target recognition system demand analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhang; Li, Sheng-cai; Shi, Cai

    2015-08-01

    Introduces a remote weapon station basic composition and the main advantage, analysis of target based on image automatic recognition system for remote weapon station of practical significance, the system elaborated the image based automatic target recognition system in the photoelectric stabilized technology, multi-sensor image fusion technology, integrated control target image enhancement, target behavior risk analysis technology, intelligent based on the character of the image automatic target recognition algorithm research, micro sensor technology as the key technology of the development in the field of demand.

  20. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  1. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I.

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  2. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 2: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume is a user`s manual for an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system. This guide is intended to provide enough information and instruction to allow individuals to the system for their own applications.

  3. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  4. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  5. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  6. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  7. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  8. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  9. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Tze

    2016-01-01

    Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning.

  10. Review: Milk Proteins as Nanocarrier Systems for Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, Florian; Schmitt, Joachim J

    2015-11-01

    Milk proteins and milk protein aggregates are among the most important nanovehicles in food technology. Milk proteins have various functional properties that facilitate their ability to carry hydrophobic nutraceutical substances. The main functional transport properties that were examined in the reviewed studies are binding of molecules or ions, surface activity, aggregation, gelation, and interaction with other polymers. Hydrophobic binding has been investigated using caseins and isolated β-casein as well as whey proteins. Surface activity of caseins has been used to create emulsion-based carrier systems. Furthermore, caseins are able to self-assemble into micelles, which can incorporate molecules. Gelation and interaction with other polymers can be used to encapsulate molecules into protein networks. The release of transported substances mainly depends on pH and swelling behavior of the proteins. The targeted use of nanocarrier systems requires specific knowledge about the binding mechanisms between the proteins and the carried substances in a certain food matrix. PMID:26467442

  11. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix. PMID:7201951

  12. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix.

  13. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, B.

    1988-01-01

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of {sup 14}C-{beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of {beta}-lactoglobulin with casein. {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of {sup 3}H to {sup 14}C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, {beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment.

  14. Milking the data: Measuring milk off-take in extensive livestock systems. Experimental evidence from Niger

    PubMed Central

    Zezza, Alberto; Federighi, Giovanni; Kalilou, Amadou Adamou; Hiernaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important source of cash and nutrients for many households in developing countries. Yet, our understanding of the role of dairy production in livelihoods and nutritional outcomes is hindered by the lack of decent quality household survey data. Data on milk off-take for human consumption are difficult to collect in household surveys for a number of reasons which make accurate recall challenging for the respondent (continuous production and seasonality among others), introducing possibly severe biases in the computation of full household incomes and farm sales, as well as in the estimation of the contribution of livestock (specifically dairy) production to agricultural value added and the livelihoods of rural households. This paper presents results from a validation exercise implemented in Niger, where alternative survey instruments based on recall methods were administered to randomly selected households, and compared to a 12-month system of physical monitoring and recording of milk production. The results of the exercise show that reasonably accurate estimates via recall methods are possible, and provide a clear ranking of questionnaire design options that can inform future survey operations. PMID:26973375

  15. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  16. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  17. Automatic systems and the low-level wind hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic flight control systems provide means for significantly enhancing survivability in severe wind hazards. The technology required to produce the necessary control algorithms is available and has been made technically feasible by the advent of digital flight control systems and accurate, low-noise sensors, especially strap-down inertial sensors. The application of this technology and these means has not generally been enabled except for automatic landing systems, and even then the potential has not been fully exploited. To fully exploit the potential of automatic systems for enhancing safety in wind hazards requires providing incentives, creating demand, inspiring competition, education, and eliminating prejudicial disincentitives to overcome the economic penalties associated with the extensive and riskly development and certification of these systems. If these changes will come about at all, it will likely be through changes in the regulations provided by the certifying agencies.

  18. Development of an Automatic Fabrication System for Cast Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The developed automatic fabrication system comprised three component functions: weighing, alloying, and casting. The measurement error of automatic weighing specimen was about less 1 pct for Zr-based master alloys (approximately 30 g). Especially, sufficient stirrer effect of arc-melting ingot for homogeneity can be achieved by the development of sinusoidal arcing and applying magnetic field. In order to achieve superior homogeneity of the glass structure with no secondary phase ( i.e., an intermetallic compound with a high melting temperature), a prealloying process should be advisable. In this study, high reliability of the density and mechanical properties of automatic processed cast glassy alloys (CGAs) was successfully obtained. The developed automatic fabrication process has a potential to accelerate the industrial application of CGAs in the near future.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... control. (c) Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must have a means to readily indicate to the pilot the alignment of the actuating device in relation to the control system it operates. (d) Each manually operated control for the system operation must be readily accessible to the pilot....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... control. (c) Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system must have a means to readily indicate to the pilot the alignment of the actuating device in relation to the control system it operates. (d) Each manually operated control for the system operation must be readily accessible to the pilot....

  1. Automatic processing system for shadowgraph and interference patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vereninov, I. A.; Lazarev, V. D.; Popov, S. S.; Tarasov, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of an automatic system for the processing of shadowgraph and interference images are described. The system includes a two-coordinate processing table with an optical system for the projection of transparent images onto the photodetector, an image filter in the photodetector field, and a device for controlling the movement of the table and transmitting information to the minicomputer.

  2. All-optical automatic pollen identification: Towards an operational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.

  3. Embedded knowledge-based system for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutalib, A. O.

    1990-10-01

    The development of a reliable Automatic Target Recognition (ATE) system is considered a very critical and challenging problem. Existing ATE Systems have inherent limitations in terms of recognition performance and the ability to learn and adapt. Artificial Intelligence Techniques have the potential to improve the performance of ATh Systems. In this paper, we presented a novel Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Reasoning Process (ARP) , that can be used to automatically develop and maintain a Knowledge-Base (K-B) for the ATR Systems. In its learning mode, the ARP utilizes Learning samples to automatically develop the ATR K-B, which consists of minimum size sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for each target class. In its operational mode, the ARP infers the target class from sensor data using the ATh K-B System. The ARP also has the capability to reason under uncertainty, and can support both statistical and model-based approaches for ATR development. The capabilities of the ARP are compared and contrasted to those of another Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) which is based on maximizing the mutual information. The AR? has been implemented in LISP on a VAX-GPX workstation.

  4. Evaluation of the SYSTRAN Automatic Translation System. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaumier, Jacques; And Others

    The Commission of the European Communities has acquired an automatic translation system (SYSTRAN), which has been put into operation on an experimental basis. The system covers translation of English into French and comprises a dictionary for food science and technology containing 25,000 words or inflections and 4,500 expressions. This report…

  5. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and positively... designed and adjusted so that, within the range of adjustment available to the pilot, it cannot produce... that corrective action begins within a reasonable period of time. (f) Each system must be designed...

  6. Utility of Automatic Classification Systems for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litofsky, Barry

    Large-scale, on-line information storage and retrieval systems pose numerous problems above those encountered by smaller systems. A step toward the solution of these problems is presented along with several demonstrations of feasibility and advantages. The methodology on which this solution is based is that of a posteriori automatic classification…

  7. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  8. Milk production systems in Central Uganda: a farm economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Garcia, Otto; Balikowa, David; Kiconco, Doris; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The Ugandan dairy sector is developing rapidly over recent years and is dominated by small-scale farmers owning more than 90 percent of the national cattle population. Due to market forces and higher competition for production factors, milk production systems are intensifying, necessitating proper understanding of the new production tendencies. Three intensive and four extensive production systems were identified and analysed, using TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations model). The results show that the production systems are very different in many respects but share similar development trends. Whereas intensive systems use graded animals and invest heavily into feeding, buildings and machinery, extensive systems use local breeds and invest minimally. Total cost of milk production falls with increasing herd size, while dairy returns vary among farms from 18 to 35 USD/100 Kg of milk. All systems make an economic profit, except the intensive one-cow farm, which heavily employs family resources in dairying. Due to better management of resources and access to inputs and markets, dairy farming closer to urban areas and using improved breeds is highly profitable, especially with larger herd sizes. Stakeholders should favour such practices as well as others which can improve productivity, especially in African countries where traditional systems dominate dairying.

  9. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-11-11

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  10. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  11. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT) information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS) is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS) is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China). Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts. PMID:26569258

  12. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes an automatic transmission consisting of: fluid operated friction units, including a first clutch, a second clutch and a brake, which are selectively made operative and inoperative to produce first, second, third and fourth speed ratios, the first clutch having a first chamber and being engaged when the first chamber is pressurized, the second clutch having a second chamber and being engaged when the second chamber is pressurized, the brake having a servo apply chamber and a servo release chamber, the brake being released when the servo release chamber is pressurized and being applied when the servo release chamber is discharged with the servo apply chamber being pressurized; means for generating an actuating fluid pressure; a 2-3 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first chamber, the 2-3 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the first chamber; a 3-4 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first, second and servo release chambers, and 3-4 shift valve having a downshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the second chamber and provides communication between the first and servo release chambers, the 3-4 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it discharges the second servo release chambers; and means for defining a drain passage which allows the fluid discharged from the servo release chamber to pass there-through when the 3-4 shift valve is moved to the upshift position thereof, wherein the drain passage defining means includes an orifice and a 3-4 timing valve means for providing a passage portion bypassing the orifice.

  13. Automatic Radiated Susceptibility Test System for Payload Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Hoai T.; Sturman, John C.; Sargent, Noel B.

    1995-01-01

    An automatic radiated susceptibility test system (ARSTS) was developed for NASA Lewis Research Center's Electro-magnetic Interference laboratory. According to MSFC-SPEC 521B, any electrical or electronic equipment that will be transported by the spacelab and space shuttle must be tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. This state-of-the-art automatic test system performs necessary calculations; analyzes, processes, and records a great quantity of measured data; and monitors the equipment being tested in real-time and with minimal user intervention. ARSTS reduces costly test time, increases test accuracy, and provides reliable test results.

  14. Teleoperators - Manual/automatic system requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janow, C.; Malone, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    The teleoperator is defined as a remotely controlled, cybernetic, man-machine system designed to extend and augment man's sensory, manipulative, and cognitive capabilities. The teleoperator system incorporates the decision making, adaptive intelligence without requiring its presence. The man and the machine work as a team, each contributing unique and significant capabilities, and each depending on the other to achieve a common goal. Some of the more significant requirements associated with the development of teleoperator systems technology for space, industry, and medicine are examined. Emphasis is placed on the requirement to more effectively use the man and the machine in any man-machine system.

  15. Automatic control study of the icing research tunnel refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Arthur W.; Soeder, Ronald H.

    1991-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a subsonic, closed-return atmospheric tunnel. The tunnel includes a heat exchanger and a refrigeration plant to achieve the desired air temperature and a spray system to generate the type of icing conditions that would be encountered by aircraft. At the present time, the tunnel air temperature is controlled by manual adjustment of freon refrigerant flow control valves. An upgrade of this facility calls for these control valves to be adjusted by an automatic controller. The digital computer simulation of the IRT refrigeration plant and the automatic controller that was used in the simulation are discussed.

  16. An integrated spatial signature analysis and automatic defect classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.S.; Tobin, K.W.; Karnowski, T.P.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated Spatial Signature Analysis (SSA) and automatic defect classification (ADC) system for improved automatic semiconductor wafer manufacturing characterization is presented. Both concepts of SSA and ADC methodologies are reviewed and then the benefits of an integrated system are described, namely, focused ADC and signature-level sampling. Focused ADC involves the use of SSA information on a defect signature to reduce the number of possible classes that an ADC system must consider, thus improving the ADC system performance. Signature-level sampling improved the ADC system throughput and accuracy by intelligently sampling defects within a given spatial signature for subsequent off-line, high-resolution ADC. A complete example of wafermap characterization via an integrated SSA/ADC system is presented where a wafer with 3274 defects is completely characterized by revisiting only 25 defects on an off-line ADC review station. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  17. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems. 1037.660 Section 1037.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance...

  18. On the Use of Resubmissions in Automatic Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavirta, Ville; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Automatic assessment systems generally support immediate grading and response on learners' submissions. They also allow learners to consider the feedback, revise, and resubmit their solutions. Several strategies exist to implement the resubmission policy. The ultimate goal, however, is to improve the learning outcomes, and thus the strategies…

  19. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, A. I.; Serdyukov, O. V.

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic sprinkler systems. 1910.159 Section 1910.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic sprinkler systems. 1910.159 Section 1910.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic sprinkler systems. 1910.159 Section 1910.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic sprinkler systems. 1910.159 Section 1910.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression...

  4. The Use of Automatic Relevance Feedback in Boolean Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Martin; Desper, James

    1980-01-01

    Describes a technique for automatic reformulation of Boolean queries which compares favorably with feedback as employed in a SMART system. Using patron relevance judgments, prevalence measures reflecting term distribution in relevant and nonrelevant documents are derived to guide the construction of a Boolean query for a subsequent retrieval.…

  5. Automatic calorimetry system monitors RF power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harness, B. W.; Heiberger, E. C.

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetry system monitors the average power dissipated in a high power RF transmitter. Sensors measure the change in temperature and the flow rate of the coolant, while a multiplier computes the power dissipated in the RF load.

  6. Automatic control system design of laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingjie; Li, Chunjie; Sun, Hao; Ren, Shaohua; Han, Sen

    2015-10-01

    There are a lot of shortcomings with traditional optical adjustment in interferometry, such as low accuracy, time-consuming, labor-intensive, uncontrollability, and bad repetitiveness, so we treat the problem by using wireless remote control system. Comparing to the traditional method, the effect of vibration and air turbulence will be avoided. In addition the system has some peculiarities of low cost, high reliability and easy operation etc. Furthermore, the switching between two charge coupled devices (CCDs) can be easily achieved with this wireless remote control system, which is used to collect different images. The wireless transmission is achieved by using Radio Frequency (RF) module and programming the controller, pulse width modulation (PWM) of direct current (DC) motor, real-time switching of relay and high-accuracy displacement control of FAULHABER motor are available. The results of verification test show that the control system has good stability with less than 5% packet loss rate, high control accuracy and millisecond response speed.

  7. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  8. Automatic lightning detection and photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A system is presented for monitoring and recording lightning strokes within a predetermined area with a camera having an electrically operated shutter with means for advancing the film in the camera after activating the shutter. The system includes an antenna for sensing lightning strikes which, in turn, generates a signal that is fed to an electronic circuit which generates signals for operating the shutter of the camera. Circuitry is provided for preventing activation of the shutter as the film in the camera is being advanced.

  9. Semi-automatic aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flight control type system which provides a tactile readout to the hand of a pilot for directing elevator control during both approach to flare-out and departure maneuvers. For altitudes above flare-out, the system sums the instantaneous coefficient of lift signals of a lift transducer with a generated signal representing ideal coefficient of lift for approach to flare-out, i.e., a value of about 30% below stall. Error signals resulting from the summation are read out by the noted tactile device. Below flare altitude, an altitude responsive variation is summed with the signal representing ideal coefficient of lift to provide error signal readout.

  10. Development of optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chuen-Lin; Lai, Qun-Huang; Lin, Chern-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The data of a wafer with defects can provide engineers with very important information and clues to improve the yield rate and quality in manufacturing. This paper presents a microscope automatic positioning and wafer detection system with human-machine interface based on image processing and fuzzy inference algorithms. In the proposed system, a XY table is used to move the position of each die on 6 inch or 8 inch wafers. Then, a high-resolution CCD and one set of two-axis optical linear encoder are used to accurately measure the position on the wafer. Finally, the developed human-machine interface is used to display the current position of an actual wafer in order to complete automatic positioning, and a wafer map database can be created. In the process of defect detection, CCD is used for image processing, and during preprocessing, it is required to filter noise, acquire the defect characteristics, define the defective template, and then take the characteristic points of the defective template as the reference input for fuzzy inference. A high-accuracy optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system is thus constructed. This study focused on automatic detection of spots, scratches, and bruises, and attempted to reduce the time to detect defective die and improve the accuracy of determining the defects of semiconductor devices.

  11. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning. PMID:26839529

  12. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  13. A Survey on Automatic Speaker Recognition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquib, Zia; Salam, Nirmala; Nair, Rekha P.; Pandey, Nipun; Joshi, Akanksha

    Human listeners are capable of identifying a speaker, over the telephone or an entryway out of sight, by listening to the voice of the speaker. Achieving this intrinsic human specific capability is a major challenge for Voice Biometrics. Like human listeners, voice biometrics uses the features of a person's voice to ascertain the speaker's identity. The best-known commercialized forms of voice Biometrics is Speaker Recognition System (SRS). Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. This literature survey paper gives brief introduction on SRS, and then discusses general architecture of SRS, biometric standards relevant to voice/speech, typical applications of SRS, and current research in Speaker Recognition Systems. We have also surveyed various approaches for SRS.

  14. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented. PMID:27250467

  15. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  16. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  17. Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems.

  18. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  19. Experimental investigation of an accelerometer controlled automatic braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of an automatic braking system for arresting the motion of an airplane by sensing and controlling braked wheel decelerations. The system was tested on a rotating drum dynamometer by using an automotive tire, wheel, and disk-brake assembly under conditions which included two tire loadings, wet and dry surfaces, and a range of ground speeds up to 70 knots. The controlling parameters were the rates at which brake pressure was applied and released and the Command Deceleration Level which governed the wheel deceleration by controlling the brake operation. Limited tests were also made with the automatic braking system installed on a ground vehicle in an effort to provide a more realistic proof of its feasibility. The results of this investigation indicate that a braking system which utilizes wheel decelerations as the control variable to restrict tire slip is feasible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing surface conditions.

  20. Automatic computer-aided system of simulating solder joint formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Guanqun; Wang, Gouzhong; Yang, Shiqin

    1999-08-01

    One critical aspect in electronic packaging is the fatigue/creep-induced failure in solder interconnections, which is found to be highly dependent on the shape of solder joints. Thus predicting and analyzing the solder joint shape is warranted. In this paper, an automatic computer-aided system is developed to simulate the formation of solder joint and analyze the influence of the different process parameters on the solder joint shape. The developed system is capable of visually designing the process parameters and calculating the solder joint shape automatically without any intervention from the user. The automation achieved will enable fast shape estimation with the variation of process parameters without time consuming experiments, and the simulating system provides the design and manufacturing engineers an efficient software tools to design soldering process in design environment. Moreover, a program developed from the system can serve as the preprocessor for subsequent finite element joint analysis program.

  1. Automatic target locating system through cooperative dual-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; He, Yuqing; Hou, Boyan; Wei, Shan; Wang, Siyuan

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an automatic targeting locating system based on dual-field imaging to improve the stability of light weapons. The system consists of a wide field of view (WFOV) camera and a narrow field of view (NFOV) camera. The WFOV camera searches the pedestrian in the scenery, the other camera tracks the pedestrian and aims it accurately. Video signal is send to the processing unit PC and control signal is send back to the imaging system. This automatic target tracking algorithm is integrated by Adaboost and Median-Flow algorithm. It is used to track the pedestrians and locate the head of the target. Experiment results show that the dual-field imaging system and proposed algorithm has robust target tracking performance.

  2. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  3. Semi-automatic Story Creation System in Ubiquitous Sensor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shohei; Hirano, Yasushi; Kajita, Shoji; Mase, Kenji; Maekawa, Takuya

    This paper proposes an agent system that semi-automatically creates stories about daily events detected by ubiquitous sensors and posts them to a weblog. The story flow is generated from query-answering interaction between sensor room inhabitants and a symbiotic agent. The agent questions the causal relationships among daily events to create the flow of the story. Preliminary experimental results show that the stories created by our system help users understand daily events.

  4. Operation System for Automatization of an Experiment in Radioastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, V. V.

    The problem-oriented operation system ER (for the minicomputer "Electronica-100 I") is intended for use in the low level of the unit "acquisition" of the automatic complex for radio observations at the radio telescope RATAN-600. The main functions of this system are the following: conduction of the dialogue User - a computer, realization of the multitask regime, providing multiprogramming, control of data input/output.

  5. 46 CFR 112.01-10 - Automatic emergency lighting and power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic emergency lighting and power system. 112.01-10... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-10 Automatic emergency lighting and power system. An automatic emergency lighting and power system is one...

  6. 46 CFR 112.01-10 - Automatic emergency lighting and power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic emergency lighting and power system. 112.01-10... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-10 Automatic emergency lighting and power system. An automatic emergency lighting and power system is one...

  7. 46 CFR 112.01-10 - Automatic emergency lighting and power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic emergency lighting and power system. 112.01-10... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-10 Automatic emergency lighting and power system. An automatic emergency lighting and power system is one...

  8. 46 CFR 112.01-10 - Automatic emergency lighting and power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic emergency lighting and power system. 112.01-10... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-10 Automatic emergency lighting and power system. An automatic emergency lighting and power system is one...

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-10 - Automatic emergency lighting and power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic emergency lighting and power system. 112.01-10... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-10 Automatic emergency lighting and power system. An automatic emergency lighting and power system is one...

  10. National Automatic Toll Collection System - Pilot Project (Part 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, Gabriel; Mitraszewska, Izabella; Kamiński, Tomasz; Niedzicka, Anna; Smoczyńska, Ewa; Ucińska, Monika; Kallweit, Thomas; Rozesłaniec, Robert

    2011-09-01

    This article presents selected issues concerning functional structure of the National Automatic Toll Collection System. The system includes the following elements: two on-board intelligent devices - OBU, two control gates, laboratory model of a National Centre for Automatic Toll Collection (NATCS). Poland and other EU member states should implement the European Electronic Tolling Service - EETS in accordance with the European Commission's decision of 6 October 2009. EETS should be available within three years (2012) for all vehicles over 3.5 tonnes and vehicles carrying more than 9 persons including the driver. This service will be available for other vehicles within five years (2014). Motor Transport Institute has created the structure of NATCS, as a hybrid pilot project to be used in researches on the implementation of the interoperable system in EU. The tests results will be presented in the article - part 2.

  11. An Image Processing System For Automatic Retina Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Norman; Goldbaum, Michael; Nelson, Mark; Chaudhuri, Subhasis

    1988-06-01

    We are developing a system designed around an IBM PC-AT to perform automatic diagnosis of diseases from images of the retina. The system includes hardware for color image capture and display. We are developing software for performing image enhancement, image analysis, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. The design goal of the system is to automatically segment a digitized photograph of the retina into its normal and abnormal structures, identifying these objects by various features such as color, size, shape, texture, orientation, etc., and ultimately to provide a list of possible diagnoses with varying degrees of probability. We will discuss algorithms used to identify markedly different objects and to distinguish between those objects which appear very similar to the trained eye. Implementation of these algorithms, which are typically applied to areas such as remote sensing, terrain mapping and robotics, has been very successful when applied to color images of the retina.

  12. Automatic Navaids Checkout System. [for space shuttle electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belver, T. L.; Junk, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    An automatic Navaids Checkout System for use in Space Shuttle development is discussed. The groundwork leading to the development is presented, followed by a description of the hardware. Finally, system utilization including operator interface and system software is discussed. The Navaids Checkout System is extremely flexible with capability to handle different test articles with a minimum of hardware reconfiguration. Application software is written in a high level user-oriented test language. The checkout system has been in operation for approximately one year with capability to handle VOR, ILS, TACAN, ATC Radar Beacon, and UHF/VHF communications equipment.

  13. A cloud-based system for automatic glaucoma screening.

    PubMed

    Fengshou Yin; Damon Wing Kee Wong; Ying Quan; Ai Ping Yow; Ngan Meng Tan; Gopalakrishnan, Kavitha; Beng Hai Lee; Yanwu Xu; Zhuo Zhang; Jun Cheng; Jiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of automatic computer-based systems for the detection of eye diseases including glaucoma. However, these systems are usually standalone software with basic functions only, limiting their usage in a large scale. In this paper, we introduce an online cloud-based system for automatic glaucoma screening through the use of medical image-based pattern classification technologies. It is designed in a hybrid cloud pattern to offer both accessibility and enhanced security. Raw data including patient's medical condition and fundus image, and resultant medical reports are collected and distributed through the public cloud tier. In the private cloud tier, automatic analysis and assessment of colour retinal fundus images are performed. The ubiquitous anywhere access nature of the system through the cloud platform facilitates a more efficient and cost-effective means of glaucoma screening, allowing the disease to be detected earlier and enabling early intervention for more efficient intervention and disease management. PMID:26736579

  14. Helical automatic approaches of helicopters with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. D.; Mcgee, L. A.; Dugan, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a data base for establishing navigation and guidance concepts for all-weather operation of rotorcraft. One of the objectives is to examine the feasibility of conducting simultaneous rotorcraft and conventional fixed-wing, noninterfering, landing operations in instrument meteorological conditions at airports equipped with microwave landing systems (MLSs) for fixed-wing traffic. An initial test program to investigate the feasibility of conducting automatic helical approaches was completed, using the MLS at Crows Landing near Ames. These tests were flown on board a UH-1H helicopter equipped with a digital automatic landing system. A total of 48 automatic approaches and landings were flown along a two-turn helical descent, tangent to the centerline of the MLS-equipped runway to determine helical light performance and to provide a data base for comparison with future flights for which the helical approach path will be located near the edge of the MLS coverage. In addition, 13 straight-in approaches were conducted. The performance with varying levels of state-estimation system sophistication was evaluated as part of the flight tests. The results indicate that helical approaches to MLS-equipped runways are feasible for rotorcraft and that the best position accuracy was obtained using the Kalman-filter state-estimation with inertial navigation systems sensors.

  15. An automatic data system for vibration modal tuning and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyer, R. A.; Jung, E. J., Jr.; Huggins, S. L.; Stephens, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    A digitally based automatic modal tuning and analysis system developed to provide an operational capability beginning at 0.1 hertz is described. The elements of the system, which provides unique control features, maximum operator visibility, and rapid data reduction and documentation, are briefly described; and the operational flow is discussed to illustrate the full range of capabilities and the flexibility of application. The successful application of the system to a modal survey of the Skylab payload is described. Information about the Skylab test article, coincident-quadrature analysis of modal response data, orthogonality, and damping calculations is included in the appendixes. Recommendations for future application of the system are also made.

  16. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlin, Sam

    1988-01-01

    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.

  17. Intelligent E-Learning Systems: Automatic Construction of Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peso, Jesús del; de Arriaga, Fernando

    2008-05-01

    During the last years a new generation of Intelligent E-Learning Systems (ILS) has emerged with enhanced functionality due, mainly, to influences from Distributed Artificial Intelligence, to the use of cognitive modelling, to the extensive use of the Internet, and to new educational ideas such as the student-centered education and Knowledge Management. The automatic construction of ontologies provides means of automatically updating the knowledge bases of their respective ILS, and of increasing their interoperability and communication among them, sharing the same ontology. The paper presents a new approach, able to produce ontologies from a small number of documents such as those obtained from the Internet, without the assistance of large corpora, by using simple syntactic rules and some semantic information. The method is independent of the natural language used. The use of a multi-agent system increases the flexibility and capability of the method. Although the method can be easily improved, the results so far obtained, are promising.

  18. Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard

    1952-01-01

    An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.

  19. A real-time optical automatic target recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaixin; Nan, Jianshe; Li, Xiaosun; Wei, Honggang

    2004-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) technique has been applied in both civil and military. In this paper, we present a new optical pattern recognition system for target recognition. This system includes synthetic discriminate function (SDF) based practical optimized filters for the 3-D targets, the Reference Filter Libs for high correlation SNR, the mapping between the input (object regions) and the output (correlation peaks), and neural networks (ANN) for final decision making. The Real-time optical target recognition is realized by temporal multiplexing technique with electronic addressing spatial light modulator. The experiment results show that the proposed OPR system is efficient and reliable.

  20. A fully automatic system for acid-base coulometric titrations.

    PubMed

    Cladera, A; Caro, A; Estela, J M; Cerdà, V

    1990-01-01

    An automatic system for acid-base titrations by electrogeneration of H(+) and OH(-) ions, with potentiometric end-point detection, was developed. The system includes a PC-compatible computer for instrumental control, data acquisition and processing, which allows up to 13 samples to be analysed sequentially with no human intervention.The system performance was tested on the titration of standard solutions, which it carried out with low errors and RSD. It was subsequently applied to the analysis of various samples of environmental and nutritional interest, specifically waters, soft drinks and wines.

  1. Automatic system for the determination of boron in ceramic frits

    PubMed Central

    Más, F.; Estela, J. M.; Cerdà, V.; Ochandio, E.

    1991-01-01

    An automatic system for the potentiometric determination of boron in ceramic frits was developed. The system includes a personal computer for instrumental control, data acquisition and processing, which allows up to 13 samples to be analysed sequentially with no human intervention. The system performance was tested on the titration of standard solutions, which it carried out with low errors and RSD. It was subsequently applied to the determination of the B203 content in various types of ceramic frits with good results. PMID:18924892

  2. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to...

  3. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to...

  4. Automatic mathematical modeling for real time simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline; Purinton, Steve

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling and generating simulation models is described. The models will be verified by running in a test environment using standard profiles with the results compared against known results. The major objective is to create a user friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain, and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into conventional code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine Simulation. It is written in LISP and MACSYMA and runs on a Symbolic 3670 Lisp Machine. The program provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. It contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. The system is then able to automatically generate the model and FORTRAN code. The future goal which is under construction is to download the FORTRAN code to VAX/VMS system for conventional computation. The SSME mathematical model will be verified in a test environment and the solution compared with the real data profile. The use of artificial intelligence techniques has shown that the process of the simulation modeling can be simplified.

  5. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-10

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  6. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  7. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  8. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  9. Case-based synthesis in automatic advertising creation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Pan, Yunhe

    1995-08-01

    Advertising (ads) is an important design area. Though many interactive ad-design softwares have come into commercial use, none of them ever support the intelligent work -- automatic ad creation. The potential for this is enormous. This paper gives a description of our current work in research of an automatic advertising creation system (AACS). After careful analysis of the mental behavior of a human ad designer, we conclude that case-based approach is appropriate to its intelligent modeling. A model for AACS is given in the paper. A case in ads is described as two parts: the creation process and the configuration of the ads picture, with detailed data structures given in the paper. Along with the case representation, we put forward an algorithm. Some issues such as similarity measure computing, and case adaptation have also been discussed.

  10. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Andrew D.; Moy, Anthony J. E.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development with BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  11. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Anthony J. E.; Hughes, Andrew D.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development within BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  12. Automatic inspection system for nuclear fuel pellets or rods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jr., William H.; Sease, John D.; Hamel, William R.; Bradley, Ronnie A.

    1978-01-01

    An automatic inspection system is provided for determining surface defects on cylindrical objects such as nuclear fuel pellets or rods. The active element of the system is a compound ring having a plurality of pneumatic jet units directed into a central bore. These jet units are connected to provide multiple circuits, each circuit being provided with a pressure sensor. The outputs of the sensors are fed to a comparator circuit whereby a signal is generated when the difference of pressure between pneumatic circuits, caused by a defect, exceeds a pre-set amount. This signal may be used to divert the piece being inspected into a "reject" storage bin or the like.

  13. Dosimeter Corporation's computer interfacing automatic dosimeter (CID) system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-07-01

    This paper reports that the weakest links in most large-scale quartz-fiber direct-reading dosimeter (DRD) programs are the devices used to read the DRD's; that is, the people who are assigned the DRDs and the technicians who log results, rezero dosimeters, and test dosimeters. These reading devices cannot be programmed for consistent interpretation of DRD readings, and they are notoriously slow at performing readings. They also cannot be easily interfaced to computer-based systems. Ideally, these devices should be replaced or supplemented with machines that can offer better precision, speed, and software. Dosimeter Corporation's Computer Interfaced Automatic Dosimetry (CID) system is one such machine.

  14. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; /DESY

    2009-05-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  15. Automatic transmission control system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.W.; Arzoian, J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a control system for an automatic transmission of a vehicle with a fluid torque converter having a bypass clutch, and a change gear assembly providing a variety of ratio changes on selective actuation of a plurality of friction engaging elements of the change gear assembly. The control system provides the selective engagement of three friction elements and the bypass clutch through the selective energization and de-energization of two solenoid operated valves and the selective actuation and de-actuation of three shift control valves.

  16. Automatic Detection of Clearance in Mechanical Systems: Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Churn-Hway

    1996-07-01

    The performance of servosystems with gears (e.g. machine tool drive systems) depends on the clearance or backlash between the gear teeth. Too little and the gears cannot accommodate lubrication and manufacturing errors. Too much and the system accuracy and stability degrade. Therefore, to ensure that a machine system with gears is operating within specifications, the backlash magnitude should be checked frequently. A technique to estimate the backlash automatically is required. The objective of this paper is to evaluate experimentally a clearance detection technique, previously published by the authors, to detect backlash in a servosystem with gears. The technique estimates the backlash by computing the speed variations induced into the primary gear speed by the gear tooth impacts caused by exciting the system sinusoidally. It is shown that a low-cost conventional tachometer is sufficient to measure the induced speed variations. The estimates are shown to represent accurately the actual backlash for ranges 100% of the recommended backlash setting. In addition, by exciting the system with a sinusoid having a DC offset, it is shown that, in a simple one step automatic procedure, the backlash can be averaged over all the gear tooth combinations or computed for individual gear tooth pairs. The results, along with the previously developed theory, indicate that this clearance detection can be inexpensively applied to many machine systems.

  17. IADE: a system for intelligent automatic design of bioisosteric analogs.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Peter; Lewis, Richard

    2012-11-01

    IADE, a software system supporting molecular modellers through the automatic design of non-classical bioisosteric analogs, scaffold hopping and fragment growing, is presented. The program combines sophisticated cheminformatics functionalities for constructing novel analogs and filtering them based on their drug-likeness and synthetic accessibility using automatic structure-based design capabilities: the best candidates are selected according to their similarity to the template ligand and to their interactions with the protein binding site. IADE works in an iterative manner, improving the fitness of designed molecules in every generation until structures with optimal properties are identified. The program frees molecular modellers from routine, repetitive tasks, allowing them to focus on analysis and evaluation of the automatically designed analogs, considerably enhancing their work efficiency as well as the area of chemical space that can be covered. The performance of IADE is illustrated through a case study of the design of a nonclassical bioisosteric analog of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor--an analog that has won a recent "Design a Molecule" competition.

  18. Preliminary study of a possible automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.; Winfrey, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation and control laws for a possible automatic landing system have been investigated. The system makes use of data from an inertial table and either an airborne or ground radar to generate signals that guide the airplane to a landing. All landing maneuvers take place within a zone that extends 6000 m out from the touchdown point, 4000 m on each side of the runway center line, and 540 m high. The results show that the system can adequately control the airplane on steep, curved decelerating approaches to a landing that takes place with small errors from the desired landing point and desired airplane attitude. The system studied would interface well with the scanning beam microwave landing system (MLS). The use of this system with the MLS makes it possible to incorporate an independent landing monitor.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  9. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  10. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  11. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  12. Current position on software for the automatic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current concepts for software to control the operation of the Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) proposed for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). The purpose of this report is to provide conceptual details of how the ADAS software will execute the data acquisition function, and how the software will make collected information available to the test personnel, the Data Management Group (DMG), and other authorized users. It is not intended that this report describe all of the ADAS functions in exact detail, but the concepts included herein will form the basis for the formal ADAS functional requirements definition document. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Development report: Automatic System Test and Calibration (ASTAC) equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoren, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer based automatic test system was developed for the daily performance monitoring of wind energy system time domain (WEST) analyzer. The test system consists of a microprocessor based controller and hybrid interface unit which are used for inputing prescribed test signals into all WEST subsystems and for monitoring WEST responses to these signals. Performance is compared to theoretically correct performance levels calculated off line on a large general purpose digital computer. Results are displayed on a cathode ray tube or are available from a line printer. Excessive drift and/or lack of repeatability of the high speed analog sections within WEST is easily detected and the malfunctioning hardware identified using this system.

  14. Implantable acoustic-beacon automatic fish-tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhue, R. J.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.; Richards, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A portable automatic fish tracking system was developed for monitoring the two dimensional movements of small fish within fixed areas of estuarine waters and lakes. By using the miniature pinger previously developed for this application, prototype tests of the system were conducted in the York River near the Virginia Institute of Marine Science with two underwater listening stations. Results from these tests showed that the tracking system could position the miniature pinger signals to within + or - 2.5 deg and + or - 135 m at ranges up to 2.5 km. The pingers were implanted in small fish and were successfully tracked at comparable ranges. No changes in either fish behavior or pinger performance were observed as a result of the implantation. Based on results from these prototype tests, it is concluded that the now commercially available system provides an effective approach to underwater tracking of small fish within a fixed area of interest.

  15. Proteolytic Systems in Milk: Perspectives on the Evolutionary Function within the Mammary Gland and the Infant.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Murray, Niamh M; Gan, Junai

    2015-12-01

    Milk contains elements of numerous proteolytic systems (zymogens, active proteases, protease inhibitors and protease activators) produced in part from blood, in part by mammary epithelial cells and in part by immune cell secretion. Researchers have examined milk proteases for decades, as they can cause major defects in milk quality and cheese production. Most previous research has examined these proteases with the aim to eliminate or control their actions. However, our recent peptidomics research demonstrates that these milk proteases produce specific peptides in healthy milk and continue to function within the infant's gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that milk proteases have an evolutionary function in aiding the infant's digestion or releasing functional peptides. In other words, the mother provides the infant with not only dietary proteins but also the means to digest them. However, proteolysis in the milk is controlled by a balance of protease inhibitors and protease activators so that only a small portion of milk proteins are digested within the mammary gland. This regulation presents a question: If proteolysis is beneficial to the infant, what benefits are gained by preventing complete proteolysis through the presence of protease inhibitors? In addition to summarizing what is known about milk proteolytic systems, we explore possible evolutionary explanations for this proteolytic balance. PMID:26179272

  16. Proteolytic Systems in Milk: Perspectives on the Evolutionary Function within the Mammary Gland and the Infant.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Murray, Niamh M; Gan, Junai

    2015-12-01

    Milk contains elements of numerous proteolytic systems (zymogens, active proteases, protease inhibitors and protease activators) produced in part from blood, in part by mammary epithelial cells and in part by immune cell secretion. Researchers have examined milk proteases for decades, as they can cause major defects in milk quality and cheese production. Most previous research has examined these proteases with the aim to eliminate or control their actions. However, our recent peptidomics research demonstrates that these milk proteases produce specific peptides in healthy milk and continue to function within the infant's gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that milk proteases have an evolutionary function in aiding the infant's digestion or releasing functional peptides. In other words, the mother provides the infant with not only dietary proteins but also the means to digest them. However, proteolysis in the milk is controlled by a balance of protease inhibitors and protease activators so that only a small portion of milk proteins are digested within the mammary gland. This regulation presents a question: If proteolysis is beneficial to the infant, what benefits are gained by preventing complete proteolysis through the presence of protease inhibitors? In addition to summarizing what is known about milk proteolytic systems, we explore possible evolutionary explanations for this proteolytic balance.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  18. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated. PMID:26520339

  19. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  20. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated.

  1. Design and implementation of automatic color information collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Wenjie; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In liquid crystal display (LCD) colorimetric characterization, it needs to convert RGB the device-dependent color space to CIEXYZ or CIELab the device-independent color space. Namely establishing the relationship between RGB and CIE using the data of device color and the corresponding data of CIE. Thus a color automatic message acquisition software is designed. We use openGL to fulfill the full screen display function, write c++ program and call the Eyeone equipment library functions to accomplish the equipment calibration, set the sample types, and realize functions such as sampling and preservation. The software can drive monitors or projectors display the set of sample colors automatically and collect the corresponding CIE values. The sample color of RGB values and the acquisition of CIE values can be stored in a text document, which is convenient for future extraction and analysis. Taking the cubic polynomial as an example, each channel is sampled of 17 sets using this system. And 100 sets of test data are also sampled. Using the least square method we can get the model. The average of color differences are around 2.4874, which is much lower than the CIE2000 commonly required level of 6.00.The successful implementation of the system saves the time of sample color data acquisition, and improves the efficiency of LCD colorimetric characterization.

  2. A semi-automatic Parachute Separation System for Balloon Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farman, M. E.; Barsic, J. E.

    When operating stratospheric balloons with scientific payloads at the National Scientific Balloon Facility, the current practice for separating the payload from the parachute after descent requires the sending of manual commands over a UHF channel from the chase aircraft or the ground control site. While this procedure generally works well, there have been occasions when, due to shadowing of the receive antenna, unfavorable aircraft attitude or even lack of a chase aircraft, the command has not been received and the parachute has failed to separate. In these circumstances, the payload may be dragged, with the consequent danger of damage to expensive and sometimes irreplaceable scientific instrumentation. The NSBF has developed a system designed to automatically separate the parachute without the necessity for commanding after touchdown. The most important criterion for such a design is that it should be fail-safe; a free-fall of the payload would of course be a disaster. This design incorporates many safety features and underwent extensive evaluation and testing for several years before it was adopted operationally. It is currently used as a backup to the commanded release, activated only when a chase aircraft is not available, at night or in exceptionally poor visibility conditions. This paper describes the design, development, testing and operation of the system, which is known as the Semi-Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR).

  3. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    2003-06-01

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  4. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J

    2003-06-19

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20 log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  5. Ultrasonic sensor system to detect solids in a milk pasteurization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroeta Z., Carlos; Sanchez M., Fernando L.; Fernando R., G. Moreno; Montes P., Laura

    2002-11-01

    In the food industry, many products require a specific process. In the milk industry, the raw milk passes through several process stages before reaching the end user in a very qualitative and healthy way. One of the problems of the milk is that it can contain solids in suspension, result of contamination of the milk, or inherent to the pasteurization process itself. In order to control these solids, a solid detection system is being developed, which will detect the solids by the reflection and refraction of ultrasonic waves. The sensor must be set in the upper part of the milk containers, and with a grid array to allow the control system to prevent these solids from entering into the pipes of the processing plant. The sensing system may activate an acoustic alarm to indicate that a solid has been detected, and a visual one to indicate the affected part of the process. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  6. Integrating thermal energy storage systems with automatic fire sprinkler

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Section 5-6 of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 describes approved methods whereby non-fire protection (i.e., heating, ventilating and air conditioning [HVAC]) circulating-closed loops can be interconnected with conventionally designed building automatic fire sprinkler (AFS) systems by means of NFPA-permitted closed-loop piping arrangements. This article discusses the NFPA-13 requirements, HVAC industry-practices, utilization of available time-of-day (electric) utility rate structures, and the understandable concerns of safety officials for potential misuse and/or misapplication of such non-fire protection interconnections. An example of cost-effective integration of HVAC/thermal energy storage (TES)/AFS systems is presented for a representative 10-story office building in the metropolitan Los Angeles area.

  7. Human factors in automatic image retrieval system design and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Image retrieval is a human-centered task: images are created by people and are ultimately accessed and used by people for human-related activities. In designing image retrieval systems and algorithms, or measuring their performance, it is therefore imperative to consider the conditions that surround both the indexing of image content and the retrieval. This includes examining the different levels of interpretation for retrieval, possible search strategies, and image uses. Furthermore, we must consider different levels of similarity and the role of human factors such as culture, memory, and personal context. This paper takes a human-centered perspective in outlining levels of description, types of users, search strategies, image uses, and human factors that affect the construction and evaluation of automatic content-based retrieval systems, such as human memory, context, and subjectivity.

  8. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  9. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  10. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  11. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (AISSE) system consisting of a: (1) Twelve-channel all-in-view Differential Global Positioning System (d... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Identification System... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004,...

  12. Automatic Alignment System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhlelmsen, K C; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Horowitz, B; Miller Kamm, V J; Reynolds, C A

    2007-10-04

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 30 minutes. The system commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics. Twenty-two control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze high-resolution images of the beam and references. Process-leveling assures the computational load is evenly spread on the cluster. Algorithms also estimate measurement accuracy and reject off-normal images. One challenge to achieving rapid alignment of beams in parallel is the efficient coordination of shared laser devices, such as sensors that are configurable to monitor multiple beams. Contention for shared resources is managed by the Component Mediation System, which precludes deadlocks and optimizes device motions using a hierarchical component structure. A reservation service provided by the software framework prevents interference from competing instances of automated controls or from the actions of system operators. The design, architecture and performance of the system will be discussed.

  13. Development of a System for Automatic Facial Expression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diago, Luis A.; Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interactions. While a lot of samples are desirable for estimating more accurately the feelings of a person (e.g. likeness) about a machine interface, in real world situation, only a small number of samples must be obtained because the high cost in collecting emotions from observed person. This paper proposes a system that solves this problem conforming to individual differences. A new method is developed for facial expression classification based on the combination of Holographic Neural Networks (HNN) and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic. For the recognition of emotions induced by facial expressions, compared with former HNN and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, proposed method achieved the best generalization performance using less learning time than SVM classifiers.

  14. Automatic Verification of Timing Constraints for Safety Critical Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Javier; Parra, Pablo; Sanchez Prieto, Sebastian; Polo, Oscar; Bernat, Guillem

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented an automatic process of verification. We focus in the verification of scheduling analysis parameter. This proposal is part of process based on Model Driven Engineering to automate a Verification and Validation process of the software on board of satellites. This process is implemented in a software control unit of the energy particle detector which is payload of Solar Orbiter mission. From the design model is generated a scheduling analysis model and its verification model. The verification as defined as constraints in way of Finite Timed Automatas. When the system is deployed on target the verification evidence is extracted as instrumented points. The constraints are fed with the evidence, if any of the constraints is not satisfied for the on target evidence the scheduling analysis is not valid.

  15. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method. PMID:25282423

  16. Automatic Data Processing System and Procedures, Computerized Academic Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagorski, Henry J.; And Others

    The Computerized Academic Counseling System (CACS) designed by the System Development Corporation is reviewed. Aspects of the system, constructed to assist counselors in guiding undergraduates in the selection of academic majors, which are discussed include: problem definition, system analysis, design rationale, methodology, measurement…

  17. Flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, implementation and flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) are discussed. The system was implemented and flight tested on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737-100. The design uses modern optimal control methods. The direct digital design obtained uses a 10 Hz rate for the sampling of sensors and the control commands. The basic structure of the control law consists of a steady state Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix. The sensor information used includes Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, attitude, calibrated airspeed, and body accelerations. The phases of the final approach considered are localized and steep glideslope capture (which may be performed simultaneously or independently), localizer and glideslope track, crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system can capture, track, and flare from conventional, as well as steep, glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg. All of the modes of the control law including the Kalman filters were implemented on the TSRV flight computers which use fixed point arithmetic with 16 bit words. The implementation considerations are described as well as an analysis of the flight test results.

  18. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  19. 46 CFR 161.002-9 - Automatic fire detecting system, power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system, power supply. 161.002-9 Section 161.002-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-9 Automatic fire detecting system,...

  20. Automatic Indexing Using the SLC-II System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, C. I.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the concepts and facilities of SLC-II, a basic support for R&D in automatic documentation and language translation, and gives a detailed description of its use in automatic indexing. The design and running of a full-scale pilot project is described, with a parallel experiment in the effectiveness of "thesaurus enrichment" by semiautomatic…

  1. Intelligent information retrieval system using automatic thesaurus construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Yang, Jucheng; Li, Chenghua; Park, Sooncheol

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an intelligent information retrieval (IR) system based on automatic thesaurus construction for its applications of document clustering and classification. These two applications are the most influential and widely used fields amongst the IR research community. We apply two biologically inspired algorithms, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network (NN), to these two fields. A fuzzy logic controller GA and an adaptive back-propagation NN are proposed in our study, which can validly overcome the problems existing in their archetypes, e.g. slow evolution and being prone to trap into a local optimum. Furthermore, a well-constructed thesaurus has been recognised as a valuable tool in the effective operation of clustering and classification. It solves the problem in document representation organised by a bag of words, where some important relationships between words, e.g. synonymy and polysemy, are ignored. To investigate how our IR system could be used effectively, we conduct experiments on four data sets from the benchmark Reuter-21578 document collection and 20-newsgroup corpus. The results reveal that our IR system enhances the performance in comparison with k-means, common GA, and conventional back-propagation NN.

  2. The MSP430-based control system for automatic ELISA tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinghua; Zhu, Lianqing; Dong, Mingli; Lin, Ting; Niu, Shouwei

    2006-11-01

    This paper introduces the scheme of a control system for a fully automatic ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) tester. This tester is designed to realize the movement and positioning of the robotic arms and the pipettors and to complete the functions of pumping, reading, washing, incubating and so on. It is based on a MSP430 flash chip, a 16-bit MCU manufactured by TI Co, with very low power consumption and powerful functions. This chip is adopted in all devices of the workstation to run the controlling program, to store involved parameters and data, and to drive stepper motors. To the MCUs, motors, sensors, valves and fans are extended. A personal computer (PC) is employed to communicate with the instrument through an interface board. Relevant hardware circuits are provided. Two programs, one running in PC performs users' operation about assay options and results, the other running in MCU initiates the system and waits for commands to drive the mechanisms, are developed. Through various examinations, this control system is proved to be reliable, efficient and flexible.

  3. Considerations on an automatic computed tomography tube current modulation system.

    PubMed

    Moro, Luca; Panizza, Denis; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Carne, Irene

    2013-10-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the effects on radiation output and image noise varying the acquisition parameters with an automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) system in computed tomography (CT). Chest CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired using a GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice tomograph. Acquisitions were performed using different pitch, slice thickness and noise index (NI) values and varying the orientation of the scanned projection radiograph (SPR). The radiation output was determined by the CT dose index (CTDIvol). Image noise was evaluated measuring the standard deviation of CT numbers in several regions of interest. The radiation output was lower if the SPR was acquired in the anterior-posterior projection. The radiation dose with the posterior-anterior SPR was higher, because the divergence of the X-ray beam magnifies the anatomical structures closest to the tube, especially the spinal column, and this leads the ATCM system to estimate higher patient attenuation values and, therefore, to select higher tube current values. The NI was inversely proportional to the square root of the CTDIvol and, with fixed NI, the CTDIvol increased as the slice thickness decreased. This study suggests some important issues to use the GE ATCM system efficiently.

  4. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  5. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong

    2014-05-01

    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  6. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred. PMID:25863954

  7. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  8. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  9. Automatic Speech Acquisition and Recognition for Spacesuit Audio Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    NASA has a widely recognized but unmet need for novel human-machine interface technologies that can facilitate communication during astronaut extravehicular activities (EVAs), when loud noises and strong reverberations inside spacesuits make communication challenging. WeVoice, Inc., has developed a multichannel signal-processing method for speech acquisition in noisy and reverberant environments that enables automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology inside spacesuits. The technology reduces noise by exploiting differences between the statistical nature of signals (i.e., speech) and noise that exists in the spatial and temporal domains. As a result, ASR accuracy can be improved to the level at which crewmembers will find the speech interface useful. System components and features include beam forming/multichannel noise reduction, single-channel noise reduction, speech feature extraction, feature transformation and normalization, feature compression, and ASR decoding. Arithmetic complexity models were developed and will help designers of real-time ASR systems select proper tasks when confronted with constraints in computational resources. In Phase I of the project, WeVoice validated the technology. The company further refined the technology in Phase II and developed a prototype for testing and use by suited astronauts.

  10. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  11. System for controlling automatic transmission having communication control valve means

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, T.; Arakawa, Y.; Sumiya, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.

    1987-01-06

    A system is described for hydraulically controlling an automatic transmission equipped with a gear mechanism having elements and friction engaging means therefor for attaining a shift ranges by locking and releasing at least one of the elements of the gear mechanism. It is disposed between an input shaft and an output shaft, to and from a case, by bringing the elements into and out of engagement with one of the input shaft, the output shaft, and each other. The system comprises: a first and a second friction engaging means which take part in achieving at least two speed ranges comprising a higher speed range and a lower speed range; the first friction engaging means taking part in achieving a gear train of the higher speed range between the input and output shafts, and the second friction engaging means taking part in achieving a gear train of the lower speed range; a first and a second hydraulic servo means for actuating the first and the second friction engaging means, respectively; a third hydraulic servo means which is disposed to act opposing to the second hydraulic servo means and is communicated with the first hydraulic servo means; a hydraulic pressure source for generating a hydraulic pressure; a regulator valve for regulating the hydraulic pressure from the hydraulic pressure source into a given pressure; and a first signal hydraulic pressure valve for generating a first signal pressure related with the operation conditions of an engine for driving the input shaft, the conditions including at least output of the engine.

  12. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  13. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System H Appendix H to Part 23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Pt. 23, App. H Appendix H to Part 23—Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System...

  14. Evaluation of calf milk pasteurization systems on 6 Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2010-11-01

    Waste milk has been fed to calves for many years, but concerns with bacterial contamination as well as possible transmission of diseases have discouraged widespread use of this feed. Pasteurization of waste milk is one option to reduce management risk while utilizing a valuable, low-cost, liquid feed source for calves. However, many farms currently pasteurizing waste milk lack a system to adequately monitor the efficiency of the process. A study was carried out to evaluate 6 on-farm pasteurization systems, including high-temperature, short-time pasteurizers and low-temperature, batch pasteurizers. Milk samples were taken pre- and postpasteurization as well as from the calf buckets and immediately frozen for later bacterial culture. Samples were collected twice daily for 15 d. Milk samples were examined for standard plate count (SPC), coagulase-negative staphylococci count, environmental streptococci count, coliform count, gram-negative noncoliform count, Streptococcus agalactiae count, and Staphylococcus aureus count. Before pasteurization, 68% of the samples had SPC <20,000 cfu/mL, and 39% of samples contained <100 cfu/mL of coliform bacteria. After pasteurization, 96% of samples had SPC <20,000 cfu/mL, and 92% had coliform counts <100 cfu/mL. Bacteria counts were significantly reduced by pasteurization, and pasteurized milk contained acceptable numbers of bacteria in >90% of samples. These results indicate that pasteurization can be very effective in lowering bacterial contamination of milk. However, bacteria numbers significantly increased after pasteurization and, in some cases, bacteria counts in milk fed to calves were similar to prepasteurization levels. Milk handling after pasteurization was identified as an important issue on the farms studied.

  15. Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger; Valerie Barnes

    2010-09-27

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.

  16. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  17. Evaluation of a portable test system for assessing endotoxin activity in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohko; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Niehaus, Andrew; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endotoxin activities detected in raw milk samples obtained from cattle by a commercially available portable test system (PTS) and traditional microplate limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assay, which determined activities using a kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Raw milk samples were obtained from 53 and 12 dairy cattle without and with clinical mastitis, respectively. Comparison between the KT and PTS was performed by the Friedman test. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between any two continuous variables. Linear regression model analysis was also performed to obtain the equation describing the relationship between PTS and KT assay. The endotoxin activities detected in 200- or 400-fold diluted milk samples were similar between PTS and KT assay, whereas a significant difference was observed in 100-fold diluted milk (P<0.001). The results obtained from 200- (r(2)=0.778, P<0.001) and 400-fold diluted milk samples (r(2)=0.945, P<0.001) using PTS correlated with those using KT assay. The median milk endotoxin activities in Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical mastitis cows were 0.655 and 11,523.5 EU/ml, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that PTS as a simple and easy test to assess endotoxin activity in raw milk is efficient, simple and reproducible. PMID:26279135

  18. Evaluation of a portable test system for assessing endotoxin activity in raw milk

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yohko; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; NIEHAUS, Andrew; LAKRITZ, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endotoxin activities detected in raw milk samples obtained from cattle by a commercially available portable test system (PTS) and traditional microplate limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assay, which determined activities using a kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Raw milk samples were obtained from 53 and 12 dairy cattle without and with clinical mastitis, respectively. Comparison between the KT and PTS was performed by the Friedman test. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between any two continuous variables. Linear regression model analysis was also performed to obtain the equation describing the relationship between PTS and KT assay. The endotoxin activities detected in 200- or 400-fold diluted milk samples were similar between PTS and KT assay, whereas a significant difference was observed in 100-fold diluted milk (P<0.001). The results obtained from 200- (r2=0.778, P<0.001) and 400-fold diluted milk samples (r2=0.945, P<0.001) using PTS correlated with those using KT assay. The median milk endotoxin activities in Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical mastitis cows were 0.655 and 11,523.5 EU/ml, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that PTS as a simple and easy test to assess endotoxin activity in raw milk is efficient, simple and reproducible. PMID:26279135

  19. Automatic diagnostic system for measuring ocular refractive errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; de Sousa, Sidney J. F.; de Castro, Jarbas C.

    1996-05-01

    Ocular refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) are automatic and objectively determined by projecting a light target onto the retina using an infra-red (850 nm) diode laser. The light vergence which emerges from the eye (light scattered from the retina) is evaluated in order to determine the corresponding ametropia. The system basically consists of projecting a target (ring) onto the retina and analyzing the scattered light with a CCD camera. The light scattered by the eye is divided into six portions (3 meridians) by using a mask and a set of six prisms. The distance between the two images provided by each of the meridians, leads to the refractive error of the referred meridian. Hence, it is possible to determine the refractive error at three different meridians, which gives the exact solution for the eye's refractive error (spherical and cylindrical components and the axis of the astigmatism). The computational basis used for the image analysis is a heuristic search, which provides satisfactory calculation times for our purposes. The peculiar shape of the target, a ring, provides a wider range of measurement and also saves parts of the retina from unnecessary laser irradiation. Measurements were done in artificial and in vivo eyes (using cicloplegics) and the results were in good agreement with the retinoscopic measurements.

  20. Design and implementation for satellite remote sensing forest fire-points automatic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunhui; Chen, Huailiang; Yin, Qing

    2009-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing monitoring of forest fire-points is a routine operation of weather service. By taking advantage of remote sensing information's characteristics such as relatively fixed resolution, little geometric distortion and quite stable data quality, the thesis establishes Henan Satellite Remote Sensing Forest Fire-points Automatic Monitoring System in the way of automatic geography registration based on gray correlation and control point database, which can realize automation of the whole process including automatic monitoring,automatic geography registration,automatic fire-points monitoring,automatic production releasing and cell phone short-message notice of fire-points warning information. The system could greatly improve service efficiency. Automatic registration of remote sensing information based on gray correlation and control point database features simpleness and quickness. Through automatic geography registration testing of sunny EOS/MODIS data (at daytime and nightime) during 18 periods from February 2008 to May 2008 in Henan Province with average error of registration is 0.637 pixels at daytime and 0.319 at nighttime, it can fully meet ordinary operation requirements. Fire-point identification and fire-point area estimate method in the system can be applied to monitoring different fires at daytime and at nighttime. Besides, it can automatically screen effective fire-points according to background geographic information, and thus it can improve monitoring accuracy.

  1. An Automatic Terminal Guidance System for Rendezvous with a Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Terrance M.

    1961-01-01

    This study includes a consideration of the design philosophy for an automatic terminal guidance system, a derivation of guidance equations required, and an outline of the general type of instrumentation necessary to provide the essential information. A control system for a sample vehicle is analyzed. A representative case, rendezvous with a satellite in circular orbit at 400 nautical miles, was examined. Terminal-stage nominal burning times of 200 and 400 seconds were used. For the 200-second case, initial errors in circumferential displacement of +/- 25,000 feet, in radial displacement of 7,000 to -9,000 feet, and in lateral displacement of +/- 20,000 feet were within the capabilities of the system. Velocity errors of 300 to -400 ft/sec in the circumferential direction, 180 to -200 ft/sec in the radial direction, and velocity offsets of at least 20 (+/- 800 ft/sec) in the lateral direction could also be handled. The 400-second case was capable of correcting larger errors, but limits were not determined. The dependence of required characteristic velocity on initial errors was determined and it was found that increases over the nominal terminal-stage characteristic velocity of the order of 15 percent covered most of the previously mentioned in-plane errors. The requirements were more severe for cases with lateral velocity offsets. A simplified set of guidance equations was tested and produced only slight variations in performance. Overall velocity requirements and mass ratios were determined for terminal-stage burning times of 100, 200, 300, and 400 seconds and for a range of transfer angles by using exact calculations for the terminal stage and an impulsive launching velocity. These results indicated that the shortest burning time consistent with the launch guidance errors expected gave the best mass ratio.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  4. The behaviour of green tea catechins in a full-fat milk system under conditions mimicking the cheesemaking process.

    PubMed

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-09-01

    Due to their well-known health benefits, green tea catechins have received recent attention as natural additives in foods such as dairy products. However, they may present some irreversible associations with milk components (e.g. protein and milk fat globules). To investigate the behaviour of two important green tea catechins, (+)-catechin (C) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), in a standard whole milk system under the conditions of cheesemaking, 250 and 500 ppm of each catechin were added to whole milk (3.3% fat). Although both C and EGCG at either concentration increased both total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of the subnatants obtained from the milk system, there was a less linear increase when the concentration of the catechins was doubled, whereas C or EGCG were recovered (measured by HPLC) differently. Overall, these results suggest a degree of associations between green tea catechins with milk proteins and milk fat. PMID:27282241

  5. An automatic system for on-line flash flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makin, I.; Rumyantsev, D.; Shemanayev, K.; Shkarbanov, R.

    2012-04-01

    The research group at Russian State Hydrometeorological University continues developing hydrologic software, called SLS+, which might be useful for background flash flood forecasting in poorly gauged regions. Now the SLS+ software has a user-friendly web interface for on-line background flash flood forecasting in training and operational (real time or near real time) modes, and allows issuing stream flow forecasts based on precipitation and evaporation data obtained either from archives, or from field sensors, respectively. The system currently includes two hydrological models, the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model (USA) and Multi-Layer Conceptual Model (Russia). These models can be calibrated either manually, or automatically based on four calibration algorithms: Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm (SCE), which is quite useful if (1) a number of calibrated parameters does not exceed 6-7 and boundaries of the parameter space are well defined and (2) the parameter space is not too wide; Basic Stepwise Line Search (SLS) algorithm, which is efficient and computationally "inexpensive", if an initial point for pattern optimization is well defined; SLS-2L algorithm (where 2L is an abbreviation for "two loops" or "two cycles"), which is used in regions with scarce soil data and allows first to predetermine the soil hydraulic parameters, and then use these parameters for the refined model parameterization; SLS-E algorithm (where E stands for "Ensemble generation"), which implies the generation of ensembles of one or several forcing processes (for instance, effective precipitation and evaporation) and model calibration for each of those ensembles. This method is primarily designed for models with undistracted parameters at a relatively low density of ground-based meteorological observation network. Currently the trial version of the system is available for testing upon request.

  6. ATCOM: Automatically Tuned Collective Communication System for SMP Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meng-Shiou

    2005-01-01

    Conventional implementations of collective communications are based on point-to-point communications, and their optimizations have been focused on efficiency of those communication algorithms. However, point-to-point communications are not the optimal choice for modern computing clusters of SMPs due to their two-level communication structure. In recent years, a few research efforts have investigated efficient collective communications for SMP clusters. This dissertation is focused on platform-independent algorithms and implementations in this area. There are two main approaches to implementing efficient collective communications for clusters of SMPs: using shared memory operations for intra-node communications, and overlapping inter-node/intra-node communications. The former fully utilizes the hardware based shared memory of an SMP, and the latter takes advantage of the inherent hierarchy of the communications within a cluster of SMPs. Previous studies focused on clusters of SMP from certain vendors. However, the previously proposed methods are not portable to other systems. Because the performance optimization issue is very complicated and the developing process is very time consuming, it is highly desired to have self-tuning, platform-independent implementations. As proven in this dissertation, such an implementation can significantly out-perform the other point-to-point based portable implementations and some platform-specific implementations. The dissertation describes in detail the architecture of the platform-independent implementation. There are four system components: shared memory-based collective communications, overlapping mechanisms for inter-node and intra-node communications, a prediction-based tuning module and a micro-benchmark based tuning module. Each component is carefully designed with the goal of automatic tuning in mind.

  7. An automatic identification and monitoring system for coral reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tonde, Chetan; Sundar, Ganesh; Huang, Ning; Barinov, Lev; Baxi, Jigesh; Bibby, James; Rapport, Andrew; Pavoni, Edward; Tsang, Serena; Garcia, Eri; Mateo, Felix; Lubansky, Tanya M.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2012-10-01

    To help gauge the health of coral reef ecosystems, we developed a prototype of an underwater camera module to automatically census reef fish populations. Recognition challenges include pose and lighting variations, complicated backgrounds, within-species color variations and within-family similarities among species. An open frame holds two cameras, LED lights, and two `background' panels in an L-shaped configuration. High-resolution cameras send sequences of 300 synchronized image pairs at 10 fps to an on-shore PC. Approximately 200 sequences containing fish were recorded at the New York Aquarium's Glover's Reef exhibit. These contained eight `common' species with 85-672 images, and eight `rare' species with 5-27 images that were grouped into an `unknown/rare' category for classification. Image pre-processing included background modeling and subtraction, and tracking of fish across frames for depth estimation, pose correction, scaling, and disambiguation of overlapping fish. Shape features were obtained from PCA analysis of perimeter points, color features from opponent color histograms, and `banding' features from DCT of vertical projections. Images were classified to species using feedforward neural networks arranged in a three-level hierarchy in which errors remaining after each level are targeted by networks in the level below. Networks were trained and tested on independent image sets. Overall accuracy of species-specific identifications typically exceeded 96% across multiple training runs. A seaworthy version of our system will allow for population censuses with high temporal resolution, and therefore improved statistical power to detect trends. A network of such devices could provide an `early warning system' for coral ecosystem collapse.

  8. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Milk: Evidence of a Systemic and Persistent Infection in Experimentally Infected Cows.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tércia Moreira Ludolfo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rivetti, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Alves, Pedro Augusto; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Cerqueira, Mônica Maria Oliveira Pinho; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-11-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects lactating cows and milkers. VACV DNA and infectious particles have been detected in milk of naturally infected cows. However, the period and pattern of VACV shedding in milk is unknown, as is whether the presence of VACV in milk is due to a localized or a systemic infection. To address those questions, eight lactating cows were inoculated with VACV in previously scarified teats. The experiment was divided in two phases. In Phase 1, milk samples were collected daily for 33 days, and in Phase 2, four animals from the first phase were immunosuppressed. In both phases, milk was collected with a sterile catheter on even days and by hand milking on odd days. All animals showed typical BV lesions in the inoculated teats. All milk samples were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR to detect VACV DNA. PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation. VACV DNA was intermittently detected in milk in both phases and infectious viral particles could be detected only in phase 2, on the 69th, 73rd, 74th, 77th, 79th, and 81st days postinfection. Despite the possibility of propagation of VACV through milk, it is known that milk continues to be drawn and marketed normally during outbreaks of the disease. The detection of both VACV DNA and infectious particles in milk samples draws attention to the potential public health risk associated with the consumption of milk from BV outbreaks. Detection of VACV in the milk from noninfected teats demonstrated that VACV shedding in milk might be related to a systemic infection. Moreover, it was shown that VACV DNA and viral infectious particles could be detected in milk even after healing of the lesions, demonstrating that VACV may cause a persistent infection in cattle.

  9. Toward an Automatic Calibration of Dual Fluoroscopy Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Durgham, Kaleel; Lichti, Derek; Kuntze, Gregor; Sharma, Gulshan; Ronsky, Janet

    2016-06-01

    High-speed dual fluoroscopy (DF) imaging provides a novel, in-vivo solution to quantify the six-degree-of-freedom skeletal kinematics of humans and animals with sub-millimetre accuracy and high temporal resolution. A rigorous geometric calibration of DF system parameters is essential to ensure precise bony rotation and translation measurements. One way to achieve the system calibration is by performing a bundle adjustment with self-calibration. A first-time bundle adjustment-based system calibration was recently achieved. The system calibration through the bundle adjustment has been shown to be robust, precise, and straightforward. Nevertheless, due to the inherent absence of colour/semantic information in DF images, a significant amount of user input is needed to prepare the image observations for the bundle adjustment. This paper introduces a semi-automated methodology to minimise the amount of user input required to process calibration images and henceforth to facilitate the calibration task. The methodology is optimized for processing images acquired over a custom-made calibration frame with radio-opaque spherical targets. Canny edge detection is used to find distinct structural components of the calibration images. Edge-linking is applied to cluster the edge pixels into unique groups. Principal components analysis is utilized to automatically detect the calibration targets from the groups and to filter out possible outliers. Ellipse fitting is utilized to achieve the spatial measurements as well as to perform quality analysis over the detected targets. Single photo resection is used together with a template matching procedure to establish the image-to-object point correspondence and to simplify target identification. The proposed methodology provided 56,254 identified-targets from 411 images that were used to run a second-time bundle adjustment-based DF system calibration. Compared to a previous fully manual procedure, the proposed methodology has

  10. Experiments with Automatic Indexing and a Relational Thesaurus in a Chinese Informational Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Tian-Long; Evens, Martha; Wan, Yeun-Wen; Pao, Yuen-Yuan

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments determined whether thesauri enhance the retrieval of Chinese documents and automatic indexing can compete with manual indexing in a Chinese information retrieval system (CIRS). Statistical analysis of recall and precision measures suggest that relational thesauri do improve retrieval and that automatic indexing is…

  11. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  12. The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawistowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system (BRMS) is discussed in this paper. The article contains a description of the new approach to measurement systems execution validation, a description of the implementation of the system that supports mentioned validation and examples documenting the correctness of the approach. In the new approach BRMS are used for measurement systems execution validation. Such systems have not been used for software execution validation nor for measurement systems. The benefits of using them for the listed purposes are discussed as well.

  13. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  14. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  15. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. PMID:27209129

  16. Automatic Calibration of an Airborne Imaging System to an Inertial Navigation Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, Adnan I.; Clouse, Daniel S.; McHenry, Michael C.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.; Pagdett, Curtis W.

    2013-01-01

    This software automatically calibrates a camera or an imaging array to an inertial navigation system (INS) that is rigidly mounted to the array or imager. In effect, it recovers the coordinate frame transformation between the reference frame of the imager and the reference frame of the INS. This innovation can automatically derive the camera-to-INS alignment using image data only. The assumption is that the camera fixates on an area while the aircraft flies on orbit. The system then, fully automatically, solves for the camera orientation in the INS frame. No manual intervention or ground tie point data is required.

  17. Irregular and adaptive sampling for automatic geophysic measure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagnina, Davide; Lo Presti, Letizia; Mulassano, Paolo

    2000-07-01

    In this paper a sampling method, based on an irregular and adaptive strategy, is described. It can be used as automatic guide for rovers designed to explore terrestrial and planetary environments. Starting from the hypothesis that a explorative vehicle is equipped with a payload able to acquire measurements of interesting quantities, the method is able to detect objects of interest from measured points and to realize an adaptive sampling, while badly describing the not interesting background.

  18. NASA MSFC hardware in the loop simulations of automatic rendezvous and capture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Naumann, Charles B.; Sutton, William; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary hardware-in-the-loop simulation facilities for automatic rendezvous and capture systems at MSFC are described. One, the Flight Robotics Laboratory, uses an 8 DOF overhead manipulator with a work volume of 160 by 40 by 23 feet to evaluate automatic rendezvous algorithms and range/rate sensing systems. The other, the Space Station/Station Operations Mechanism Test Bed, uses a 6 DOF hydraulic table to perform docking and berthing dynamics simulations.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  4. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic...-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part... systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or...

  5. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 25.671... the pilot were not aware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control systems....

  6. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 25.671... the pilot were not aware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control systems....

  7. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic...-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part... systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or...

  8. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 25.671... the pilot were not aware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control systems....

  9. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic...-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part... systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or...

  10. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... failed system. (c) It must be shown that after any single failure of the stability augmentation system or... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If...

  11. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... failed system. (c) It must be show that after any single failure of the stability augmentation system or... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If...

  12. Milk production of Jersey and Fleckvieh × Jersey cows in a pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Goni, Sindisile; Muller, Carel Johan Christiaan; Dube, Bekezela; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk production parameters of purebred Jersey (J) cows and Fleckvieh × Jersey (F × J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system were compared using standard milk recording procedures. Milk, fat and protein production was adjusted to 305 days per lactation and corrected for age at calving. Effects of breed, parity, month and year were estimated for milk, fat and protein yield as well as fat and protein percentage, using the general linear model procedure. Fixed effects identified as affecting milk production parameters significantly were breed, parity and year. F × J cows produced significantly more milk than J cows (6141 ± 102 and 5398 ± 95 kg milk, respectively). Similarly, fat and protein yields were significantly higher in F × J (272 ± 4 and 201 ± 3 kg, respectively) than in Jersey cows (246 ± 3 and 194 ± 2 kg, respectively). Fat and protein percentages only differed slightly in absolute terms being 4.61 ± 0.04% fat in the Jersey compared to 4.47 ± 0.04% fat in the F × J. Protein levels for J and F × J cows were 3.62 ± 0.03 and 3.51 ± 0.03%, respectively. Despite a lower fat percentage, F × J crossbred cows may be more productive than purebred Jersey cows which may be due to heterotic effects.

  13. Utilization of microfiltration or lactoperoxidase system or both for manufacture of Cheddar cheese from raw milk.

    PubMed

    Amornkul, Y; Henning, D R

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if application of microfiltration (MF) or raw milk lactoperoxidase system (LP) could reduce the risk of foodborne illness from Escherichia coli in raw milk cheeses, without adversely affecting the overall sensory acceptability of the cheeses. Escherichia coli K12 was added to raw milk to study its survival as a non-pathogenic surrogate organism for pathogenic E. coli. Five replications of 6 treatments of Cheddar cheese were manufactured. The 6 treatments included cheeses made from pasteurized milk (PM), raw milk (RM), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 (RME), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + LP activation (RMELP), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF (MFE), and raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF + LP activation (MFELP). The population of E. coli K12 was enumerated in the cheese milks, in whey/curds during cheese manufacture, and in final Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Application of LP, MF, and a combination of MF and LP led to an average percentage reduction of E. coli K12 counts in cheese milk by 72, 88, and 96%, respectively. However, E. coli K12 populations significantly increased during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese for the reasons not related to contamination. The number of E. coli K12, however, decreased by 1.5 to 2 log cycles during 120 d of ripening, irrespective of the treatments. The results suggest that MF with or without LP significantly lowers E. coli count in raw milk. Hence, if reactivation of E. coli during cheese making could be prevented, MF with or without LP would be an effective technique for reducing the counts of E. coli in raw milk cheeses. The cheeses were also analyzed for proteolysis, starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), and sensory characteristics during ripening. The concentration of pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen at 120 d was greater in PM cheese compared with the other treatments. The level of 12% trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen at 120 d was

  14. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  15. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 27.671... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  16. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, the system must comply with § 29.671 of... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  17. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 27.671... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  18. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, the system must comply with § 29.671 of... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  19. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, such systems must comply with § 27.671... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  20. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the... compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, the system must comply with § 29.671 of... unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic... systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It...

  2. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic... systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It...

  3. Technical note: A portable on-chip assay system for absorbance and plasmonic detection of protein hormone in milk.

    PubMed

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a portable device and method to extract and detect protein hormone in milk samples. Recombinant protein hormone spiked into milk samples was extracted by solid-phase extraction, and detection was carried out using the plasmonic property of gold nanoislands deposited on a glass substrate. Trace levels of hormone spiked in milk were analyzed by their optical absorbance property using a microfluidic chip. We built a portable assay system using disposable lab-on-chip devices. The proposed method is able to detect spiked recombinant protein hormone in milk at concentrations as low as 5ng/mL.

  4. Short communication: Milk fat globule membrane as a potential delivery system for liposoluble nutrients.

    PubMed

    Bezelgues, J-B; Morgan, F; Palomo, G; Crosset-Perrotin, L; Ducret, P

    2009-06-01

    A soft physical process was used to extract and purified bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fractions on a pilot scale. Oil-in-water emulsions enriched with alpha-tocopherol and lycopene were then prepared and stabilized with the extracted MFGM fraction and conventional milk protein concentrates (i.e., whey proteins, caseinate). A protocol of in vitro digestion was set up to evaluate the bioaccessibility of the tocopherol and lycopene in the different emulsions. Bioaccessibility was defined as the capacity of liposoluble compounds to be transferred into mixed micelles formed during the digestion process. Results showed that the accumulation of the tocopherol and lycopene into mixed micelles in MFGM-stabilized emulsions was around 2-fold greater than in emulsions stabilized with conventional milk proteins. This result confirms the potential use of MFGM-enriched ingredients as delivery systems of liposoluble nutrients in food formulations. PMID:19447983

  5. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  6. Chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems.

    PubMed

    Anarjan, Navideh; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-15

    Solubilising astaxanthin in nanodispersion systems is a promising approach to incorporate astaxanthin into water-based food formulations. In this research, the chemical stabilities of astaxanthin nanodispersions diluted in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems and in deionised water as a control were evaluated. The nanodispersions displayed significantly (p<0.05) better stability in food systems compared to the control. The effects of stabilisers and dilution factor were also studied. In skimmed milk and deionised water, the type of stabiliser had a significant effect (p<0.05) on astaxanthin degradation during storage. In vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from diluted astaxanthin nanodispersions in selected food systems was also evaluated. The cellular uptake of astaxanthin nanodispersions in skimmed milk was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of astaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and deionised water. High in vitro cellular uptake of astaxanthin from the prepared astaxanthin nanodispersions can be achieved via incorporation into protein-based foods such as milk.

  7. System design of the METC automatic data acquisition and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, D. R.; Armstrong, D. L.

    1982-02-01

    A system of computer programs and hardware was developed by the Instrumentation Branch of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide data acquisition and control features for research projects at the site. The Automatic Data Acquisition and Control System (ADACS) has the capability of servicing up to eight individual projects simultaneously, providing data acquisition, data feedback, and process control where needed. Several novel software features - including a data table driven program, extensive feedback in real time, free format English commands, and high reliability - were incorporated to provide these functions.

  8. A VxD-based automatic blending system using multithreaded programming.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Jiang, X; Chen, Y; Tan, K C

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the object-oriented software design for an automatic blending system. By combining the advantages of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and an industrial control PC (ICPC), an automatic blending control system is developed for a chemical plant. The system structure and multithread-based communication approach are first presented in this paper. The overall software design issues, such as system requirements and functionalities, are then discussed in detail. Furthermore, by replacing the conventional dynamic link library (DLL) with virtual X device drivers (VxD's), a practical and cost-effective solution is provided to improve the robustness of the Windows platform-based automatic blending system in small- and medium-sized plants.

  9. [Automatical updating the application software on the hospital information system's client].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-wei

    2006-07-01

    In view of the current predicament of updating the application software on the hospital information system's client, the Synchronizer module in PowerBuilder is used in combination with some techniques of the windows operation system, in order to implement automatic synchronistic updating of the application software on the Hospital Information System's client before the program's running. PMID:17039948

  10. An automatically-shifted two-speed transaxle system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. S.; Hassman, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic shifting scheme for a two speed transaxle for use with an electric vehicle propulsion system is described. The transaxle system was to be installed in an instrumented laboratory propulsion system of an ac electric vehicle drive train. The transaxle which had been fabricated is also described.

  11. A System for the Automatic Assembly of Test Questions Using a No-SQL Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sanggyu; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a system that automatically assembles test questions from a set of examples. Our system can create test questions appropriate for each user's level at low cost. In particular, when a user review their lesson, our system provides new test questions which are assembled based on their previous test results and past mistakes, rather than a…

  12. Automatic system for brain MRI analysis using a novel combination of fuzzy rule-based and automatic clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Gilbert R.; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ying, Hao; Kent, T. A.; Yen, John

    1995-05-01

    Analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain permits the identification and measurement of brain compartments. These compartments include normal subdivisions of brain tissue, such as gray matter, white matter and specific structures, and also include pathologic lesions associated with stroke or viral infection. A fuzzy system has been developed to analyze images of animal and human brain, segmenting the images into physiologically meaningful regions for display and measurement. This image segmentation system consists of two stages which include a fuzzy rule-based system and fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The first stage of this system is a fuzzy rule-based system which classifies most pixels in MR images into several known classes and one `unclassified' group, which fails to fit the predetermined rules. In the second stage, this system uses the result of the first stage as initial estimates for the properties of the compartments and applies FCM to classify all the previously unclassified pixels. The initial prototypes are estimated by using the averages of the previously classified pixels. The combined processes constitute a fast, accurate and robust image segmentation system. This method can be applied to many clinical image segmentation problems. While the rule-based portion of the system allows specialized knowledge about the images to be incorporated, the FCM allows the resolution of ambiguities that result from noise and artifacts in the image data. The volumes and locations of the compartments can easily be measured and reported quantitatively once they are identified. It is easy to adapt this approach to new imaging problems, by introducing a new set of fuzzy rules and adjusting the number of expected compartments. However, for the purpose of building a practical fully automatic system, a rule learning mechanism may be necessary to improve the efficiency of modification of the fuzzy rules.

  13. Automatic system to relock a laser frequency to a Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Koo; Han, Byoung Woong; Cho, D.

    2005-02-01

    We developed a system that allowed us to unlock and at a later time automatically relock a laser frequency to a medium-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. The system can work as a chopping wheel or a shutter for a laser field built inside a cavity. The heart of our system is the flywheel circuit for the slower-acting servo loop and the automatic gain control circuit for the faster-acting servo loop. The flywheel circuit stores a correction for a slow frequency drift so that during the unlocked period the slow loop can be safely turned off. The automatic gain control lowers the fast loop gain during a relock process and increases the gain after the lock is secured. The system works reliably at a chopping frequency up to 70Hz, and relocks well after being unlocked for up to 10s.

  14. Design of advanced automatic inspection system for turbine blade FPI analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Xie, W. F.; Viens, M.; Birglen, L.; Mantegh, I.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft engine turbine blade is the most susceptible part to discontinuities as it works in the extremely high pressure and temperature. Among various types of NDT method, Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) is comparably cheap and efficient thus suitable for detecting turbine blade surface discontinuities. In this paper, we have developed an Advanced Automatic Inspection System (AAIS) with Image Processing and Pattern Recognition techniques to aid human inspector. The system can automatically detect, measure and classify the discontinuities from turbine blade FPI images. The tests on the sample images provided by industrial partner have been performed to evaluate the system.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Modern Automatic Deformation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Philipp; Schweimler, Björn

    2016-03-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the University of Applied Sciences in Neubrandenburg (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  16. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1981-01-01

    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  17. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes

  18. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes

  19. A system for automatic analysis of blood pressure data for digital computer entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Operation of automatic blood pressure data system is described. Analog blood pressure signal is analyzed by three separate circuits, systolic, diastolic, and cycle defect. Digital computer output is displayed on teletype paper tape punch and video screen. Illustration of system is included.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  1. An automatic generation control modification for present demands on interconnected power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, R.P.

    1996-08-01

    There are pressing problems with automatic generation control (AGC) brought about by the growth of and demands on interconnected power systems. This state of the power system challenges initiation of a modified control, one that is in keeping with long held AGC operations and employs the control capabilities now available. A modified control concept is given in this paper.

  2. Dialog system for automatic data input/output and processing with two BESM-6 computers

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Y.N.; Gorlov, Y.P.; Makarychev, S.V.; Monakov, A.A.; Shcherbakov, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents a system for conducting experiments with fully automatic processing of data from multichannel recorders in the dialog mode. The system acquires data at a rate of 2.5 . 10/sup 3/ readings/sec, processes in real time, and outputs digital and graphical material in a multitasking environment.

  3. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If...

  4. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If...

  5. Investing in a robotic milking system: a Monte Carlo simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, J; Engel, P

    2002-09-01

    This paper uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to estimate the breakeven value for a robotic milking system (RMS) on a dairy farm in the United States. The breakeven value indicates the maximum amount that could be paid for the robots given the costs of alternative milking equipment and other important factors (e.g., milk yields, prices, length of useful life of technologies). The analysis simulates several scenarios under three herd sizes, 60, 120, and 180 cows. The base-case results indicate that the mean breakeven values are $192,056, $374,538, and $553,671 for each of the three progressively larger herd sizes. These must be compared to the per-unit RMS cost (about $125,000 to $150,000) and the cost of any construction or installation of other equipment that accompanies the RMS. Sensitivity analysis shows that each additional dollar spent on milking labor in the parlor increases the breakeven value by $4.10 to $4.30. Each dollar increase in parlor costs increases the breakeven value by $0.45 to $0.56. Also, each additional kilogram of initial milk production (under a 2x system in the parlor) decreases the breakeven by $9.91 to $10.64. Finally, each additional year of useful life for the RMS increases the per-unit breakeven by about $16,000 while increasing the life of the parlor by 1 yr decreases the breakeven value by between $5,000 and $6,000.

  6. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determine from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  7. A system for automatic aorta sections measurements on chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Yitzchak; Mayer, Arnaldo; Zholkover, Adi; Konen, Eli

    2016-03-01

    A new method is proposed for caliber measurement of the ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA). A key component of the method is the automatic detection of the carina, as an anatomical landmark around which an axial volume of interest (VOI) can be defined to observe the aortic caliber. For each slice in the VOI, a linear profile line connecting the AA with the DA is found by pattern matching on the underlying intensity profile. Next, the aortic center position is found using Hough transform on the best linear segment candidate. Finally, region growing around the center provides an accurate segmentation and caliber measurement. We evaluated the algorithm on 113 sequential chest CT scans, slice thickness of 0.75 - 3.75mm, 90 with contrast agent injected. The algorithm success rates were computed as the percentage of scans in which the center of the AA was found. Automated measurements of AA caliber were compared with independent measurements of two experienced chest radiologists, comparing the absolute difference between the two radiologists with the absolute difference between the algorithm and each of the radiologists. The measurement stability was demonstrated by computing the STD of the absolute difference between the radiologists, and between the algorithm and the radiologists. Results: Success rates of 93% and 74% were achieved, for contrast injected cases and non-contrast cases, respectively. These results indicate that the algorithm can be robust in large variability of image quality, such as the cases in a realworld clinical setting. The average absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.85mm, lower than the average absolute difference between the radiologists, which was 2.1mm. The STD of the absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.5mm vs 1.6mm between the two radiologists. These results demonstrate the clinical relevance of the algorithm measurements.

  8. [Comparison of different types automatic water-supply system for mouse rearing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, M; Tagashira, Y

    1979-04-01

    Rearing and breeding scores were compared between groups of mice (JCL : ICR and ddN strains) raised with two different types of automatic water-supply systems; the Japanese type and the American type, using manual water-supply system as control. The mice raised with the manual water-supply system were superior in body weight gain as compared to those with two automatic water-supply systems. As to the survival rate, however, the m; anual water-supply system and the Japanese type gave better results than the American type. As to weanling rate in the breeding test, the manual water-supply system gave somewhat better result than either of the two automatic types. Accidental water leaks, which are serious problems of automatic systems, occurred frequently only when the American type was used. Only one defect of the Japanese type revealed was that it was unfavorable for mice with smaller size (e.g., young ddN mice), resulting in lower body weight gain as well as lower breeding scores. PMID:477745

  9. Second Evaluation of the SYSTRAN Automatic Translation System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Slype, Georges

    The machine translation system SYSTRAN was assessed for translation quality and system productivity. The test was carried out on translations from English to French dealing with food science and technology. Machine translations were compared to manual translations of the same texts. SYSTRAN was found to be a useful system of information…

  10. Comparison of identification systems for psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from raw bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Nuwan R; Yeager, Thomas R; Jadhav, Snehal R; Palombo, Enzo A; Datta, Nivedita

    2014-10-17

    Psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk produce heat-resistant extracellular proteases, resulting in spoilage and shelf-life reduction of ultrahigh temperature treated milk and milk products. Controlling of these spoilage microbes requires rapid and reliable identification systems for screening of raw milk. This study aimed to compare commercial bacterial identification systems with a genetic method (considered as the 'gold standard' method) for the identification of heat-resistant protease producing bacteria in raw milk. Five bacterial identification systems were compared based on typability, discrimination power (i.e. Simpson's Index of Diversity), reproducibility and speed of analysis. The accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API, and Microbact for the identification of Gram negative bacilli at the species level was 100.0%, 86.8%, 63.2%, 60.5% and 57.9%, respectively. The Gram positive bacilli were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, and API with accuracies at the species level of 100.0%, 85.0%, 95.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis discriminated Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, Hafnia alvei, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis to the subspecies level. The Simpson's Index of Diversity scores were 0.966, 0.711, 0.496, 0.472, and 0.140, for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact, respectively. Limited reference profiles in the databases of Biolog, MALDI-TOF MS, API and Microbact systems reduced their accuracy in bacterial identification, compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rapidity of each assay is in the following order; MALDI-TOF MS>16S rRNA gene sequencing>Biolog>Microbact>API. The reproducibility of the assays is in the order of 16S rRNA gene sequencing>API>Microbact>MALDI-TOF MS>Biolog. Thus, 16S rRNA gene sequencing appears to be the most reliable and robust system for the identification of dairy

  11. Initial design and evaluation of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Grunberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results of efforts to develop automatic control design procedures for restructurable aircraft control systems is presented. The restructurable aircraft control problem involves designing a fault tolerance control system which can accommodate a wide variety of unanticipated aircraft failure. Under NASA sponsorship, many of the technologies which make such a system possible were developed and tested. Future work will focus on developing a methodology for integrating these technologies and demonstration of a complete system.

  12. Research on the automatic laser navigation system of the tunnel boring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yake; Li, Yueqiang

    2011-12-01

    By establishing relevant coordinates of the Automatic Laser Navigation System, the basic principle of the system which accesses the TBM three-dimensional reference point and yawing angle by mathematical transformation between TBM, target prism and earth coordinate systems is discussed deeply in details. According to the way of rigid body descriptions of its posture, TBM attitude parameters measurement and data acquisition methods are proposed, and measures to improve the accuracy of the Laser Navigation System are summarized.

  13. Recent advances in automatic alignment system for the National Iginition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K; Awwal, A; Kalantar, D; Leach, R; Lowe-Webb, R; McGuigan, D; Kamm, V

    2010-12-08

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 50 minutes. The system automatically commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics based upon images acquired from high-resolution digital cameras viewing beams at various locations. Forty-five control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze these images of the beams and references, and automaticallys teer the beams toward the target. This paper discusses the upgrades to the NIF automatic alignment system to handle new alignment needs and evolving requirements as related to various types of experiments performed. As NIF becomes a continuously-operated system and more experiments are performed, performance monitoring is increasingly important for maintenance and commissioning work. Data, collected during operations, is analyzed for tuning of the laser and targeting maintenance work. handling evolving alignment and maintenance needs is expected for the planned 30-year operational life of NIF.

  14. Development of an Automatic Endoscope Positioning System based on Biological Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Toda, Shingo; Takiguchi, Shuji; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Kobayashi, Takeharu; Kazuhara, Kouhei; Ichihara, Takaharu; Kurashita, Naoto; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Miyazaki, Fumio

    In general endoscopic surgery, the surgeon operates instruments and the camera assistant operates an endoscope. Because of shortage of physicians, there are demands for transition to endoscopic solo surgery. For the purpose of this demand, the automatic endoscope positioning system which operates the endoscope instead of the camera assistant during surgery has been actively researched from home and abroad. Almost research of automatic endoscope positioning system has tried to make a model of camera assistant's endoscopic operation. However, there is no system which has enough performance as compared with the camera assistant. The difficulty of making an accurate model of camera assistant's endoscopic operation is the most significant factor. We propose a bio-inspired automatic endoscope positioning algorithm which is a nonmodel based approach and develop a system which was implemented the proposed algorithm. We assess the surgeon's procedure through gallbladder removal simulations using the automatic endoscope positioning system. We compare an algorithm which has been seen in previously research with the proposed algorithm. We validate the effectivity of the proposed method as compared with the surgeon's procedure.

  15. Fully Automatic System for Accurate Localisation and Analysis of Cephalometric Landmarks in Lateral Cephalograms

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Claudia; Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Cootes, Tim F.

    2016-01-01

    Cephalometric tracing is a standard analysis tool for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic landmark annotation (FALA) system for finding cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms and its application to the classification of skeletal malformations. Digital cephalograms of 400 subjects (age range: 7–76 years) were available. All cephalograms had been manually traced by two experienced orthodontists with 19 cephalometric landmarks, and eight clinical parameters had been calculated for each subject. A FALA system to locate the 19 landmarks in lateral cephalograms was developed. The system was evaluated via comparison to the manual tracings, and the automatically located landmarks were used for classification of the clinical parameters. The system achieved an average point-to-point error of 1.2 mm, and 84.7% of landmarks were located within the clinically accepted precision range of 2.0 mm. The automatic landmark localisation performance was within the inter-observer variability between two clinical experts. The automatic classification achieved an average classification accuracy of 83.4% which was comparable to an experienced orthodontist. The FALA system rapidly and accurately locates and analyses cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms, and has the potential to significantly improve the clinical work flow in orthodontic treatment. PMID:27645567

  16. Fully Automatic System for Accurate Localisation and Analysis of Cephalometric Landmarks in Lateral Cephalograms.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Claudia; Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Cootes, Tim F

    2016-09-20

    Cephalometric tracing is a standard analysis tool for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic landmark annotation (FALA) system for finding cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms and its application to the classification of skeletal malformations. Digital cephalograms of 400 subjects (age range: 7-76 years) were available. All cephalograms had been manually traced by two experienced orthodontists with 19 cephalometric landmarks, and eight clinical parameters had been calculated for each subject. A FALA system to locate the 19 landmarks in lateral cephalograms was developed. The system was evaluated via comparison to the manual tracings, and the automatically located landmarks were used for classification of the clinical parameters. The system achieved an average point-to-point error of 1.2 mm, and 84.7% of landmarks were located within the clinically accepted precision range of 2.0 mm. The automatic landmark localisation performance was within the inter-observer variability between two clinical experts. The automatic classification achieved an average classification accuracy of 83.4% which was comparable to an experienced orthodontist. The FALA system rapidly and accurately locates and analyses cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms, and has the potential to significantly improve the clinical work flow in orthodontic treatment.

  17. Fully Automatic System for Accurate Localisation and Analysis of Cephalometric Landmarks in Lateral Cephalograms.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Claudia; Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Cootes, Tim F

    2016-01-01

    Cephalometric tracing is a standard analysis tool for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic landmark annotation (FALA) system for finding cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms and its application to the classification of skeletal malformations. Digital cephalograms of 400 subjects (age range: 7-76 years) were available. All cephalograms had been manually traced by two experienced orthodontists with 19 cephalometric landmarks, and eight clinical parameters had been calculated for each subject. A FALA system to locate the 19 landmarks in lateral cephalograms was developed. The system was evaluated via comparison to the manual tracings, and the automatically located landmarks were used for classification of the clinical parameters. The system achieved an average point-to-point error of 1.2 mm, and 84.7% of landmarks were located within the clinically accepted precision range of 2.0 mm. The automatic landmark localisation performance was within the inter-observer variability between two clinical experts. The automatic classification achieved an average classification accuracy of 83.4% which was comparable to an experienced orthodontist. The FALA system rapidly and accurately locates and analyses cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms, and has the potential to significantly improve the clinical work flow in orthodontic treatment. PMID:27645567

  18. Automatically-focusing microscope system for live tissue observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, M. N.; Chapman, C. P.; Wayland, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    System includes focus-sensing arrangement which controls servo to keep microscope constantly focused on target. Microscope objective is moved along optical axis. System includes two video cameras that are used as transducers for sensing focus. Incoming visual image is split by beam splitter so that one-half of information is fed to each camera.

  19. [Automatic collection system of waste scintillator solution using micro robots].

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Yamada, R

    1985-12-01

    Industrial micro-robots are now being applied to hazardous jobs or tedious jobs. These in-house micro-robots (MELFA, RM-501, Mitsubishi Electric Inc.) were used to make a collection system of waste scintillator solution on the experimental basis. Newly developed were hands, vial holders and a system soft ware, and satisfactory results have been obtained.

  20. Review: Milking robot utilization, a successful precision livestock farming evolution.

    PubMed

    John, A J; Clark, C E F; Freeman, M J; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research.

  1. X-ray based stem detection in an automatic tomato weeding system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem detection system was developed for automatic weed control in transplanted tomato fields. A portable x-ray source projected an x-ray beam perpendicular to the crop row and parallel to the soil surface. The plant’s main stem absorbs x-ray energy, decreasing the detected signal and allowing stem...

  2. Automatic Weed Control System For Transplanted Processing Tomatoes Using X-ray Stem Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem detection system was developed for automatic weed control in transplanted tomato fields. A portable x-ray source projected an x-ray beam perpendicular to the crop row and parallel to the soil surface. The plant’s main stem absorbs x-ray energy, decreasing the detected signal and allowing ste...

  3. Using an Automatic Retrieval System in the Web To Assist Co-operative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badue, Claudine; Vaz, Wesley; Albuquerque, Eduardo

    This paper presents an information agent and latent semantic-based indexing architecture to retrieve documents on the Internet. The system optimizes the search for documents in the Internet by automatically retrieving relevant links. The information used for the search can be obtained, for instance, from Internet browser caches and from grades of…

  4. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  5. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  6. On the question of the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems in timber industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, E. R.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenor, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems on the level of forest farms management and timber industry. Main areas of activity, which currently subjected to automation, are revealed. Objectives, which solved by implementation of APCS, are identified.

  7. [Automatic regulator of venous pressure and venous outflow in the perfusion system].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, L M; Levinskiĭ, M M; Kharnas, S Sh; Cherniak, V A

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for automatic regulation of the venous pressure and venous blood outflow during extracorporeal circulation is proposed. The system consists of a photoelectric sensor placed on a tube led out of the major venous trunkline, a converter and an electromechanical eccentric clamp that compresses the venous trunkline, all of which secures stabilization of the controlled values.

  8. Towards Automatically Aligning German Compounds with English Word Groups in an Example-Based Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel; Alexa, Melina

    As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system, a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone. The underlying principles and the design process are…

  9. Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eom, Soojeong

    2012-01-01

    Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

  10. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  11. A Limited-Vocabulary, Multi-Speaker Automatic Isolated Word Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James E., Jr.

    Techniques for automatic recognition of isolated words are investigated, and a computer simulation of a word recognition system is effected. Considered in detail are data acquisition and digitizing, word detection, amplitude and time normalization, short-time spectral estimation including spectral windowing, spectral envelope approximation,…

  12. A Zipfian Model of an Automatic Bibliographic System: An Application to MEDLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorowicz, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Derives the underlying structure of the Zipf distribution, with emphasis on its application to word frequencies in the inverted files of automatic bibliographic systems, and applies the Zipfian model to the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database. An appendix on the Zipfian mean and 12 references are included. (Author/JL)

  13. Improved automatic adjustment of density and contrast in FCR system using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, Hideya; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Masamitsu; Kato, Hisatoyo

    1994-05-01

    FCR system has an automatic adjustment of image density and contrast by analyzing the histogram of image data in the radiation field. Advanced image recognition methods proposed in this paper can improve the automatic adjustment performance, in which neural network technology is used. There are two methods. Both methods are basically used 3-layer neural network with back propagation. The image data are directly input to the input-layer in one method and the histogram data is input in the other method. The former is effective to the imaging menu such as shoulder joint in which the position of interest region occupied on the histogram changes by difference of positioning and the latter is effective to the imaging menu such as chest-pediatrics in which the histogram shape changes by difference of positioning. We experimentally confirm the validity of these methods (about the automatic adjustment performance) as compared with the conventional histogram analysis methods.

  14. Conceptual design and simulator implementation of an automatic terminal approach system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, D. A.; Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The pilot-machine interface with aircraft automation to increase the safety and utility of single-pilot IFR (instrument flight rules) operations is addressed. An automatic terminal approach system (ATAS), that uses stored instrument approach data to automatically tune aircraft radios and control the aircraft autopilot, was conceived as a means of improving this critical interface. The ATAS automatically flies instrument approach procedures, including the missed approach, and provides for easy pilot interaction to accommodate air traffic control radar vectors and altitude assignments. A research prototype of an ATAS was developed to the extent necessary for a simulation implementation and piloted evaluation. The development of the ATAS concept and the software algorithms is described.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... older style sprinklers to replace standard sprinklers without a complete engineering review of the altered part of the system. (iii) The employer shall assure that sprinklers are protected from...

  16. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  17. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season. PMID:24366178

  18. Automatic Measurement System For Congenital Hip Dislocation Using A Computed Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, M.; Minato, K.; Nakano, Y.; Hirakawa, A.; Kuwahara, M.

    1988-06-01

    Acetabular angle which is a diagnostic parameter of congenital hip dislocation has been measured manually in conventional X-ray film system. Using digital image directly provided from a computed radiography, an automatic measurement system was developed for this parameter. The process of the measurement was completed within a reasonable time, and accurate enough. The system was combined with an image database, so that it would be a measurement tool of PACS.

  19. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  20. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  1. Evaluation of the DEFINDER system for fully automatic glossary construction.

    PubMed

    Klavans, J L; Muresan, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of DEFINDER, a rule-based system that mines consumer-oriented full text articles in order to extract definitions and the terms they define. The quantitative evaluation shows that in terms of precision and recall as measured against human performance, DEFINDER obtained 87% and 75% respectively, thereby revealing the incompleteness of existing resources and the ability of DEFINDER to address these gaps. Our basis for comparison is definitions from on-line dictionaries, including the UMLS Metathesaurus. Qualitative evaluation shows that the definitions extracted by our system are ranked higher in terms of user-centered criteria of usability and readability than are definitions from on-line specialized dictionaries. The output of DEFINDER can be used to enhance these dictionaries. DEFINDER output is being incorporated in a system to clarify technical terms for non-specialist users in understandable non-technical language.

  2. Automatic Tool Path Generation for Robot Integrated Surface Sculpturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Saito, Yoshio

    In this paper, a surface sculpturing system based on 8-axis robot is proposed, the CAD/CAM software and tool path generation algorithm for this sculpturing system are presented. The 8-axis robot is composed of a 6-axis manipulator and a 2-axis worktable, it carves block of polystyrene foams by heated cutting tools. Multi-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot benefits from the faster fashion than traditional RP (Rapid Prototyping) methods and more flexibility than CNC machining. With its flexibility driven from an 8-axis configuration, as well as efficient custom-developed software for rough cutting and finish cutting, this surface sculpturing system can carve sculptured surface accurately and efficiently.

  3. Automatic measurement system for long term LED parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    During the past years significantly increased the number of LED models available on the market. However, not all of them have parameters which allow for use in professional lighting systems. The article discusses the international standards which should be met by modern LEDs. Among them, one of the most important parameters is factor of luminous flux decline in value during the operation of the LEDs. Its value is influenced by many factors, among others, the junction temperature of the diode and average and maximum values of supply current. Other important, for lighting reasons, parameters are stability of correlated color temperature and stability of chromaticity coordinates of the emitted light. The paper presents a system to measure luminous flux and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. Measurement system also allows for measuring a change in these parameters during operation of the LED.

  4. Real-time imaging systems' combination of methods to achieve automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraviglia, Carlos G.; Williams, Elmer F.; Pezzulich, Alan Z.

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of strategies real time imaging weapons systems are achieving their goals of detecting their intended targets. The demands of acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromise be made as to having a truly automatic system. A combination of techniques such as dedicated image processing hardware, real time operating systems, mixes of algorithmic methods, and multi-sensor detectors are a forbearance of the unleashed potential of future weapons system and their incorporation in truly autonomous target acquisition. Elements such as position information, sensor gain controls, way marks for mid course correction, and augmentation with different imaging spectrums as well as future capabilities such as neural net expert systems and decision processors over seeing a fusion matrix architecture may be considered tools for a weapon system's achievement of its ultimate goal. Currently, acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromises be made as to having a truly automatic system. It is now necessary to include a human in the track decision loop, a system feature that may be long lived. Automatic Track Recognition will still be the desired goal in future systems due to the variability of military missions and desirability of an expendable asset. Furthermore, with the increasing incorporation of multi-sensor information into the track decision the human element's real time contribution must be carefully engineered.

  5. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  6. A Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System to Automatically Predict Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; McLean, David; Edmonds, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic methodology and architecture for developing a novel conversational intelligent tutoring system (CITS) called Oscar that leads a tutoring conversation and dynamically predicts and adapts to a student's learning style. Oscar aims to mimic a human tutor by implicitly modelling the learning style during tutoring, and…

  7. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  8. Clinical significance of automatic warning function of cardiac remote monitoring systems in preventing acute cardiac episodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Gao, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In addition to ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recording and transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring (TTM), a cardiac remote monitoring system can provide an automatic warning function through the general packet radio service (GPRS) network, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment and improved outcome of cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate its clinical significance in preventing acute cardiac episodes. Methods: Using 2 leads (V1 and V5 leads) and the automatic warning mode, 7160 patients were tested with a cardiac remote monitoring system from October 2004 to September 2007. If malignant arrhythmias or obvious ST-T changes appeared in the electrocardiogram records was automatically transferred to the monitoring center, the patient and his family members were informed, and the corresponding precautionary or therapeutic measures were implemented immediately. Results: In our study, 274 cases of malignant arrhythmia, including sinus standstill and ventricular tachycardia, and 43 cases of obvious ST-segment elevation were detected and treated. Because of early detection, there was no death or deformity. Conclusions: A cardiac remote monitoring system providing an automatic warning function can play an important role in preventing acute cardiac episodes. PMID:25674124

  9. An Extended Membrane System with Active Membranes to Solve Automatic Fuzzy Clustering Problems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Wang, Jun; Shi, Peng; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J; Riscos-Núñez, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on automatic fuzzy clustering problem and proposes a novel automatic fuzzy clustering method that employs an extended membrane system with active membranes that has been designed as its computing framework. The extended membrane system has a dynamic membrane structure; since membranes can evolve, it is particularly suitable for processing the automatic fuzzy clustering problem. A modification of a differential evolution (DE) mechanism was developed as evolution rules for objects according to membrane structure and object communication mechanisms. Under the control of both the object's evolution-communication mechanism and the membrane evolution mechanism, the extended membrane system can effectively determine the most appropriate number of clusters as well as the corresponding optimal cluster centers. The proposed method was evaluated over 13 benchmark problems and was compared with four state-of-the-art automatic clustering methods, two recently developed clustering methods and six classification techniques. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of effectiveness and robustness. PMID:26790484

  10. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    PubMed Central

    Deliagina, Tatiana G.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Zelenin, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey) and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat). In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS) neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed. PMID:25324741

  11. Activation of lactoperoxidase system in milk by glucose oxidase immobilized in electrospun polylactide microfibers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Lim, L-T

    2009-03-01

    In this study, glucose oxidase (GOX) was immobilized in polylactide (PLA) fibers that were used to activate the lactoperoxidase (LP) system in milk. The GOX-containing microfibers were electrospun from emulsions prepared by dispersing aqueous GOX in PLA dissolved in a chloroform and N,N-dimethylformamide blend, using sorbitan monopalmitate as an emulsifier. The enzymatic activity of GOX-in-PLA fibers (1100 +/- 400 nm diameter) was more than 19 times higher than that of the GOX-in-PLA membrane formed by direct casting, due to the larger surface area of the electrospun fibers. The activation of LP in model solutions using GOX-in-PLA fibers provided a more sustained generation of antimicrobial OSCN(-) than direct activation using H(2)O(2). Preliminary evaluation on milk samples showed that the electrospun GOX-in-PLA microfibers are capable of activating the naturally present LP system, indicating that they may be promising for active food packaging applications to extend the shelf life of milk.

  12. Activation of lactoperoxidase system in milk by glucose oxidase immobilized in electrospun polylactide microfibers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Lim, L-T

    2009-03-01

    In this study, glucose oxidase (GOX) was immobilized in polylactide (PLA) fibers that were used to activate the lactoperoxidase (LP) system in milk. The GOX-containing microfibers were electrospun from emulsions prepared by dispersing aqueous GOX in PLA dissolved in a chloroform and N,N-dimethylformamide blend, using sorbitan monopalmitate as an emulsifier. The enzymatic activity of GOX-in-PLA fibers (1100 +/- 400 nm diameter) was more than 19 times higher than that of the GOX-in-PLA membrane formed by direct casting, due to the larger surface area of the electrospun fibers. The activation of LP in model solutions using GOX-in-PLA fibers provided a more sustained generation of antimicrobial OSCN(-) than direct activation using H(2)O(2). Preliminary evaluation on milk samples showed that the electrospun GOX-in-PLA microfibers are capable of activating the naturally present LP system, indicating that they may be promising for active food packaging applications to extend the shelf life of milk. PMID:19323732

  13. CAD system for automatic analysis of CT perfusion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachaj, T.; Ogiela, M. R.

    2011-03-01

    In this article, authors present novel algorithms developed for the computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system for analysis of dynamic brain perfusion, computer tomography (CT) maps, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Those methods perform both quantitative analysis [detection and measurement and description with brain anatomy atlas (AA) of potential asymmetries/lesions] and qualitative analysis (semantic interpretation of visualized symptoms). The semantic interpretation (decision about type of lesion: ischemic/hemorrhagic, is the brain tissue at risk of infraction or not) of visualized symptoms is done by, so-called, cognitive inference processes allowing for reasoning on character of pathological regions based on specialist image knowledge. The whole system is implemented in.NET platform (C# programming language) and can be used on any standard PC computer with.NET framework installed.

  14. Hybrid Multiagent System for Automatic Object Learning Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Ana; de La Prieta, Fernando; López, Vivian F.

    The rapid evolution within the context of e-learning is closely linked to international efforts on the standardization of learning object metadata, which provides learners in a web-based educational system with ubiquitous access to multiple distributed repositories. This article presents a hybrid agent-based architecture that enables the recovery of learning objects tagged in Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and provides individualized help with selecting learning materials to make the most suitable choice among many alternatives.

  15. Carola, a computer system for automatic documentation in anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Karliczek, G F; de Geus, A F; Wiersma, G; Oosterhaven, S; Jenkins, I

    1987-01-01

    A computer system has been designed for documentation and data acquisition during open heart surgery. This computer system (called 'Carola') processes all patient data during cardiac surgery. More than 50 analogue or digital signals are scanned. These are derived from a monitoring rack, a Siemens Servo 900B ventilator with its accessory devices and a heart lung machine. All these values are plotted as well as offline data, such as medications, fluids, laboratory results and user comments, on an A3 format anesthetic record using an eight pen flat bed plotter. Simultaneously all data is written onto a cassette tape. These tapes are then transferred to a database for storage and statistical processing. The sampling frequency is every 10 seconds, averages being calculated over one minute periods. The chart is updated once a minute normally or every 15 minutes for slowly changing signals e.g. temperatures. Hardware and software of the computer have modular design. The hardware consists of two Motorola 6809 based microprocessor systems. The software is entirely written in Pascal. The user interface is implemented on a menu driven basis. A terminal with a keyboard is used for the communication with the users, namely anesthetic nurses and anesthesiologists. The system was readily accepted by the users. The menu structure proved to be easy to learn and allowed fast entries, even when the users were not previously accustomed to the use of a keyboard. The clear and detailed presentation of the data on the plotted chart helped to detect trends early and facilitated therapeutic decisions. From december 1983 the first prototype was used on a routine basis, followed by a second unit in June 1984 and a third in December 1985. Up to now more than 12.500 anesthetic hours have been recorded. Since then almost 100% of all anesthetics performed in our cardiothoracic unit have been documented by the computers, including all short procedures without invasive monitoring and all

  16. Passive automatic anti-piracy defense system of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Ciurapiński, W.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Stachowiak, R.; Markowski, P.

    2013-10-01

    The article describes the technological solution for ship self-defense against pirate attacks. The paper presents the design solutions in the field of direct physical protection. All the solutions are connected with the latest optoelectronic and microwave systems and sensors to detect, recognize and the threat posed by pirates. In particular, tests of effectiveness and the detection-range of technology demonstrator developed by a team of authors were carried out.

  17. Automatically Finding the Control Variables for Complex System Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Gregory; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Testing large-scale systems is expensive in terms of both time and money. Running simulations early in the process is a proven method of finding the design faults likely to lead to critical system failures, but determining the exact cause of those errors is still time-consuming and requires access to a limited number of domain experts. It is desirable to find an automated method that explores the large number of combinations and is able to isolate likely fault points. Treatment learning is a subset of minimal contrast-set learning that, rather than classifying data into distinct categories, focuses on finding the unique factors that lead to a particular classification. That is, they find the smallest change to the data that causes the largest change in the class distribution. These treatments, when imposed, are able to identify the factors most likely to cause a mission-critical failure. The goal of this research is to comparatively assess treatment learning against state-of-the-art numerical optimization techniques. To achieve this, this paper benchmarks the TAR3 and TAR4.1 treatment learners against optimization techniques across three complex systems, including two projects from the Robust Software Engineering (RSE) group within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center. The results clearly show that treatment learning is both faster and more accurate than traditional optimization methods.

  18. Phase correction system for automatic focusing of synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Eichel, Paul H.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.

    1990-01-01

    A phase gradient autofocus system for use in synthetic aperture imaging accurately compensates for arbitrary phase errors in each imaged frame by locating highlighted areas and determining the phase disturbance or image spread associated with each of these highlight areas. An estimate of the image spread for each highlighted area in a line in the case of one dimensional processing or in a sector, in the case of two-dimensional processing, is determined. The phase error is determined using phase gradient processing. The phase error is then removed from the uncorrected image and the process is iteratively performed to substantially eliminate phase errors which can degrade the image.

  19. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  20. Design and Realization of Controllable Ultrasonic Fault Detector Automatic Verification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing-Feng; Liu, Hui-Ying; Guo, Hui-Juan; Shu, Rong; Wei, Kai-Li

    The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment with remote control interface is researched and the automatic verification system is developed. According to use extensible markup language, the building of agreement instruction set and data analysis method database in the system software realizes the controllable designing and solves the diversification of unreleased device interfaces and agreements. By using the signal generator and a fixed attenuator cascading together, a dynamic error compensation method is proposed, completes what the fixed attenuator does in traditional verification and improves the accuracy of verification results. The automatic verification system operating results confirms that the feasibility of the system hardware and software architecture design and the correctness of the analysis method, while changes the status of traditional verification process cumbersome operations, and reduces labor intensity test personnel.

  1. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  2. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  3. System for Automatic Detection of Clustered Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzani, A.; Bollini, D.; Brancaccio, R.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.; Romani, D.; Bevilacqua, A.

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the detection of clustered microcalcifications in mammograms. Our detection algorithm consists of the combination of two different methods. The first, based on difference-image techniques and gaussianity statistical tests, finds out the most obvious signals. The second, is able to discover more subtle microcalcifications by exploiting a multiresolution analysis by means of the wavelet transform. We can separately tune the two methods, so that each one of them is able to detect signals with similar features. By combining signals coming out from the two parts through a logical OR operation, we can discover microcalcifications with different characteristics. Our algorithm yields a sensitivity of 91.4% with 0.4 false positive cluster per image on the 40 images of the Nijmegen database.

  4. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 1. [Scout project automatic data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The program theory used to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, is described. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: (1) incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; (2) design information releases and reports; and (3) drawings and engineering orders. All subroutine descriptions, flowcharts, and MAIL LOG outputs are given and the data base design is described.

  5. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  6. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  7. Automatic pre-cooling system for large infrared instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Colley, Stephen; Cook, David; Gorman, William; Magrath, Barney; Ramos, Lucio; Kleinman, Scot; Tokoku, Chihiro; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2008-07-01

    An infrared instrument used for observation has to keep the detector and optical components in a very cold environment during operation. However, because of maintenance, upgrades, and other routine work, there are situations that require the instrument to be warmed-up and then cooled-down again. At Subaru Observatory, our MOIRCS infrared instrument has required warm-up and cool-down several times a year for routine maintenance and filter replacement. The MOIRCS instrument has a large heat capacity and cool-down using only the closed cycle cooler is impractical due to the huge amount of time it would require. To address this problem Subaru engineers have created a mechanism to allow PRE-COOLING of the instrument via liquid nitrogen - allowing for a much faster pre-cool process. Even with liquid nitrogen, the pre-cool process requires 10 tanks and almost a week of continual monitoring in order to reach the desired target temperature. It is very difficult to work for such a long period of time at the oxygen starved summit of Mauna Kea (4205 meters),and issues of man-power and scheduling conflicts only add to the problems. To address these concerns Subaru developed an automated pre-cooling system which works continuously and remotely at the summit. The strategy was to have basic functionality for pre-cooling and user friendly interface. i.e. (1) Continuous cooling until the target temperature is reached by automated liquid nitrogen tank exchanges and precision temperature control by automated changes to the liquid nitrogen flow. (2) Remote monitoring and control of all parameter setting by Web browser as user interface (UI). The goal of the Subaru pre-cooling system was to make it both inexpensive and quick to implement by using existing technologies. The original goal (to cut down on labor and precision temperature control) has been attained through several pre-cooling and software/hardware modification cycles. We will report on the progress and status of our pre

  8. Automatic balancing of AMB systems using plural notch filter and adaptive synchronous compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    To achieve automatic balancing in active magnetic bearing (AMB) system, a control method with notch filters and synchronous compensators is widely employed. However, the control precision is significantly affected by the synchronous compensation error, which is caused by parameter errors and variations of the power amplifiers. Furthermore, the computation effort may become intolerable if a 4-degree-of-freedom (dof) AMB system is studied. To solve these problems, an adaptive automatic balancing control method in the AMB system is presented in this study. Firstly, a 4-dof radial AMB system is described and analyzed. To simplify the controller design, the 4-dof dynamic equations are transferred into two plural functions related to translation and rotation, respectively. Next, to achieve automatic balancing of the AMB system, two synchronous equations are formed. Solution of them leads to a control strategy based on notch filters and feedforward controllers with an inverse function of the power amplifier. The feedforward controllers can be simplified as synchronous phases and amplitudes. Then, a plural phase-shift notch filter which can identify the synchronous components in 2-dof motions is formulated, and an adaptive compensation method that can form two closed-loop systems to tune the synchronous amplitude of the feedforward controller and the phase of the plural notch filter is proposed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments on a test rig of magnetically suspended control moment gyro. The results indicate that this method can fulfill the automatic balancing of the AMB system with a light computational load.

  9. Performance Improvement in Automatic Question Answering System Based on Dependency Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianxing; Yuan, Xiaojie; Yu, Shitao; Ning, Hua; Wang, Chenying

    Automatic Question Answering (QA) system has become quite popular in recent years, especially since the QA tracks appeared at Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). However, using only lexical information, the keyword-based information retrieval cannot fully describe the characteristics of natural language, thus the system performance cannot make people satisfied. It is proposed in this paper a definition of dependency term, based on the dependency grammar, employing the natural language dependency structure, as the improvement of the term, to support the typical information retrieval models. It is in fact a solution for a special application in XML information retrieval (XML IR) field. Experiments show that: dependency-term-based information retrieval model effectively describes the characteristics of natural language questions, and improves the performance of automatic question answering system.

  10. Automatic switching and guidance system to facilitate unassisted uroflowmetry using commercial electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Terai, Akito; Ueda, Nobufumi; Utsunomiya, Noriaki; Kohei, Naoki; Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Inoue, Koji

    2006-08-01

    To enable male patients to undergo uroflowmetry in a private condition without medical supervision, we devised an automatic switching and patient guidance system for the spinning disk uroflowmeter Urodyn 1000, using two commercial electronic devices (an infrared motion sensor tap and a memorizable vacuum fluorescent display). Instead of running the uroflowmeter continuously, which shortens the life of the spinning disk due to mechanical wear, an infrared motion sensor turns on the devices each time a patient enters the room. The patient urinates according to the timely instructions on the visible display and voided urine directly flows into a urinal. The devices are automatically turned off 5 min after the patient leaves the room. With the use of our system, men already acquainted with uroflowmetry could perform self-administered uroflowmetry any time in private. The system was considered useful for improving the quality of patient service.

  11. CADLIVE toolbox for MATLAB: automatic dynamic modeling of biochemical networks with comprehensive system analysis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/CADLIVE_MATLAB/ together with an instruction.

  12. Investigation of Ballistic Evidence through an Automatic Image Analysis and Identification System.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ilker

    2016-05-01

    Automated firearms identification (AFI) systems contribute to shedding light on criminal events by comparison between different pieces of evidence on cartridge cases and bullets and by matching similar ones that were fired from the same firearm. Ballistic evidence can be rapidly analyzed and classified by means of an automatic image analysis and identification system. In addition, it can be used to narrow the range of possible matching evidence. In this study conducted on the cartridges ejected from the examined pistol, three imaging areas, namely the firing pin impression, capsule traces, and the intersection of these traces, were compared automatically using the image analysis and identification system through the correlation ranking method to determine the numeric values that indicate the significance of the similarities. These numerical features that signify the similarities and differences between pistol makes and models can be used in groupings to make a distinction between makes and models of pistols. PMID:27122419

  13. Automatic Welding System of Aluminum Pipe by Monitoring Backside Image of Molten Pool Using Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    An automatic welding system using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with vision sensor for welding of aluminum pipe was constructed. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position and moving welding torch with the AC welding machine. The monitoring system consists of a vision sensor using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Neural network model for welding speed control were constructed to perform the process automatically. From the experimental results it shows the effectiveness of the control system confirmed by good detection of molten pool and sound weld of experimental result.

  14. Evaluation of surface mount component misalignment using an automatic machine vision system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yerganian, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A system manufactured by Synthetic Vision Systems Inc. was evaluated for its ability to automatically inspect surface mount components on a densely populated printed wiring board assembly for component presence and proper alignment before and after soldering. The system was evaluated for its use as a process verification tool in the presoldered mode and as a supplement to visual inspection in the postsoldered mode. To test the ability of the three-dimensional imaging system to locate the component edges in both the presoldered and postsoldered cases, data was gathered by inspecting four printed wiring board assemblies with the system.

  15. Investigation of passive blade cyclic pitch variation using an automatic yaw control system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenemser, K.H.; Swift, A.H.P.

    1982-08-01

    The investigation of passive cyclic pitch variation using an automatic yaw control system made use of the test equipment and of the results of an earlier study. The atmospheric test equipment consisted of a horizontal axis wind turbine with vane controlled upwind two-bladed rotor of 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter having passive cyclic pitch variation. An automatically triggered electric furl actuator prevented over-speeds and over-torques by furling the rotor which means yawing the rotor out of the winds. The atmospheric test equipment was modified to accept two alternative fully automatic yaw or furl control systems. The first system was of the active type and included a hydraulic single acting constant speed governor as it is used for aircraft propeller controls. Upon reaching the rotor speed limit, the governor delivered pressurized oil to a hydraulic furl actuator which then overcame the unfurling spring force and furled the rotor. When the rotor speed fell below the set value, the governor admitted oil flow from the hydraulic actuator into the oil reservoir and the rotor was unfurled by the spring. The second automatic control system was of a purely mechanical passive type. The rotor thrust, which was laterally off-set from the yaw axis, in combination with a yawing component of the rotor torque due to uptilt of the rotor axis overcame at rated power the unfurling spring and furled the rotor. The analytically predicted and experimentally substantiated negative rotor yaw damping would cause excessive furling rates unless alleviated by a furl damper. The tests were supported by a specially developed dynamic yawing analysis. Both analysis and tests indicated that the two-bladed passive cyclic pitch wind rotor can be effectively torque or speed limited by rotor yaw control systems which are less costly and more reliable than the conventional blade feathering control systems.

  16. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortström, Jari; Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Seismology of University of Helsinki is building a new local seismic network, called OBF network, around planned nuclear power plant in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The network will consist of nine new stations and one existing station. The network should be dense enough to provide azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic detection capability down to ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site.The network construction work began in 2012 and the first four stations started operation at the end of May 2013. We applied an automatic seismic signal detection and event location system to a network of 13 stations consisting of the four new stations and the nearest stations of Finnish and Swedish national seismic networks. Between the end of May and December 2013 the network detected 214 events inside the predefined area of 50 km radius surrounding the planned nuclear power plant site. Of those detections, 120 were identified as spurious events. A total of 74 events were associated with known quarries and mining areas. The average location error, calculated as a difference between the announced location from environment authorities and companies and the automatic location, was 2.9 km. During the same time period eight earthquakes between magnitude range 0.1-1.0 occurred within the area. Of these seven could be automatically detected. The results from the phase 1 stations of the OBF network indicates that the planned network can achieve its goals.

  17. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  18. A Study on the Development of a Robot-Assisted Automatic Laser Hair Removal System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoung-woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. Methods: For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of “pick and place” automatically. Results: During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm2/spot, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment. PMID:25343281

  19. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  20. Human abdomen recognition using camera and force sensor in medical robot system for automatic ultrasound scan.

    PubMed

    Bin Mustafa, Ammar Safwan; Ishii, Takashi; Matsunaga, Yoshiki; Nakadate, Ryu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kouji; Saito, Akiko; Sugawara, Motoaki; Niki, Kiyomi; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    Physicians use ultrasound scans to obtain real-time images of internal organs, because such scans are safe and inexpensive. However, people in remote areas face difficulties to be scanned due to aging society and physician's shortage. Hence, it is important to develop an autonomous robotic system to perform remote ultrasound scans. Previously, we developed a robotic system for automatic ultrasound scan focusing on human's liver. In order to make it a completely autonomous system, we present in this paper a way to autonomously localize the epigastric region as the starting position for the automatic ultrasound scan. An image processing algorithm marks the umbilicus and mammary papillae on a digital photograph of the patient's abdomen. Then, we made estimation for the location of the epigastric region using the distances between these landmarks. A supporting algorithm distinguishes rib position from epigastrium using the relationship between force and displacement. We implemented these algorithms with the automatic scanning system into an apparatus: a Mitsubishi Electric's MELFA RV-1 six axis manipulator. Tests on 14 healthy male subjects showed the apparatus located the epigastric region with a success rate of 94%. The results suggest that image recognition was effective in localizing a human body part. PMID:24110822

  1. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  2. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  3. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals. PMID:25571461

  4. Automatic miniaturized fluorometric flow system for chemical and toxicological control of glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, David S M; Prior, João A V; Taveira, Christian J M; Mendes, José M A F S; Santos, João L M

    2011-06-15

    In this work, and for the first time, it was developed an automatic and fast screening miniaturized flow system for the toxicological control of glibenclamide in beverages, with application in forensic laboratory investigations, and also, for the chemical control of commercially available pharmaceutical formulations. The automatic system exploited the multipumping flow (MPFS) concept and allowed the implementation of a new glibenclamide determination method based on the fluorometric monitoring of the drug in acidic medium (λ(ex)=301 nm; λ(em)=404 nm), in the presence of an anionic surfactant (SDS), promoting an organized micellar medium to enhance the fluorometric measurements. The developed approach assured good recoveries in the analysis of five spiked alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a good agreement was verified when comparing the results obtained in the determination of glibenclamide in five commercial pharmaceutical formulations by the proposed method and by the pharmacopoeia reference procedure.

  5. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  6. First description of milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels under an intensive farming system.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Hammadi, Mohamed; Barmat, Ahmed; Farhat, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Marnet, Pierre-Guy

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate milking ability in dromedary camels, 124 milk flow curves were registered during morning milking of 20 dairy Maghrebi dromedary camels. Animals were in lactations 1-8, were 6-19 years old and were 4-15 months of their current lactation. Milk flow curves were recorded using an electronic milk flow meter (Lactocorder®). Milk flow curves were classified in three typical patterns: type 1 represents curves with one high and short peak of milk flow; type 2 represents curves with a moderate mean milk flow rate during a large plateau phase; and type 3 represents curves with lower mean milk flow rate and a relatively longer milking duration. The ratio of the different milk flow patterns in the population evaluated was 40:38:22% for types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest milk yield per milking, average and peak milk flow were observed in camels with type 1 curves (4·24 kg, 1·49 and 3·54 kg/min, respectively) followed by type 2 animals (3·30 kg, 1·12 and 2·12 kg/min, respectively) and lastly type 3 curves (2·34 kg, 0·65 and 1·23 kg/min, respectively). This study confirmed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability. Nevertheless, our results suggest that pre-stimulation and improving the milking process may improve milking efficiency and guarantee a more complete and rapid emptying of the udder.

  7. Automatic differentiation for design sensitivity analysis of structural systems using multiple processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Storaasli, Olaf O.; Qin, Jiangning; Qamar, Ramzi

    1994-01-01

    An automatic differentiation tool (ADIFOR) is incorporated into a finite element based structural analysis program for shape and non-shape design sensitivity analysis of structural systems. The entire analysis and sensitivity procedures are parallelized and vectorized for high performance computation. Small scale examples to verify the accuracy of the proposed program and a medium scale example to demonstrate the parallel vector performance on multiple CRAY C90 processors are included.

  8. Research on large spatial coordinate automatic measuring system based on multilateral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Dongjing; Li, Jianshuan; Li, Lianfu; Jiang, Yuanlin; Kang, Yao; He, Mingzhao; Deng, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    To measure the spatial coordinate accurately and efficiently in large size range, a manipulator automatic measurement system which based on multilateral method is developed. This system is divided into two parts: The coordinate measurement subsystem is consists of four laser tracers, and the trajectory generation subsystem is composed by a manipulator and a rail. To ensure that there is no laser beam break during the measurement process, an optimization function is constructed by using the vectors between the laser tracers measuring center and the cat's eye reflector measuring center, then an orientation automatically adjust algorithm for the reflector is proposed, with this algorithm, the laser tracers are always been able to track the reflector during the entire measurement process. Finally, the proposed algorithm is validated by taking the calibration of laser tracker for instance: the actual experiment is conducted in 5m × 3m × 3.2m range, the algorithm is used to plan the orientations of the reflector corresponding to the given 24 points automatically. After improving orientations of some minority points with adverse angles, the final results are used to control the manipulator's motion. During the actual movement, there are no beam break occurs. The result shows that the proposed algorithm help the developed system to measure the spatial coordinates over a large range with efficiency.

  9. The guidance methodology of a new automatic guided laser theodolite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Zhu, Jigui; Zhou, Hu; Ye, Shenghua

    2008-12-01

    Spatial coordinate measurement systems such as theodolites, laser trackers and total stations have wide application in manufacturing and certification processes. The traditional operation of theodolites is manual and time-consuming which does not meet the need of online industrial measurement, also laser trackers and total stations need reflective targets which can not realize noncontact and automatic measurement. A new automatic guided laser theodolite system is presented to achieve automatic and noncontact measurement with high precision and efficiency which is comprised of two sub-systems: the basic measurement system and the control and guidance system. The former system is formed by two laser motorized theodolites to accomplish the fundamental measurement tasks while the latter one consists of a camera and vision system unit mounted on a mechanical displacement unit to provide azimuth information of the measured points. The mechanical displacement unit can rotate horizontally and vertically to direct the camera to the desired orientation so that the camera can scan every measured point in the measuring field, then the azimuth of the corresponding point is calculated for the laser motorized theodolites to move accordingly to aim at it. In this paper the whole system composition and measuring principle are analyzed, and then the emphasis is laid on the guidance methodology for the laser points from the theodolites to move towards the measured points. The guidance process is implemented based on the coordinate transformation between the basic measurement system and the control and guidance system. With the view field angle of the vision system unit and the world coordinate of the control and guidance system through coordinate transformation, the azimuth information of the measurement area that the camera points at can be attained. The momentary horizontal and vertical changes of the mechanical displacement movement are also considered and calculated to provide

  10. Semi-automatic microdrive system for positioning electrodes during electrophysiological recordings from rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Piotr; Kublik, Ewa; Mozaryn, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Electrophysiological recording of neuronal action potentials from behaving animals requires portable, precise and reliable devices for positioning of multiple microelectrodes in the brain. We propose a semi-automatic microdrive system for independent positioning of up to 8 electrodes (or tetrodes) in a rat (or larger animals). Device is intended to be used in chronic, long term recording applications in freely moving animals. Our design is based on independent stepper motors with lead screws which will offer single steps of ~ μm semi-automatically controlled from the computer. Microdrive system prototype for one electrode was developed and tested. Because of the lack of the systematic test procedures dedicated to such applications, we propose the evaluation of the prototype similar to ISO norm for industrial robots. To this end we designed and implemented magnetic linear and rotary encoders that provided information about electrode displacement and motor shaft movement. On the basis of these measurements we estimated repeatability, accuracy and backlash of the drive. According to the given assumptions and preliminary tests, the device should provide greater accuracy than hand-controlled manipulators available on the market. Automatic positioning will also shorten the course of the experiment and improve the acquisition of signals from multiple neuronal populations.

  11. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  12. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  13. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  14. NASA automatic subject analysis technique for extracting retrievable multi-terms (NASA TERM) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, J.; Williamson, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Current methods for information processing and retrieval used at the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Facility are reviewed. A more cost effective computer aided indexing system is proposed which automatically generates print terms (phrases) from the natural text. Satisfactory print terms can be generated in a primarily automatic manner to produce a thesaurus (NASA TERMS) which extends all the mappings presently applied by indexers, specifies the worth of each posting term in the thesaurus, and indicates the areas of use of the thesaurus entry phrase. These print terms enable the computer to determine which of several terms in a hierarchy is desirable and to differentiate ambiguous terms. Steps in the NASA TERMS algorithm are discussed and the processing of surrogate entry phrases is demonstrated using four previously manually indexed STAR abstracts for comparison. The simulation shows phrase isolation, text phrase reduction, NASA terms selection, and RECON display.

  15. Automatic control and data acquisition system for combustion laboratory applications. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    A modern computer based automatic data acquisition/control system was installed at the Department of Aeronautics' Combustion Laboratory. This system utilizes an HP-85 desktop computer as system controller for the HP-3054A data acquisition system. Large quantities of high quality data can be acquired at high data rates and stored for future use or processed real time in closed loop feedback control circuis for precise process control and display. Other electromechanical equipment such as Visicorders provide analog real time data and run in parallel with digital equipment but can be remotely controlled for precise timing of experiments. Interactive programs on the HP-85 computer allow the experimenter to do preliminary calculations, initial experiment set-up, and to perform accurate process control of system functions. On line data reduction and display of results is performed by the system CRT display, the 7225B Plotter, or the system printer. Four basic experiments/experimental apparatuses are currently automated using the automatic data acquisition system; a light scattering experiment, a vitiated air heater, a solid fuel ramjet, and a turbojet combustor test rig. The first three applications are discussed in subsequent sections along with the measurement techniques used to implement the process.

  16. Automatic recloser circuit breaker integrated with GSM technology for power system notification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, M. Y.; Khiar, M. S. A.; Ghani, S. A.; Nawawi, M. R. M.; Rahim, N. H.; Sinar, L. O. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lightning is one type of transient faults that usually cause the circuit breaker in the distribution board trip due to overload current detection. The instant tripping condition in the circuit breakers clears the fault in the system. Unfortunately most circuit breakers system is manually operated. The power line will be effectively re-energized after the clearing fault process is finished. Auto-reclose circuit is used on the transmission line to carry out the duty of supplying quality electrical power to customers. In this project, an automatic reclose circuit breaker for low voltage usage is designed. The product description is the Auto Reclose Circuit Breaker (ARCB) will trip if the current sensor detects high current which exceeds the rated current for the miniature circuit breaker (MCB) used. Then the fault condition will be cleared automatically and return the power line to normal condition. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) system will send SMS to the person in charge if the tripping occurs. If the over current occurs in three times, the system will fully trip (open circuit) and at the same time will send an SMS to the person in charge. In this project a 1 A is set as the rated current and any current exceeding a 1 A will cause the system to trip or interrupted. This system also provides an additional notification for user such as the emergency light and warning system.

  17. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  18. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  19. Single-beam water vapor detection system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A single-beam optical sensor system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control is proposed for doing high reliability water vapor detection under relatively rough environmental conditions. Comparing to a dual-beam system, it can distinguish the finer photocurrent variations caused by the optical power drift and provide timely compensation by automatically adjusting the photoelectric conversion gain. This system can be rarely affected by the optical power drift caused by fluctuating ambient temperature or variation of fiber bending loss. The deviation of the single-beam system is below 1.11% when photocurrent decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam system (8.82%). We also demonstrate the long-term stability of the single-beam system by monitoring a 660 ppm by volume (ppmv) water vapor sample continuously for 24 h. The maximum deviation of the measured concentration during the whole testing period does not exceed 10 ppmv. Experiments have shown that the new system features better reliability and is more apt for remote sensing application which is often subject to light transmission loss.

  20. Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system extraction of sulfonamides in milk.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Xuli; Li, Na; Shi, Jiayuan; Zhang, Huijie; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Yong

    2014-06-15

    A simple method for the determination of six sulfonamides (SAs) in milk samples was developed. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and trisodium citrate dihydrate were used to form aqueous two-phase system. The aqueous two phase system was applied to the extraction of the SAs and the determination of the analytes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. To achieve optimum extraction performance, several experimental parameters, including the type and the amount of salt, the type and amount of ionic liquid, ultrasonic time and pH of sample solution, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 8.55-1036.36ngmL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 2.04-2.84 and 6.73-9.37ngmL(-1), respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs in milk samples, and the recoveries of analytes were in the range of 72.32-108.96% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.56 to 12.20%. The results showed that the present method was rapid, feasible and environmentally friendly. PMID:24854709

  1. [A brain tumor automatic assisted-diagnostic system based on medical image shape analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yang, Jie

    2005-03-01

    This paper covers a brain tumor assisted diagnosis system based on medical image analysis. The system supplements the PACS functions such as display of medical images and database inquiry, segments slice in real-time using the algorithm of fuzzy region competition, extracts shape feature factors such as contour label, compactness, moment, Fourier Descriptor, chord length, radius and other medical data on the brain tumor image with irregular contour feature after segmentation and then feeds to Bayesian network in order to sort the brain tumor for the implementation of automatic assisted diagnosis. PMID:16011110

  2. An automatic, unstructured grid-generation system for geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kocberber, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic, 3D, locally unstructured hybrid-grid generation system for sloping faults. This gridding system replaces a portion of an existing finite-difference grid around sloping faults with a finite-element grid made of tetrahedrons. This innovative approach retains the finite-difference character of the grid and minimizes the decrease in computational efficiency. This paper discusses the details of the gridding techniques used and provides several example grids that demonstrate that locally unstructured grids can accurately represent geologically complex reservoirs.

  3. Automatic lesion tracking for a PET/CT based computer aided cancer therapy monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfer, Roland; Brenner, Winfried; Carlsen, Ingwer; Renisch, Steffen; Sabczynski, Jörg; Wiemker, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Response assessment of cancer therapy is a crucial component towards a more effective and patient individualized cancer therapy. Integrated PET/CT systems provide the opportunity to combine morphologic with functional information. However, dealing simultaneously with several PET/CT scans poses a serious workflow problem. It can be a difficult and tedious task to extract response criteria based upon an integrated analysis of PET and CT images and to track these criteria over time. In order to improve the workflow for serial analysis of PET/CT scans we introduce in this paper a fast lesion tracking algorithm. We combine a global multi-resolution rigid registration algorithm with a local block matching and a local region growing algorithm. Whenever the user clicks on a lesion in the base-line PET scan the course of standardized uptake values (SUV) is automatically identified and shown to the user as a graph plot. We have validated our method by a data collection from 7 patients. Each patient underwent two or three PET/CT scans during the course of a cancer therapy. An experienced nuclear medicine physician manually measured the courses of the maximum SUVs for altogether 18 lesions. As a result we obtained that the automatic detection of the corresponding lesions resulted in SUV measurements which are nearly identical to the manually measured SUVs. Between 38 measured maximum SUVs derived from manual and automatic detected lesions we observed a correlation of 0.9994 and a average error of 0.4 SUV units.

  4. Conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of CDMAM phantom images of CR mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliott, Angelika; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-09-01

    In mammography screening, profound assessment of technical image quality is imperative. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests using an alternate fixed choice contrast-detail phantom-like CDMAM. For the evaluation of technical image quality, human or automated readouts can be used. For automatic evaluation, a software (cdcom) is provided by EUREF. If the automated readout indicates unacceptable image quality, additional human readout may be performed overriding the automated readout. As the latter systematically results in higher image quality ratings, conversion factors between both methods are regularly applied. Since most image quality issues with mammography systems arise within CR systems, an assessment restricted to CR systems with data from the Austrian Reference Center in the mammography screening program has been conducted. Forty-five CR systems were evaluated. Human readouts were performed with a randomisation software to avoid bias due to learning effects. Additional automatic evaluation allowed for the computation of conversion factors between human and automatic readouts. These factors were substantially lower compared to those suggested by EUREF, namely 1.21 compared to 1.62 (EUREF UK method) and 1.42 (EUREF EU method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.83 (EUREF UK) and 1.73 (EUREF EU) for 0.25 mm structure size, respectively. Using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to comply with image quality requirements results in differences in the dose increase of up to 90%. This necessitates a consensus on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies should be promoted.

  5. An automatic dose verification system for adaptive radiotherapy for helical tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiaohu; Chen, Mingli; Parnell, Donald; Olivera, Gustavo; Galmarini, Daniel; Lu, Weiguo

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: During a typical 5-7 week treatment of external beam radiotherapy, there are potential differences between planned patient's anatomy and positioning, such as patient weight loss, or treatment setup. The discrepancies between planned and delivered doses resulting from these differences could be significant, especially in IMRT where dose distributions tightly conforms to target volumes while avoiding organs-at-risk. We developed an automatic system to monitor delivered dose using daily imaging. Methods: For each treatment, a merged image is generated by registering the daily pre-treatment setup image and planning CT using treatment position information extracted from the Tomotherapy archive. The treatment dose is then computed on this merged image using our in-house convolution-superposition based dose calculator implemented on GPU. The deformation field between merged and planning CT is computed using the Morphon algorithm. The planning structures and treatment doses are subsequently warped for analysis and dose accumulation. All results are saved in DICOM format with private tags and organized in a database. Due to the overwhelming amount of information generated, a customizable tolerance system is used to flag potential treatment errors or significant anatomical changes. A web-based system and a DICOM-RT viewer were developed for reporting and reviewing the results. Results: More than 30 patients were analysed retrospectively. Our in-house dose calculator passed 97% gamma test evaluated with 2% dose difference and 2mm distance-to-agreement compared with Tomotherapy calculated dose, which is considered sufficient for adaptive radiotherapy purposes. Evaluation of the deformable registration through visual inspection showed acceptable and consistent results, except for cases with large or unrealistic deformation. Our automatic flagging system was able to catch significant patient setup errors or anatomical changes. Conclusions: We developed an automatic dose

  6. Project to develop and demonstrate an inexpensive automatic drop mechanism for window insulation systems. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The EPR concept is technically practical, but lacks something which is crucial to its marketplace success. That ''something'' would appear to be the capability of fully automatic operation, although logic says that semi-automatic operation obtains the benefits of window insulation closure. That fully-automatic operation produces a vastly different response in the marketplace is indicated by the fact that over 35 demonstrators at $30 each have been ordered in little more than one month since the Automatic Shade Roller System has been offered for sale; whereas, with nearly 1000 inquiries responded to, only a dozen EPR's were sold at $12.50. The role of automatic rollers in window insulation systems has not been thoroughly demonstrated. They can be used to operate exterior sunscreen shades, between-glazing shades, and combinations of sunscreen and insulating shades. What would be appropriate at this time would be installation of a combination of automatic shading/insulating systems on the windows of a public building or home to demonstrate the energy-savings benefits of such installations. As the sole US manufacturer of automatic shade rollers, Solar Roller Corporation, an associate with Solar Power West, is the ideal organization to make such installations.

  7. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  8. Estimates of marker effects for measures of milk flow in the Italian brown Swiss dairy cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Milkability is a complex trait that is characterized by milk flow traits including average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate and total milking time. Milkability has long been recognized as an economically important trait that can be improved through selection. By improving milkability, management costs of milking decrease through reduced labor and improved efficiency of the automatic milking system, which has been identified as an important factor affecting net profit. The objective of this study was to identify markers associated with electronically measured milk flow traits, in the Italian Brown Swiss population that could potentially improve selection based on genomic predictions. Results Sires (n = 1351) of cows with milk flow information were genotyped for 33,074 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA). Among the six milk flow traits collected, ascending time, time of plateau, descending time, total milking time, maximum milk flow and average milk flow, there were 6,929 (time of plateau) to 14,585 (maximum milk flow) significant SNP markers identified for each trait across all BTA. Unique regions were found for each of the 6 traits providing evidence that each individual milk flow trait offers distinct genetic information about milk flow. This study was also successful in identifying functional processes and genes associated with SNPs that influences milk flow. Conclusions In addition to verifying the presence of previously identified milking speed quantitative trait loci (QTL) within the Italian Brown Swiss population, this study revealed a number of genomic regions associated with milk flow traits that have never been reported as milking speed QTL. While several of these regions were not associated with a known gene or QTL, a number of regions were associated with QTL that have been formerly reported as regions associated with somatic cell count, somatic cell score and udder morphometrics

  9. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  10. 2011 Status of the Automatic Alignment System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K; Awwal, A; Burkhart, S; McGuigan, D; Kamm, V M; Leach, R; Lowe-Webb, R; Wilson, R

    2011-07-19

    Automated alignment for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is accomplished using a large-scale parallel control system that directs 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path. The beams are then focused down to a 50-micron spot in the middle of the target chamber. The entire process is completed in less than 50 minutes. The alignment system commands 9,000 stepping motors for highly accurate adjustment of mirrors and other optics. 41 control loops per beamline perform parallel processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze high-resolution images of the beams and their references. This paper describes the status the NIF automatic alignment system and the challenges encountered as NIF development has transitioned from building the laser, to becoming a research project supporting a 24 hour, 7 day laser facility. NIF is now a continuously operated system where performance monitoring is increasingly more critical for operation, maintenance, and commissioning tasks. Equipment wear and the effects of high energy neutrons from fusion experiments are issues which alter alignment efficiency and accuracy. New sensors needing automatic alignment assistance are common. System modifications to improve efficiency and accuracy are prevalent. Handling these evolving alignment and maintenance needs while minimizing the impact on NIF experiment schedule is expected to be an on-going challenge for the planned 30 year operational life of NIF.

  11. Multi-objective approach for the automatic design of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Carneiro de Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca; Luis de Sousa, Fabiano; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2016-03-21

    An innovative method for the automatic design of optical systems is presented and verified. The proposed method is based on a multi-objective evolutionary memetic optimization algorithm. The multi-objective approach simultaneously, but separately, addresses the image quality, tolerance, and complexity of the system. The memetic technique breaks down the search for optical designs in to three different parts or phases: optical glass selection, exploration, and exploitation. The optical glass selection phase defines the most appropriate set of glasses for the system under design. The glass selection phase limits the available glasses from hundreds to just a few, drastically reducing the design space and significantly increasing the efficiency of the automatic design method. The exploration phase is based on an evolutionary algorithm (EA), more specifically, on a problem-tailored generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm, named Optical GEO (O-GEO). The new EA incorporates many features customized for lens design, such as optical system codification and diversity operators. The trade-off systems found in the exploration phase are refined by a local search, based on the damped least square method in the exploitation phase. As a result, the method returns a set of trade-off solutions, generating a Pareto front. Our method delivers alternative and useful insights for the compromise solutions in a lens design problem. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified through real-world examples, showing excellent results for the tested problems. PMID:27136851

  12. SU-E-J-29: Automatic Image Registration Performance of Three IGRT Systems for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J; Sykes, J; Holloway, L; Thwaites, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the performance of an automatic image registration algorithm on image sets collected on three commercial image guidance systems, and explore its relationship with imaging parameters such as dose and sharpness. Methods: Images of a CIRS Virtually Human Male Pelvis phantom (VHMP) were collected on the CBCT systems of Varian TrueBeam/OBI and Elekta Synergy/XVI linear accelerators, across a range of mAs settings; and MVCT on a Tomotherapy Hi-ART accelerator with a range of pitch. Using the 6D correlation ratio algorithm of XVI, each image was registered to a mask of the prostate volume with a 5 mm expansion. Registrations were repeated 100 times, with random initial offsets introduced to simulate daily matching. Residual registration errors were calculated by correcting for the initial phantom set-up error. Automatic registration was also repeated after reconstructing images with different sharpness filters. Results: All three systems showed good registration performance, with residual translations <0.5mm (1σ) for typical clinical dose and reconstruction settings. Residual rotational error had larger range, with 0.8°, 1.2° and 1.9° for 1σ in XVI, OBI and Tomotherapy respectively. The registration accuracy of XVI images showed a strong dependence on imaging dose, particularly below 4mGy. No evidence of reduced performance was observed at the lowest dose settings for OBI and Tomotherapy, but these were above 4mGy. Registration failures (maximum target registration error > 3.6 mm on the surface of a 30mm sphere) occurred in 5% to 10% of registrations. Changing the sharpness of image reconstruction had no significant effect on registration performance. Conclusions: Using the present automatic image registration algorithm, all IGRT systems tested provided satisfactory registrations for clinical use, within a normal range of acquisition settings.

  13. Particulate and gaseous emissions from manually and automatically fired small scale combustion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidl, Christoph; Luisser, Markus; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Lasselsberger, Leopold; Rzaca, Magdalena; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Handler, Markus; Peng, Ge; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2011-12-01

    In an extensive wood combustion source test series 2 automatically and 2 manually fired appliances, and 8 fuel types were investigated with respect to their particulate (PM10) and gaseous emissions. Softwood briquettes, beech, oak and spruce logs, wood pellets as well as further biogenic fuels: wood chips, miscanthus (elephant grass) pellets and triticale ("energy crop") pellets were tested. Gaseous emissions were measured continuously while PM10 was sampled with a dilution system and averaged over standard test cycles. Manually fired stoves exhibited highly variable emissions resulting in an uncertainty of 30% for most measured compounds, determined in a series of replicate experiments. Average PM10 emissions from manually fired appliances were around 130 mg m -3 (standard conditions for temperature and pressure (STP), 13%O 2, dry gas), equivalent to 90 mg MJ -1. Wood pellets and chips combustion under full load operation with automatically fired appliances emit almost one order of magnitude less PM10, respectively: 12-21 mg m -3 (STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), or 8-14 mg MJ -1. Around 30% of total particle mass from manually fired systems account for elemental carbon and 30-40% for organic carbon, resulting in carbonaceous fraction content of around 90%. On average around 5% of PM10 emitted by manually fired stoves consisted of levoglucosan while this anhydrous sugar was below detection limit in full- and part load operation of automatically fired systems. Generally, emissions from automated systems were relatively constant for the same fuel type predominantly consisting of inorganic constituents. Emissions are mainly influenced by the mode of operation, start-up, full load or part load for a given fuel type. Surprisingly high emissions were observed for triticale pellets: 184 mg m -3 (125 mg MJ -1,) PM10 and 466 mg m -3 (395 mg MJ -1) NO x, (under full load operation, STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), originating from high chlorine and nitrogen contents of the fuel.

  14. GEM System: automatic prototyping of cell-wide metabolic pathway models from genomes

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Kazuharu; Yamada, Yohei; Shinoda, Kosaku; Nakayama, Yoichi; Tomita, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    Background Successful realization of a "systems biology" approach to analyzing cells is a grand challenge for our understanding of life. However, current modeling approaches to cell simulation are labor-intensive, manual affairs, and therefore constitute a major bottleneck in the evolution of computational cell biology. Results We developed the Genome-based Modeling (GEM) System for the purpose of automatically prototyping simulation models of cell-wide metabolic pathways from genome sequences and other public biological information. Models generated by the GEM System include an entire Escherichia coli metabolism model comprising 968 reactions of 1195 metabolites, achieving 100% coverage when compared with the KEGG database, 92.38% with the EcoCyc database, and 95.06% with iJR904 genome-scale model. Conclusion The GEM System prototypes qualitative models to reduce the labor-intensive tasks required for systems biology research. Models of over 90 bacterial genomes are available at our web site. PMID:16553966

  15. Development of a parameter optimization technique for the design of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Parameter optimization techniques for the design of linear automatic control systems that are applicable to both continuous and digital systems are described. The model performance index is used as the optimization criterion because of the physical insight that can be attached to it. The design emphasis is to start with the simplest system configuration that experience indicates would be practical. Design parameters are specified, and a digital computer program is used to select that set of parameter values which minimizes the performance index. The resulting design is examined, and complexity, through the use of more complex information processing or more feedback paths, is added only if performance fails to meet operational specifications. System performance specifications are assumed to be such that the desired step function time response of the system can be inferred.

  16. [OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF AUTOMATIC POSTING SYSTEM TO THE NATIONAL CLINICAL DATABASE USING FILEMAKER PRO].

    PubMed

    Tagami, Soichi; Narumoto, Soichi; Machida, Mizuho; Sakon, Masahiro; Seki, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Ken; Munakata, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    We would like to introduce a semi-automated registration system for the National Clinical Database. Japan Surgery Society runs the National Clinical Database since January 2011. And automated registration system is long-awaited due to the number of cases and diverse items to register. Well-known database management system, FileMakerPro enabled collecting and registering the items to the web-site automatically. Still some items need to copy one by one, but after filling the data, all data would be input to the web page for registration. Merit for this automated system is increasing not only the efficiency of administration work but the quality and the usefulness of this database. This paper is to report the outline of the registration system to the NCD database.

  17. Influence of pig substitution on milk yield, litter weights, and milk composition of machine milked sows.

    PubMed

    Garst, A S; Ball, S F; Williams, B L; Wood, C M; Knight, J W; Moll, H D; Aardema, C H; Gwazdauskas, F C

    1999-07-01

    , milk composition changes throughout lactation. However, milk removal from sows has a severe impact on litter weight gains, and in systems where sow's milk is needed for commercial purposes, pig supplementation is necessary.

  18. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  19. New conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of the CDMAM phantom for CR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliot, Angelika; Kaar, Marcus; Semtrus, Friedrich; Figl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mammography screenings demand for profound image quality (IQ) assessment to guarantee their screening success. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests a contrast detail phantom such as the CDMAM phantom to evaluate IQ. For automatic evaluation a software is provided by the EUREF. As human and automatic readouts differ systematically conversion factors were published by the official reference organisation (EUREF). As we experienced a significant difference for these factors for Computed Radiography (CR) systems we developed an objectifying analysis software which presents the cells including the gold disks randomly in thickness and rotation. This allows to overcome the problem of an inevitable learning effect where observers know the position of the disks in advance. Applying this software, 45 computed radiography (CR) systems were evaluated and the conversion factors between human and automatic readout determined. The resulting conversion factors were compared with the ones resulting from the two methods published by EUREF. We found our conversion factors to be substantially lower than those suggested by EUREF, in particular 1.21 compared to 1.42 (EUREF EU method) and 1.62 (EUREF UK method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.73 (EUREF EU) and 1.83 (EUREF UK) for 0.25 mm disc diameter, respectively. This can result in a dose increase of up to 90% using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to fulfill image quality requirements. This suggests the need of an agreement on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Therefore, we want to stress the need for clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies.

  20. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887