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Sample records for automatic modular abstractions

  1. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  2. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  3. Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L.L.; Robison, H.R.

    This fourth annual report summarizes the investigation of (1) a "sentence dictionary" and (2) a "word government dictionary" for use in automatic abstracting and extracting systems. The theory behind the sentence dictionary and its compilation is that a separation of significant from nonsignificant sentences can be accomplished on the basis of…

  4. Modularity in Non-Procedural Languages through Abstract Data Types.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    modularity Nopal 20. ABSTRACT (Coftiue an reverse aide It necessary Wnd Idaitfy by WOek nursbr) iThis dissertation presents abstract data tipes as a means...UNCLASSIFIED KEYWORDS cont. Nopal processor Equate-Atlas Equational specifications ABSTRACT cont. these languages because these are devoid of any control...and its denotational semantics is given. Nopal , a non-procedural language for the specification of testing of electrical circuits, has been chosen in

  5. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  6. Automatic Building Abstraction from Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, A.; Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-view stereo has been shown to be a viable tool for the creation of realistic 3D city models. Nevertheless, it still states significant challenges since it results in dense, but noisy and incomplete point clouds when applied to aerial images. 3D city modelling usually requires a different representation of the 3D scene than these point clouds. This paper applies a fully-automatic pipeline to generate a simplified mesh from a given dense point cloud. The mesh provides a certain level of abstraction as it only consists of relatively large planar and textured surfaces. Thus, it is possible to remove noise, outlier, as well as clutter, while maintaining a high level of accuracy.

  7. Kernel for modular robot applications: Automatic modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.M.; Yeo, S.H.; Chen, G.; Yang, G.

    1999-02-01

    A modular robotic system consists of standardized joint and link units that an be assembled into various kinematic configurations for different types of tasks. For the control and simulation of such a system, manual derivation of the kinematic and dynamic models, as well as the error model for kinematic calibration, require tremendous effort, because the models constantly change as the robot geometry is altered after module reconfiguration. This paper presents a frame-work to facilitate the model-generation procedure for the control and simulation of the modular robot system. A graph technique, termed kinematic graphs and realized through assembly incidence matrices (AIM), is introduced to represent the module-assembly sequence and robot geometry. The kinematics and dynamics are formulated based on a local representation of the theory of lie groups and Lie algebras. The automatic model-generation procedure starts with a given assembly graph of the modular robot. Kinematic, dynamic, and error models of the robot are then established, based on the local representations and iterative graph-traversing algorithms. This approach can be applied to a modular robot with both serial and branch-type geometries, and arbitrary degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the AIM of the robot naturally leads to solving the task-oriented optimal configuration problem in modular robots. There is no need to maintain a huge library of robot models, and the footprint of the overall software system can be reduced.

  8. A method for automatically abstracting visual documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Visual documents--motion sequences on film, videotape, and digital recording--constitute a major source of information for the Space Agency, as well as all other government and private sector entities. This article describes a method for automatically selecting key frames from visual documents. These frames may in turn be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents in visual libraries, hypermedia systems, and training algorithm reduces 51 minutes of video sequences to 134 frames; a reduction of information in the range of 700:1.

  9. Improvement of Automatic Abstracts by the Use of Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Betty A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Results of an attempt to extend the capabilities of a previously-existing automatic abstracting system by adding a modification procedure designed to make system-produced abstracts more acceptable to readers are reported. A rationale for this modification phase is presented, along with several modification rules and methods for improving…

  10. Automatic Identification System modular receiver for academic purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, F.; Molina, N.; Tichavska, M.; Araña, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) standard is encompassed within the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), in force since 1999. The GMDSS is a set of procedures, equipment, and communication protocols designed with the aim of increasing the safety of sea crossings, facilitating navigation, and the rescue of vessels in danger. The use of this system not only is increasingly attractive to security issues but also potentially creates intelligence products throughout the added-value information that this network can transmit from ships on real time (identification, position, course, speed, dimensions, flag, among others). Within the marine electronics market, commercial receivers implement this standard and allow users to access vessel-broadcasted information if in the range of coverage. In addition to satellite services, users may request actionable information from private or public AIS terrestrial networks where real-time feed or historical data can be accessed from its nodes. This paper describes the configuration of an AIS receiver based on a modular design. This modular design facilitates the evaluation of specific modules and also a better understanding of the standard and the possibility of changing hardware modules to improve the performance of the prototype. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the system's specifications, its main hardware components, and to present educational didactics on the setup and use of a modular and terrestrial AIS receiver. The latter is for academic purposes and in undergraduate studies such as electrical engineering, telecommunications, and maritime studies.

  11. (abstract) An Ada Language Modular Telerobot Task Execution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Long, Mark; Steele, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A telerobotic task execution system is described which has been developed for space flight applications. The Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES) provides the remote site task execution capability in a local-remote telerobotic system. The system provides supervised autonomous control, shared control, and teleoperation for a redundant manipulator. The system is capable of nominal task execution as well as monitoring and reflex motion.

  12. A MODULAR APPROACH TO SIMULATION WITH AUTOMATIC SENSITIVITY CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. HANSON; G. CUNNINGHAM

    2001-02-01

    When using simulation codes, one often has the task of minimizing a scalar objective function with respect to numerous parameters. This situation occurs when trying to fit (assimilate) data or trying to optimize an engineering design. For simulations in which the objective function to be minimized is reasonably well behaved, that is, is differentiable and does not contain too many multiple minima, gradient-based optimization methods can reduce the number of function evaluations required to determine the minimizing parameters. However, gradient-based methods are only advantageous if one can efficiently evaluate the gradients of the objective function. Adjoint differentiation efficiently provides these sensitivities. One way to obtain code for calculating adjoint sensitivities is to use special compilers to process the simulation code. However, this approach is not always so ''automatic''. We will describe a modular approach to constructing simulation codes, which permits adjoint differentiation to be incorporated with relative ease.

  13. Automatically identifying gene/protein terms in MEDLINE abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wilbur, W John

    2002-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques are used to extract information automatically from computer-readable literature. In biology, the identification of terms corresponding to biological substances (e.g., genes and proteins) is a necessary step that precedes the application of other NLP systems that extract biological information (e.g., protein-protein interactions, gene regulation events, and biochemical pathways). We have developed GPmarkup (for "gene/protein-full name mark up"), a software system that automatically identifies gene/protein terms (i.e., symbols or full names) in MEDLINE abstracts. As a part of marking up process, we also generated automatically a knowledge source of paired gene/protein symbols and full names (e.g., LARD for lymphocyte associated receptor of death) from MEDLINE. We found that many of the pairs in our knowledge source do not appear in the current GenBank database. Therefore our methods may also be used for automatic lexicon generation. GPmarkup has 73% recall and 93% precision in identifying and marking up gene/protein terms in MEDLINE abstracts. A random sample of gene/protein symbols and full names and a sample set of marked up abstracts can be viewed at http://www.cpmc.columbia.edu/homepages/yuh9001/GPmarkup/. Contact. hy52@columbia.edu. Voice: 212-939-7028; fax: 212-666-0140.

  14. Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcaini, Paolo; Gargantini, Angelo; Riccobene, Elvinia

    2010-01-01

    A model review is a validation technique aimed at determining if a model is of sufficient quality and allows defects to be identified early in the system development, reducing the cost of fixing them. In this paper we propose a technique to perform automatic review of Abstract State Machine (ASM) formal specifications. We first detect a family of typical vulnerabilities and defects a developer can introduce during the modeling activity using the ASMs and we express such faults as the violation of meta-properties that guarantee certain quality attributes of the specification. These meta-properties are then mapped to temporal logic formulas and model checked for their violation. As a proof of concept, we also report the result of applying this ASM review process to several specifications.

  15. Programming with models: modularity and abstraction provide powerful capabilities for systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Mallavarapu, Aneil; Thomson, Matthew; Ullian, Benjamin; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly used to understand how phenotypes emerge from systems of molecular interactions. However, their current construction as monolithic sets of equations presents a fundamental barrier to progress. Overcoming this requires modularity, enabling sub-systems to be specified independently and combined incrementally, and abstraction, enabling generic properties of biological processes to be specified independently of specific instances. These, in turn, require models to be represented as programs rather than as datatypes. Programmable modularity and abstraction enables libraries of modules to be created, which can be instantiated and reused repeatedly in different contexts with different components. We have developed a computational infrastructure that accomplishes this. We show here why such capabilities are needed, what is required to implement them and what can be accomplished with them that could not be done previously. PMID:18647734

  16. Valgran, a program for potentiometric titrations with a versatile automatic modular system.

    PubMed

    Cerda, V; Maimo, J; Estela, J M; Salva, A; Ramis, G

    1988-08-01

    A very flexible modular system for use with a portable IBM PC for potentiometric titrations is described. The appropriate software has been developed in order to obtain automatic end-points, and conventional, first-derivative, second-derivative and Gran curves, as well as a listing of the potentiometric points expressed in different ways. All these alternatives are selectable on menu presentations. The potentiometric system has been applied both the research and routine problems.

  17. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  18. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  19. Automatic extraction of protein interactions from scientific abstracts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Milward, D; Ouzounis, C; Pulman, S; Carroll, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper motivates the use of Information Extraction (IE) for gathering data on protein interactions, describes the customization of an existing IE system, SRI's Highlight, for this task and presents the results of an experiment on unseen Medline abstracts which show that customization to a new domain can be fast, reliable and cost-effective.

  20. Automatization and Abstract Problem-Solving as Predictors of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Lynn J.; And Others

    The associations among cognitive automatization, abstract problem solving, and educational performance were studied using 127 fourth to ninth grade students. A number of measures of fast, automatic, and fluent performance (FAF measures) were used: writing the alphabet; reading from a word list; and mentally performing arithmetic operations. The…

  1. Semantic-Aware Automatic Parallelization of Modern Applications Using High-Level Abstractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2009-12-21

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. Modern applications using high-level abstractions, such as C++ STL containers and complex user-defined class types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we use a source-to-source compiler infrastructure, ROSE, to explore compiler techniques to recognize high-level abstractions and to exploit their semantics for automatic parallelization. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to study semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Preliminary results have shown that semantics of abstractions can help extend the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications and expose more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  2. Extending Automatic Parallelization to Optimize High-Level Abstractions for Multicore

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-12-12

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high-level abstractions, such as STL containers and complex user-defined types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we automatically parallelize C++ applications using ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure which preserves the high-level abstractions and gives us access to their semantics. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to explore semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Those kernels include an array-base computation loop, a loop with task-level parallelism, and a domain-specific tree traversal. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications using high-level abstractions and exposes more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  3. Automatic summarization of mouse gene information by clustering and sentence extraction from MEDLINE abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M; Hersh, William

    2007-10-11

    Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm.

  4. Automatic Summarization of Mouse Gene Information by Clustering and Sentence Extraction from MEDLINE Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M.; Hersh, William

    2007-01-01

    Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm. PMID:18693953

  5. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  6. Toward Routine Automatic Pathway Discovery from On-line Scientific Text Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Ng; Wong

    1999-01-01

    We are entering a new era of research where the latest scientific discoveries are often first reported online and are readily accessible by scientists worldwide. This rapid electronic dissemination of research breakthroughs has greatly accelerated the current pace in genomics and proteomics research. The race to the discovery of a gene or a drug has now become increasingly dependent on how quickly a scientist can scan through voluminous amount of information available online to construct the relevant picture (such as protein-protein interaction pathways) as it takes shape amongst the rapidly expanding pool of globally accessible biological data (e.g. GENBANK) and scientific literature (e.g. MEDLINE). We describe a prototype system for automatic pathway discovery from on-line text abstracts, combining technologies that (1) retrieve research abstracts from online sources, (2) extract relevant information from the free texts, and (3) present the extracted information graphically and intuitively. Our work demonstrates that this framework allows us to routinely scan online scientific literature for automatic discovery of knowledge, giving modern scientists the necessary competitive edge in managing the information explosion in this electronic age.

  7. Automatic recognition of topic-classified relations between prostate cancer and genes using MEDLINE abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hong-Woo; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Kim, Jin-Dong; Shiba, Rie; Nagata, Naoki; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2006-11-24

    Automatic recognition of relations between a specific disease term and its relevant genes or protein terms is an important practice of bioinformatics. Considering the utility of the results of this approach, we identified prostate cancer and gene terms with the ID tags of public biomedical databases. Moreover, considering that genetics experts will use our results, we classified them based on six topics that can be used to analyze the type of prostate cancers, genes, and their relations. We developed a maximum entropy-based named entity recognizer and a relation recognizer and applied them to a corpus-based approach. We collected prostate cancer-related abstracts from MEDLINE, and constructed an annotated corpus of gene and prostate cancer relations based on six topics by biologists. We used it to train the maximum entropy-based named entity recognizer and relation recognizer. Topic-classified relation recognition achieved 92.1% precision for the relation (an increase of 11.0% from that obtained in a baseline experiment). For all topics, the precision was between 67.6 and 88.1%. A series of experimental results revealed two important findings: a carefully designed relation recognition system using named entity recognition can improve the performance of relation recognition, and topic-classified relation recognition can be effectively addressed through a corpus-based approach using manual annotation and machine learning techniques.

  8. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-06-20

    Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70-90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. We successfully created a web-based prototype capable of creating domain

  9. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype

  10. Automatic annotation for biological sequences by extraction of keywords from MEDLINE abstracts. Development of a prototype system.

    PubMed

    Andrade, M A; Valencia, A

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a prototype for the automatic annotation of functional characteristics in protein families. The system is able to extract biological information directly from scientific literature in the form of MEDLINE abstracts. The criterion for selecting relevant keywords is the difference between their frequency in the abstracts associated with the protein family under study and its frequency in other unrelated protein families. The concept of functional information associated to protein families is the key feature of our system and gathers evolutionary information into the problem of functional annotation of biological sequences. The system has been tested in two different scenarios: first, a large set of protein families with a small number of abstract per family and second, selected protein families with large number of abstracts attached to each one. In both cases the performances are compared with annotations provided by human experts showing a clear relation between the amount of information provided to the system and the quality of the annotations. The automatic annotations are in many cases of similar quality to the ones contained in current data bases. The possibilities and difficulties to be encountered during the development of a full system for automatic annotation are discussed.

  11. Automatic Sleep Scoring Based on Modular Rule-Based Reasoning Units and Signal Processing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    scoring, rule-based reasoning, multi-staged I. INTRODUCTION Integrated analysis on the state of sleep through Polysomnography is crucial for...diagnosis for sleep related disease. But conventional analog-type Polysomnography systems need tremendous amount of papers and much labor of trained expert...In this sense to equip digital Polysomnography and its following automatic analysis system became trend. In the sleep analysis, sleep stage scoring is

  12. Automatic indexing of abstracts via natural-language processing using a simple thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Hersh, W R; Monarch, I A; Lefferts, R G; Handerson, S K

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe CLARIT processing as an approach to automatic indexing. They also explore two elements of the indexing process, identifying concepts in text and selecting concepts to reflect the perspective of a domain.

  13. EnzyMiner: automatic identification of protein level mutations and their impact on target enzymes from PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yeniterzi, Süveyda; Sezerman, Ugur

    2009-08-27

    A better understanding of the mechanisms of an enzyme's functionality and stability, as well as knowledge and impact of mutations is crucial for researchers working with enzymes. Though, several of the enzymes' databases are currently available, scientific literature still remains at large for up-to-date source of learning the effects of a mutation on an enzyme. However, going through vast amounts of scientific documents to extract the information on desired mutation has always been a time consuming process. In this paper, therefore, we describe an unique method, termed as EnzyMiner, which automatically identifies the PubMed abstracts that contain information on the impact of a protein level mutation on the stability and/or the activity of a given enzyme. We present an automated system which identifies the abstracts that contain an amino-acid-level mutation and then classifies them according to the mutation's effect on the enzyme. In the case of mutation identification, MuGeX, an automated mutation-gene extraction system has an accuracy of 93.1% with a 91.5 F-measure. For impact analysis, document classification is performed to identify the abstracts that contain a change in enzyme's stability or activity resulting from the mutation. The system was trained on lipases and tested on amylases with an accuracy of 85%. EnzyMiner identifies the abstracts that contain a protein mutation for a given enzyme and checks whether the abstract is related to a disease with the help of information extraction and machine learning techniques. For disease related abstracts, the mutation list and direct links to the abstracts are retrieved from the system and displayed on the Web. For those abstracts that are related to non-diseases, in addition to having the mutation list, the abstracts are also categorized into two groups. These two groups determine whether the mutation has an effect on the enzyme's stability or functionality followed by displaying these on the web.

  14. Fast and Automatic Activation of an Abstract Representation of Money in the Human Ventral Visual Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Meyniel, Florent; Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars) with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks). We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success. PMID:22140556

  15. Fast and automatic activation of an abstract representation of money in the human ventral visual pathway.

    PubMed

    Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Meyniel, Florent; Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars) with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks). We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success.

  16. EnzyMiner: automatic identification of protein level mutations and their impact on target enzymes from PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yeniterzi, Süveyda; Sezerman, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the mechanisms of an enzyme's functionality and stability, as well as knowledge and impact of mutations is crucial for researchers working with enzymes. Though, several of the enzymes' databases are currently available, scientific literature still remains at large for up-to-date source of learning the effects of a mutation on an enzyme. However, going through vast amounts of scientific documents to extract the information on desired mutation has always been a time consuming process. In this paper, therefore, we describe an unique method, termed as EnzyMiner, which automatically identifies the PubMed abstracts that contain information on the impact of a protein level mutation on the stability and/or the activity of a given enzyme. Results We present an automated system which identifies the abstracts that contain an amino-acid-level mutation and then classifies them according to the mutation's effect on the enzyme. In the case of mutation identification, MuGeX, an automated mutation-gene extraction system has an accuracy of 93.1% with a 91.5 F-measure. For impact analysis, document classification is performed to identify the abstracts that contain a change in enzyme's stability or activity resulting from the mutation. The system was trained on lipases and tested on amylases with an accuracy of 85%. Conclusion EnzyMiner identifies the abstracts that contain a protein mutation for a given enzyme and checks whether the abstract is related to a disease with the help of information extraction and machine learning techniques. For disease related abstracts, the mutation list and direct links to the abstracts are retrieved from the system and displayed on the Web. For those abstracts that are related to non-diseases, in addition to having the mutation list, the abstracts are also categorized into two groups. These two groups determine whether the mutation has an effect on the enzyme's stability or functionality followed by displaying

  17. Automatic abstraction of imaging observations with their characteristics from mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selen; Lipson, Jafi A; Senol, Utku; Rubin, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    Radiology reports are usually narrative, unstructured text, a format which hinders the ability to input report contents into decision support systems. In addition, reports often describe multiple lesions, and it is challenging to automatically extract information on each lesion and its relationships to characteristics, anatomic locations, and other information that describes it. The goal of our work is to develop natural language processing (NLP) methods to recognize each lesion in free-text mammography reports and to extract its corresponding relationships, producing a complete information frame for each lesion. We built an NLP information extraction pipeline in the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) NLP toolkit. Sequential processing modules are executed, producing an output information frame required for a mammography decision support system. Each lesion described in the report is identified by linking it with its anatomic location in the breast. In order to evaluate our system, we selected 300 mammography reports from a hospital report database. The gold standard contained 797 lesions, and our system detected 815 lesions (780 true positives, 35 false positives, and 17 false negatives). The precision of detecting all the imaging observations with their modifiers was 94.9, recall was 90.9, and the F measure was 92.8. Our NLP system extracts each imaging observation and its characteristics from mammography reports. Although our application focuses on the domain of mammography, we believe our approach can generalize to other domains and may narrow the gap between unstructured clinical report text and structured information extraction needed for data mining and decision support. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  19. NLP techniques associated with the OpenGALEN ontology for semi-automatic textual extraction of medical knowledge: abstracting and mapping equivalent linguistic and logical constructs.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, M B; Roberts, A; Rector, A L

    2000-01-01

    This research project presents methodological and theoretical issues related to the inter-relationship between linguistic and conceptual semantics, analysing the results obtained by the application of a NLP parser to a set of radiology reports. Our objective is to define a technique for associating linguistic methods with domain specific ontologies for semi-automatic extraction of intermediate representation (IR) information formats and medical ontological knowledge from clinical texts. We have applied the Edinburgh LTG natural language parser to 2810 clinical narratives describing radiology procedures. In a second step, we have used medical expertise and ontology formalism for identification of semantic structures and abstraction of IR schemas related to the processed texts. These IR schemas are an association of linguistic and conceptual knowledge, based on their semantic contents. This methodology aims to contribute to the elaboration of models relating linguistic and logical constructs based on empirical data analysis. Advance in this field might lead to the development of computational techniques for automatic enrichment of medical ontologies from real clinical environments, using descriptive knowledge implicit in large text corpora sources.

  20. Automatically Generating Abstractions for Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Etzioni, Manuela Veloso, Yolanda Gil, Qiang Yang, Josh Tenenberg, and Claire Bono all provided a great deal of inspiration and support, as well as a lot...statistical significance test. Finally, Oren, Yolanda , and the anonymous reviewers all provided very helpful comments on earlier drafts of this...2-3), 1990, 363-392. [46] Steven Minton, Jaime G. Carbonell, Craig A. Knoblock, Daniel R. Kuokka, Oren Et- zioni, and Yolanda Gil. Explanation-based

  1. Modular entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  2. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  3. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 × 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting

  4. Modular shield

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Keith W.

    2002-01-01

    A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

  5. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  6. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  7. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  8. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  9. Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

  10. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A Central Control Element (CCE) module which controls the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular System (ARMS) and allows both redundant processing and multi-computing in the same computer with real time mode switching, is discussed. The same hardware is used for either reliability enhancement, speed enhancement, or for a combination of both.

  11. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  12. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  13. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    Masanori Sugisaka, Ph.D., Professor Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Oita University 700 Oaza Dannoharu 870-1192 Oita, Japan...and Masanori Sugisaka2 1Department of Design and Innovation, The Open University, MK7 6AA, UK 2Department of Electrical and Electronic...illustrates another potential problem with linear features. In principle curves such as the sides of a guitar are relatively easy to find using

  14. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  15. Modular Fixturing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin Anderson (Inventor); Street, Jon P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The modular fixturing system of the present invention is modular, reusable and capable of significant customization, both in terms of system radius and system height, allowing it to be arranged and rearranged in numerous unique configurations. The system includes multiple modular stanchions having stanchion shafts and stanchion feet that removably attach to apertures in a table. Angle brackets attached to the modular stanchions support shelves. These shelves in turn provide support to work pieces during fabrication processes such as welding.

  16. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  17. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  18. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  19. Abstract Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Barrie

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create slab planters that are functional clay objects. Discusses how the students prepare their drawings for the planter and how to create the planter. Explains that the subject matter is depicted in a progression from reality to abstraction. (CMK)

  20. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  1. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  2. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  3. Global Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ellen J

    2017-10-01

    Editor's note: EMJ has partnered with the journals of multiple international emergency medicine societies to share from each a highlighted research study, as selected by their editors. This edition will feature an abstract from each publication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Parallel Induction of Modular Classification Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frederic; Bramer, Max; Adda, Mo

    The Distributed Rule Induction (DRI) project at the University of Portsmouth is concerned with distributed data mining algorithms for automatically generating rules of all kinds. In this paper we present a system architecture and its implementation for inducing modular classification rules in parallel in a local area network using a distributed blackboard system. We present initial results of a prototype implementation based on the Prism algorithm.

  5. Sentence Dependency Structures in Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the results of an analysis of 87 non-formulaic abstracts for structures of semantic dependency between sentences. An automatic structural simplification is presented which is based on an assumption about the use of the dependency structure, and the results of an evaluation of the method are discussed. (25 references) (CLB)

  6. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements

    PubMed Central

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed. PMID:28010165

  7. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  9. Modular tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the modular tokamak configuration, and presents information on the following topics: modularity; external vacuum boundary; vertical maintenance; combined reactor building/biological shield with totally remote maintenance; independent TF coils; minimum TF coil bore; saddle PF coils; and heat transport system in bore.

  10. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  11. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  12. Design of a modular digital computer system, DRL 4. [for meeting future requirements of spaceborne computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design is reported of an advanced modular computer system designated the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System, which anticipates requirements for higher computing capacity and reliability for future spaceborne computers. Subjects discussed include: an overview of the architecture, mission analysis, synchronous and nonsynchronous scheduling control, reliability, and data transmission.

  13. Modular kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krab, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Modularization is an important strategy to tackle the study of complex biological systems. Modular kinetic analysis (MKA) is a quantitative method to extract kinetic information from such a modularized system that can be used to determine the control and regulatory structure of the system, and to pinpoint and quantify the interaction of effectors with the system. The principles of the method are described, and the relation with metabolic control analysis is discussed. Examples of application of MKA are given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  15. Modular learning models in forecasting natural phenomena.

    PubMed

    Solomatine, D P; Siek, M B

    2006-03-01

    Modular model is a particular type of committee machine and is comprised of a set of specialized (local) models each of which is responsible for a particular region of the input space, and may be trained on a subset of training set. Many algorithms for allocating such regions to local models typically do this in automatic fashion. In forecasting natural processes, however, domain experts want to bring in more knowledge into such allocation, and to have certain control over the choice of models. This paper presents a number of approaches to building modular models based on various types of splits of training set and combining the models' outputs (hard splits, statistically and deterministically driven soft combinations of models, 'fuzzy committees', etc.). An issue of including a domain expert into the modeling process is also discussed, and new algorithms in the class of model trees (piece-wise linear modular regression models) are presented. Comparison of the algorithms based on modular local modeling to the more traditional 'global' learning models on a number of benchmark tests and river flow forecasting problems shows their higher accuracy and transparency of the resulting models.

  16. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tien-Fang

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  17. Successful modular cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-07-01

    We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

  18. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  19. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Discourse-Level Structure in Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    An investigation was undertaken into the possibility of automatically detecting how concepts exist in relation to each other in abstracts, a text-type commonly used in free-text retrieval. The end goal of this research is to capture these relationships in structured representations of abstracts' contents so that users can require not only that the…

  1. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  2. Self Evolving Modular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

  3. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  4. Constructing Literature Abstracts by Computer: Techniques and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paice, Chris D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the automatic construction of abstracts from the texts of documents. Automatic sentence extraction is examined, including syntactic criteria and semantic relational criteria; textual cohesion is discussed, including the recognition of anaphors and noun phrases; text structure is addressed; and the concept of abstract-frames is described.…

  5. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  6. Modular Optofluidic Systems (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Tobias N.; Dietvorst, Jiri; Sanchis, Ana; Salvador, Juan P.; Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Alvarez-Conde, Erica; Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Marco, M.-Pilar; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-12-01

    Elementary PDMS-based building blocks of fluidic, optical and optofluidic components for Lab on a chip (LOC) platforms has here been developed. All individual modules are compatible and can be anchored and released with the help of puzzle-type connectors This approach is a powerful toolbox to create modular optofluidic systems (MOPS), which can be modified/upgraded to user needs and in-situ reconfigurable. In addition, the PDMS can locally be functionalized, defining a modular biosensor. Measurements in absorbance and fluorescence have been pursued as demonstrator.

  7. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  8. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  9. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  10. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  11. The Sustainment Force Structure Evolution from the Army of Excellence to the Modular Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    THE SUSTAINMENT FORCE STRUCTURE EVOLUTION FROM THE ARMY OF EXCELLENCE TO THE MODULAR FORCE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Sustainment Force Structure Evolution from the Army of Excellence to the Modular Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT As the Army transitioned from an Army of Excellence force structure to the modular force structure many changes were necessary

  12. Modular invariant inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-08

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  13. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-05-09

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  14. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  15. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  16. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  17. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  18. Modular Perspectives on Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    This research review traces the current discussion on models of bilingualism to the contributions of Vygotsky and Luria. Proposes that a modular approach to studying the different aspects of bilingual development promises to chart a course toward finding a broader common ground around research findings and interpretations that appear to be…

  19. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  20. Modular, Multilayer Perceptron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

  1. Dynamics of modularity of neural activity in the brain during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Chen, Man

    2014-03-01

    Theory suggests that more modular systems can have better response functions at short times. This theory suggests that greater cognitive performance may be achieved for more modular neural activity, and that modularity of neural activity may, therefore, likely increase with development in children. We study the relationship between age and modularity of brain neural activity in developing children. The value of modularity calculated from fMRI data is observed to increase during childhood development and peak in young adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence of selection for plasticity in the cognitive function of the human brain. We present a model to illustrate how modularity can provide greater cognitive performance at short times and enhance fast, low-level, automatic cognitive processes. Conversely, high-level, effortful, conscious cognitive processes may not benefit from modularity. We use quasispecies theory to predict how the average modularity evolves with age, given a fitness function extracted from the model. We suggest further experiments exploring the effect of modularity on cognitive performance and suggest that modularity may be a potential biomarker for injury, rehabilitation, or disease.

  2. Automatization of hardware configuration for plasma diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R. D.; Zabolotny, W.; Linczuk, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    Soft X-ray plasma measurement systems are mostly multi-channel, high performance systems. In case of the modular construction it is necessary to perform sophisticated system discovery in parallel with automatic system configuration. In the paper the structure of the modular system designed for tokamak plasma soft X-ray measurements is described. The concept of the system discovery and further automatic configuration is also presented. FCS application (FMC/ FPGA Configuration Software) is used for running sophisticated system setup with automatic verification of proper configuration. In order to provide flexibility of further system configurations (e.g. user setup), common communication interface is also described. The approach presented here is related to the automatic system firmware building presented in previous papers. Modular construction and multichannel measurements are key requirement in term of SXR diagnostics with use of GEM detectors.

  3. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  4. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-02-01

    The feasibility was studied of constructing large space structures, specifically a 100 meter paraboloidal R.F. reflector, by individually deploying a number of relatively small structural modules, and then joining them to form a single large structure in orbit. The advantage of this approach is that feasibility of a large antenna may be demonstrated by ground and flight tests of several smaller and less costly subelements. Thus, initial development costs are substantially reduced and a high degree of reliability can be obtained without commitment to construction of a very large system. The three candidate structural concepts investigated are: (1) the deployable cell module; (2) the paraboloidal extendable truss antenna adapted to modular assembly; and (3) the modular extendable truss antenna (META).

  5. Modular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The modular space station comprising small, shuttle-launched modules, and characterized by low initial cost and incremental manning, is described. The initial space station is designed to be delivered into orbit by three space shuttles and assembled in space. The three sections are the power/subsystems module, the crew/operations module, and the general purpose laboratory module. It provides for a crew of six. Subsequently duplicate/crew/operations and power/subsystems modules will be mated to the original modules, and provide for an additional six crewmen. A total of 17 research and applications modules is planned, three of which will be free-flying modules. Details are given on the program plan, modular characteristics, logistics, experiment support capability and requirements, operations analysis, design support analyses, and shuttle interfaces.

  6. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  7. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of constructing large space structures, specifically a 100 meter paraboloidal R.F. reflector, by individually deploying a number of relatively small structural modules, and then joining them to form a single large structure in orbit. The advantage of this approach is that feasibility of a large antenna may be demonstrated by ground and flight tests of several smaller and less costly subelements. Thus, initial development costs are substantially reduced and a high degree of reliability can be obtained without commitment to construction of a very large system. The three candidate structural concepts investigated are: (1) the deployable cell module; (2) the paraboloidal extendable truss antenna adapted to modular assembly; and (3) the modular extendable truss antenna (META).

  8. A truly Lego®-like modular microfluidics platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittayarukskul, Kevin; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2017-03-01

    Ideally, a modular microfluidics platform should be simple to assemble and support 3D configurations for increased versatility. The modular building blocks should also be mass producible like electrical components. These are fundamental features of world-renowned Legos® and why Legos® inspire many existing modular microfluidics platforms. In this paper, a truly Lego®-like microfluidics platform is introduced, and its basic feasibility is demonstrated. Here, PDMS building blocks resembling 2  ×  2 Lego® bricks are cast from 3D-printed master molds. The blocks are pegged and stacked on a traditional Lego® plate to create simple, 3D microfluidic networks, such as a single basket weave. Characteristics of the platform, including reversible sealing and automatic alignment of channels, are also analyzed and discussed in detail.

  9. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  10. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  11. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  12. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-16

    LIGHTWEIGHT MODULAR DISPLAY SYSTEM %C AD Gomez SW Wolfe EW Davenport BD Calder 16 February 1982 * / DTrSJUL 22 3829 Approved for public release...375 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Oct 77 to Jan 82 LMDS LIGHTWEIGHT MODULAR DISPLAY SYSTEM S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...Processing Power Distribution Modular Display Low Cost Tactical Display Tactical Tablet Lightweight Display General Purpose Dispiay Functional Modules Touch

  13. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  14. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  15. Modular biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  16. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  17. Geometric Kac Moody modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynker, Monika; Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2006-05-01

    It is shown how the arithmetic structure of algebraic curves encoded in the Hasse-Weil L-function can be related to affine Kac-Moody algebras. This result is useful in relating the arithmetic geometry of Calabi-Yau varieties to the underlying exactly solvable theory. In the case of the genus three Fermat curve we identify the Hasse-Weil L-function with the Mellin transform of the twist of a number theoretic modular form derived from the string function of a non-twisted affine Lie algebra. The twist character is associated to the number field of quantum dimensions of the conformal field theory.

  18. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  19. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  20. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  1. Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data. PMID:21151783

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  3. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  4. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  5. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-12-15

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  6. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark A; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-02-10

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  7. Preheating after modular inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, Neil; Bond, J. Richard; Huang, Zhiqi; Kofman, Lev

    2009-12-01

    We study (p)reheating in modular (closed string) inflationary scenarios, with a special emphasis on Kähler moduli/Roulette models. It is usually assumed that reheating in such models occurs through perturbative decays. However, we find that there are very strong non-perturbative preheating decay channels related to the particular shape of the inflaton potential (which is highly nonlinear and has a very steep minimum). Preheating after modular inflation, proceeding through a combination of tachyonic instability and broad-band parametric resonance, is perhaps the most violent example of preheating after inflation known in the literature. Further, we consider the subsequent transfer of energy to the standard model sector in scenarios where the standard model particles are confined to a D7-brane wrapping the inflationary blow-up cycle of the compactification manifold or, more interestingly, a non-inflationary blow-up cycle. We explicitly identify the decay channels of the inflaton in these two scenarios. We also consider the case where the inflationary cycle shrinks to the string scale at the end of inflation; here a field theoretical treatment of reheating is insufficient and one must turn instead to a stringy description. We estimate the decay rate of the inflaton and the reheat temperature for various scenarios.

  8. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  9. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, Michael R.; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2016-11-01

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  10. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  11. Evaluation Transportability Testing of the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4, TP-94-01, Transportability Testing Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    FINAL REPORT JULY 2007 REPORT NO. 06-04G EVALUATION TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING OF THE JOINT MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01...MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01, REV. 2, JUNE 2004, "TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING PROCEDURES" ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition...Picatinny Arsenal, NJ to conduct evaluation transportability testing on the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 manufactured by SEA BOX, Inc

  12. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  13. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  14. Modularizing Spatial Ontologies for Assisted Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hois, Joana

    Assisted living systems are intended to support daily-life activities in user homes by automatizing and monitoring behavior of the environment while interacting with the user in a non-intrusive way. The knowledge base of such systems therefore has to define thematically different aspects of the environment mostly related to space, such as basic spatial floor plan information, pieces of technical equipment in the environment and their functions and spatial ranges, activities users can perform, entities that occur in the environment, etc. In this paper, we present thematically different ontologies, each of which describing environmental aspects from a particular perspective. The resulting modular structure allows the selection of application-specific ontologies as necessary. This hides information and reduces complexity in terms of the represented spatial knowledge and reasoning practicability. We motivate and present the different spatial ontologies applied to an ambient assisted living application.

  15. Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

  16. A Modular Design Approach for the Automatic Payload Deployment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-27

    the DM-I interface contains RS232 , power-in, and power-out pins. The DMA radio communicates with the DM microcontroller via the RS232 connection...PCA can simply be removed and attached to the new PC. The PC-I contains power- in, TTL serial, and many IO pins. Since the PCA is not internally...of the PC. The TTL serial and IO lines help to support a variety of payload types. For the empty payload the IO lines provide the size and type

  17. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  18. Modular arctic structures system

    SciTech Connect

    Reusswig, G. H.

    1984-12-04

    A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

  19. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  20. Modular error embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Ettinger, J. Mark

    1999-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  1. Modular Optical PDV System

    SciTech Connect

    Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

    2008-12-11

    A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

  2. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  3. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  4. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  5. Quality of Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Jacso, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the factors to be considered in evaluating abstracts. Types of abstracts, content, length, writing style, comprehensive criteria for abstracts, readability, readability testing, compatibility with ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standards, and informativeness are among the topics covered. (12 references) (KRN)

  6. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  7. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  8. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  9. Measuring, Enabling and Comparing Modularity, Regularity and Hierarchy in Evolutionary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    For computer-automated design systems to scale to complex designs they must be able to produce designs that exhibit the characteristics of modularity, regularity and hierarchy - characteristics that are found both in man-made and natural designs. Here we claim that these characteristics are enabled by implementing the attributes of combination, control-flow and abstraction in the representation. To support this claim we use an evolutionary algorithm to evolve solutions to different sizes of a table design problem using five different representations, each with different combinations of modularity, regularity and hierarchy enabled and show that the best performance happens when all three of these attributes are enabled. We also define metrics for modularity, regularity and hierarchy in design encodings and demonstrate that high fitness values are achieved with high values of modularity, regularity and hierarchy and that there is a positive correlation between increases in fitness and increases in modularity. regularity and hierarchy.

  10. Retrieval of abstract semantics.

    PubMed

    Noppeney, Uta; Price, Cathy J

    2004-05-01

    Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that abstract and concrete concepts might be represented, retrieved and processed differently in the human brain. Using fMRI, we demonstrate that retrieval of abstract relative to sensory-based semantics during synonym judgements increased activation in a left frontotemporal system that has been associated with semantic processing particularly at the sentence level. Since activation increases were observed irrespective of the degree of difficulty, we suggest that these differential activations might reflect a particular retrieval mechanism or strategy for abstract concepts. In contrast to sensory-based semantics, the meaning of abstract concepts is largely specified by their usage in language rather than by their relations to the physical world. Subjects might therefore generate an appropriate semantic sentential context to fully explore and specify the meaning of abstract concepts. Our results also explain why abstract semantics is vulnerable to left frontotemporal lesions.

  11. A modular approach to detection and identification of defects in rough lumber

    Treesearch

    Sang Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype scanning system that can automatically identify several important defects on rough hardwood lumber. The scanning system utilizes 3 laser sources and an embedded-processor camera to capture and analyze profile and gray-scale images. The modular approach combines the detection of wane (the curved sides of a board, possibly containing...

  12. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  13. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  14. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  15. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  16. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  17. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  18. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  19. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include absenteeism, alcoholism, drug abuse, leisure, disadvantaged, job satisfaction, and others. (SB)

  20. AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NAVIGATION, REPORTS), (*CONTROL SYSTEMS, *INFORMATION THEORY), ABSTRACTS, OPTIMIZATION, DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, GAME THEORY, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, FOURIER ANALYSIS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, DEMODULATION, NAVIGATION CHARTS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , TIME SHARING, GRAPHICS, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, FEEDBACK, STABILITY

  1. ATC (automatic target cueing) algorithm evaluation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Jim M.; Sherman, James W.

    1991-04-01

    The high volume of satellite derived oceanographic data, and the relatively high level of skill associated with the detection of important features in multi-sensor oceanographic datasets, has necessitated automating the analysis process. Since 1983 the Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NOARL) at NASA's Stennis Space Center has been involved in a effort which transitions research in automated interpretive techniques to operational use. The NOARL image understanding system's basic philosophy is unique in its strong emphasis on integration of different artificial intelligence techniques, conventional image processing techniques, statistical techniques, and low level vision techniques, making use of the strengths of each technique to optimally achieve the ultimate goal; an object based map showing icons which relate to detected features in the oceanographic imagery. The present paper describes the approach implemented, discusses lessons learned in past development efforts, and explains the rationale for the future evolutionary course of the system.

  2. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  3. A Software Architecture for Adaptive Modular Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Andrew C.; Naish, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    By combining a number of simple transducer modules, an arbitrarily complex sensing system may be produced to accommodate a wide range of applications. This work outlines a novel software architecture and knowledge representation scheme that has been developed to support this type of flexible and reconfigurable modular sensing system. Template algorithms are used to embed intelligence within each module. As modules are added or removed, the composite sensor is able to automatically determine its overall geometry and assume an appropriate collective identity. A virtual machine-based middleware layer runs on top of a real-time operating system with a pre-emptive kernel, enabling platform-independent template algorithms to be written once and run on any module, irrespective of its underlying hardware architecture. Applications that may benefit from easily reconfigurable modular sensing systems include flexible inspection, mobile robotics, surveillance, and space exploration. PMID:22163614

  4. A software architecture for adaptive modular sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Andrew C; Naish, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    By combining a number of simple transducer modules, an arbitrarily complex sensing system may be produced to accommodate a wide range of applications. This work outlines a novel software architecture and knowledge representation scheme that has been developed to support this type of flexible and reconfigurable modular sensing system. Template algorithms are used to embed intelligence within each module. As modules are added or removed, the composite sensor is able to automatically determine its overall geometry and assume an appropriate collective identity. A virtual machine-based middleware layer runs on top of a real-time operating system with a pre-emptive kernel, enabling platform-independent template algorithms to be written once and run on any module, irrespective of its underlying hardware architecture. Applications that may benefit from easily reconfigurable modular sensing systems include flexible inspection, mobile robotics, surveillance, and space exploration.

  5. An interactive modular design for computerized photometry in spectrochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    A general functional description of totally automatic photometry of emission spectra is not available for an operating environment in which the sample compositions and analysis procedures are low-volume and non-routine. The advantages of using an interactive approach to computer control in such an operating environment are demonstrated. This approach includes modular subroutines selected at multiple-option, menu-style decision points. This style of programming is used to trace elemental determinations, including the automated reading of spectrographic plates produced by a 3.4 m Ebert mount spectrograph using a dc-arc in an argon atmosphere. The simplified control logic and modular subroutine approach facilitates innovative research and program development, yet is easily adapted to routine tasks. Operator confidence and control are increased by the built-in options including degree of automation, amount of intermediate data printed out, amount of user prompting, and multidirectional decision points.

  6. [A modular method for automated evaluation of gait analysis data].

    PubMed

    Loose, T; Malberg, H; Mikut, R; Dieterle, J; Schablowski, M; Wolf, S; Abel, R; Döderlein, L; Rupp, R

    2002-01-01

    A modular methodology for automated gait data evaluation: The aim of Instrumented Gait Analysis is to measure data such as joint kinematics or kinetics during gait in a quantitative way. The data evaluation for clinical purposes is often performed by experienced physicians (diagnosis of specific motion dysfunction, planning and validation of therapy). Due to subjective evaluation and complexity of the pathologies, there exists no objective, standardized data analysis method for these tasks. This article covers the development of a modular, computer-based methodology to quantify the degree of pathological gait in comparison to normal behavior, as well as to automatically search for interpretable gait abnormalities and to visualize the results. The outcomes are demonstrated with two different patient groups.

  7. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  8. Abstract art by shape classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Zhe; Pickup, David; Li, Chuan; Rosin, Paul; Hall, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This paper shows that classifying shapes is a tool useful in nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) from photographs. Our classifier inputs regions from an image segmentation hierarchy and outputs the "best" fitting simple shape such as a circle, square, or triangle. Other approaches to NPR have recognized the benefits of segmentation, but none have classified the shape of segments. By doing so, we can create artwork of a more abstract nature, emulating the style of modern artists such as Matisse and other artists who favored shape simplification in their artwork. The classifier chooses the shape that "best" represents the region. Since the classifier is trained by a user, the "best shape" has a subjective quality that can over-ride measurements such as minimum error and more importantly captures user preferences. Once trained, the system is fully automatic, although simple user interaction is also possible to allow for differences in individual tastes. A gallery of results shows how this classifier contributes to NPR from images by producing abstract artwork.

  9. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  10. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  12. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  13. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  14. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  15. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  16. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  17. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  18. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  19. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  20. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  1. Automatic cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Giordano, Daniela; Maiorana, Francesco; Spampinato, Concetto

    2008-01-01

    To describe the techniques used for automatic landmarking of cephalograms, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each one and reviewing the percentage of success in locating each cephalometric point. The literature survey was performed by searching the Medline, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the ISI Web of Science Citation Index databases. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to August 2006. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved. Their references were also hand-searched for possible missing articles. The search strategy resulted in 118 articles of which eight met the inclusion criteria. Many articles were rejected for different reasons; among these, the most frequent was that results of accuracy for automatic landmark recognition were presented as a percentage of success. A marked difference in results was found between the included studies consisting of heterogeneity in the performance of techniques to detect the same landmark. All in all, hybrid approaches detected cephalometric points with a higher accuracy in contrast to the results for the same points obtained by the model-based, image filtering plus knowledge-based landmark search and "soft-computing" approaches. The systems described in the literature are not accurate enough to allow their use for clinical purposes. Errors in landmark detection were greater than those expected with manual tracing and, therefore, the scientific evidence supporting the use of automatic landmarking is low.

  2. Automatic Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Based on not Fibrillating ECGs.

    PubMed

    Ros, E; Mota, S; Toro, F J; Díaz, A F; Fernández, F J

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to describe an automatic algorithm for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (PAF) Detection, based on parameters extracted from ECG traces with no atrial fibrillation episode. The modular automatic classification algorithm for PAF diagnosis is developed and evaluated with different parameter configurations. The database used in this study was provided by Physiobank for The Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2001. Each ECG file in this database was translated into a 48 parameter vector. The modular classification algorithm used for PAF diagnosis was based on the nearest K-neighbours. Several configuration options were evaluated to optimize the classification performance. Different configurations of the proposed modular classification algorithm were tested. The uni-parametric approach achieved a top classification rate value of 76%. A multi-parametric approach was configured using the 5 parameters with highest discrimination power, and a top classification rate of 80% was achieved; different functions to typify the parameters were tested. Finally, two automatic parametric scanning strategies, Forward and Backward methods, were adopted. The results obtained with these approaches achieved a top classification rate of 92%. A modular classification algorithm based on the nearest K-neighbours was designed. The classification performance of the algorithm was evaluated using different parameter configurations, typification functions and number of K-neighbors. The automatic parametric scanning techniques achieved much better results than previously tested configurations.

  3. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  4. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  5. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  6. Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2013-08-01

    A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  9. Standardized strapdown inertial component modularity study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, J.

    1974-01-01

    To obtain cost effective strapdown navigation, guidance and stabilization systems to meet anticipated future needs a standardized modularized strapdown system concept is proposed. Three performance classes, high, medium and low, are suggested to meet the range of applications. Candidate inertial instruments are selected and analyzed for interface compatibility. Electronic packaging and processing, materials and thermal considerations applying to the three classes are discussed and recommendations advanced. Opportunities for automatic fault detection and redundancy are presented. The smallest gyro and accelerometer modules are projected as requiring a volume of 26 cubic inches and 23.6 cubic inches, respectively. Corresponding power dissipation is projected as 5 watts, and 2.6 watts respectively.

  10. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  11. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  12. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  13. An Abstract Algebra Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Dubinsky, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Describes a constructivist, interactive approach for teaching undergraduate mathematics, abstract algebra in particular, using computer constructions programmed in ISETL to induce students' mental constructions and collaborative learning to help students reflect on these constructions. (18 references) (MKR)

  14. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  15. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  16. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  17. Modular process modeling for OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, M. C.; Bodendorf, C.; Schmidtling, T.; Schlief, R.; Wildfeuer, R.; Zumpe, S.; Niehoff, M.

    2007-03-01

    Modular OPC modeling, describing mask, optics, resist and etch processes separately is an approach to keep efforts for OPC manageable. By exchanging single modules of a modular OPC model, a fast response to process changes during process development is possible. At the same time efforts can be reduced, since only single modular process steps have to be re-characterized as input for OPC modeling as the process is adjusted and optimized. Commercially available OPC tools for full chip processing typically make use of semi-empirical models. The goal of our work is to investigate to what extent these OPC tools can be applied for modeling of single process steps as separate modules. For an advanced gate level process we analyze the modeling accuracy over different process conditions (focus and dose) when combining models for each process step - optics, resist and etch - for differing single processes to a model describing the total process.

  18. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-29

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  19. Hybrid ANN-ES architecture for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chungte; Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    Automatic target recognition can benefit from cooperation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). Bottom-up training and generalization properties of artificial neural networks, and top-down utilization of accumulated knowledge by expert system processors, can be combined to offer robust performance of the automatic target recognition models. In this paper, we propose a modular, flexible and expandable, hybrid architecture which provides cooperative, functional and operational interfaces between expert system and artificial neural networks facilities. In order to make the problem more specific, we apply this architecture to the Multline Optical Character Reader (MLOCR) system, which is being developed to sort the postal mail pieces automatically.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  1. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  2. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I.; Tamas, P.D.

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  3. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  5. Automata Learning with Automated Alphabet Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik

    on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.

  6. Evaluation Transportability Testing of the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 TP-94-01, Revision 2, June 2004, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    FINAL REPORT JULY 2007 REPORT NO. 06-04F EVALUATION TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING OF THE JOINT MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01...MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01, REV. 2, JUNE 2004, "TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING PROCEDURES" ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition...Picatinny Arsenal, NJ to conduct evaluation transportability testing on the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 manufactured by SEA BOX Inc

  7. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  8. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  9. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  10. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  11. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  12. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  13. 48 CFR 3417.70 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Modular contracting. 3417... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Modular Contracting 3417.70 Modular contracting. (a) FSA—May incrementally conduct successive procurements of modules of overall...

  14. The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

  15. Evolution and the Modularity of Mindreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Baron-Cohen's study of autism and an explanatory theory called modularity of mindreading, which proposed a domain-specific modular psychological model based on evolutionary, developmental, psychopathological, and neurobiological considerations. Enumerates problems with the modularity approach and emphasized the evolution of domain general…

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  18. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  19. Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utomo, Tjipto; Ruijter, Kees

    1984-01-01

    Describes the evaluation and reconstruction of a transport phenomena course given at the Bandung Institute of Technology which had a 70 percent failure rate. Discusses the teacher-paced modular instruction technique designed to replace the original course material and its results in terms of student performance over a three-year period. (JM)

  20. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  1. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA

    PubMed Central

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L.; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were evaluated in an international multicenter study at six laboratories. Across all experiments, 236000 results from 32400 samples were generated using 93 methods. Simulated routine testing which included provocation incidents and anomalous situations demonstrated good performance and full functionality. Heterogeneous immunoassays, performed on the E-module with the electrochemiluminescence technology, showed reproducibility at the same level of the general chemistry tests, which was well within the clinical demands. Sample carryover cannot occur due to intelligent sample processing. Workflow experiments for the various module combinations, with menus of about 50 assays, yielded mean sample processing times of <38 minutes for combined clinical chemistry and immunochemistry requests; <50 minutes including automatically repeated samples. MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area offered simplified workflow by combining various laboratory segments. It increased efficiency while maintaining or even improving quality of laboratory processes. PMID:18401449

  2. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  3. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  5. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  6. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  7. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  8. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  9. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  10. Binding abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarini; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2017-07-22

    Binding theories assume that a stimulus and the response made to it are bound together in an event file (Hommel et al., Behav Brain Sci 24(05):849-937, 2001). Such bindings can occur even after single encounters. If the stimulus or parts of its features are repeated within the time frame in which the event file is still intact, the previously integrated response is retrieved. Stimulus-response binding can exist at a perceptual, conceptual or a response selection level (Henson et al., Trends Cogn Sci 18(7):376-384, 2014). The current experiments test whether the observed binding of concepts with responses can be extended from concrete to abstract concepts (detailedness) and whether abstract concepts can retrieve the previous response, in the absence of perceptual repetition. In the present experiment participants responded to a target feature (colour) while the detailedness of the stimulus was irrelevant to the task. The results showed a significant interaction of response relation and detailedness relation, even in the absence of perceptual repetition. This interaction is interpreted as evidence for response-retrieval due to abstract concept repetition. Thus, our data suggest a broader impact of binding mechanism on performance as even abstract concepts can be integrated into event-files and later modulate behaviour.

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  15. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  16. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  17. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  19. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  20. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  1. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  2. Assessing Multiple Abstract Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortesia; Dalton, Casey; Yestness, Nissa

    2009-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we initiate a discussion as to why instructors should implement numerous assessments into their mathematics courses. We describe the purpose and structure of formative and summative assessments implemented in an undergraduate two-semester sequence of abstract algebra. The evaluations included homework, exams, projects,…

  3. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  5. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  6. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  7. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  8. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  9. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  11. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  12. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  13. Quasispecies Theory for Evolution of Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent. PMID:25679649

  14. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  15. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  16. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  17. Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/03/2007 – 30/11/2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition 5a. CONTRACT...14. ABSTRACT: This project created, implemented, and evaluated distributed computational mechanisms for automating composition and scheduling of...Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition Edmund H. Durfee, University of Michigan 1. Project Objectives: This project’s objectives were to

  18. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  19. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    when composing abstract protocols. To evaluate the expres- siveness of our protocol framework for ensuring safe shared memory interference, we show how...progress and preservation theorems that show the ab- sence of unsafe interference in correctly typed programs. Our design ensures memory safety and data...system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms. Next, we briefly

  20. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Compounds on S. mutans Glucosyltransferase Activity" (Abstract #559) 11. L. SIMONSON*, B. LAMBERTS, D. REIHER, and R. WALTER - "Prevention of Experimental...Research Institute, Great Lakes, IL 60088 Glucosyltransferases (GTF) from S. mutans synthesize water-insoluble glucans which have been implicated as a...molecular weight dextrans; Glucosyltransferase inhibitors; a-i, 3-glucanase; Caries experience in initial- ly caries-free recruits; Alveolar bone loss

  1. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  2. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  4. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

  5. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  6. Modular hydrodam: concept definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head (6 to 10 ft) sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydrodam (MH). This concept combines the benefits of shop fabrication, installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, and prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The size and weight of the power module permits it to be fully assembled and checked out in the manufacturer's shop. The module can then be broken down into four pieces and shipped by truck to the site. Once in place, concrete ballast will be added, as necessary, to prevent flotation. The following aspects were investigated: tubular and cross flow turbines; modularized components; the use of a cable support system for horizontal stability of the dam and powerhouse; and construction in the wet as well as in the dry.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  9. PTERA - Modular Aircraft Flight Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-13

    Aerospace testing can be costly and time consuming but a new modular, subscale remotely piloted aircraft offers NASA researchers more affordable options for developing a wide range of cutting edge aviation and space technologies. The Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft (PTERA), developed by Area-I, Inc., of Kennesaw, Georgia, is an extremely versatile and high quality, yet inexpensive, flying laboratory bridging the gap between wind tunnels and crewed flight testing.

  10. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2013-02-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

  11. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  12. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2013-08-27

    A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

  13. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  14. Estimation of inter-modular connectivity from the local field potentials in a hierarchical modular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Kim, Won Sup; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung Kee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method of estimating inter-modular connectivity in a hierarchical modular network. The method is based on an analysis of inverse phase synchronization applied to the local field potentials on a hierarchical modular network of phase oscillators. For a strong-coupling strength, the inverse phase synchronization index of the local field potentials for two modules depends linearly on the corresponding inter-modular connectivity defined as the number of links connecting the modules. The method might enable us to estimate the inter-modular connectivity in various complex systems from the inverse phase synchronization index of the mesoscopic modular activities.

  15. Techniques for the Evaluation and Improvement of Computer-Produced Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Betty Ann

    An automatic abstracting system, named ADAM, implemented on the IBM 370, receives journal articles as input and produces abstracts as output. An algorithm has been developed which considers every sentence in the input text and rejects sentences which are not suitable for inclusion in the abstract. All sentences which are not rejected are included…

  16. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  17. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  18. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  19. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  20. Modular microrobot for swimming in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Meshkati; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun; Drexel University Team; University of Nevada, Reno Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the difficulties in navigating in vivo is to overcome many types of environments. This includes blood vessels of different diameters, fluids with different mechanical properties, and physical barriers. Inspired by conventional modular robotics, we demonstrate modular microrobotics using magnetic particles as the modular units to change size and shape through docking and undocking. Much like the vast variety of microorganisms navigating many different bio-environments, modular microswimmers have the ability to dynamically adapt different environments by reconfiguring the swimmers' physical characteristics. We model the docking as magnetic assembly and undocking mechanisms as deformation by hydrodynamic forces. We characterize the swimming capability of the modular microswimmer with different size and shapes. Finally, we demonstrate modular microrobotics by assembling a three-bead microswimmer into a nine-bead microswimmer, and then disassemble it into several independently swimming microswimmers..

  1. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Benz, Jacob; Tolk, Keith; Weber, Tom

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  2. Modular workcells: modern methods for laboratory automation.

    PubMed

    Felder, R A

    1998-12-01

    Laboratory automation is beginning to become an indispensable survival tool for laboratories facing difficult market competition. However, estimates suggest that only 8% of laboratories will be able to afford total laboratory automation systems. Therefore, automation vendors have developed alternative hardware configurations called 'modular automation', to fit the smaller laboratory. Modular automation consists of consolidated analyzers, integrated analyzers, modular workcells, and pre- and post-analytical automation. These terms will be defined in this paper. Using a modular automation model, the automated core laboratory will become a site where laboratory data is evaluated by trained professionals to provide diagnostic information to practising physicians. Modem software information management and process control tools will complement modular hardware. Proper standardization that will allow vendor-independent modular configurations will assure success of this revolutionary new technology.

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  4. A modular approach to the simulation of doubly-fed induction machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, K.; Rao, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Wound rotor induction machines with a variety of switching circuitry connected to the rotor side as well are used in many applications. This is especially true in applications where the rotor power is considerable. This paper presents a modular approach for simulating such systems. Changes in the mode of operation due to switch changes are taken care of automatically. Shorting of the rotor terminals automatically simulates a stator-fed operation. The approach and algorithm presented here are validated by excellent agreement with the results of earlier research workers.

  5. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  6. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  7. A Study of Discourse Anaphora in Scientific Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores the use of discourse anaphora in scientific abstracts and presents rules to be used for distinguishing anaphoric functioning of terms. The results of tests using these rules are reported, and the implications for natural language understanding, question answering, automatic extracting, query analysis, and bibliographic retrieval are…

  8. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  9. Teaching Students to Write Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locker, Kitty O.

    A teaching strategy has been developed for showing business and technical writing students how to write abstracts. The strategy contains six steps: (1) explain the importance of abstracts; (2) define summary and descriptive abstracts; (3) give students general guidelines for preparing abstracts; (4) explain topic and sentence outlines, showing the…

  10. Local bulk physics from intersecting modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2017-06-01

    We show that bulk quantities localized on a minimal surface homologous to a boundary region correspond in the CFT to operators that commute with the modular Hamiltonian associated with the boundary region. If two such minimal surfaces intersect at a point in the bulk then CFT operators which commute with both extended modular Hamiltonians must be localized at the intersection point. We use this to construct local bulk operators purely from CFT considerations, without knowing the bulk metric, using intersecting modular Hamiltonians. For conformal field theories at zero and finite temperature the appropriate modular Hamiltonians are known explicitly and we recover known expressions for local bulk observables.

  11. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  12. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  13. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Application of modular control techniques to the attitude control of a prototype flexible spacecraft and a prototype flexible space platform was further developed by determining numerical values for the physical parameters of a four body approximation of the MSFC/hybrid deployable truss incorporated in the space platform model, generating sensitivity coefficients for the model of the flexible spacecraft, evaluating the changes in the digital computer simulation of the flexible spacecraft resulting from the addition of another rigid body to the model and comparing attitude control effectiveness with actuators on more than one rigid body of the model with that for the case in which the actuators were restricted to one body.

  14. Cascading dynamics in modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Aram; Cohen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study a simple cascading process in a structured heterogeneous population, namely, a network composed of two loosely coupled communities. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the cascading dynamics in such a network has a two-tiered structure that characterizes activity spreading at different rates in the communities. We study the dynamics of the model using both simulations and an analytical approach based on annealed approximation and obtain good agreement between the two. Our results suggest that network modularity might have implications in various applications, such as epidemiology and viral marketing.

  15. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  16. Congress abstracts: preparing abstracts for submission and successful acceptance.

    PubMed

    Curzon, M E J; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2011-12-01

    To provide guidance on writing congress abstracts for submission and how to increase the chance of acceptance. There is increasing competition for submitted abstracts to be accepted by scientific congresses. Because the facilities or size of a congress may be limited a selection process is often used based upon the quality of abstracts submitted. Accordingly, it is crucial for a researcher to prepare an abstract very carefully to ensure the best chance of acceptance. The approaches to preparing an abstract and the techniques for enhancing quality are reviewed. Suggestions and guidance are given to ensure the production of a well structured, informative and scientifically sound abstract.

  17. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  18. Disciplinary Variation in Automatic Sublanguage Term Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method for automatically identifying sublanguage (SL) domain terms and revealing the patterns in which they occur in text. By applying this method to abstracts from a variety of disciplines, differences in how SL domain terminology occurs can be discerned. Findings indicate relatively consistent differences between the hard sciences…

  19. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  20. Revised Modularity Index to Measure Modularity of OSS Projects with Case Study of Freemind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WahjuRahardjoEmanuel, Andi; Jahja Surjawan, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) Projects are gaining popularity worldwide. Studies by many researchers show that the important key success factor is modularity of the source code. This paper presents the revised Modularity Index which is a software metrics to measure the modularity level of a javabased OSS Projects. To show its effectiveness in analyzing OSS Project, the Modularity Index and its supporting software metrics are then used to analyze the evolution of Freemind mind mapping OSS Project. The analysis using Modularity Index and its supporting metrics shows the strength and weaknesses of the Freemind OSS Projects.

  1. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  2. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  3. The Iterative Structure Analysis of Montgomery Modular Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinbo, Wang

    2007-09-01

    Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) plays a crucial role in the implementation of modular exponentiations of public-key cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the iterative structure and extend the iterative bound condition of MMM. It can be applied to complicated modular exponentiations. Based on the iterative condition of MMM, we can directly use non-modular additions, subtractions and even simple multiplications instead of the modular forms, which make modular exponentiation operation very efficient but more importantly iterative applicability of MMM.

  4. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  5. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan.

  6. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  7. A modular BLSS simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  8. Learning modular policies for robotics.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots.

  9. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  10. Modularity, noise, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Marroig, Gabriel; Melo, Diogo A R; Garcia, Guilherme

    2012-05-01

    Most biological systems are formed by component parts that are to some degree interrelated. Groups of parts that are more associated among themselves and are relatively autonomous from others are called modules. One of the consequences of modularity is that biological systems usually present an unequal distribution of the genetic variation among traits. Estimating the covariance matrix that describes these systems is a difficult problem due to a number of factors such as poor sample sizes and measurement errors. We show that this problem will be exacerbated whenever matrix inversion is required, as in directional selection reconstruction analysis. We explore the consequences of varying degrees of modularity and signal-to-noise ratio on selection reconstruction. We then present and test the efficiency of available methods for controlling noise in matrix estimates. In our simulations, controlling matrices for noise vastly improves the reconstruction of selection gradients. We also perform an analysis of selection gradients reconstruction over a New World Monkeys skull database to illustrate the impact of noise on such analyses. Noise-controlled estimates render far more plausible interpretations that are in full agreement with previous results. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. A modular approach toward extremely large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

  12. Deployable modular mesh antenna - Concept and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsugi, Jin; Yasaka, Tetsuo

    The feasibility of a 10m aperture deployable modular mesh antenna is evaluated by integrating the results of a statistical surface accuracy estimation and of surface shape adjustment experiments. It has been clarified that by combining seven 4m aperture modules, a 10m aperture deployable modular mesh antenna can be constructed, preserving the surface accuracy that is applicable to C band mission.

  13. Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

  14. Modular Buildings Are Here To Stay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Steven; Roman, Michael I.; Tiernan, Maury; Savage, Chuck; Airikka, Robert; Brosius, Jerry L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents several examples of modular building construction being used be school districts to support their need for more space, building flexibility, and enhancement of the learning environment. Comparisons with traditionally built school facilities are offered as are answers to commonly held myths concerning modular construction. (GR)

  15. Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Chuck

    1989-01-01

    Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)

  16. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  17. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  18. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  19. A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswanger, Craig D.

    1984-05-01

    WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.

  20. Reducing Abstraction Level When Learning Abstract Algebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework based on interviews with undergraduate students and written questionnaires to study how undergraduate students cope with abstract algebra concepts. Indicates that students' responses can be interpreted as a result of reducing the level of abstraction. Examines the theme of reducing abstraction based on three…

  1. The relative efficiency of modular and non-modular networks of different size

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Colin R.; McNally, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Most biological networks are modular but previous work with small model networks has indicated that modularity does not necessarily lead to increased functional efficiency. Most biological networks are large, however, and here we examine the relative functional efficiency of modular and non-modular neural networks at a range of sizes. We conduct a detailed analysis of efficiency in networks of two size classes: ‘small’ and ‘large’, and a less detailed analysis across a range of network sizes. The former analysis reveals that while the modular network is less efficient than one of the two non-modular networks considered when networks are small, it is usually equally or more efficient than both non-modular networks when networks are large. The latter analysis shows that in networks of small to intermediate size, modular networks are much more efficient that non-modular networks of the same (low) connective density. If connective density must be kept low to reduce energy needs for example, this could promote modularity. We have shown how relative functionality/performance scales with network size, but the precise nature of evolutionary relationship between network size and prevalence of modularity will depend on the costs of connectivity. PMID:25631996

  2. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  3. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  4. Modularity maximization using completely positive programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.

  5. Finding network communities using modularity density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world complex networks exhibit a community structure, in which the modules correspond to actual functional units. Identifying these communities is a key challenge for scientists. A common approach is to search for the network partition that maximizes a quality function. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed function, namely modularity density. We show that it does not incur in the drawbacks suffered by traditional modularity, and that it can identify networks without ground-truth community structure, deriving its analytical dependence on link density in generic random graphs. In addition, we show that modularity density allows an easy comparison between networks of different sizes, and we also present some limitations that methods based on modularity density may suffer from. Finally, we introduce an efficient, quadratic community detection algorithm based on modularity density maximization, validating its accuracy against theoretical predictions and on a set of benchmark networks.

  6. The emergence of modularity in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-06-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

  7. Modular implementation of a digital hardware design automation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M.

    An automation system based on AHPL (A Hardware Programming Language) was developed. The project may be divided into three distinct phases: (1) Upgrading of AHPL to make it more universally applicable; (2) Implementation of a compiler for the language; and (3) illustration of how the compiler may be used to support several phases of design activities. Several new features were added to AHPL. These include: application-dependent parameters, mutliple clocks, asynchronous results, functional registers and primitive functions. The new language, called Universal AHPL, has been defined rigorously. The compiler design is modular. The parsing is done by an automatic parser generated from the SLR(1)BNF grammar of the language. The compiler produces two data bases from the AHPL description of a circuit. The first one is a tabular representation of the circuit, and the second one is a detailed interconnection linked list. The two data bases provide a means to interface the compiler to application-dependent CAD systems.

  8. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  9. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  10. Accessing bioscience images from abstract sentences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lee, Minsuk

    2006-07-15

    Images (e.g., figures) are important experimental results that are typically reported in bioscience full-text articles. Biologists need to access images to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. On the other hand, biologists live in an age of information explosion. As thousands of biomedical articles are published every day, systems that help biologists efficiently access images in literature would greatly facilitate biomedical research. We hypothesize that much of image content reported in a full-text article can be summarized by the sentences in the abstract of the article. In our study, more than one hundred biologists had tested this hypothesis and more than 40 biologists had evaluated a novel user-interface BioEx that allows biologists to access images directly from abstract sentences. Our results show that 87.8% biologists were in favor of BioEx over two other baseline user-interfaces. We further developed systems that explored hierarchical clustering algorithms to automatically identify abstract sentences that summarize the images. One of the systems achieves a precision of 100% that corresponds to a recall of 4.6%.

  11. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  12. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  13. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  14. BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

  15. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  16. Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Marc; Xiao, Shuhai; Kowalewski, Michał

    2009-01-01

    The Ediacara biota include macroscopic, morphologically complex soft-bodied organisms that appear globally in the late Ediacaran Period (575–542 Ma). The physiology, feeding strategies, and functional morphology of the modular Ediacara organisms (rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs) remain debated but are critical for understanding their ecology and phylogeny. Their modular construction triggered numerous hypotheses concerning their likely feeding strategies, ranging from micro-to-macrophagus feeding to photoautotrophy to osmotrophy. Macrophagus feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs is inconsistent with their lack of oral openings, and photoautotrophy in rangeomorphs is contradicted by their habitats below the photic zone. Here, we combine theoretical models and empirical data to evaluate the feasibility of osmotrophy, which requires high surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios, as a primary feeding strategy of rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs. Although exclusively osmotrophic feeding in modern ecosystems is restricted to microscopic bacteria, this study suggests that (i) fractal branching of rangeomorph modules resulted in SA/V ratios comparable to those observed in modern osmotrophic bacteria, and (ii) rangeomorphs, and particularly erniettomorphs, could have achieved osmotrophic SA/V ratios similar to bacteria, provided their bodies included metabolically inert material. Thus, specific morphological adaptations observed in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs may have represented strategies for overcoming physiological constraints that typically make osmotrophy prohibitive for macroscopic life forms. These results support the viability of osmotrophic feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs, help explain their taphonomic peculiarities, and point to the possible importance of earliest macroorganisms for cycling dissolved organic carbon that may have been present in abundance during Ediacaran times. PMID:19706530

  17. Sentence retrieval for abstracts of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires clinicians to integrate their expertise with the latest scientific research. But this is becoming increasingly difficult with the growing numbers of published articles. There is a clear need for better tools to improve clinician's ability to search the primary literature. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the most reliable source of evidence documenting the efficacy of treatment options. This paper describes the retrieval of key sentences from abstracts of RCTs as a step towards helping users find relevant facts about the experimental design of clinical studies. Method Using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs), a popular and successful method for natural language processing problems, sentences referring to Intervention, Participants and Outcome Measures are automatically categorized. This is done by extending a previous approach for labeling sentences in an abstract for general categories associated with scientific argumentation or rhetorical roles: Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion. Methods are tested on several corpora of RCT abstracts. First structured abstracts with headings specifically indicating Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures are used. Also a manually annotated corpus of structured and unstructured abstracts is prepared for testing a classifier that identifies sentences belonging to each category. Results Using CRFs, sentences can be labeled for the four rhetorical roles with F-scores from 0.93–0.98. This outperforms the use of Support Vector Machines. Furthermore, sentences can be automatically labeled for Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures, in unstructured and structured abstracts where the section headings do not specifically indicate these three topics. F-scores of up to 0.83 and 0.84 are obtained for Intervention and Outcome Measure sentences. Conclusion Results indicate that some of the methodological elements of RCTs are identifiable at the sentence

  18. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  19. Using argumentation to extract key sentences from biomedical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Patrick; Boyer, Celia; Chichester, Christine; Tbahriti, Imad; Geissbühler, Antoine; Fabry, Paul; Gobeill, Julien; Pillet, Violaine; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Lovis, Christian; Veuthey, Anne-Lise

    2007-01-01

    key word assignment has been largely used in MEDLINE to provide an indicative "gist" of the content of articles and to help retrieving biomedical articles. Abstracts are also used for this purpose. However with usually more than 300 words, MEDLINE abstracts can still be regarded as long documents; therefore we design a system to select a unique key sentence. This key sentence must be indicative of the article's content and we assume that abstract's conclusions are good candidates. We design and assess the performance of an automatic key sentence selector, which classifies sentences into four argumentative moves: PURPOSE, METHODS, RESULTS and we rely on Bayesian classifiers trained on automatically acquired data. Features representation, selection and weighting are reported and classification effectiveness is evaluated on the four classes using confusion matrices. We also explore the use of simple heuristics to take the position of sentences into account. Recall, precision and F-scores are computed for the CONCLUSION class. For the CONCLUSION class, the F-score reaches 84%. Automatic argumentative classification using Bayesian learners is feasible on MEDLINE abstracts and should help user navigation in such repositories.

  20. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernández, A.; Gómez, S.

    2007-06-01

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining their modularity. This size reduction allows use of heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the extremal optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  1. A Prototype for Modular Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilbanks, Brandon; Layton, Donovan; Garcia, Sergio; Trinh, Cong

    2017-10-10

    When aiming to produce a target chemical at high yield, titer, and productivity, various combinations of genetic parts available to build the target pathway can generate a large number of strains for characterization. This engineering approach will become increasingly laborious and expensive when seeking to develop desirable strains for optimal production of a large space of biochemicals due to extensive screening. Our recent theoretical development of modular cell (MODCELL) design principles can offer a promising solution for rapid generation of optimal strains by coupling a modular cell and exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion. In this study, we experimentally validated some designed properties of MODCELL by demonstrating: i) a modular (chassis) cell is required to couple with a production module, a heterologous ethanol pathway, as a testbed, ii) degree of coupling between the modular cell and production modules can be modulated to enhance growth and product synthesis, iii) a modular cell can be used as a host to select an optimal pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) of the ethanol production module and to help identify a hypothetical PDC protein, and iv) adaptive laboratory evolution based on growth selection of the modular cell can enhance growth and product synthesis rates. We envision that the MODCELL design provides a powerful prototype for modular cell engineering to rapidly create optimal strains for synthesis of a large space of biochemicals.

  2. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  3. Rational design of efficient modular cells.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cong T; Liu, Yan; Conner, David J

    2015-11-01

    The modular cell design principle is formulated to devise modular (chassis) cells. These cells can be assembled with exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion to build microbial cell factories for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of novel molecules, requiring minimal iterative strain optimization steps. A modular cell is designed to be auxotrophic, containing core metabolic pathways that are necessary but insufficient to support cell growth and maintenance. To be functional, it must tightly couple with an exchangeable production module containing auxiliary metabolic pathways that not only complement cell growth but also enhance production of targeted molecules. We developed a MODCELL (modular cell) framework based on metabolic pathway analysis to implement the modular cell design principle. MODCELL identifies genetic modifications and requirements to construct modular cell candidates and their associated exchangeable production modules. By defining the degree of similarity and coupling metrics, MODCELL can evaluate which exchangeable production module(s) can be tightly coupled with a modular cell candidate. We first demonstrated how MODCELL works in a step-by-step manner for example metabolic networks, and then applied it to design modular Escherichia coli cells for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of five alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol) and five butyrate esters (ethyl butyrate, propyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, butyl butyrate and isobutyl butyrate) from pentose sugars (arabinose and xylose) and hexose sugars (glucose, mannose, and galactose) under anaerobic conditions. We identified three modular cells, MODCELL1, MODCELL2 and MODCELL3, that can couple well with Group 1 of modules (ethanol, isobutanol, butanol, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, butyl butyrate), Group 2 (isopropanol, isopropyl butyrate), and Group 3 (propanol, isopropanol), respectively. We validated the design of MODCELL1 for anaerobic

  4. Modular Semantic Tagging of Medline Abstracts and its Use in Inferring Regulatory Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James; Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-09-19

    We describe MedstractPlus, a resource for mining relations from the Medline bibliographic database that is currently under construction. It was built on the remains of Medstract, a previously created resource that included a biorelation server and an acronym database. MedstractPlus uses simple and scalable natural language processing modules to structure text, is designed with reusability and extendibility in mind, and adheres to the philosophy of the Linguistic Annotation Framework. We show how MedstractPlus has been used to provide seeds for a novel approach to inferring transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data.

  5. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  6. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  7. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  8. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  9. Fast ensemble representations for abstract visual impressions

    PubMed Central

    Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Kosovicheva, Anna; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the richness of perception is conveyed by implicit, rather than image or feature-level, information. The perception of animacy or lifelikeness of objects, for example, cannot be predicted from image level properties alone. Instead, perceiving lifelikeness seems to be an inferential process and one might expect it to be cognitively demanding and serial rather than fast and automatic. If perceptual mechanisms exist to represent lifelikeness, then observers should be able to perceive this information quickly and reliably, and should be able to perceive the lifelikeness of crowds of objects. Here, we report that observers are highly sensitive to the lifelikeness of random objects and even groups of objects. Observers' percepts of crowd lifelikeness are well predicted by independent observers' lifelikeness judgements of the individual objects comprising that crowd. We demonstrate that visual impressions of abstract dimensions can be achieved with summary statistical representations, which underlie our rich perceptual experience. PMID:27848949

  10. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  11. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  12. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  13. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  14. Modular arrangement of proteins as inferred from analysis of homology.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnhammer, E. L.; Kahn, D.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of many proteins consists of a combination of discrete modules that have been shuffled during evolution. Such modules can frequently be recognized from the analysis of homology. Here we present a systematic analysis of the modular organization of all sequenced proteins. To achieve this we have developed an automatic method to identify protein domains from sequence comparisons. Homologous domains can then be clustered into consistent families. The method was applied to all 21,098 nonfragment protein sequences in SWISS-PROT 21.0, which was automatically reorganized into a comprehensive protein domain database, ProDom. We have constructed multiple sequence alignments for each domain family in ProDom, from which consensus sequences were generated. These nonreduntant domain consensuses are useful for fast homology searches. Domain organization in ProDom is exemplified for proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PEP:PTS) and for bacterial 2-component regulators. We provide 2 examples of previously unrecognized domain arrangements discovered with the help of ProDom. PMID:8019419

  15. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  16. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  17. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  18. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  19. The Modular Structure of Protein Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; Rybski, Diego; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2008-03-01

    The evolution of the human protein homology network (H-PHN) has led to a complex network that exhibits a surprisingly high level of modularity. Topologically, the H-PHN presents well connected groups (conformed by proteins of similar aminoacid structure) and weak connectivities between the groups. Here, we perform an empirical study of the H-PHN to characterize the degree of modularity in terms of scale-invariant laws using recently introduced box covering algorithms. We find that the exponent that determines the scale-invariance of the modularity is unexpectedly higher than the box dimension of the network. In addition, we perform a percolation analysis that gives insight into the evolutionary process that led to the modular organization and dynamics of the present H-PHN.

  20. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  1. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be... shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded radio elements...

  2. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  3. Modular, Intelligent Power Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert

    2006-01-01

    NASA's new Space Exploration Initiative demands that vehicles, habitats, and rovers achieve unprecedented levels of reliability, safety, effectiveness, and affordability. Modular and intelligent electrical power systems are critical to achieving those goals. Modular electrical power systems naturally increase reliability and safety through built-in fault tolerance. These modular systems also enable standardization across a multitude of systems, thereby greatly increasing affordability of the programs. Various technologies being developed to support this new paradigm for space power systems will be presented. Examples include the use of digital control in power electronics to enable better performance and advanced modularity functions such as distributed, master-less control and series input power conversion. Also, digital control and robust communication enables new levels of power system control, stability, fault detection, and health management. Summary results from recent development efforts are presented along with expected future technology development needs required to support NASA's ambitious space exploration goals.

  4. Modular modelling with Physiome standards.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models. We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML. By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity. We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology. The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole-cell models and linking such models in multi-scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set of principles to

  5. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  6. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  7. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. Adaptive Coupled Oscillators for Modular Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, Pitoyo; Nakane, Aito

    In this research we physically built several robotics modules that are able to self-discover a connection topology which allows them to generate a coordinated behavior as an integrated modular robot. We consider that this self-configurability of hardware module can potentially simplify the costly designing process of complicated robots and at the same time improve the resiliency of modular robots in the face of internal and external changes.

  9. [Importance of neurobiology for modular psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Schmahl, C; Bohus, M

    2013-11-01

    In the context of continuing education in psychiatry and psychotherapy, modular psychotherapy is of special importance. In modular psychotherapy, general interventions, e.g. for regulation of emotions, have an important function. In this review examples are given to describe the importance of neurobiology for the understanding and the improvement of these mechanisms. In addition, the use of neurobiological investigations within classical psychotherapy trials in the fields of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder will be depicted.

  10. Automatic Orbital Welding Head for Shipboard Use where Accessibility is Limited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    reverse elde, it necesayand Identify by block rnumber) Automatic Orbital Welding Automatic Pipe Welding Pulsed Current GTA Welding 20. ABSTRACT...demonstrated that state-of-the-art automatic pipe /tube welding techniques can be miniaturized to weld hard-to-reach joints. Plans to continue with a full...making pipe /tube welds with the prototype. (3) Private industry has the ability to produce specific automatic orbital welding heads for space limited

  11. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  12. Evolution of Complex Modular Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Biological networks have evolved to be highly functional within uncertain environments while remaining extremely adaptable. One of the main contributors to the robustness and evolvability of biological networks is believed to be their modularity of function, with modules defined as sets of genes that are strongly interconnected but whose function is separable from those of other modules. Here, we investigate the in silico evolution of modularity and robustness in complex artificial metabolic networks that encode an increasing amount of information about their environment while acquiring ubiquitous features of biological, social, and engineering networks, such as scale-free edge distribution, small-world property, and fault-tolerance. These networks evolve in environments that differ in their predictability, and allow us to study modularity from topological, information-theoretic, and gene-epistatic points of view using new tools that do not depend on any preconceived notion of modularity. We find that for our evolved complex networks as well as for the yeast protein–protein interaction network, synthetic lethal gene pairs consist mostly of redundant genes that lie close to each other and therefore within modules, while knockdown suppressor gene pairs are farther apart and often straddle modules, suggesting that knockdown rescue is mediated by alternative pathways or modules. The combination of network modularity tools together with genetic interaction data constitutes a powerful approach to study and dissect the role of modularity in the evolution and function of biological networks. PMID:18266463

  13. Managing in an age of modularity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

    1997-01-01

    Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing.

  14. Modular theory of inverse systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between multivariable zeros and inverse systems was explored. A definition of zero module is given in such a way that it is basis independent. The existence of essential right and left inverses were established. The way in which the abstract zero module captured previous definitions of multivariable zeros is explained and examples are presented.

  15. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  16. Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David R.; Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

  17. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  18. Modular verification of concurrent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.E.K.

    1986-01-01

    During the last ten years, a number of authors have proposed verification techniques that allow one to prove properties of individual processes by using global assumptions about the behavior of the remaining processes in the distributed program. As a result, one must justify these global assumptions before drawing any conclusions regarding the correctness of the entire program. This justification is often the most difficult part of the proof and presents a serious obstacle to hierarchical program development. This thesis develops a new approach to the verification of concurrent systems. The approach is modular and supports compositional development of programs since the proofs of each individual process of a program are completely isolated from all others. The generality of this approach is illustrated by applying it to a representative set of contemporary concurrent programming languages, namely: CSP, ADA, Distributed Processes, and a shared variable language. In addition, it is also shown how the approach may be used to deal with a number of other constructs that have been proposed for inclusion in concurrent languages: FORK and JOIN primitives, nested monitor calls, path expressions, atomic transactions, and asynchronous message passing. These results allow argument that the approach is universal and can be used to design proof systems for any concurrent language.

  19. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  20. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  1. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  2. Extending reliability: Transformational tailoring of abstract mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for automatically constructing concrete executable programs from an abstract prototype program by applying transformations based on theorems of matrix algebra and on algebraic properties of programming languages are described. These methods provide a user with highly efficient programs tailored to his environment while maintaining the advantages of high reliability and low cost associated with routines from the best mathematical software libraries. Also, the transformations which produce such programs represent a formal codification of rules for writing linear algebra programs.

  3. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  4. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  5. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  6. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  7. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  8. Fitness, environmental changes and the growth of modularity- a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Liang; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Although the modularity of a biological system is demonstrated and recognized, the evolution of the modularity is not well understood. We here present a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity. Complemented with numerical models, this analytical theory shows the calculation of the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment, the relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity, as well as a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state.

  9. A parallel and modular deformable cell Car-Parrinello code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazzoni, Carlo; Chiarotti, Guido L.

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a modular parallel code implementing the Car-Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 (1985) 2471] algorithm including the variable cell dynamics [Europhys. Lett. 36 (1994) 345; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 56 (1995) 510]. Our code is written in Fortran 90, and makes use of some new programming concepts like encapsulation, data abstraction and data hiding. The code has a multi-layer hierarchical structure with tree like dependences among modules. The modules include not only the variables but also the methods acting on them, in an object oriented fashion. The modular structure allows easier code maintenance, develop and debugging procedures, and is suitable for a developer team. The layer structure permits high portability. The code displays an almost linear speed-up in a wide range of number of processors independently of the architecture. Super-linear speed up is obtained with a "smart" Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that uses the available memory on the single node (increasing for a fixed problem with the number of processing elements) as temporary buffer to store wave function transforms. This code has been used to simulate water and ammonia at giant planet conditions for systems as large as 64 molecules for ˜50 ps.

  10. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  11. Design of a modular digital computer system, CDRL no. D001, final design plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The engineering breadboard implementation for the CDRL no. D001 modular digital computer system developed during design of the logic system was documented. This effort followed the architecture study completed and documented previously, and was intended to verify the concepts of a fault tolerant, automatically reconfigurable, modular version of the computer system conceived during the architecture study. The system has a microprogrammed 32 bit word length, general register architecture and an instruction set consisting of a subset of the IBM System 360 instruction set plus additional fault tolerance firmware. The following areas were covered: breadboard packaging, central control element, central processing element, memory, input/output processor, and maintenance/status panel and electronics.

  12. Modular Toolkit for Data Processing (MDP): A Python Data Processing Framework.

    PubMed

    Zito, Tiziano; Wilbert, Niko; Wiskott, Laurenz; Berkes, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Modular toolkit for Data Processing (MDP) is a data processing framework written in Python. From the user's perspective, MDP is a collection of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms and other data processing units that can be combined into data processing sequences and more complex feed-forward network architectures. Computations are performed efficiently in terms of speed and memory requirements. From the scientific developer's perspective, MDP is a modular framework, which can easily be expanded. The implementation of new algorithms is easy and intuitive. The new implemented units are then automatically integrated with the rest of the library. MDP has been written in the context of theoretical research in neuroscience, but it has been designed to be helpful in any context where trainable data processing algorithms are used. Its simplicity on the user's side, the variety of readily available algorithms, and the reusability of the implemented units make it also a useful educational tool.

  13. The automaticity of visual statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Jungé, Justin; Scholl, Brian J

    2005-11-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in several ways, using both explicit familiarity and implicit response-time measures. The results demonstrate that (a) the input to VSL is gated by selective attention, (b) VSL is nevertheless an implicit process because it operates during a cover task and without awareness of the underlying statistical patterns, and (c) VSL constructs abstracted representations that are then invariant to changes in extraneous surface features. These results fuel the conclusion that VSL both is and is not automatic: It requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli, but the resulting learning then occurs without intent or awareness. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  15. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  16. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  17. The challenge of abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Castelfranchi, Cristiano; Cimatti, Felice; Scorolli, Claudia; Tummolini, Luca

    2017-03-01

    concepts ("freedom") differ from concrete ones ("cat"), as they do not have a bounded, identifiable, and clearly perceivable referent. The way in which abstract concepts are represented has recently become a topic of intense debate, especially because of the spread of the embodied approach to cognition. Within this framework concepts derive their meaning from the same perception, motor, and emotional systems that are involved in online interaction with the world. Most of the evidence in favor of this view, however, has been gathered with regard to concrete concepts. Given the relevance of abstract concepts for higher-order cognition, we argue that being able to explain how they are represented is a crucial challenge that any theory of cognition needs to address. The aim of this article is to offer a critical review of the latest theories on abstract concepts, focusing on embodied ones. Starting with theories that question the distinction between abstract and concrete concepts, we review theories claiming that abstract concepts are grounded in metaphors, in situations and introspection, and in emotion. We then introduce multiple representation theories, according to which abstract concepts evoke both sensorimotor and linguistic information. We argue that the most promising approach is given by multiple representation views that combine an embodied perspective with the recognition of the importance of linguistic and social experience. We conclude by discussing whether or not a single theoretical framework might be able to explain all different varieties of abstract concepts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  19. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-12-15

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

  20. Local modularity for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Ke; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a topic of interest in the study of complex networks such as the protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks. In recent years, various methods were proposed to detect community structures of the networks. Here, a kind of local modularity with tunable parameter is derived from the Newman-Girvan modularity by a special self-loop strategy that depends on the community division of the networks. By the self-loop strategy, one can easily control the definition of modularity, and the resulting modularity can be optimized by using the existing modularity optimization algorithms. The local modularity is used as the target function for community detection, and a self-consistent method is proposed for the optimization of the local modularity. We analyze the behaviors of the local modularity and show the validity of the local modularity in detecting community structures on various networks.

  1. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. Robust modular product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.

  3. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  4. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  5. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  6. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  7. Automatic program generation from specifications using PROLOG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1988-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates PROLOG programs from input/output specifications is described. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of transformations and the input/output relation. Abstract data types are used as models for data. They are defined as sets of terms satisfying a system of equations. The tests, the transformations and the input/output relation are also specified by equations.

  8. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  9. Threat assessment and sensor management in a modular architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Oldfield, J. P.; Islip, S.; Benfold, B.; Brandon, R.; Thomas, P. A.; Stubbins, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Many existing asset/area protection systems, for example those deployed to protect critical national infrastructure, are comprised of multiple sensors such as EO/IR, radar, and Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS), loosely integrated with a central Command and Control (C2) system. Whilst some sensors provide automatic event detection and C2 systems commonly provide rudimentary multi-sensor rule based alerting, the performance of such systems is limited by the lack of deep integration and autonomy. As a result, these systems have a high degree of operator burden. To address these challenges, an architectural concept termed "SAPIENT" was conceived. SAPIENT is based on multiple Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASMs) connected to a High-Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that provides data fusion, situational awareness, alerting, and sensor management capability. The aim of the SAPIENT concept is to allow for the creation of a surveillance system, in a modular plug-and-play manner, that provides high levels of autonomy, threat detection performance, and reduced operator burden. This paper considers the challenges associated with developing an HLDMM aligned with the SAPIENT concept, through the discussion of the design of a realised HLDMM. Particular focus is drawn to how high levels of system level performance can be achieved whilst retaining modularity and flexibility. A number of key aspects of our HLDMM are presented, including an integrated threat assessment and sensor management framework, threat sequence matching, and ASM trust modelling. The results of real-world testing of the HLDMM, in conjunction with multiple Laser, Radar, and EO/IR sensors, in representative semi-urban environments, are discussed.

  10. [Modular psychotherapy with children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefanie J; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2016-11-01

    The implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy with children and adolescents has been limited so far. This is mainly due to the fact that patients in service settings tend to have higher rates of comorbidities and more frequently changing therapy needs than those in research settings. Thus, modular psychotherapies are promising, as they allow the treatment protocol to be adapted to patients’ individual needs. Because no review on modular psychotherapy for children and adolescents exists, we conducted a systematic literature research. The results of the 15 randomized controlled trials identified demonstrate that modular psychotherapy is associated with significant reductions in symptom levels as well as with higher rates of diagnostic remission compared to control conditions. Because of the lack of evidence, future studies should investigate the incremental efficacy of modular approaches and test the validity of underlying theoretical models as well as of decision flowcharts. Modular psychotherapy approaches have the potential to personalize evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents across various therapeutical traditions, and to facilitate their implementation into clinical practice.

  11. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  12. Spatial language and abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Bottini, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    What is the relationship between spatial language and abstract concepts? When people talk about abstract things that they can never see or touch, they often use spatial metaphors (e.g., a long vacation, a high price, a close friendship). According to theories of metaphorical mental representation, linguistic metaphors reflect underlying mental metaphors. Yet, behavioral experiments show that this is only one of the possible relationships between spatial metaphors in language and our spatial conceptualizations of abstract domains. In some cases, linguistic metaphors not only reflect speakers' thoughts, they also change those thoughts, such that people who use different linguistic metaphors rely on correspondingly different mental metaphors. Alternatively, spatial metaphors in language may reflect the way people conceptualize an abstract domain in some circumstances, but not in others. Finally, spatial language may reflect the way an abstract domain is typically conceptualized by some people, but not by others. There is no single relationship between spatial language and abstract concepts. Discovering whether (and under what conditions) a linguistic metaphor corresponds to a mental metaphor can illuminate the ways in which our interactions with the physical and social environment shape our mental lives. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:139-149. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1271 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. On the Importance of an Automated and Modular Solar Image Processing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahamatnia, E.; Dorotovič, I.; Fonseca, J.; Ribeiro, R.

    2014-04-01

    Developing sophisticated software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution, climate change understanding and space weather prediction. With new space missions such as SDO, solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools, which enable automatic and efficient data processing and manipulation. In this work, we argue that a modular system design is required to achieve a stable, extendable and comprehensive solar feature tracking tool.

  14. Investigation of different magnetic field configurations using an electrical, modular Zeeman slower

    SciTech Connect

    Ohayon, Ben; Ron, Guy

    2015-10-15

    We present a method of constructing an automatically reconfigurable, modular, electronic Zeeman slower, which is remotely controlled. This setup is used to investigate the ability of different magnetic field profiles to slow thermal atoms to the capture velocity of a magneto-optical-trap. We show that a simple numerical optimization process yields better results than the commonly used approach for deciding on the appropriate field and comes close to the optimum field, found by utilizing a fast feedback loop which uses a genetic algorithm. Our new numerical method is easily adaptable to a variety of existing slower designs and may be beneficial where feedback is unavailable.

  15. A modular approach to detection and identification of defects in rough lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Mook; Abbott, A. Lynn; Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a prototype scanning system that can automatically identify several important defects on rough hardwood lumber. The scanning system utilizes 3 laser sources and an embedded-processor camera to capture and analyze profile and gray-scale images. The modular approach combines the detection of wane (the curved sides of a board, possibly containing residual bark) with classification of defects. For identifying clear (unblemished) wood, a multilayer perceptron network is used; and for other defects, statistically trained radial-basis-function networks are implemented, followed by a competitive decision scheme. The system is among the first to scan and evaluate lumber in its rough (unplaned) state.

  16. Instrumentino: An open-source modular Python framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    Instrumentino is an open-source modular graphical user interface framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments. It expands the control capability of Arduino by allowing instruments builders to easily create a custom user interface program running on an attached personal computer. It enables the definition of operation sequences and their automated running without user intervention. Acquired experimental data and a usage log are automatically saved on the computer for further processing. The use of the programming language Python also allows easy extension. Complex devices, which are difficult to control using an Arduino, may be integrated as well by incorporating third party application programming interfaces into the Instrumentino framework.

  17. Investigation of different magnetic field configurations using an electrical, modular Zeeman slower.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Ben; Ron, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We present a method of constructing an automatically reconfigurable, modular, electronic Zeeman slower, which is remotely controlled. This setup is used to investigate the ability of different magnetic field profiles to slow thermal atoms to the capture velocity of a magneto-optical-trap. We show that a simple numerical optimization process yields better results than the commonly used approach for deciding on the appropriate field and comes close to the optimum field, found by utilizing a fast feedback loop which uses a genetic algorithm. Our new numerical method is easily adaptable to a variety of existing slower designs and may be beneficial where feedback is unavailable.

  18. An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

  19. A modular PMAD system for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  20. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    DOE PAGES

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-likemore » to the causal completion of the region.« less

  1. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  2. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  3. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  4. [Modular tumor prostheses of the humerus].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M

    2010-10-01

    The humerus is a common location of musculoskeletal tumors. Modular prostheses of the humerus, besides APC and biological reconstructions, allow restoration of resulting bone defects. The functional outcome is determined by the extent of bone and soft tissue loss. Anatomical shoulder prostheses have a limited abductor function, while shoulder function could be improved by an inverse prosthetic design and implants for ligament repair. Elbow prostheses provide satisfactory function. Our own results in 101 patients showed a 23% revision rate. The median overall survival was 171 months with an overall 5-year survival of 53%. With respect to good oncological outcomes modular reconstruction of the humerus is a feasible treatment option for cancer patients.

  5. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements.

    PubMed

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-03-04

    Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed.

  6. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  7. Trends in Modern Subject Analysis with Reference to Text Derivative Indexing and Abstracting Methods: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kieth C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the information explosion of the last thirty years and the various attempts made to organize that information in new ways. Section B offers a brief historic review of modern classification and subject heading theory. Section C reviews the literature of automatic indexing, automatic abstracting, and automatic…

  8. Automatic natural language parsing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

  9. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  10. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Automatic dishwasher products contain various soaps. Potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate are the most common. ... is in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the soap ...

  11. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  12. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  13. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  14. Exploiting the systematic review protocol for classification of medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Oana; Inkpen, Diana; Matwin, Stan; Klement, William; O'Blenis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the automatic classification of documents can be useful in systematic reviews on medical topics, and specifically if the performance of the automatic classification can be enhanced by using the particular protocol of questions employed by the human reviewers to create multiple classifiers. The test collection is the data used in large-scale systematic review on the topic of the dissemination strategy of health care services for elderly people. From a group of 47,274 abstracts marked by human reviewers to be included in or excluded from further screening, we randomly selected 20,000 as a training set, with the remaining 27,274 becoming a separate test set. As a machine learning algorithm we used complement naïve Bayes. We tested both a global classification method, where a single classifier is trained on instances of abstracts and their classification (i.e., included or excluded), and a novel per-question classification method that trains multiple classifiers for each abstract, exploiting the specific protocol (questions) of the systematic review. For the per-question method we tested four ways of combining the results of the classifiers trained for the individual questions. As evaluation measures, we calculated precision and recall for several settings of the two methods. It is most important not to exclude any relevant documents (i.e., to attain high recall for the class of interest) but also desirable to exclude most of the non-relevant documents (i.e., to attain high precision on the class of interest) in order to reduce human workload. For the global method, the highest recall was 67.8% and the highest precision was 37.9%. For the per-question method, the highest recall was 99.2%, and the highest precision was 63%. The human-machine workflow proposed in this paper achieved a recall value of 99.6%, and a precision value of 17.8%. The per-question method that combines classifiers following the specific protocol of the review leads to better

  15. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  16. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  17. Modular Apparatus and Method for Attaching Multiple Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for attaching sensors and electronics is disclosed. The modular apparatus includes a square recess including a plurality of cavities and a reference cavity such that a pressure sensor can be connected to the modular apparatus. The modular apparatus also includes at least one voltage input hole and at least one voltage output hole operably connected to each of the plurality of cavities such that voltage can be applied to the pressure sensor and received from the pressure sensor.

  18. Experimental Applications of Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; McCartney, Patrick; Gorringe, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe challenging use-cases for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML), and evaluate solutions. The first case uses ATML Test Results to deliver active features to support test procedure development and test flow, and bridging mixed software development environments. The second case examines adding attributes to Systems Modelling Language (SysML) to create a linkage for deriving information from a model to fill in an ATML document set. Both cases are outside the original concept of operations for ATML but are typical when integrating large heterogeneous systems with modular contributions from multiple disciplines.

  19. Automatic evidence retrieval for systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.

  20. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  1. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  2. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke detector...

  3. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke detector...

  4. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  5. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  6. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  7. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  8. Multilevel and Hybrid Architecture for Device Abstraction and Context Information Management in Smart Home Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, Víctor; González, Roberto; San Martín, Luis Ángel; Campos, Antonio; Lobato, Vanesa

    Hardware device management, and context information acquisition and abstraction are key factors to develop the ambient intelligent paradigm in smart homes. This work presents an architecture that addresses these two problems and provides a usable framework to develop applications easily. In contrast to other proposals, this work addresses performance issues specifically. Results show that the execution performance of the developed prototype is suitable for deployment in a real environment. In addition, the modular design of the system allows the user to develop applications using different techniques and different levels of abstraction.

  9. Abstract Convex Underestimation Assisted Multistage Differential Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Gen; Zhang, Gui-Jun

    2017-09-01

    In differential evolution (DE), different strategies applied in different evolutionary stages may be more effective than a single strategy used in the entire evolutionary process. However, it is not trivial to appropriately determine the evolutionary stage. In this paper, we present an abstract convex underestimation-assisted multistage DE. In the proposed algorithm, the underestimation is calculated through the supporting vectors of some neighboring individuals. Based on the variation of the average underestimation error (UE), the evolutionary process is divided into three stages. Each stage includes a pool of suitable candidate strategies. At the beginning of each generation, the evolutionary stage is first estimated according to the average UE of the previous generation. Subsequently, a strategy is automatically chosen from the corresponding candidate pool to create a mutant vector. In addition, a centroid-based strategy which utilizes the information of multiple superior individuals is designed to balance the population diversity and convergence speed in the second stage. Experiments are conducted on 23 widely used test functions, CEC 2013, and CEC 2014 benchmark sets to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm exhibits better performance compared with several advanced DE variants and some non-DE approaches.

  10. Almost isometric mesh parameterization through abstract domains.

    PubMed

    Pietroni, Nico; Tarini, Marco; Cignoni, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust, automatic technique to build a global hi-quality parameterization of a two-manifold triangular mesh. An adaptively chosen 2D domain of the parameterization is built as part of the process. The produced parameterization exhibits very low isometric distortion, because it is globally optimized to preserve both areas and angles. The domain is a collection of equilateral triangular 2D regions enriched with explicit adjacency relationships (it is abstract in the sense that no 3D embedding is necessary). It is tailored to minimize isometric distortion, resulting in excellent parameterization qualities, even when meshes with complex shape and topology are mapped into domains composed of a small number of large continuous regions. Moreover, this domain is, in turn, remapped into a collection of 2D square regions, unlocking many advantages found in quad-based domains (e.g., ease of packing). The technique is tested on a variety of cases, including challenging ones, and compares very favorably with known approaches. An open-source implementation is made available.

  11. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-09-27

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

  12. Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…

  13. Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

  14. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  15. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  16. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

  17. Written Reformulation in a Modular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flottum, Kjersti

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between form and use of the reformulation sequence signalled by "c'est-a-dire" in written French and describes this sequence's various functions. The article attempts to show how a modular approach consisting of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and textual components contributes to a new and accurate description of…

  18. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  19. Modular Building Institute 1999 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Many articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Hightstown High School"; (2) "St. Pius X Parish, Vancouver BC"; (3) "Forrest Street Elementary School"; (4) "Kingman Academy of Learning"; (5) "Women Christian…

  20. The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodossin, Ernest

    Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

  1. Transforming modular classrooms in California and elsewhere

    SciTech Connect

    Eilert, P.L.; Hoeschele, M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper discussed a market-transformation program to reduce energy use in modular school classrooms, a large part of new construction activities in California's schools. Today's modular classrooms cost more to operate than is necessary to provide effective, comfortable learning conditions for students and teachers. Although past resource acquisition programs have created a demand for efficient products and services, modular classrooms remain poorly differentiated in this respect. The cost-effectiveness of a range of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM's) were evaluated including lighting, alternative HVAC options, and improved envelope features. Viable EEM's were combined in two separate packages. The first includes measures that can easily be implemented and are projected to reduce operating costs by 30%. The second implements a daylighting system, a two-stage evaporative cooler, and radiant heating, resulting in projected annual energy cost savings over 60%. Transforming the market for modular classrooms is accomplished using natural market forces, rather than financial incentives directed at an entire industry. Proactive efforts are focused on the manufacturing industry's change leaders to commercialize energy-efficient products. Lost market share and peer pressure do the heavy lifting of convincing market followers to upgrade their products. Demand for efficient classrooms is increased by educating schools about the new products' financial advantages, comfort enhancements, and environmental benefits. As new products become established in the marketplace, support will be gradually withdrawn. The relevance of this work extends beyond California, given other States' programs to reduce class size, and the Presidents initiative to reduce class size nationally.

  2. Modular Building Institute 2002 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Re-Educating Schools" (Chuck Savage); (2) "Tax-Exempt Financing for Public Schools" (John Kennedy); (3) "Help Us Rebuild America" (Michael Roman); (4) "Case…

  3. A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, J. A.

    Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

  4. Modular space station phase B extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The system safety analyses and requirements developed for the modular space station during the phase B extension are reviewed. Residual hazards and unresolved safety issues are summarized. Hazards resulting from equipment failures or malfunctions, operations, or credible accidents are identified and evaluated. Special safety trade studies are presented.

  5. GAMBIT: Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAMBIT Collaboration; Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrzä Szcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Dickinson, Hugh; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Lundberg, Johan; McKay, James; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje Raklev, Are; Ripken, Joachim; Rogan, Christopher; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Seo, Seon-Hee; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Wild, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    GAMBIT (Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool) performs statistical global fits of generic physics models using a wide range of particle physics and astrophysics data. Modules provide native simulations of collider and astrophysics experiments, a flexible system for interfacing external codes (the backend system), a fully featured statistical and parameter scanning framework, and additional tools for implementing and using hierarchical models.

  6. Modular processes in mind and brain.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Saul

    2011-05-01

    One approach to understanding a complex process starts with an attempt to divide it into modules·, sub-processes that are independent in some sense, and have distinct functions. In this paper, I discuss an approach to the modular decomposition of neural and mental processes. Several examples of process decomposition are presented, together with discussion of inferential requirements. Two examples are of well-established and purely behavioural realizations of the approach (signal detection theory applied to discrimination data; the method of additive factors applied to reaction-time data), and lead to the identification of mental modules. Other examples, leading to the identification of modular neural processes, use brain measures, including the fMRI signal, the latencies of electrophysiological events, and their amplitudes. Some measures are pure (reflecting just one process), while others are composite. Two of the examples reveal mental and neural modules that correspond. Attempts to associate brain regions with behaviourally defined processing modules that use a brain manipulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) are promising but incomplete. I show why the process-decomposition approach discussed here, in which the criterion for modularity is separate modifiability, is superior for modular decomposition to the more frequently used task comparison procedure (often used in cognitive neuropsychology) and to its associated subtraction method. To demonstrate the limitations of task comparison, I describe the erroneous conclusion to which it has led about sleep deprivation, and the interpretive difficulties in a TMS study.

  7. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  8. Modular polynomial arithmetic in partial fraction decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdali, S. K.; Caviness, B. F.; Pridor, A.

    1977-01-01

    Algorithms for general partial fraction decomposition are obtained by using modular polynomial arithmetic. An algorithm is presented to compute inverses modulo a power of a polynomial in terms of inverses modulo that polynomial. This algorithm is used to make an improvement in the Kung-Tong partial fraction decomposition algorithm.

  9. Modular arithmetic weight and cyclic shifting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    This note shows that the modular arithmetic weight of an integer is invariant to the cyclic shifts of its radix-2 form. This result leads to a reduced search for the minimum weight codeword in a cyclic AN-code as well as to a better understanding of previous work.

  10. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING

  11. What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

  12. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  13. Modular design for a liquid target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Jahangiri, P.; Zacchia, N.; Uittenbosch, T.; Buckley, K.; Martinez, D. M.; Hoehr, C.

    2017-05-01

    A modular target with varying depth has been designed and built to investigate density reduction in liquid targets. An interchangeable middle piece allows target depths from 7.5 to 52.5 mm. The target has been tested and found to be leak tight and functional.

  14. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  15. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  16. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  17. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  18. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  19. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  20. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  1. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  2. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  3. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  4. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  6. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  7. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  8. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  9. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  10. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  11. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  12. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  13. Logarithmic conformal field theory, log-modular tensor categories and modular forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Gannon, Terry

    2017-10-01

    The two pillars of rational conformal field theory and rational vertex operator algebras are modularity of characters, and the interpretation of its category of modules as a modular tensor category. Overarching these pillars is the Verlinde formula. In this paper we consider the more general class of logarithmic conformal field theories and C 2-cofinite vertex operator algebras. We suggest logarithmic variants of those pillars and of Verlinde’s formula. We illustrate our ideas with the \

  14. Reading, Comprehension, and Memory Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1983 (Vol. 43 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 26 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) individual differences in the use of comprehension strategies; (2) field dependence-independence and text comprehension; (3) automaticity of word…

  15. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games. PMID:27030803

  16. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2016-03-12

    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games.

  17. JTSA: an open source framework for time series abstractions.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Lucia; Capozzi, Davide; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Larizza, Cristiana

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of the clinical status of a patient is frequently based on the temporal evolution of some parameters, making the detection of temporal patterns a priority in data analysis. Temporal abstraction (TA) is a methodology widely used in medical reasoning for summarizing and abstracting longitudinal data. This paper describes JTSA (Java Time Series Abstractor), a framework including a library of algorithms for time series preprocessing and abstraction and an engine to execute a workflow for temporal data processing. The JTSA framework is grounded on a comprehensive ontology that models temporal data processing both from the data storage and the abstraction computation perspective. The JTSA framework is designed to allow users to build their own analysis workflows by combining different algorithms. Thanks to the modular structure of a workflow, simple to highly complex patterns can be detected. The JTSA framework has been developed in Java 1.7 and is distributed under GPL as a jar file. JTSA provides: a collection of algorithms to perform temporal abstraction and preprocessing of time series, a framework for defining and executing data analysis workflows based on these algorithms, and a GUI for workflow prototyping and testing. The whole JTSA project relies on a formal model of the data types and of the algorithms included in the library. This model is the basis for the design and implementation of the software application. Taking into account this formalized structure, the user can easily extend the JTSA framework by adding new algorithms. Results are shown in the context of the EU project MOSAIC to extract relevant patterns from data coming related to the long term monitoring of diabetic patients. The proof that JTSA is a versatile tool to be adapted to different needs is given by its possible uses, both as a standalone tool for data summarization and as a module to be embedded into other architectures to select specific phenotypes based on TAs in a large

  18. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  19. Modular fuzzy-neuro controller driven by spoken language commands.

    PubMed

    Pulasinghe, Koliya; Watanabe, Keigo; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    2004-02-01

    We present a methodology of controlling machines using spoken language commands. The two major problems relating to the speech interfaces for machines, namely, the interpretation of words with fuzzy implications and the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in natural conversation, are investigated. The system proposed in this paper is designed to overcome the above two problems in controlling machines using spoken language commands. The present system consists of a hidden Markov model (HMM) based automatic speech recognizer (ASR), with a keyword spotting system to capture the machine sensitive words from the running utterances and a fuzzy-neural network (FNN) based controller to represent the words with fuzzy implications in spoken language commands. Significance of the words, i.e., the contextual meaning of the words according to the machine's current state, is introduced to the system to obtain more realistic output equivalent to users' desire. Modularity of the system is also considered to provide a generalization of the methodology for systems having heterogeneous functions without diminishing the performance of the system. The proposed system is experimentally tested by navigating a mobile robot in real time using spoken language commands.

  20. Modular techniques for dynamic fault-tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    It is noted that current approaches used to assess the dependability of complex systems such as Space Station Freedom and the Air Traffic Control System are incapable of handling the size and complexity of these highly integrated designs. A novel technique for modeling such systems which is built upon current techniques in Markov theory and combinatorial analysis is described. It enables the development of a hierarchical representation of system behavior which is more flexible than either technique alone. A solution strategy which is based on an object-oriented approach to model representation and evaluation is discussed. The technique is virtually transparent to the user since the fault tree models can be built graphically and the objects defined automatically. The tree modularization procedure allows the two model types, Markov and combinatoric, to coexist and does not require that the entire fault tree be translated to a Markov chain for evaluation. This effectively reduces the size of the Markov chain required and enables solutions with less truncation, making analysis of longer mission times possible. Using the fault-tolerant parallel processor as an example, a model is built and solved for a specific mission scenario and the solution approach is illustrated in detail.