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Sample records for automatic movement progress

  1. Automatic Chloroplast Movement Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Zeidler, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. This movement, regulated by the phototropin blue light photoreceptors phot1 and phot2, results in a decreased or increased transmission of light through the leaf. This way the plant is able to optimize harvesting of the incoming light or avoid damage caused by excess light. Here we describe a method that indirectly measures the movement of chloroplasts by taking advantage of the resulting change in leaf transmittance. By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time.

  2. Research into automatic recognition of joints in human symmetrical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-03-01

    High speed photography is a major means of collecting data from human body movement. It enables the automatic identification of joints, which brings great significance to the research, treatment and recovery of injuries, the analysis to the diagnosis of sport techniques and the ergonomics. According to the features that when the adjacent joints of human body are in planetary motion, their distance remains the same, and according to the human body joint movement laws (such as the territory of the articular anatomy and the kinematic features), a new approach is introduced to process the image thresholding of joints filmed by the high speed camera, to automatically identify the joints and to automatically trace the joint points (by labeling markers at the joints). Based upon the closure of marking points, automatic identification can be achieved through thresholding treatment. Due to the screening frequency and the laws of human segment movement, when the marking points have been initialized, their automatic tracking can be achieved with the progressive sequential images.Then the testing results, the data from three-dimensional force platform and the characteristics that human body segment will only rotate around the closer ending segment when the segment has no boding force and only valid to the conservative force all tell that after being analyzed kinematically, the approach is approved to be valid.

  3. Automatic movement error detection and correction processes in reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Brière, Julien; Proteau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Manual aiming movements can be amended during their execution. Recent evidence suggests that error detection and correction are based on automatic and even reflexive processing of afferent information. In this study, we wanted to determine whether these processes are affected by the occurrence of successive events requiring adjustments of the originally planned movement. To reach our goal, we used a video-aiming task. For a small proportion of the trials, the cursor moved by the participant was translated laterally by 15 mm (cursor jump) soon after movement initiation. For some of the cursor-jump trials, a second cursor jump occurred 100 ms after the first one and canceled or doubled the initial cursor translation. Results showed that participants were able to cancel or double the size of the correction in response to the second cursor jump. More importantly, in double-jump trials, the correction latency for the first and second cursor jumps did not differ from that of single-jump trials. Moreover, the correction for the second cursor jump blended seamlessly with the correction for the first cursor jump. These observations suggest that the processes leading of a correction for a cursor jump do not interfere with incoming visual information.

  4. From the seat of heat and intelligence to regular heart activity as automatic movement: progress in cardiology up to 1900 from a Dutch perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2009-01-01

    The development in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology is described from a Dutch perspective. The newly formed Republic in the 17th century, with its pragmatism and business-like character, became an ideal breeding ground for Descartes' new philosophy. His separation of body and soul provided a mechanistic model of body structure and formed a firm basis for anatomical and physiological research to become catalysts for a tempestuous growth and progress in medicine. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:130-5.19421357) PMID:19421357

  5. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. PMID:24925772

  7. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  8. Perception of temporal duration affected by automatic and controlled movements.

    PubMed

    Herai, Tomomitsu; Mogi, Ken

    2014-10-01

    Sensorimotor contingency is one of the main factors to warp time perception. Voluntary actions such as saccades and hand movements affect the subjective perception of temporal duration. Although the perceived timings of action and stimulus are affected by whether an action was automatic or controlled, its effect on the subjective perception of duration has not been studied except in the case of saccade (chronostasis), which has been shown to be unaffected by the context of action initiation. Here we investigate the effect of the context of action initiation on duration estimation in the case of finger movement. The reproduced intervals were shorter when actions were initiated by automatic manner, compared to self-timed or cognitively controlled actions. The results are compatible with an internal clock model employing variable latencies for switch closure after action. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C; Frank, Mark G; Lee, Kang

    2014-03-31

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1-3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4-7]: a subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions, and a cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8-11]. However, machine vision may be able to distinguish deceptive facial signals from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here, we show that human observers could not discriminate real expressions of pain from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training human observers, we improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However, a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system's superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine expressions from faked expressions. Thus, by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling.

  10. Automatic recognition of facial movement for paralyzed face.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Dong, Junyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Shengke

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a common disease due to nerve damage. Most approaches for evaluating the degree of facial paralysis rely on a set of different facial movements as commanded by doctors. Therefore, automatic recognition of the patterns of facial movement is fundamental to the evaluation of the degree of facial paralysis. In this paper, a novel method named Active Shape Models plus Local Binary Patterns (ASMLBP) is presented for recognizing facial movement patterns. Firstly, the Active Shape Models (ASMs) are used in the method to locate facial key points. According to these points, the face is divided into eight local regions. Then the descriptors of these regions are extracted by using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to recognize the patterns of facial movement. The proposed ASMLBP method is tested on both the collected facial paralysis database with 57 patients and another publicly available database named the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for both paralyzed and normal faces.

  11. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Frank, Mark G.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8–11]. Machine vision may, however, be able to distinguish deceptive from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here we show that human observers could not discriminate real from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training, improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system’s superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine from faked expressions. Thus by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  12. Research on Automatic Classification, Indexing and Extracting. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, F.T.; And Others

    In order to contribute to the success of several studies for automatic classification, indexing and extracting currently in progress, as well as to further the theoretical and practical understanding of textual item distributions, the development of a frequency program capable of supplying these types of information was undertaken. The program…

  13. Progressive anomia with preserved oral spelling and automatic speech.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Julie S; Neary, David

    2003-01-01

    We report a patient, Newton, with a progressive classical anomia resulting from focal degeneration of the left hemisphere. In naming tasks Newton spelt aloud picture names that he could not retrieve, indicating a dissociation between orthography and phonology. Unusually, his writing and letter-pointing performance were impaired and spelling was achieved only through alphabet recitation. A study of automatic speech tasks demonstrated strikingly preserved naming performance on automatic compared to nominative tasks. We argue that automatic tasks provide phonological cues that facilitate phonological activation. With progression of disease Newton has shown increasing difficulty reading and repeating words, which we interpret in terms of a progressive elevation in the threshold for activation of phonology. Phonological cueing of picture names has yielded superior naming than word reading and even repetition, a finding consistent with the notion that task characteristics influence likelihood of phonological activation and naming success, but contrary to the notion that there exist separate task-specific output systems. We conclude that Newton exhibits a unique pattern of deficits, which have theoretical relevance for the debate on the relationship between phonology and orthography, the role of automatic speech and the relationship between naming, reading and repetition.

  14. Signal Characteristics of Spontaneous Facial Expressions: Automatic Movement in Solitary and Social Smiles

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Tian, Yingli

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display suggests that there may be universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial configuration. We show that smiles include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally consistent movement patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip corner movement during the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other facial movements, including dampening. These additional movements produced variation in both peak and offset duration. Both onsets and offsets had dynamic properties similar to automatically controlled movements, with a consistent relation between maximum velocity and amplitude of lip corner movement in smiles from two distinct contexts. Despite the effects of individual and social factors on facial expression timing overall, consistency in onset and offset phases suggests that portions of the smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced. PMID:14638288

  15. Automatic recognition and scoring of olympic rhythmic gymnastic movements.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Escalona, Merly; Olivieri, David N

    2014-04-01

    We describe a conceptually simple algorithm for assigning judgement scores to rhythmic gymnastic movements, which could improve scoring objectivity and reduce judgemental bias during competitions. Our method, implemented as a real-time computer vision software, takes a video shot or a live performance video stream as input and extracts detailed velocity field information from body movements, transforming them into specialized spatio-temporal image templates. The collection of such images over time, when projected into a velocity covariance eigenspace, trace out unique but similar trajectories for a particular gymnastic movement type. By comparing separate executions of the same atomic gymnastic routine, our method assigns a quality judgement score that is related to the distance between the respective spatio-temporal trajectories. For several standard gymnastic movements, the method accurately assigns scores that are comparable to those assigned by expert judges. We also describe our rhythmic gymnastic video shot database, which we have made freely available to the human movement research community. The database can be obtained at http://www.milegroup.net/apps/gymdb/.

  16. Automatic detection of EEG artefacts arising from head movements using EEG and gyroscope signals.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Simon; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of EEG signals by artefacts arising from head movements has been a serious obstacle in the deployment of automatic neurological event detection systems in ambulatory EEG. In this paper, we present work on categorizing these head-movement artefacts as one distinct class and on using support vector machines to automatically detect their presence. The use of additional physical signals in detecting head-movement artefacts is also investigated by means of support vector machines classifiers implemented with gyroscope waveforms. Finally, the combination of features extracted from EEG and gyroscope signals is explored in order to design an algorithm which incorporates both physical and physiological signals in accurately detecting artefacts arising from head-movements.

  17. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  18. Automatic Human Movement Assessment with Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    PubMed

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-07-14

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and latter use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0-12%).

  19. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  20. Behavioral Speed Contagion: Automatic Modulation of Movement Timing by Observation of Body Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    To coordinate our actions with those of others, it is crucial to not only choose an appropriate category of action but also to execute it at an appropriate timing. It is widely documented that people tend to unconsciously mimic others' behavior. The present study show that people also tend to modify their movement timing according to others'…

  1. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements.

  2. Automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis for evaluation of facial movement.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, B; Aubá, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new 3D capture system of facial movements called FACIAL CLIMA. It is an automatic optical motion system that involves placing special reflecting dots on the subject's face and video recording with three infrared-light cameras the subject performing several face movements such as smile, mouth puckering, eye closure and forehead elevation. Images from the cameras are automatically processed with a software program that generates customised information such as 3D data on velocities and areas. The study has been performed in 20 healthy volunteers. The accuracy of the measurement process and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities have been evaluated. Comparison of a known distance and angle with those obtained by FACIAL CLIMA shows that this system is accurate to within 0.13 mm and 0.41 degrees . In conclusion, the accuracy of the FACIAL CLIMA system for evaluation of facial movements is demonstrated and also the high intrarater and interrater reliability. It has advantages with respect to other systems that have been developed for evaluation of facial movements, such as short calibration time, short measuring time, easiness to use and it provides not only distances but also velocities and areas. Thus the FACIAL CLIMA system could be considered as an adequate tool to assess the outcome of facial paralysis reanimation surgery. Thus, patients with facial paralysis could be compared between surgical centres such that effectiveness of facial reanimation operations could be evaluated.

  3. Automatic identification of alpine mass movements based on seismic and infrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmel, Andreas; Hübl, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The automatic detection and identification of alpine mass movements like debris flows, debris floods or landslides gets increasing importance for mitigation measures in the densely populated and intensively used alpine regions. Since this mass movement processes emits characteristically seismic and acoustic waves in the low frequency range this events can be detected and identified based on this signals. So already several approaches for detection and warning systems based on seismic or infrasound signals has been developed. But a combination of both methods, which can increase detection probability and reduce false alarms is currently used very rarely and can serve as a promising method for developing an automatic detection and identification system. So this work presents an approach for a detection and identification system based on a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors, which can detect sediment related mass movements from a remote location unaffected by the process. The system is based on one infrasound sensor and one geophone which are placed co-located and a microcontroller where a specially designed detection algorithm is executed which can detect mass movements in real time directly at the sensor site. Further this work tries to get out more information from the seismic and infrasound spectrum produced by different sediment related mass movements to identify the process type and estimate the magnitude of the event. The system is currently installed and tested on five test sites in Austria, two in Italy and one in Switzerland as well as one in Germany. This high number of test sites is used to get a large database of very different events which will be the basis for a new identification method for alpine mass movements. These tests shows promising results and so this system provides an easy to install and inexpensive approach for a detection and warning system.

  4. Large-scale chromosomal movements during interphase progression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Csink, A K; Henikoff, S

    1998-10-05

    We examined the effect of cell cycle progression on various levels of chromosome organization in Drosophila. Using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and DNA quantitation in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we detected gross chromosomal movements in diploid interphase nuclei of larvae. At the onset of S-phase, an increased separation was seen between proximal and distal positions of a long chromsome arm. Progression through S-phase disrupted heterochromatic associations that have been correlated with gene silencing. Additionally, we have found that large-scale G1 nuclear architecture is continually dynamic. Nuclei display a Rabl configuration for only approximately 2 h after mitosis, and with further progression of G1-phase can establish heterochromatic interactions between distal and proximal parts of the chromosome arm. We also find evidence that somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes is disrupted during S-phase more rapidly for a euchromatic than for a heterochromatic region. Such interphase chromosome movements suggest a possible mechanism that links gene regulation via nuclear positioning to the cell cycle: delayed maturation of heterochromatin during G1-phase delays establishment of a silent chromatin state.

  5. Large-scale Chromosomal Movements During Interphase Progression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Csink, Amy K.; Henikoff, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of cell cycle progression on various levels of chromosome organization in Drosophila. Using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and DNA quantitation in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we detected gross chromosomal movements in diploid interphase nuclei of larvae. At the onset of S-phase, an increased separation was seen between proximal and distal positions of a long chromsome arm. Progression through S-phase disrupted heterochromatic associations that have been correlated with gene silencing. Additionally, we have found that large-scale G1 nuclear architecture is continually dynamic. Nuclei display a Rabl configuration for only ∼2 h after mitosis, and with further progression of G1-phase can establish heterochromatic interactions between distal and proximal parts of the chromosome arm. We also find evidence that somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes is disrupted during S-phase more rapidly for a euchromatic than for a heterochromatic region. Such interphase chromosome movements suggest a possible mechanism that links gene regulation via nuclear positioning to the cell cycle: delayed maturation of heterochromatin during G1-phase delays establishment of a silent chromatin state. PMID:9763417

  6. Fixation distance estimation using vergence eye movement for automatic focusing glasses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Bounyong, Souksakhone; Kato, Yumiko O; Ozawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating fixation distance on the basis of measurements of vergence eye movements. The aim of this approach is to control the lens focus of automatic focusing glasses. To reduce user effort at the time of calibration, the calibration was performed at infinite distance gazing, and the parameters were determined from the premeasured pupillary distance at infinity and iris diameters. To clarify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conducted evaluation experiments using prototype glasses. The results showed that even participants requiring myopic correction could perform accurate motion vergence movements. Fixation distance estimation showed that, with the eye calibrated at infinite distance gazing, shorter distances could be estimated with an average accuracy exceeding 90%.

  7. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients’ automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p’s ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients’ attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients’ strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor

  8. [Central Pattern Generators: Mechanisms of the Activity and Their Role in the Control of "Automatic" Movements].

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, I; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N

    2015-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are a set of interconnected neurons capable of generating a basic pattern of motor output underlying "automatic" movements (breathing, locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and so on) in the absence of afferent signals from the executive motor apparatus. They can be divided into the constitutive CPGs active throughout the entire lifetime (respiratory CPGs) and conditional CPGs controlling episodic movements (locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and others). Since a motor output of CPGs is determined by their internal organization, the activities of the conditional CPGs are initiated by simple commands coming from higher centers. We describe the structural and functional organization of the locomotor CPGs in the marine mollusk Clione limacina, lamprey, frog embryo, and laboratory mammals (cat, mouse, and rat), CPGs controlling the respiratory and swallowing movements in mammals, and CPGs controlling discharges of the electric organ in the gymnotiform fish. It is shown that in all these cases, the generation of rhythmic motor output is based both on the endogenous (pacemaker) activity of specific groups of interneurons and on interneural interactions. These two interrelated mechanisms complement each other, ensuring the high reliability of CPG functionality. We discuss how the experience obtained in studying CPGs can be used to understand mechanisms of more complex functions of the brain, including its cognitive functions.

  9. Status and Power Do Not Modulate Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Hand Movements

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Harry; Carr, Evan W.; Svartdal, Marita; Winkielman, Piotr; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    The tendency to mimic the behaviour of others is affected by a variety of social factors, and it has been argued that such “mirroring” is often unconsciously deployed as a means of increasing affiliation during interpersonal interactions. However, the relationship between automatic motor imitation and status/power is currently unclear. This paper reports five experiments that investigated whether social status (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or power (Experiments 4 and 5) had a moderating effect on automatic imitation (AI) in finger-movement tasks, using a series of different manipulations. Experiments 1 and 2 manipulated the social status of the observed person using an associative learning task. Experiment 3 manipulated social status via perceived competence at a simple computer game. Experiment 4 manipulated participants’ power (relative to the actors) in a card-choosing task. Finally, Experiment 5 primed participants using a writing task, to induce the sense of being powerful or powerless. No significant interactions were found between congruency and social status/power in any of the studies. Additionally, Bayesian hypothesis testing indicated that the null hypothesis should be favoured over the experimental hypothesis in all five studies. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for AI tasks, social effects on mimicry, and the hypothesis of mimicry as a strategic mechanism to promote affiliation. PMID:27096167

  10. Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications. PMID:21047206

  11. Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature.

    PubMed

    Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

    2010-10-01

    The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications.

  12. The Contemporary Small-School Movement: Lessons from the History of Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semel, Susan F.; Sadovnik, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: The contemporary small-school movement traces its roots to the alternative schools of the 1960s and the development of small urban schools in the 1980s. However, the small-school movement has its roots in the progressive movement of the early twentieth century. Although there is a significant amount of research on the early…

  13. American School Reform: Progressive, Equity, and Excellence Movements, 1883-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.

    This book examines three major school-reform movements in the United States that were shaped by outside societal forces and identifies their common characteristics. The first two chapters examine the history and influence of the progressive movement and chapter 3 is devoted to progressive education's chief philosopher and pragmatist, John Dewey.…

  14. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  15. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  16. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mahek; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sofi, Aamir; Tran, Canh; Jahangir, Ahad; Sultan, Sulaiman; Khan, Uzma; Viqar, Maria; Cho, Chi; Jahangir, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h) and infrequent (≤35/h). Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent), 108 (29%) progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50). Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168), patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205) had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01). Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is associated

  17. Automatic detection of rapid eye movements (REMs): A machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Yetton, Benjamin D.; Niknazar, Mohammad; Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Sattari, Negin; Mednick, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movements (REMs) are a defining feature of REM sleep. The number of discrete REMs over time, or REM density, has been investigated as a marker of clinical psychopathology and memory consolidation. However, human detection of REMs is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, reliable, automated REM detection software is a valuable research tool. New method We developed an automatic REM detection algorithm combining a novel set of extracted features and the ‘AdaBoost’ classification algorithm to detect the presence of REMs in Electrooculogram data collected from the right and left outer canthi (ROC/LOC). Algorithm performance measures of Recall (percentage of REMs detected) and Precision (percentage of REMs detected that are true REMs) were calculated and compared to the gold standard of human detection by three expert sleep scorers. REM detection by four non-experts were also investigated and compared to expert raters and the algorithm. Results The algorithm performance (78.1% Recall, 82.6% Precision) surpassed that of the average (expert & non-expert) single human detection performance (76% Recall, 83% Precision). Agreement between non-experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.65) is markedly lower than experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.80). Comparison with existing method(s) By following reported methods, we implemented all previously published LOC and ROC based detection algorithms on our dataset. Our algorithm performance exceeded all others. Conclusions The automatic detection algorithm presented is a viable and efficient method of REM detection as it reliably matches the performance of human scorers and outperforms all other known LOC- and ROC-based detection algorithms. PMID:26642967

  18. Illusory body-ownership entails automatic compensative movement: for the unified representation between body and action.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-03-01

    The sense of body-ownership involves the integration of vision and somatosensation. In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked for a short time synchronously as one's own unseen hand is also stroked causes the observers to attribute the rubber hand to their own body. The RHI may elicit proprioceptive drift: The observers' sense of their own hand's location drifts toward the external proxy hand. The current experiments examined the possibility of observing, not the proprioceptive drift, but the actual drift "movement" during RHI induction. The participants' hand, located on horizontally movable board, tended to move toward the rubber hand only while they observed synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation. Furthermore, even when the participants' hand was located on a fixed, unmovable board (that is, the conventional RHI paradigm), participants automatically administered the force toward the rubber hand. These findings suggest that since awareness of our own body and action are fundamental to self-consciousness, these components of "minimal self" are closely related and integrated into "one agent" with a unified awareness of the body and action.

  19. Automatic Evaluation of Progression Angle and Fetal Head Station through Intrapartum Echographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Perrone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Labor progression is routinely assessed through transvaginal digital inspections, meaning that the clinical decisions taken during the most delicate phase of pregnancy are subjective and scarcely supported by technological devices. In response to such inadequacies, we combined intrapartum echographic acquisitions with advanced tracking algorithms in a new method for noninvasive, quantitative, and automatic monitoring of labor. Aim of this work is the preliminary clinical validation and accuracy evaluation of our automatic algorithm in assessing progression angle (PA) and fetal head station (FHS). A cohort of 10 parturients underwent conventional labor management, with additional translabial echographic examinations after each uterine contraction. PA and FHS were evaluated by our automatic algorithm on the acquired images. Additionally, an experienced clinical sonographer, blinded regarding the algorithm results, quantified on the same acquisitions of the two parameters through manual contouring, which were considered as the standard reference in the evaluation of automatic algorithm and routine method accuracies. The automatic algorithm (mean error ± 2SD) provided a global accuracy of 0.9 ± 4.0 mm for FHS and 4° ± 9° for PA, which is far above the diagnostic ability shown by the routine method, and therefore it resulted in a reliable method for earlier identification of abnormal labor patterns in support of clinical decisions. PMID:24106524

  20. An improved algorithm for automatic detection of saccades in eye movement data and for calculating saccade parameters.

    PubMed

    Behrens, F; Mackeben, M; Schröder-Preikschat, W

    2010-08-01

    This analysis of time series of eye movements is a saccade-detection algorithm that is based on an earlier algorithm. It achieves substantial improvements by using an adaptive-threshold model instead of fixed thresholds and using the eye-movement acceleration signal. This has four advantages: (1) Adaptive thresholds are calculated automatically from the preceding acceleration data for detecting the beginning of a saccade, and thresholds are modified during the saccade. (2) The monotonicity of the position signal during the saccade, together with the acceleration with respect to the thresholds, is used to reliably determine the end of the saccade. (3) This allows differentiation between saccades following the main-sequence and non-main-sequence saccades. (4) Artifacts of various kinds can be detected and eliminated. The algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to human eye movement data (obtained by EOG) recorded during driving a car. A second demonstration of the algorithm detects microsleep episodes in eye movement data.

  1. [New progress on three-dimensional movement measurement analysis of human spine].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiao-wen; He, Xi-jing; Huang, Si-hua; Liang, Bao-bao; Yu, Zi-rui

    2015-05-01

    Spinal biomechanics, especially the range of spine motion,has close connection with spinal surgery. The change of the range of motion (ROM) is an important indicator of diseases and injuries of spine, and the essential evaluating standards of effect of surgeries and therapies to spine. The analysis of ROM can be dated to the time of the invention of X-ray and even that before it. With the development of science and technology as well as the optimization of various types of calculation methods, diverse measuring methods have emerged, from imaging methods to non-imaging methods, from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, from measuring directly on the X-ray films to calculating automatically by computer. Analysis of ROM has made great progress, but there are some older methods cannot meet the needs of the times and disappear, some classical methods such as X-ray still have vitality. Combining different methods, three dimensions and more vivo spine research are the trend of analysis of ROM. And more and more researchers began to focus on vivo spine research. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods utilized recently are presented through viewing recent literatures, providing reference and help for the movement analysis of spine.

  2. Francis Wayland Parker's Morning Exercise and the Progressive Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2010-01-01

    In the progressive era, the distinguished political scientist Robert Putnam explains, progressives invested heavily in "social capital," that is, in the stock of active connections, social networks, shared values, norms of reciprocity, trustworthiness, and friendship that bind people together (Putnam 2000, 395). They were, he argues,…

  3. Francis Wayland Parker's Morning Exercise and the Progressive Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2010-01-01

    In the progressive era, the distinguished political scientist Robert Putnam explains, progressives invested heavily in "social capital," that is, in the stock of active connections, social networks, shared values, norms of reciprocity, trustworthiness, and friendship that bind people together (Putnam 2000, 395). They were, he argues,…

  4. Spoken language and the decision to move the eyes: to what extent are language-mediated eye movements automatic?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh K; Olivers, Christian N L; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Recent eye-tracking research has revealed that spoken language can guide eye gaze very rapidly (and closely time-locked to the unfolding speech) toward referents in the visual world. We discuss whether, and to what extent, such language-mediated eye movements are automatic rather than subject to conscious and controlled decision-making. We consider whether language-mediated eye movements adhere to four main criteria of automatic behavior, namely, whether they are fast and efficient, unintentional, unconscious, and overlearned (i.e., arrived at through extensive practice). Current evidence indicates that language-driven oculomotor behavior is fast but not necessarily always efficient. It seems largely unintentional though there is also some evidence that participants can actively use the information in working memory to avoid distraction in search. Language-mediated eye movements appear to be for the most part unconscious and have all the hallmarks of an overlearned behavior. These data are suggestive of automatic mechanisms linking language to potentially referred-to visual objects, but more comprehensive and rigorous testing of this hypothesis is needed.

  5. Women's Rights Movements in the Nineteenth Century: Conflict and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Historical review of the function of social conflict in the nineteenth century women's rights movements. Considers whether suffrage and a move toward equality could have been accomplished without major philosophical differences. Differences between the Stanton and Anthony suffrage group and the Stone and Blackwell suffrage group are discussed.…

  6. Progress and perils in the juvenile justice and mental health movement.

    PubMed

    Grisso, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in the United States is experiencing a social movement aimed at responding to the mental and emotional problems of delinquent youths. Ironically, this movement arose in the wake of a decade of reform in juvenile justice that had set aside the system's 100-year tradition of rehabilitation for delinquents in the interests of their punishment and a primary emphasis on public safety. This article describes the recent juvenile justice and mental health movement, discusses the circumstances that motivated it, and provides examples of its progress. Now that the movement has taken hold, however, its future is threatened by several unintended consequences of the motives and strategies of those who succeeded in promoting the movement. Those potential perils are described with an eye to reducing their impact, thereby sustaining the movement and its potentially positive effects.

  7. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  8. Cognitive constraint on the 'automatic pilot' for the hand: movement intention influences the hand's susceptibility to involuntary online corrections.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brendan D; Cressman, Erin K; Franks, Ian M; Chua, Romeo

    2009-09-01

    Research suggests that the reaching hand automatically deviates toward a target that changes location (jumps) during the reach. In the current study, we investigated whether movement intention can influence the target jump's impact on the hand. We compared the degree of trajectory deviation to a jumped target under three instruction conditions: (1) GO, in which participants were told to go to the target if it jumped, (2) STOP, in which participants were told to immediately stop their movement if the target jumped, and (3) IGNORE, in which participants were told to ignore the target if it jumped and to continue to its initial location. We observed a reduced response to the jump in the IGNORE condition relative to the other conditions, suggesting that the response to the jump is contingent on the jump being a task-relevant event.

  9. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  10. Comparison between an automatic and a visual scoring method of the chin muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B; Rundo, Francesco; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2014-06-01

    To compare two different methods, one visual and the other automatic, for the quantification of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Seventy-four RBD patients (mean age, 62.14±9.67 years) and 75 normal controls (mean age, 61.04±12.13 years) underwent one night video-polysomnographic recording. The chin electromyogram (EMG) during REM sleep was analyzed by means of a previously published visual method quantifying the percentage of 30s epochs scored as tonic (abnormal, > or =30%) and that of 2s mini-epochs containing phasic EMG events (abnormal, > or =15%). For the computer quantitative analysis we used the automatic scoring algorithm known as the atonia index (abnormal, <0.8). The percentage correct classification, sensitivity, specificity, and Cohen kappa were calculated. The atonia index correctly classified 82.6% of subjects, similar to the percentage of correct classifications with individual components of the visual analysis (83.2% each for tonic and phasic), and the combined visual parameters (85.9%). The sensitivity and specificity of automatic analysis (84% and 81%) was similar to the combined visual analysis (89% and 83%). The correlation coefficient between the automatic atonia index and the percentage of visual tonic EMG was high (r = -0.886, P<0.00001), with moderately high correlation with the percentage of phasic EMG (r = -0.690, P<0.00001). The agreement between atonia index and the visual parameters (individual or combined) was approximately 85% with Cohen's kappa, ranging from 0.638 to 0.693. Sensitivity, specificity, and correct classifications were high with both methods. Moreover, there was general agreement between methods, with Cohen's kappa values in the 'good' range. Given the considerable practical advantages of automatic quantification of REM atonia, automatic quantification may be a useful alternative to visual scoring methods in otherwise uncomplicated polysomnograms

  11. A novel method for analyzing sequential eye movements reveals strategic influence on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2011-09-16

    Eye movements are an important data source in vision science. However, the vast majority of eye movement studies ignore sequential information in the data and utilize only first-order statistics. Here, we present a novel application of a temporal-difference learning algorithm to construct a scanpath successor representation (SR; P. Dayan, 1993) that captures statistical regularities in temporally extended eye movement sequences. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scanpath SR on eye movement data from participants solving items from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Analysis of the SRs revealed individual differences in scanning patterns captured by two principal components that predicted individual Raven scores much better than existing methods. These scanpath SR components were highly interpretable and provided new insight into the role of strategic processing on the Raven test. The success of the scanpath SR in terms of prediction and interpretability suggests that this method could prove useful in a much broader context.

  12. Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Mustafa; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rademaker, Alfred W; Voss, Joel L; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Hurley, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative components despite intact comprehension of the corresponding noun.

  13. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  14. Hybrid EEG--Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Malik M Naeem; Kim, Shinjung; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kamran, M Ahmad

    2016-02-19

    Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA) and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data.

  15. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  16. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  17. Automatic Tracking Of Markers From 3D-Measurement Of Human Body Movements During Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Thomas; Meier, G.; Baumann, Juerg U.

    1989-04-01

    For human motion analysis, the spatio-temporal resolution of cinematographic registrations of body marker positions is still higher than the results of the best opto electronic systems available for this purpose today. So far, the need for manual digitization of several thousand marker positions per tested person has made this method unpractical for regular applications. An interactive and largely automated system for marker recognition and tracking from 16 mm film images based on progress in digital image processing has been developed and tested. Projected pictures are digitized with a high-resolution CCD-camera (1320x1035 pixel), processed, analyzed and serially evaluated with an interactive image analysis system SIGNUM IS200.

  18. Effect of lateral excursive movements on the progression of abfraction lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian David; Kassir, Ali Sabet Abbas; Brunton, Paul Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The theory of abfraction suggests that tooth flexure arising from occlusal loads causes the formation and progression of abfraction lesions. The current study investigated whether reducing occlusal loading by adjusting the occlusion on a tooth during lateral excursive movements had any effect on the rate of progression of existing abfraction lesions. Recruited were 39 subjects who had two non-carious cervical lesions in the maxillary arch that did not need restoration and were in group function during lateral excursive movements of the mandible. One of the teeth was randomly selected to have the excursive occlusal contacts reduced by using a fine grain diamond bur. Centric occlusal contacts were not reduced. Impressions of the lesion were taken over a 30-month period to enable monitoring of the wear rate, and duplicate dies were poured into epoxy resin to allow for sectioning. The size of the lesions was measured using stereomicroscopic analysis of the sectioned epoxy resin dies, and the results were analyzed using an Independent t-test. No statistically significant difference in wear rates between the adjusted and non-adjusted teeth was found (p > 0.05). Within the limitations of the current study, it was concluded that occlusal adjustment does not appear to halt the progression of non-carious cervical lesions; consequently, this procedure cannot be recommended.

  19. Overcoming the challenges: maternal movement and positioning to facilitate labor progress.

    PubMed

    Zwelling, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of maternal movement and position changes to facilitate labor progress have been discussed in the literature for decades. Recent routine interventions such as amniotomy, induction, fetal monitoring, and epidural anesthesia, as well as an increase in maternal obesity, have made position changes during labor challenging. The lack of maternal changes in position throughout labor can contribute to dystocia and increase the risk of cesarean births for failure to progress or descend. This article provides a historical review of the research findings related to the effects of maternal positioning on the labor process and uses six physiological principles as a framework to offer suggestions for maternal positioning both before and after epidural anesthesia.

  20. SU-E-J-72: Design and Study of In-House Web-Camera Based Automatic Continuous Patient Movement Monitoring and Controlling Device for EXRT.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, S; Suresh Babu, S S; Anand, P; Dheva Shantha Kumari, G

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to fabricate in-house web-camera based automatic continuous patient movement monitoring device and control the movement of the patients during EXRT. Web-camera based patient movement monitoring device consists of a computer, digital web-camera, mounting system, breaker circuit, speaker, and visual indicator. The computer is used to control and analyze the patient movement using indigenously developed software. The speaker and the visual indicator are placed in the console room to indicate the positional displacement of the patient. Studies were conducted on phantom and 150 patients with different types of cancers. Our preliminary clinical results indicate that our device is highly reliable and can accurately report smaller movements of the patients in all directions. The results demonstrated that the device was able to detect patient's movements with the sensitivity of about 1 mm. When a patient moves, the receiver activates the circuit; an audible warning sound will be produced in the console. Through real-time measurements, an audible alarm can alert the radiation technologist to stop the treatment if the user defined positional threshold is violated. Simultaneously, the electrical circuit to the teletherapy machine will be activated and radiation will be halted. Patient's movement during the course for radiotherapy was studied. The beam is halted automatically when the threshold level of the system is exceeded. By using the threshold provided in the system, it is possible to monitor the patient continuously with certain fixed limits. An additional benefit is that it has reduced the tension and stress of a treatment team associated with treating patients who are not immobilized. It also enables the technologists to do their work more efficiently, because they don't have to continuously monitor patients with as much scrutiny as was required. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. The Effectiveness of Weights and Links in Automatic Indexing. Project MEDICO Second Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Wolf, Edward H.

    This report describes work concerned with the statistical evaluation of the output of MEDICO automatic indexing procedure. The statistical tests were designed to examine the validity of the assumptions which formed the bases of the indexing algorithms with primary emphasis on the algorithm development for the computation of weights and links. Some…

  2. Automatic video detection of body movement during sleep based on optical flow in pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cuppens, Kris; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our work is to investigate whether the optical flow algorithm applied to video recordings can be used to detect movement during sleep in pediatric patients with epilepsy. The optical flow algorithm allocates intensities to pixels proportional to their involvement in movement of an object. The average of a percentage of the highest movement vectors was plotted as a function of time (R(t)). The used dataset contains video data acquired at the University Hospital of Leuven consisting of normal sleep movement and seizure movement. We investigated R(t), to make a distinction between movement and non-movement. We used the acquisition parameters (320 x 240 at 12.5 fps), derived from a previous study (Cuppens et al., Proceedings of the 4th European congress of the international federation for medical and biological engineering (MBEC 2008), ECIFBME 2008, Antwerp, Belgium, IFMBE Proceedings, vol 22, pp 784-789, 2008). Two experiments were concluded, one with global thresholds of R(t) in all datasets and one with a variable threshold in each dataset. The latter is obtained by inspecting a non-movement epoch and calculating the mean and standard deviations of R(t) over time. The variable threshold on R(t) was then obtained for each dataset by adding to the mean a fixed multiple of the standard deviation. Optimal thresholds were derived based on a three-fold cross-validation. The best result was achieved when using a variable threshold, which resulted in a sensitivity of one in all the test sets and a PPV of 1, 0.821, and 1, respectively, for the three test sets.

  3. How Do Movements to Produce Letters Become Automatic during Writing Acquisition? Investigating the Development of Motor Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Learning how to write involves the automation of grapho-motor skills. One of the factors that determine automaticity is "motor anticipation." This is the ability to write a letter while processing information on how to produce following letters. It is essential for writing fast and smoothly. We investigated how motor anticipation…

  4. How Do Movements to Produce Letters Become Automatic during Writing Acquisition? Investigating the Development of Motor Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Learning how to write involves the automation of grapho-motor skills. One of the factors that determine automaticity is "motor anticipation." This is the ability to write a letter while processing information on how to produce following letters. It is essential for writing fast and smoothly. We investigated how motor anticipation…

  5. The Women's Movement in the 1920s: American Magazines Document the Health and Progress of Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonard, Carolyn Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines magazine articles published in the 1920s to show that, contrary to common statements that the women's movement collapsed following getting the right to vote in 1920, the women's movement was a vibrant force that was shaping the beginning of a new social order and preparing women for assimilation into the political system. (SR)

  6. The Women's Movement in the 1920s: American Magazines Document the Health and Progress of Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonard, Carolyn Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines magazine articles published in the 1920s to show that, contrary to common statements that the women's movement collapsed following getting the right to vote in 1920, the women's movement was a vibrant force that was shaping the beginning of a new social order and preparing women for assimilation into the political system. (SR)

  7. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  8. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  9. Affective states leak into movement execution: automatic avoidance of threatening stimuli in fear of spider is visible in reach trajectories.

    PubMed

    Buetti, Simona; Juan, Elsa; Rinck, Mike; Kerzel, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Approach-like actions are initiated faster with stimuli of positive valence. Conversely, avoidance-like actions are initiated faster with threatening stimuli of negative valence. We went beyond reaction time measures and investigated whether threatening stimuli also affect the way in which an action is carried out. Participants moved their hand either away from the picture of a spider (avoidance) or they moved their hand toward the picture of a spider (approach). We compared spider-fearful participants to non-anxious participants. When reaching away from the threatening spider picture, spider-fearful participants moved more directly to the target than controls. When reaching toward the threatening spider, spider-fearful participants moved less directly to the target than controls. Some conditions that showed clear differences in movement trajectories between spider-fearful and control participants were devoid of differences in reaction time. The deviation away from threatening stimuli provides evidence for the claim that affective states like fear leak into movement programming and produce deviations away from threatening stimuli in movement execution. Avoidance of threatening stimuli is rapidly integrated into ongoing motor behaviour in order to increase the distance between the participant's body and the threatening stimulus.

  10. Automatic classification of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy using diffusion MRI datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talai, Sahand; Boelmans, Kai; Sedlacik, Jan; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Parkinsonian syndromes encompass a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, which can be classified into various subtypes. The differentiation of these subtypes is typically conducted based on clinical criteria. Due to the overlap of intra-syndrome symptoms, the accurate differential diagnosis based on clinical guidelines remains a challenge with failure rates up to 25%. The aim of this study is to present an image-based classification method of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), an atypical variant of PD. Therefore, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter maps were calculated based on diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. Mean ADC values were determined in 82 brain regions using an atlas-based approach. The extracted mean ADC values for each patient were then used as features for classification using a linear kernel support vector machine classifier. To increase the classification accuracy, a feature selection was performed, which resulted in the top 17 attributes to be used as the final input features. A leave-one-out cross validation based on 56 PD and 21 PSP subjects revealed that the proposed method is capable of differentiating PD and PSP patients with an accuracy of 94.8%. In conclusion, the classification of PD and PSP patients based on ADC features obtained from diffusion MRI datasets is a promising new approach for the differentiation of Parkinsonian syndromes in the broader context of decision support systems.

  11. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    An obvious consequence of hydrate dissociation is the compression of reservoir matrix causing displacements in the surrounding area. The reservoir compression is a time-dependent process which depends on the production rate. The ground movements cause additional stresses in the overburden which may result in rock mass fracture and failure. Rock failure may cause rubble formation or bulking in the fracture zone. This in turn can cause an increase in permeability for gas flow which may offset the reduction in permeability caused by closure of existing fractures during reservoir compression. The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  12. Alcohol badly affects eye movements linked to steering, providing for automatic in-car detection of drink driving.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E; Cooper, Hannah L; Gilbey, Steven L; Watson, Jessica C; Mehta, Neena; Kaur-Mann, Daljit; Wilson, Mark; Keil, Damian

    2008-03-01

    Driving is a classic example of visually guided behavior in which the eyes move before some other action. When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside of the curve before turning the steering wheel. Eye and steering movements are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which allows the parts of the brain that move the eyes to assist the parts of the brain that control the hands on the wheel. We show here that this optimal relationship deteriorates with levels of breath alcohol well within the current UK legal limit for driving. The eyes move later, and coordination reduces. These changes lead to bad performance and can be detected by an automated in-car system, which warns the driver is no longer fit to drive.

  13. Progressively expanded neural network for automatic material identification in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paheding, Sidike

    The science of hyperspectral remote sensing focuses on the exploitation of the spectral signatures of various materials to enhance capabilities including object detection, recognition, and material characterization. Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has been extensively used for object detection and identification applications since it provides plenty of spectral information to uniquely identify materials by their reflectance spectra. HSI-based object detection algorithms can be generally classified into stochastic and deterministic approaches. Deterministic approaches are comparatively simple to apply since it is usually based on direct spectral similarity such as spectral angles or spectral correlation. In contrast, stochastic algorithms require statistical modeling and estimation for target class and non-target class. Over the decades, many single class object detection methods have been proposed in the literature, however, deterministic multiclass object detection in HSI has not been explored. In this work, we propose a deterministic multiclass object detection scheme, named class-associative spectral fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation. Human brain is capable of simultaneously processing high volumes of multi-modal data received every second of the day. In contrast, a machine sees input data simply as random binary numbers. Although machines are computationally efficient, they are inferior when comes to data abstraction and interpretation. Thus, mimicking the learning strength of human brain has been current trend in artificial intelligence. In this work, we present a biological inspired neural network, named progressively expanded neural network (PEN Net), based on nonlinear transformation of input neurons to a feature space for better pattern differentiation. In PEN Net, discrete fixed excitations are disassembled and scattered in the feature space as a nonlinear line. Each disassembled element on the line corresponds to a pattern with similar features

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal changes during orthodontic tooth movement - work in progress

    PubMed Central

    ZIMBRAN, ADELA; DUDEA, DIANA; GASPARIK, CRISTINA; DUDEA, SORIN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. Methods Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment. The upper first premolars were extracted bilaterally due to severe crowding, and the canines were distalized using elastomeric chain with a net force of 100 cN. Ultrasonographic scans (US scans) were performed before, during and after retraction, in three distinct areas of the canines buccal surface: mesial, middle and distal. The reference point was the bracket, which appeared hyperechoic on the US scan. Four different dimensions were obtained: D1 (depth of the sulcus), D2 (thickness of the gingiva), D3 (length of the supracrestal fibers), D4 (width of periodontal space). Results An increase of D1 was observed in all three areas of the periodontium, during orthodontic treatment. D3 was strongly correlated before and immediately after force delivery only for the mesial area (r=0.828, p<0.05). In total, 228 variables were statistically analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, in order to demonstrate the relationship between periodontal findings during orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion High-resolution ultrasonography has the capability to obviate changes in periodontal ligament space and free gingiva during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:28246503

  15. NERI Project 99-119. A New Paradigm for Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architectures for Nuclear Power Plants. Phase-2 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, JA

    2002-01-15

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 2 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work.

  16. The Progressive Education Movement: Is it Still a Factor in Today's Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William

    2006-01-01

    For more than one hundred years, the United States has been the scene of academic warfare between traditional and progressive educators. During most of the nation's history, many Americans have assumed that the primary purpose of school is to pass on to children the information and skills necessary to survive in society. This traditional view…

  17. Project to develop and demonstrate an inexpensive automatic drop mechanism for window insulation systems. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The EPR concept is technically practical, but lacks something which is crucial to its marketplace success. That ''something'' would appear to be the capability of fully automatic operation, although logic says that semi-automatic operation obtains the benefits of window insulation closure. That fully-automatic operation produces a vastly different response in the marketplace is indicated by the fact that over 35 demonstrators at $30 each have been ordered in little more than one month since the Automatic Shade Roller System has been offered for sale; whereas, with nearly 1000 inquiries responded to, only a dozen EPR's were sold at $12.50. The role of automatic rollers in window insulation systems has not been thoroughly demonstrated. They can be used to operate exterior sunscreen shades, between-glazing shades, and combinations of sunscreen and insulating shades. What would be appropriate at this time would be installation of a combination of automatic shading/insulating systems on the windows of a public building or home to demonstrate the energy-savings benefits of such installations. As the sole US manufacturer of automatic shade rollers, Solar Roller Corporation, an associate with Solar Power West, is the ideal organization to make such installations.

  18. Choreography of molecular movements during ribosome progression along mRNA.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Riccardo; Sharma, Heena; Caliskan, Neva; Cunha, Carlos E; Peske, Frank; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-04-01

    During translation elongation, ribosome translocation along an mRNA entails rotations of the ribosomal subunits, swiveling motions of the small subunit (SSU) head and stepwise movements of the tRNAs together with the mRNA. Here, we reconstructed the choreography of the collective motions of the Escherichia coli ribosome during translocation promoted by elongation factor EF-G, by recording the fluorescence signatures of nine different reporters placed on both ribosomal subunits, tRNA and mRNA. We captured an early forward swiveling of the SSU head taking place while the SSU body rotates in the opposite, clockwise direction. Backward swiveling of the SSU head starts upon tRNA translocation and continues until the post-translocation state is reached. This work places structures of translocation intermediates along a time axis and unravels principles of the motions of macromolecular machines.

  19. Clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy: The movement disorder society criteria.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Josephs, Keith A; Lang, Anthony E; Mollenhauer, Brit; Müller, Ulrich; Nilsson, Christer; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Arzberger, Thomas; Englund, Elisabet; Gelpi, Ellen; Giese, Armin; Irwin, David J; Meissner, Wassilios G; Pantelyat, Alexander; Rajput, Alex; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Antonini, Angelo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Bordelon, Yvette; Compta, Yaroslau; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Colosimo, Carlo; Dickson, Dennis W; Dodel, Richard; Ferguson, Leslie; Grossman, Murray; Kassubek, Jan; Krismer, Florian; Levin, Johannes; Lorenzl, Stefan; Morris, Huw R; Nestor, Peter; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Poewe, Werner; Rabinovici, Gil; Rowe, James B; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Seppi, Klaus; van Eimeren, Thilo; Wenning, Gregor K; Boxer, Adam L; Golbe, Lawrence I; Litvan, Irene

    2017-06-01

    PSP is a neuropathologically defined disease entity. Clinical diagnostic criteria, published in 1996 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Society for PSP, have excellent specificity, but their sensitivity is limited for variant PSP syndromes with presentations other than Richardson's syndrome. We aimed to provide an evidence- and consensus-based revision of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and PSYCInfo databases for articles published in English since 1996, using postmortem diagnosis or highly specific clinical criteria as the diagnostic standard. Second, we generated retrospective standardized clinical data from patients with autopsy-confirmed PSP and control diseases. On this basis, diagnostic criteria were drafted, optimized in two modified Delphi evaluations, submitted to structured discussions with consensus procedures during a 2-day meeting, and refined in three further Delphi rounds. Defined clinical, imaging, laboratory, and genetic findings serve as mandatory basic features, mandatory exclusion criteria, or context-dependent exclusion criteria. We identified four functional domains (ocular motor dysfunction, postural instability, akinesia, and cognitive dysfunction) as clinical predictors of PSP. Within each of these domains, we propose three clinical features that contribute different levels of diagnostic certainty. Specific combinations of these features define the diagnostic criteria, stratified by three degrees of diagnostic certainty (probable PSP, possible PSP, and suggestive of PSP). Clinical clues and imaging findings represent supportive features. Here, we present new criteria aimed to optimize early, sensitive, and specific clinical diagnosis of PSP on the basis of currently available evidence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Balance and eye movement training to improve gait in people with progressive supranuclear palsy: quasi-randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Cris; Di Fabio, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Although vertical gaze palsy and gait instability are cardinal features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), little research has been done to address oculomotor and gait rehabilitation for PSP. The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits of a program of balance training complemented with eye movement and visual awareness training versus balance training alone to rehabilitate gait in people with PSP. Nineteen people moderately affected by the disease were assigned to either a treatment group (balance plus eye movement exercises, n=10) or a comparison group (balance exercises only, n=9) in a quasi-random fashion. The baseline characteristics assessed were diagnosis (possible versus probable), sex, age, time of symptom onset, dementia, and severity of symptoms. Within-group, between-group, and effect size analyses were performed on kinematic gait parameters (stance time, swing time, and step length) and clinical tests (8-ft [2.4-m] walk test and Timed "Up & Go" Test). The within-group analysis revealed significant improvements in stance time and walking speed for the treatment group, whereas the comparison group showed improvements in step length only. Moderate to large effects of the intervention were observed for the treatment group, and small effects were observed for the comparison group. The between-group analysis did not reveal significant changes for either group. These preliminary findings support the use of eye movement exercises as a complementary therapy for balance training in the rehabilitation of gait in people with PSP and moderate impairments. Additional studies powered at a higher level are needed to confirm these results.

  1. Progress in elucidating the pathophysiological basis of nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: not yet informing therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Horváth, András; Papp, Anikó; Szűcs, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias. While sleep-disturbing factors have a clear precipitating effect, a genetic predisposition appears necessary in most cases. A candidate gene for sleepwalking has been identified on chromosome 20q12-q13.12 in one sleepwalking family. NREM parasomnias have a genetic and clinical link with nocturnal-frontal lobe epilepsies; possibly through an abnormality of the acetylcholine-related sleep-control system. The association of NREM parasomnias with the human leukocyte antigen system might be the sign of an autoimmune background to be further clarified. In the treatment of arousal parasomnias, the main tools are adequate sleep hygiene and the management of underlying conditions. Their pharmacotherapy has remained unresolved; the best options are clonazepam and some of the antidepressants, while a psychotherapy approach is also justified.

  2. Progress in elucidating the pathophysiological basis of nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: not yet informing therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, András; Papp, Anikó; Szűcs, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias. While sleep-disturbing factors have a clear precipitating effect, a genetic predisposition appears necessary in most cases. A candidate gene for sleepwalking has been identified on chromosome 20q12-q13.12 in one sleepwalking family. NREM parasomnias have a genetic and clinical link with nocturnal-frontal lobe epilepsies; possibly through an abnormality of the acetylcholine-related sleep-control system. The association of NREM parasomnias with the human leukocyte antigen system might be the sign of an autoimmune background to be further clarified. In the treatment of arousal parasomnias, the main tools are adequate sleep hygiene and the management of underlying conditions. Their pharmacotherapy has remained unresolved; the best options are clonazepam and some of the antidepressants, while a psychotherapy approach is also justified. PMID:27022307

  3. Bilateral Movement Training and Stroke Motor Recovery Progress: A Structured Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cauraugh, James H.; Lodha, Neha; Naik, Sagar K.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to conduct a structured review and meta-analysis to determine the cumulative effect of bilateral arm training on motor capabilities post stroke. Forty-eight stroke studies were selected from three databases with 25 comparisons qualifying for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We identified and coded four types of bilateral arm interventions with 366 stroke patients. A random effects model using the standardized mean difference technique determined a large and significant effect size (0.734; SE = 0.125), high fail-safe N (532), and medium variability in the studies (I2 = 63%). Moderator variable analysis on the type of bilateral training revealed two large and significant effects: (a) BATRAC (0.842; SE = 0.155) and (b) coupled bilateral and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (1.142; SE = 0.176). These novel findings provide strong evidence supporting bilateral arm training with the caveat that two coupled protocols, rhythmic alternating movements and active stimulation, are most effective. PMID:19926154

  4. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    The grantee will evaluate the influence of hydrate production on ground subsidence near the wellbore and the surface. The objective of this research will be achieved by using computer simulations of what is expected in a hydrate reservoir during the production stage as reported by hydrate production models and available data. The model will be based on theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanics of hydrate production, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics, and special features of geomaterials under cold temperatures such as those found in permafrost regions. The research work involved in the proposed investigation will be divided into three major tasks: (1) Mechanics of subsidence in permafrost regions; (2) modeling of subsidence; and (3) parametric studies. Progress reports are presented for tasks 1 and 2.

  5. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  6. Matefin/SUN-1 phosphorylation is part of a surveillance mechanism to coordinate chromosome synapsis and recombination with meiotic progression and chromosome movement.

    PubMed

    Woglar, Alexander; Daryabeigi, Anahita; Adamo, Adele; Habacher, Cornelia; Machacek, Thomas; La Volpe, Adriana; Jantsch, Verena

    2013-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis I depends on the establishment of a crossover between homologous chromosomes. This requires induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), alignment of homologs, homolog association by synapsis, and repair of DSBs via homologous recombination. The success of these events requires coordination between chromosomal events and meiotic progression. The conserved SUN/KASH nuclear envelope bridge establishes transient linkages between chromosome ends and cytoskeletal forces during meiosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this bridge is essential for bringing homologs together and preventing nonhomologous synapsis. Chromosome movement takes place during synapsis and recombination. Concomitant with the onset of chromosome movement, SUN-1 clusters at chromosome ends associated with the nuclear envelope, and it is phosphorylated in a chk-2- and plk-2-dependent manner. Identification of all SUN-1 phosphomodifications at its nuclear N terminus allowed us to address their role in prophase I. Failures in recombination and synapsis led to persistent phosphorylations, which are required to elicit a delay in progression. Unfinished meiotic tasks elicited sustained recruitment of PLK-2 to chromosome ends in a SUN-1 phosphorylation-dependent manner that is required for continued chromosome movement and characteristic of a zygotene arrest. Furthermore, SUN-1 phosphorylation supported efficient synapsis. We propose that signals emanating from a failure to successfully finish meiotic tasks are integrated at the nuclear periphery to regulate chromosome end-led movement and meiotic progression. The single unsynapsed X chromosome in male meiosis is precluded from inducing a progression delay, and we found it was devoid of a population of phosphorylated SUN-1. This suggests that SUN-1 phosphorylation is critical to delaying meiosis in response to perturbed synapsis. SUN-1 may be an integral part of a checkpoint system to monitor establishment of the

  7. NERI PROJECT 99-119."A NEW PARADIGM FOR AUTOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY RELIABLE CONTROL ARCHITECTURES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS."PHASE-1 PROGRESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2000-08-29

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 1 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled ''Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants''. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL,) The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work. This research focuses on the development of methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements for the life of the plant. Our final goal is to ''capture'' the design requirements inside a ''control engine'' during the design phase. This control engine is, then, not only capable of designing automatically the initial implementation of the control system, but it also can confirm that the original design requirements are still met during the life of the plant as conditions change. This control engine captures the high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure). The control engine, then, is able to generate automatically the control-system algorithms and parameters that optimize a design goal and satisfy all requirements. As conditions change during the life of the plant (e.g. component degradation, or subsystem failures) the control engine automatically ''flags'' that a requirement is not satisfied, and it can even suggest a modified configuration that would satisfy it. This control engine concept is shown schematically in Fig. 1. The implementation of this ''control-engine'' design methodology requires the following steps, which are described in detail in the attachments to this report: (1) Selection of Design Requirements Related to Control System Performance; (2) Implementation of Requirements in

  8. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  9. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  10. Considering Valproate as a Risk Factor for Rapid Exacerbation of Complex Movement Disorder in Progressed Stages of Late-Infantile CLN2 Disease.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Jessika; Nickel, Miriam; Schulz, Angela; Denecke, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease, OMIM 204500) is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood. Symptoms include epilepsy, rapid motor and language regression, dementia, visual loss, and a complex movement disorder in later stages of the disease. We report on two children with genetically confirmed late-infantile CLN2 disease who developed a severe exacerbation of their complex movement disorder leading to hyperthermia, hyper-CK-emia and decreased level of consciousness over several weeks despite different therapeutic approaches. Both patients were on long-term antiepileptic treatment with valproate and only after the withdrawal of valproate, the movement disorder disappeared and level of consciousness improved. These observations emphasize that valproate has to be considered as a possible risk factor in patients in later stages of late-infantile CLN2 disease who develop a rapidly progressive complex movement disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Thoracic compression myelopathy due to the progression of dystrophic scoliosis, the presence of a paraspinal tumor, and high and excessive amplitude movement of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Takashi; Yurube, Takashi; Kakutani, Kenichiro; Maeno, Koichiro; Uno, Koki; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Nishida, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    The authors present a case of 45-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and thoracic scoliosis, previously undergoing fusion surgery, who developed myelopathy. This patient further complained of lightning pain when he extended and horizontally abducted the convex-side shoulder. Radiological examination revealed the progression of dystrophic scoliosis with opened spinal canals and the presence of a neurofibroma behind the spinal cord at the apical levels. Delayed development of spinal instability can occur due to dystrophy even postoperatively in patients with NF-1. After tumor resection, he had rapid recovery from myelopathy and no recurrence of radiating pain despite shoulder movement. These findings provide a speculation that high, intense amplitude movement of the shoulder toward the spinal canal causes the impingement on the neurofibroma, resulting in indirect compression of the exposed spinal cord. This is the first report describing thoracic compression myelopathy associated with paraspinal displacement of the scapula.

  12. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  13. Automatic and unbiased assessment of competence in colonoscopy: exploring validity of the Colonoscopy Progression Score (CoPS)

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Louise; Søndergaard Svendsen, Morten Bo; Søndergaard, Bo; Brink, Lene; Nordentoft, Tyge; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Colonoscopy is a difficult procedure to master. Increasing demands for colonoscopy, due to screening and surveillance programs, have highlighted the need for competent performers. Valid methods for assessing technical skills are pivotal for training and assessment. This study is the first clinical descriptive report of a novel colonoscopy assessment tool based on Magnetic Endoscopic Imaging (MEI) data and the aim was to gather validity evidence based on the data collected using the “Colonoscopy Progression Score” (CoPS). Methods: We recorded 137 colonoscopy procedures performed by 31 endoscopists at three university hospitals. The participants performed more than two procedures each (range 2 – 12) and had an experience of 0 – 10 000 colonoscopies. The CoPS was calculated for each recording and validity was explored using a widely accepted contemporary framework. The following sources of validity evidence were explored: response process (data collection), internal structure (reliability), relationship to other variables (i. e. operator experience), and consequences of testing (pass/fail). Results: Identical set-ups at all three locations ensured uniform data collection. The Generalizability coefficient (G-coefficient) was 0.80, and a Decision-study (D-study) revealed that four recordings were sufficient to ensure a G-coefficient above 0.80. We showed a positive correlation between CoPS and experience with Pearson’s r of 0.61 (P < 0.001). A pass/fail standard of 107 points was established using the contrasting group method to explore the consequences of testing. Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the validity of the CoPS for use in assessing technical colonoscopy performance in the clinical setting. Study registration: NCT01997177. PMID:27995182

  14. Automatic and unbiased assessment of competence in colonoscopy: exploring validity of the Colonoscopy Progression Score (CoPS).

    PubMed

    Preisler, Louise; Søndergaard Svendsen, Morten Bo; Søndergaard, Bo; Brink, Lene; Nordentoft, Tyge; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Konge, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims: Colonoscopy is a difficult procedure to master. Increasing demands for colonoscopy, due to screening and surveillance programs, have highlighted the need for competent performers. Valid methods for assessing technical skills are pivotal for training and assessment. This study is the first clinical descriptive report of a novel colonoscopy assessment tool based on Magnetic Endoscopic Imaging (MEI) data and the aim was to gather validity evidence based on the data collected using the "Colonoscopy Progression Score" (CoPS). Methods: We recorded 137 colonoscopy procedures performed by 31 endoscopists at three university hospitals. The participants performed more than two procedures each (range 2 - 12) and had an experience of 0 - 10 000 colonoscopies. The CoPS was calculated for each recording and validity was explored using a widely accepted contemporary framework. The following sources of validity evidence were explored: response process (data collection), internal structure (reliability), relationship to other variables (i. e. operator experience), and consequences of testing (pass/fail). Results: Identical set-ups at all three locations ensured uniform data collection. The Generalizability coefficient (G-coefficient) was 0.80, and a Decision-study (D-study) revealed that four recordings were sufficient to ensure a G-coefficient above 0.80. We showed a positive correlation between CoPS and experience with Pearson's r of 0.61 (P < 0.001). A pass/fail standard of 107 points was established using the contrasting group method to explore the consequences of testing. Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the validity of the CoPS for use in assessing technical colonoscopy performance in the clinical setting. NCT01997177.

  15. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Timothy L.; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E.; Warner, Joshua D.; Irazabal, Maria V.; King, Bernard F.; Torres, Vicente E.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. Methods We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland–Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Results Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼±100 mL. Conclusions Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In

  16. Effects of proposed preflight adaptation training on eye movements, self-motion perception, and motion sickness - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Reschke, M. F.; Von Gierke, H. E.; Lessard, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    The preflight adaptation trainer (PAT) was designed to produce rearranged relationships between visual and otolith signals analogous to those experienced in space. Investigations have been undertaken with three prototype trainers. The results indicated that exposure to the PAT sensory rearrangement altered self-motion perception, induced motion sickness, and changed the amplitude and phase of the horizontal eye movements evoked by roll stimulation. However, the changes were inconsistent.

  17. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  18. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  19. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  20. Towards falls prevention: a wearable wireless and battery-less sensing and automatic identification tag for real time monitoring of human movements.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Damith C; Shinmoto Torres, Roberto L; Sample, Alanson P; Smith, Joshua R; Hill, Keith; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2012-01-01

    Falls related injuries among elderly patients in hospitals or residents in residential care facilities is a significant problem that causes emotional and physical trauma to those involved while presenting a rising healthcare expense in countries such as Australia where the population is ageing. Novel approaches using low cost and privacy preserving sensor enabled Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to provide a low cost and effective technological intervention to prevent falls in hospitals. We outline the details of a wearable sensor enabled RFID tag that is battery free, low cost, lightweight, maintenance free and can be worn continuously for automatic and unsupervised remote monitoring of activities of frail patients at acute hospitals or residents in residential care. The technological developments outlined in the paper forms part of an overall technological intervention developed to reduce falls at acute hospitals or in residential care facilities. This paper outlines the details of the technology, underlying algorithms and the results (where an accuracy of 94-100% was achieved) of a successful pilot trial.

  1. Lower extremity muscle activation and function in progressive task-oriented training on the supplementary tilt table during stepping-like movements in patients with acute stroke hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, Junesun; Lee, In-Hak

    2015-06-01

    An effective and standardized method for applying a tilt table as a supplementary treatment in the early rehabilitation of stroke patients is still missing. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table on the improvement in lower extremity (LE) muscle activation and clinical function in subjects with hemiplegia due to stroke. Thirty-nine subjects with acute stroke were randomly allocated to three groups; control group, tilt table group, and task-oriented training group on the tilt table, with 13 patients, respectively. All of the subjects received the routine therapy for half an hour, and subjects in the experimental groups additionally received training on two different tilt table applications for 20min a day, five times a week for three weeks. The effect of tilt table applications was assessed using the surface electromyography (EMG) analysis during stepping-like movements on the tilt table for LE muscle activation and clinical scores for function. Our results showed that there was a significantly greater increase in the EMG patterns of the extensors and flexors of the affected leg muscles during flexion and extension movements of both legs and clinical scores in patients undergoing the progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that progressive task-oriented training on the tilt table can improve LE muscle activation and clinical scores of functional performance for early rehabilitation of subjects with acute stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insecticidal Effects on the Spatial Progression of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Movement of Its Whitefly Vector in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M; Riley, D G; Srinivasan, R

    2017-03-08

    Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time. Tunnel study results showed that proximity to the source plant was a more important factor than insecticide treatments. Insecticide-treated tomato transplants did tend to suppress whitefly incidence and slowed TYLCV movement in comparison with the untreated check; however, tomato plants planted closer to the source plant had higher incidence of whiteflies and TYLCV infection, regardless of treatment. In a large tomato plot study with a controlled inoculum source, insecticide treatments significantly reduced the spread of TYLCV. When uninhibited by insecticide treatment, 80% of the TYLCV spread was restricted to <15 m from the source plant (<11 m in the validation study), with insecticide treatment generally reducing the distance and magnitude of this spread.

  3. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kline, Timothy L; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E; Warner, Joshua D; Irazabal, Maria V; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-02-01

    Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼ ± 100 mL. Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In addition, it will hasten the routine use of

  4. Movement and Movement Patterns of Early Childhood. [Complete Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Caroline

    This study investigated the progressive development in movement and movement patterns of children ages 2-6. Data were collected over a 3-year period at six-month intervals, based on films of 57 children performing 25 motor tasks. The results are presented along two dimensions: (1) Descriptive analysis of progress of young children in movement with…

  5. Movement amplitude on the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device: deep spinal muscle activity and movement control.

    PubMed

    Winnard, A; Debuse, D; Wilkinson, M; Samson, L; Weber, T; Caplan, Nick

    2017-08-01

    Lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) show altered motor control, and LM is atrophied, in people with low-back pain (LBP). The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) involves cyclical lower-limb movement against minimal resistance in an upright posture. It has been shown to recruit LM and TrA automatically, and may have potential as an intervention for non-specific LBP. However, no studies have yet investigated the effects of changes in FRED movement amplitude on the activity of these muscles. This study aimed to assess the effects of different FRED movement amplitudes on LM and TrA muscle thickness and movement variability, to inform an evidence-based exercise prescription. Lumbar multifidus and TrA thickness of eight healthy male volunteers were examined using ultrasound imaging during FRED exercise, normalised to rest at four different movement amplitudes. Movement variability was also measured. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare each amplitude. Exercise at all amplitudes recruited LM and TrA more than rest, with thickness increases of approximately 5 and 1 mm, respectively. Larger amplitudes also caused increased TrA thickness, LM and TrA muscle thickness variability and movement variability. The data suggests that all amplitudes are useful for recruiting LM and TrA. A progressive training protocol should start in the smallest amplitude, increasing the setting once participants can maintain a consistent movement speed, to continue to challenge the motor control system.

  6. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-15

    The principal developments during the fifth quarter of the project (October - December 1994) have been as follows. (1) Design fabrication and bench testing of new 24-v controller employing automatic photocell shut-off of motor. (2) Design, fabrication and bench testing of new 42-v controller employing automatic stop-ball and limit-switch shut-off of motor. (3) Design, fabrication, installation, operation and adjustment of prototype improved pool cover system in Denver. (4) Continued planning of installation, demonstration and evaluation of improved pool cover system at the Denver Skyland Recreation Center. (5) Improved mounting brackets. (6) Preparation of a comprehensive paper on swimming pool evaporation rates.

  7. MOVEMENT IN THE CYANOPHYCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Paul R.

    1933-01-01

    The effect of pH upon the velocity of translatory movement of Oscillatoria formosa Bory in inorganic culture solutions was determined. Unhindered movement occurred in the range of about pH 6.4 to 9.5. Above and below these limits inhibition was marked. In the unfavorable acid and alkaline ranges inhibition was progressive with exposure time; in the favorable range continuous movement was maintained for 24 hours. PMID:19872745

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  9. Automatic Planning of Manipulator Transfer Movements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    composed of a finger and a " palm ", hold- ing P at the initial and final configuration. (b) In the initial configuration, the shaded area represents CO...81 )yer, C R, Rosenfeld, A and Samet, H. "Region Representation: Boundary Codes from Quadtrees," Communications of the ACAI 23, 3 (March 1980), 171...Representation: Quadtrees from Boundary Codes." Communications of the ACAI 23, 3 (March 1980), 163-170. (441 Simunovic, S N. "Force Information in Assembly

  10. Combined information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging differentiates fast late-onset motor recovery from progressive recovery in hemiplegic stroke patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Du; Kim, Ji-Young; Seo, Jee-Hye; Jin, Seong-Uk; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, So-Hyun; Lee, Yang-Soo; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the value of combining information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in acute stroke patients with severe motor impairment. Eight patients with severe left upper limb motor impairment underwent a passive movement task with fMRI and resting-state fMRI, 3 weeks following stroke onset. According to the patterns of motor recovery, patients were divided into groups with, respectively, good or poor motor recovery. Patients with good recovery were further divided into two subgroups: progressive and fast late-onset motor recovery. Activation and deactivation maps from a passive movement task with fMRI were obtained. Interhemispheric connectivity analysis was conducted using resting-state fMRI. Interhemispheric connectivity score in patients with progressive motor recovery was much greater than the scores in patients with fast late-onset and poor motor recovery. For passive movement, patients with progressive recovery exhibited activation in the ipsilesional sensorimotor area and no deactivation in the contralesional sensorimotor area. Patients with fast late-onset motor recovery showed strong deactivation in both sensorimotor areas. Patients with poor recovery showed no activation or deactivation in either of the sensorimotor areas. Interhemispheric connectivity alone is not enough to predict delayed motor recovery.

  11. Motor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Hallett, Mark; Chan, Piu

    2017-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most important feature contributing to motor difficulties in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology underlying bradykinesia is not fully understood. One important aspect is that PD patients have difficulty in performing learned motor skills automatically, but this problem has been generally overlooked. Here we review motor automaticity associated motor deficits in PD, such as reduced arm swing, decreased stride length, freezing of gait, micrographia and reduced facial expression. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying impaired motor automaticity in PD, including less efficient neural coding of movement, failure to shift automated motor skills to the sensorimotor striatum, instability of the automatic mode within the striatum, and use of attentional control and/or compensatory efforts to execute movements usually performed automatically in healthy people. PD patients lose previously acquired automatic skills due to their impaired sensorimotor striatum, and have difficulty in acquiring new automatic skills or restoring lost motor skills. More investigations on the pathophysiology of motor automaticity, the effect of L-dopa or surgical treatments on automaticity, and the potential role of using measures of automaticity in early diagnosis of PD would be valuable. PMID:26102020

  12. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  13. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  14. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  15. Stereotypical movements.

    PubMed

    Delafield-Butt, J T

    2010-01-01

    A 'stereotypical movement' denotes a movement reproduced in a standardised form. The term is used in two fields, in movement science and in medical assessments of pathology. The former recognises the occurrence of regular patterns of movement across individuals expressed at regular points in development, such as the pre-reach in early infancy. The latter specifies a pathological form of repetitive movement by one individual symptomatic of, for example, autism. This entry explores the interindividual use of the term in movement science and touches on ongoing work to better classify and quantify stereotypical movements for better psychophysiological understanding of action development, and possible sensitive measures of them.

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  18. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  19. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  20. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  1. Image processing automatic interferometric calibration system for line scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Hector; Galvan, Carlos; Muñoz, J. A.

    2003-11-01

    An automatic calibration bench to calibrate line scales up to three meters has been developed at the Centro Nacional de Metrologia. It incorporates an heterodyne laser interferometer to follow the position of a carriage that support a microscope with a CCD camera. The images are processed using a novel robust algorithm to determine the center of each line. The carriage travels along guide ways and is commanded by a computer that controls the servomotor that moves it, allowing to complete the calibration automatically. The measurement and control software developed uses an image processing algorithm based on Gabor filters and robust statistics to discriminate between lines and unwanted features that may exist such as stain, scratches, rust, etc. It then calculates the absolute position of each line by coupling the reading of the carriage position given by the interferometer and the centerline position of the line in the image. Additionally, the software corrects the laser readings for ambient condition variations and controls the progress of the carriage. The mechanical design consists of a stiff bench with guide ways on which the carriage travels. Although the carriage travels in non-kinematic guide ways, the microscope and CCD camera sit on a plate that is kinematically supported. The movement is provided by a servomotor and transmitted by means of a screw. Uncertainty is expected to be between 3 and 10 um which is common to other similar systems. The gross advantage is the ability to calibrate automatically and discriminate defects on the scale.

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  4. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  5. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  6. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  7. Automatic tracking sensor camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

    2001-04-01

    We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  9. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  10. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions... manually, and which are so interconnected by means of electric circuits that their movements must...

  11. Automaticity and hypnosis: a sociocognitive account.

    PubMed

    Lynn, S J

    1997-07-01

    This article provides an overview of a new theory of suggested involuntariness in hypnosis, developed in conjunction with Irving Kirsch. The theory is based on the following ideas. First, high hypnotizable participants enter hypnosis with a conscious intention to feel and behave in line with suggested experiences and movements. Second, people who are easily hypnotized hold firm expectations that they will succeed in following the suggestions of the hypnotist. Third, the intention and expectation in turn function as response sets in the sense that they trigger the hypnotic response automatically. Fourth, given the intention to feel and behave in line with the hypnotist's suggestions, hypnotized individuals show no hesitation to experience the suggested movements as involuntary because (a) these movements are actually triggered automatically, and (b) the intention to cooperate with the hypnotist as well as the expectation to be able to do so create a heightened readiness to experience these actions as involuntary.

  12. Co-Creating a Movement.

    PubMed

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-10-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded a national program office to support nurses' academic progression toward the goal of Bachelor of Science in Nursing preparation of 80% of the RN population by 2020. A new initiative, the National Education Progression in Nursing Collaborative, seeks to create a movement to sustain the momentum of educational progression for nurses. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(10):442-444. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Can intention override the "automatic pilot"?

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Yukovsky, Julia; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that the visuomotor system possesses an "automatic pilot" which allows people to make rapid online movement corrections in response to sudden changes in target position. Importantly, the automatic pilot has been shown to operate in the absence of visual awareness, and even under circumstances in which people are explicitly asked not to correct their ongoing movement. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which the automatic pilot could be "disengaged" by explicitly instructing participants to ignore the target jump (i.e., "NO-GO"), by manipulating the order in which the two tasks were completed (i.e., either "GO" or NO-GO first), and by manipulating the proportion of trials in which the target jumped. The results indicated that participants made fewer corrections in response to the target jump when they were asked not to correct their movement (i.e., NO-GO), and when they completed the NO-GO task prior to the task in which they were asked to correct their movement when the target jumped (i.e., the GO task). However, increasing the proportion of jumping targets had only a minimal influence on performance. Critically, participants still made a significant number of unintended corrections (i.e., errors) in the NO-GO tasks, even under explicit instructions not to correct their movement if the target jumped. Overall these data suggest that, while the automatic pilot can be influenced to some degree by top-down strategies and previous experience, the pre-potent response to correct an ongoing movement cannot be completely disengaged.

  14. A neural model of cortico-cerebellar interactions during attentive imitation and predictive learning of sequential handwriting movements.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, S; Paine, R W

    2000-01-01

    Much sensory-motor behavior develops through imitation, as during the learning of handwriting by children. Such complex sequential acts are broken down into distinct motor control synergies, or muscle groups, whose activities overlap in time to generate continuous, curved movements that obey an inverse relation between curvature and speed. How are such complex movements learned through attentive imitation? Novel movements may be made as a series of distinct segments, but a practiced movement can be made smoothly, with a continuous, often bell-shaped, velocity profile. How does learning of complex movements transform reactive imitation into predictive, automatic performance? A neural model is developed which suggests how parietal and motor cortical mechanisms, such as difference vector encoding, interact with adaptively timed, predictive cerebellar learning during movement imitation and predictive performance. To initiate movement, visual attention shifts along the shape to be imitated and generates vector movement using motor cortical cells. During such an imitative movement, cerebellar Purkinje cells with a spectrum of delayed response profiles sample and learn the changing directional information and, in turn, send that learned information back to the cortex and eventually to the muscle synergies involved. If the imitative movement deviates from an attentional focus around a shape to be imitated, the visual system shifts attention, and may make an eye movement, back to the shape, thereby providing corrective directional information to the arm movement system. This imitative movement cycle repeats until the cortico-cerebellar system can accurately drive the movement based on memory alone. A cortical working memory buffer transiently stores the cerebellar output and releases it at a variable rate, allowing speed scaling of learned movements which is limited by the rate of cerebellar memory readout. Movements can be learned at variable speeds if the density of the

  15. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  16. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  17. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  18. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  20. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  1. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-03

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  2. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  3. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress.

  4. Automated Detection of Stereotypical Motor Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Matthew S.; Intille, Stephen S.; Albinali, Fahd; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), we evaluated the use of wireless three-axis accelerometers and pattern recognition algorithms to automatically detect body rocking and hand flapping in children with ASD. Findings revealed that, on average,…

  5. Automated Detection of Stereotypical Motor Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Matthew S.; Intille, Stephen S.; Albinali, Fahd; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), we evaluated the use of wireless three-axis accelerometers and pattern recognition algorithms to automatically detect body rocking and hand flapping in children with ASD. Findings revealed that, on average,…

  6. Slow eye movements distribution during nocturnal sleep.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Fabbri, Margherita; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro; Provini, Federica; Ferri, Raffaele; Montagna, Pasquale

    2011-08-01

    To assess the distribution across nocturnal sleep of slow eye movements (SEMs). We evaluated SEMs distribution in the different sleep stages, and across sleep cycles in nocturnal recordings of 10 healthy women. Sleep was scored according to standard criteria, and the percentage of time occupied by the SEMs was automatically detected. SEMs were differently represented during sleep stages with the following order: wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO): 61%, NREM sleep stage 1: 54%, REM sleep: 43%, NREM sleep stage 2: 21%, NREM sleep stage 3: 7%, and NREM sleep stage 4: 3% (p<0.0001). There was no difference between phasic and tonic REM sleep. SEMs progressively decreased across the NREM sleep cycles (38%, 15%, 13% during NREM sleep stage 2 in the first three sleep cycles, p=0.006), whereas no significant difference was found for REM, NREM sleep stage 1, slow-wave sleep and WASO. Our findings confirm that SEMs are a phenomenon typical of the sleep onset period, but are also found in REM sleep. The nocturnal evolution of SEMs during NREM sleep stage 2 parallels the homeostatic process underlying slow-wave sleep. SEMs are a marker of sleepiness and, potentially, of sleep homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  8. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  9. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  10. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  11. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  12. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  13. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  14. The patient movement as an emancipation movement

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background  The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods  Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results  Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion  The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. PMID:18494955

  15. Using automatic generation of Labanotation to protect folk dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaji; Miao, Zhenjiang; Guo, Hao; Zhou, Ziming; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Labanotation uses symbols to describe human motion and is an effective means of protecting folk dance. We use motion capture data to automatically generate Labanotation. First, we convert the motion capture data of the biovision hierarchy file into three-dimensional coordinate data. Second, we divide human motion into element movements. Finally, we analyze each movement and find the corresponding notation. Our work has been supervised by an expert in Labanotation to ensure the correctness of the results. At present, the work deals with a subset of symbols in Labanotation that correspond to several basic movements. Labanotation contains many symbols and several new symbols may be introduced for improvement in the future. We will refine our work to handle more symbols. The automatic generation of Labanotation can greatly improve the work efficiency of documenting movements. Thus, our work will significantly contribute to the protection of folk dance and other action arts.

  16. Automatic detection of camera translation in eye video recordings using multiple methods.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2005-04-01

    A concern with video eye movement tracking is that movement of the camera headset relative to the head creates an artifact of eye movement in pupil-detection software. We describe the development of, and compare the results of, three automatic image processing algorithms to measure camera movement. The best of the algorithms has an average accuracy of 1.3 pixels, equivalent to 0.49 deg with our eye tracking system.

  17. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  18. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050932 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (left), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on.

  19. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  20. Autoantibody-associated movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C

    2013-12-01

    Autoantibodies to the extracellular domain of neuronal proteins cause different neurological conditions with movement disorders as a prominent feature. We reviewed the literature of autoantibody-mediated and autoantibody-associated diseases focusing on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, autoimmune basal ganglia encephalitis, Sydenham chorea, and the rare syndrome of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. NMDAR encephalitis is a diffuse encephalitis with psychiatric and cognitive features associated with autoantibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR. The movement disorder phenotype is diverse and often generalized in young children. Although orofacial dyskinesia was the initial movement phenotype, chorea, dystonia, catatonia, and stereotypical movements are now described. The stereotypical movements can be bizarre and include cycling movements and compulsive self-injurious behavior. Autoimmune basal ganglia encephalitis is an inflammatory encephalitis localizing to the basal ganglia that is sometimes associated with serum antibodies against dopamine-2 receptor. Although psychiatric features are common, the dominant problem is a movement disorder, with dystonia-parkinsonism being characteristic. Sydenham chorea is the prototypic poststreptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder and several autoantibodies may be involved in disease generation. The syndrome is characterized by a pure chorea, although hypotonia, dysarthria, and emotional lability are common. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus is a rare autoimmune disorder causing rigidity, stimulus sensitive spasms, and myoclonus of nonepileptic origin and is associated with autoantibodies of multiple types including those against the glycine receptor. These disorders are important to recognize and diagnose, as immune therapy can shorten disease duration and improve outcome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Are Eyebrow Movements Linked to Voice Variations and Turn-Taking in Dialogue? An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guaitella, Isabelle; Santi, Serge; Lagrue, Benoit; Cave, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Following our work on the relationship between eyebrow movements and the fundamental frequency of the voice, this article presents the results of a study on this phenomenon, and also on the temporal location of rapid eyebrow movements with respect to speaking turns during dialogue. We used an automatic movement-acquisition system coupled with the…

  2. Are Eyebrow Movements Linked to Voice Variations and Turn-Taking in Dialogue? An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guaitella, Isabelle; Santi, Serge; Lagrue, Benoit; Cave, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Following our work on the relationship between eyebrow movements and the fundamental frequency of the voice, this article presents the results of a study on this phenomenon, and also on the temporal location of rapid eyebrow movements with respect to speaking turns during dialogue. We used an automatic movement-acquisition system coupled with the…

  3. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall display...

  4. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall display...

  5. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall display...

  6. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall display...

  7. How to make a wind-movement recorder from any spare drum-type recorder

    Treesearch

    Irvin C. Reigner

    1964-01-01

    The automatic recording of wind movement is sometimes essential to experiments in forestry and watershed-management research. Wind-movement data are often obtained by periodic reading of the anemometer dial, but occasionally data are required for variable intervals and at times when observations cannot be made easily. Instruments designed to record wind movement are...

  8. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall display...

  9. Automatic generation of Chinese character using features fusion from calligraphy and font

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Xu, Canhui; Jia, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    A spatial statistic based contour feature representation is proposed to achieve extraction of local contour feature from Chinese calligraphy character, and a features fusion strategy is designed to automatically generate new hybrid character, making well use of contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. The features fusion strategy employs dilation and erosion operations iteratively to inject the extracted contour feature from Chinese calligraphy into font, which are similar to "pad" and "cut" in a sculpture progress. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated new hybrid character hold both contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. Especially, two kinds of Chinese calligraphy skills called "Fei Bai" and "Zhang Mo" are imitated in the hybrid character. "Fei Bai" depicts a phenomenon that part of a stroke fade out due to the fast movement of hair brush or the lack of ink, and "Zhang Mo" describes a condition that hair brush holds so much ink that strokes overlap.

  10. Automatic natural language parsing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

  11. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  12. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Automatic dishwasher products contain various soaps. Potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate are the most common. ... is in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the soap ...

  13. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  14. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  15. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  16. Apraxia in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Zadikoff, Cindy; Lang, Anthony E

    2005-07-01

    The definition of apraxia specifies that the disturbance of performed skilled movements cannot be explained by the more elemental motor disorders typical of patients with movement disorders. Generally this does not present a significant diagnostic problem when dealing with 'higher-level' praxic disturbances (e.g. ideational apraxia), but it can be a major confound in establishing the presence of limb-kinetic apraxia. Most motor disturbances characteristic of extrapyramidal disorders, particularly bradykinesia and dystonia, will compromise the ability to establish the presence of loss of dexterity and deftness that constitutes this subtype. The term 'apraxia' has also been applied to other motor disturbances, such as 'gait apraxia' and 'apraxia of eyelid opening', that perhaps are misnomers, demonstrating the lack of a coherent nomenclature in this field. Apraxia is a hallmark of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and historically this has received the most attention among the movement disorders. Corticobasal degeneration is characterized by various forms of apraxia affecting limb function, particularly ideomotor apraxia and limb-kinetic apraxia, although buccofacial and oculomotor apraxia can be present as well. The syndrome of parkinsonism and prominent apraxia, designated the 'corticobasal syndrome' (CBS), may be caused by a variety of other central nervous system pathologies including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementias. Distinct from the CBS, PSP and Parkinson's disease can demonstrate varying degrees of apraxia on selected tests, especially in those patients with more severe cognitive dysfunction. Diseases that cause the combination of apraxia and a primary movement disorder most often involve a variety of cerebral cortical sites as well as basal ganglia structures. Clinical-pathological correlates and functional imaging studies are compromised by both this diffuse involvement and the

  17. Automated detection of stereotypical motor movements.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Matthew S; Intille, Stephen S; Albinali, Fahd; Velicer, Wayne F

    2011-06-01

    To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), we evaluated the use of wireless three-axis accelerometers and pattern recognition algorithms to automatically detect body rocking and hand flapping in children with ASD. Findings revealed that, on average, pattern recognition algorithms correctly identified approximately 90% of stereotypical motor movements repeatedly observed in both laboratory and classroom settings. Precise and efficient recording of stereotypical motor movements could enable researchers and clinicians to systematically study what functional relations exist between these behaviors and specific antecedents and consequences. These measures could also facilitate efficacy studies of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions intended to replace or decrease the incidence or severity of stereotypical motor movements.

  18. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  19. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  20. Automatic processing system for shadowgraph and interference patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vereninov, I. A.; Lazarev, V. D.; Popov, S. S.; Tarasov, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of an automatic system for the processing of shadowgraph and interference images are described. The system includes a two-coordinate processing table with an optical system for the projection of transparent images onto the photodetector, an image filter in the photodetector field, and a device for controlling the movement of the table and transmitting information to the minicomputer.

  1. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  2. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050883 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  4. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050885 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (bottom) and Oleg Kononenko (center), both Expedition 30 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  5. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050884 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  6. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  7. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  8. Preliminary study on determining stereotypical motor movements.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rodrigues, José L; Costa, Sandra; Soares, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical motor movements are one of the most common and least understood behaviors occurring in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with ASD, the Kinect sensor from Microsoft and gesture recognition algorithms were used to automatically detect hand flapping. This study provides a valuable tool to monitor stereotypes in order to understand and to cope with this problem. At the end it facilitates to identify behavioral patterns especially relevant when studying interaction skills in children with ASD.

  9. Progress 28 supply vehicle docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027827 (7 Feb. 2008) --- An unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  10. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027820 (7 Feb. 2008) --- An unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  11. The automatic micrometer screw.

    PubMed

    Picker, K M

    2000-03-01

    A new analytical method - the automatic micrometer screw - has been established to measure the edge height of tablets. The equipment offers many advantages compared with other methods. The precision is slightly increased compared to the traditional micrometer screw and the measurement with a small punch and a linear voltage transducer. No longer any touch of the tablet is necessary and influences results. The method works automatically and continuously, no manual measurement of the tablets is necessary. Up to ten tablets can be analyzed at the same time because of a rotary table on which they are positioned. Thus the method is not personal intensive. By combining the results from the measurement of punch displacement which means tablet height in the die and the results of the measurement with the automatic micrometer screw which means tablet height outside the die, a convenient measurement for the decompression process is possible.

  12. [Involuntary movements: video presentation].

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    What's involuntary movement? To define the involuntary movement, we should define the voluntary movement. It is, however, difficult to define the voluntariness. The involuntary movement usually indicates some abnormal movement occurring without any movement intention of the subject which excludes any reflex movements, such as tendon reflexes or normal startle response. How to see patients with involuntary movements Classification of involuntary movements entirely depends on clinical features of movements. The method to see the patients, therefore, follows how to describe the movements when explaining those to others. The three main points to care are as follows. Regularity in time or rhythmicity of the movement: regular, mostly regular, irregular or completely irregular. The most rhythmic one is tremor and most irregular one is myoclonus. Conditions inducing involuntary movement: resting, postural, during movement, emotional stress, sensory trick or others. These are important factor to see actual movements in clinical practice. To make an inducing condition in the clinic is sometimes required to see the symptoms. Pattern of involuntary movements: irregular, stereotypical, distribution of moving muscles, right-left difference and others. Several kinds of involuntary movements are presented in my talk.

  13. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dance recognition system using lower body movement.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Travis T; Wiesner, Susan L; Bennett, Bradford C

    2014-02-01

    The current means of locating specific movements in film necessitate hours of viewing, making the task of conducting research into movement characteristics and patterns tedious and difficult. This is particularly problematic for the research and analysis of complex movement systems such as sports and dance. While some systems have been developed to manually annotate film, to date no automated way of identifying complex, full body movement exists. With pattern recognition technology and knowledge of joint locations, automatically describing filmed movement using computer software is possible. This study used various forms of lower body kinematic analysis to identify codified dance movements. We created an algorithm that compares an unknown move with a specified start and stop against known dance moves. Our recognition method consists of classification and template correlation using a database of model moves. This system was optimized to include nearly 90 dance and Tai Chi Chuan movements, producing accurate name identification in over 97% of trials. In addition, the program had the capability to provide a kinematic description of either matched or unmatched moves obtained from classification recognition.

  15. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  16. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    GEORGIOU-KARISTIANIS, NELLIE; LONG, JEFFREY D.; LOURENS, SPENCER G.; STOUT, JULIE C.; MILLS, JAMES A.; PAULSEN, JANE S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington’s disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Methods Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Results Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. Conclusions With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution. PMID:24678867

  17. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  18. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  19. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  20. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  1. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  2. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  3. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  4. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  5. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  6. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  7. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  8. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  9. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  10. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  11. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  12. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  13. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  14. Sensorimotor experience enhances automatic imitation of robotic action

    PubMed Central

    Press, Clare; Gillmeister, Helge; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has found that observation of human actions activates the ‘mirror system’ and provokes automatic imitation to a greater extent than observation of non-biological movements. The present study investigated whether this human bias depends primarily on phylogenetic or ontogenetic factors by examining the effects of sensorimotor experience on automatic imitation of non-biological robotic, stimuli. Automatic imitation of human and robotic action stimuli was assessed before and after training. During these test sessions, participants were required to execute a pre-specified response (e.g. to open their hand) while observing a human or robotic hand making a compatible (opening) or incompatible (closing) movement. During training, participants executed opening and closing hand actions while observing compatible (group CT) or incompatible movements (group IT) of a robotic hand. Compatible, but not incompatible, training increased automatic imitation of robotic stimuli (speed of responding on compatible trials, compared with incompatible trials) and abolished the human bias observed at pre-test. These findings suggest that the development of the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience, and that, in our species, it is biased in favour of human action stimuli because these are more abundant than non-biological action stimuli in typical developmental environments. PMID:17698489

  15. 3D position measurement using square marker for automatic mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji

    2010-11-01

    A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Many techniques of automatic control are proposed. A line tracer is one of the most popular robots. The line tracer goes along a white line on the floor. The authors developed a mobile robot which moves to indicated point automatically. All you have to do is to indicate a goal point. In this paper, we propose an automatic mobile robot system controlled by an invisible marker and remote indication using the augmented reality technology.

  16. Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

  17. Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

  18. Automatic Detection of Dominance and Expected Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia; Vitrià, Jordi; Anguera, M. Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Social Signal Processing is an emergent area of research that focuses on the analysis of social constructs. Dominance and interest are two of these social constructs. Dominance refers to the level of influence a person has in a conversation. Interest, when referred in terms of group interactions, can be defined as the degree of engagement that the members of a group collectively display during their interaction. In this paper, we argue that only using behavioral motion information, we are able to predict the interest of observers when looking at face-to-face interactions as well as the dominant people. First, we propose a simple set of movement-based features from body, face, and mouth activity in order to define a higher set of interaction indicators. The considered indicators are manually annotated by observers. Based on the opinions obtained, we define an automatic binary dominance detection problem and a multiclass interest quantification problem. Error-Correcting Output Codes framework is used to learn to rank the perceived observer's interest in face-to-face interactions meanwhile Adaboost is used to solve the dominant detection problem. The automatic system shows good correlation between the automatic categorization results and the manual ranking made by the observers in both dominance and interest detection problems.

  19. Hypokinesia of associated movement in Parkinson's disease: a symptom in early stages of the disease.

    PubMed

    Hoshiyama, M; Kaneoke, Y; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Watanabe, S

    1994-08-01

    We compared the degrees of impairment between intended voluntary movement and its simultaneous automatic associated movement in Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied wrist dorsiflexion as a movement associated with grip in 20 patients with PD and in 20 normal controls. The patients showed a significantly smaller dorsiflexion as compared with the controls. The decrease in associated movement was related to the severity of clinical stage of the disease, while gripping was performed well in each stage. The temporal relationship between grip and associated movement was the same for both groups of subjects. The patients showed no disturbance of amplitude or velocity for a single motor act of wrist dorsiflexion. Persons with PD have a greater reduction of automatic associated movement than intended voluntary movement. This may be one of the bases of clinical symptoms of PD patients in early stages of the disease.

  20. Operational testing of system for automatic sleep analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.

    1972-01-01

    Tables on the performance, under operational conditions, of an automatic sleep monitoring system are presented. Data are recorded from patients who were undergoing heart and great vessel surgery. This study resulted in cap, electrode, and preamplifier improvements. Children were used to test the sleep analyzer and medical console write out units. From these data, an automatic voltage control circuit for the analyzer was developed. A special circuitry for obviating the possibility of incorrect sleep staging due to the presence of a movement artifact was also developed as a result of the study.

  1. Games for Social Change: Review of the Potential for Multi Player Online Gaming to Facilitate the Emergence and Growth of Progressive Movements for Social Change within Youth and Community Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Building on the use of the internet and social media as sites for activism, this paper highlights the emergence of political activism and collective protest in the online gaming environment. Referencing social movement theory and the rapidly evolving capacity of multiplayer online games to facilitate the development of strong group identities and…

  2. Games for Social Change: Review of the Potential for Multi Player Online Gaming to Facilitate the Emergence and Growth of Progressive Movements for Social Change within Youth and Community Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Building on the use of the internet and social media as sites for activism, this paper highlights the emergence of political activism and collective protest in the online gaming environment. Referencing social movement theory and the rapidly evolving capacity of multiplayer online games to facilitate the development of strong group identities and…

  3. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  4. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  5. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  6. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  7. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  8. Automatic Retinal Oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

  9. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  10. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-04

    CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Sublitle) S. TYPE O REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - ROUTINE AUTOM!ATIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS TECHNICAL PACKAGE 6...Seismic Analysis Package ARPA Order Number: 4199 Name of Contractor: ENSCO, Inc. 4 - Contract Number: F086 06-80-C-0021 Effective Date of Contract: 10...developed and demonstrated. This timing detector algorithm times the start time of signals and their envelope peaks. It was designed to measure the size

  11. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  12. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  13. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050933 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (left) and Oleg Kononenko (partially obscured), both Expedition 30 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank (partially out of frame at right), commander, looks on.

  14. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042668 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  15. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042674 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  16. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042675 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  17. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042680 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  18. Automatic cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Giordano, Daniela; Maiorana, Francesco; Spampinato, Concetto

    2008-01-01

    To describe the techniques used for automatic landmarking of cephalograms, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each one and reviewing the percentage of success in locating each cephalometric point. The literature survey was performed by searching the Medline, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the ISI Web of Science Citation Index databases. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to August 2006. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved. Their references were also hand-searched for possible missing articles. The search strategy resulted in 118 articles of which eight met the inclusion criteria. Many articles were rejected for different reasons; among these, the most frequent was that results of accuracy for automatic landmark recognition were presented as a percentage of success. A marked difference in results was found between the included studies consisting of heterogeneity in the performance of techniques to detect the same landmark. All in all, hybrid approaches detected cephalometric points with a higher accuracy in contrast to the results for the same points obtained by the model-based, image filtering plus knowledge-based landmark search and "soft-computing" approaches. The systems described in the literature are not accurate enough to allow their use for clinical purposes. Errors in landmark detection were greater than those expected with manual tracing and, therefore, the scientific evidence supporting the use of automatic landmarking is low.

  19. Validation of a leg movements count and periodic leg movements analysis in a custom polysomnography system.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Hackner, Heinz; Högl, Birgit

    2017-02-23

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are considered strongly related to restless legs syndrome (RLS), and are associated with polymorphisms in RLS risk genes. Various software for automatic analysis of PLMS are available, but only few of them have been validated. Aim of this study was to validate a leg movements count and analysis integrated in a commercially available polysomnography (PSG) system against manual scoring. Twenty RLS patients with a PLMS index > 20/h and 20 controls with a PLMS index < 5/h were included. Manual and computerized scoring of leg movements (LM) and PLM was performed according to the standard American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. LM and PLM indices during sleep and wakefulness, the rate of PLMS associated with respiratory events, intermovement interval and periodicity indices were manually and automatically scored. The correlation between manual and computerized scoring was high for all investigated parameters (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.751-0.996, p < 0.001; intraclass correlation coefficients 0.775-0.999, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots showed high agreement between manual and automatic analysis. This study validated an automatic LM count and PLM analysis against the gold standard manual scoring according to AASM criteria. The data demonstrate that the software used in this study has an outstanding performance for computerized LM and PLM scoring, and LM and PLM indices generated with this software can be reliably integrated in the routine PSG report. This automatic analysis is also an excellent tool for research purposes.

  20. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  1. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  2. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  3. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  4. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  5. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  6. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  7. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  8. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  9. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  11. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation.

  12. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  13. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  14. Automatic Correction of Hand Pointing in Stereoscopic Depth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yalin; Sun, Yaoru; Zeng, Jinhua; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine whether stereoscopic depth information could drive fast automatic correction of hand pointing, an experiment was designed in a 3D visual environment in which participants were asked to point to a target at different stereoscopic depths as quickly and accurately as possible within a limited time window (≤300 ms). The experiment consisted of two tasks: “depthGO” in which participants were asked to point to the new target position if the target jumped, and “depthSTOP” in which participants were instructed to abort their ongoing movements after the target jumped. The depth jump was designed to occur in 20% of the trials in both tasks. Results showed that fast automatic correction of hand movements could be driven by stereoscopic depth to occur in as early as 190 ms. PMID:25501878

  15. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  16. "Requested death": a new social movement.

    PubMed

    McInerney, F

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses current developments in the right-to-die arena. While discussion of this area has traditionally been the province of disciplines other than sociology, including philosophy and bioethics, this paper offers an alternative framework from which to consider the progressive interest in control and choice at life's end which has developed this century, principally in the Western world. Taking a largely socio-historical approach, this paper argues that issues such as euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide can be seen as forming part of an international social movement, which is dubbed 'the requested death movement'. The paper traces the chronology of the movement, placing its framing activities, the emergence of individual activists and events and its progressive mobilization, within a consideration of so-called 'new' social movements, which have emerged since the 1960s. These are principally concerned with resisting state control of cultural matters, while reclaiming matters of identity, privacy and individual corporeality, which it is argued are at the core of the requested death movement. It is posited that this consideration can contribute to understandings of both the contemporary social organization of death and dying, and social movement theory more generally.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  19. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  20. Simple Movement Imitation: Are Kinematic Features Sufficient to Map Perceptions into Actions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noy, Lior; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Flash, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pinpoint the nature of the visual features used in the automatic mapping of perceived movements into similar executed movements, following the direct matching hypothesis. In Experiment 1 subjects imitated the lifting of one of two fingers, presented with different orientations. As predicted, stimuli which were further…

  1. The Quantified Self (QS) Movement and Some Emerging Opportunities for the Educational Technology Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The Quantified Self (QS) movement is a growing global effort to use new mobile and wearable technologies to automatically obtain personal data about everyday activities. The social and material infrastructure associated with the Quantified Self (QS) movement provides a number of ideas that educational technologists should consider incorporating…

  2. The Quantified Self (QS) Movement and Some Emerging Opportunities for the Educational Technology Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The Quantified Self (QS) movement is a growing global effort to use new mobile and wearable technologies to automatically obtain personal data about everyday activities. The social and material infrastructure associated with the Quantified Self (QS) movement provides a number of ideas that educational technologists should consider incorporating…

  3. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  4. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  5. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  6. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  7. Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Justin L.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Many natural actions require the coordination of two different kinds of movements. How are targets chosen under these circumstances: do central commands instruct different movement systems in parallel, or does the execution of one movement activate a serial chain that automatically chooses targets for the other movement? We examined a natural eye tracking action that consists of orienting saccades and tracking smooth pursuit eye movements, and found strong physiological evidence for a serial strategy. Monkeys chose freely between two identical spots that appeared at different sites in the visual field and moved in orthogonal directions. If a saccade was evoked to one of the moving targets by microstimulation in either the frontal eye field (FEF) or the superior colliculus (SC), then the same target was automatically chosen for pursuit. Our results imply that the neural signals responsible for saccade execution can also act as an internal command of target choice for other movement systems. PMID:12145637

  8. Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Justin L; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2002-09-01

    Many natural actions require the coordination of two different kinds of movements. How are targets chosen under these circumstances: do central commands instruct different movement systems in parallel, or does the execution of one movement activate a serial chain that automatically chooses targets for the other movement? We examined a natural eye tracking action that consists of orienting saccades and tracking smooth pursuit eye movements, and found strong physiological evidence for a serial strategy. Monkeys chose freely between two identical spots that appeared at different sites in the visual field and moved in orthogonal directions. If a saccade was evoked to one of the moving targets by microstimulation in either the frontal eye field (FEF) or the superior colliculus (SC), then the same target was automatically chosen for pursuit. Our results imply that the neural signals responsible for saccade execution can also act as an internal command of target choice for other movement systems.

  9. Semi-automatic aortic aneurysm analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodur, Osman; Grady, Leo; Stillman, Arthur; Setser, Randolph; Funka-Lea, Gareth; O'Donnell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Aortic aneurysms are the 13 th leading cause of death in the United States. In standard clinical practice, assessing the progression of disease in the aorta, as well as the risk of aneurysm rupture, is based on measurements of aortic diameter. We propose a method for automatically segmenting the aortic vessel border allowing the calculation of aortic diameters on CTA acquisitions which is accurate and fast, allowing clinicians more time for their evaluations. While segmentation of aortic lumen is straightforward in CTA, segmentation of the outer vessel wall (epithelial layer) in a diseased aorta is difficult; furthermore, no clinical tool currently exists to perform this task. The difficulties are due to the similarities in intensity of surrounding tissue (and thrombus due to lack of contrast agent uptake), as well as the complications from bright calcium deposits. Our overall method makes use of a centerline for the purpose of resampling the image volume into slices orthogonal to the vessel path. This centerline is computed semi-automatically via a distance transform. The difficult task of automatically segmenting the aortic border on the orthogonal slices is performed via a novel variation of the isoperimetric algorithm which incorporates circular constraints (priors). Our method is embodied in a prototype which allows the loading and registration of two datasets simultaneously, facilitating longitudinal comparisons. Both the centerline and border segmentation algorithms were evaluated on four patients, each with two volumes acquired 6 months to 1.5 years apart, for a total of eight datasets. Results showed good agreement with clinicians' findings.

  10. Hedging Your Bets: Intermediate Movements as Optimal Behavior in the Context of an Incomplete Decision

    PubMed Central

    Haith, Adrian M.; Huberdeau, David M.; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Existing theories of movement planning suggest that it takes time to select and prepare the actions required to achieve a given goal. These theories often appeal to circumstances where planning apparently goes awry. For instance, if reaction times are forced to be very low, movement trajectories are often directed between two potential targets. These intermediate movements are generally interpreted as errors of movement planning, arising either from planning being incomplete or from parallel movement plans interfering with one another. Here we present an alternative view: that intermediate movements reflect uncertainty about movement goals. We show how intermediate movements are predicted by an optimal feedback control model that incorporates an ongoing decision about movement goals. According to this view, intermediate movements reflect an exploitation of compatibility between goals. Consequently, reducing the compatibility between goals should reduce the incidence of intermediate movements. In human subjects, we varied the compatibility between potential movement goals in two distinct ways: by varying the spatial separation between targets and by introducing a virtual barrier constraining trajectories to the target and penalizing intermediate movements. In both cases we found that decreasing goal compatibility led to a decreasing incidence of intermediate movements. Our results and theory suggest a more integrated view of decision-making and movement planning in which the primary bottleneck to generating a movement is deciding upon task goals. Determining how to move to achieve a given goal is rapid and automatic. PMID:25821964

  11. Hedging your bets: intermediate movements as optimal behavior in the context of an incomplete decision.

    PubMed

    Haith, Adrian M; Huberdeau, David M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-03-01

    Existing theories of movement planning suggest that it takes time to select and prepare the actions required to achieve a given goal. These theories often appeal to circumstances where planning apparently goes awry. For instance, if reaction times are forced to be very low, movement trajectories are often directed between two potential targets. These intermediate movements are generally interpreted as errors of movement planning, arising either from planning being incomplete or from parallel movement plans interfering with one another. Here we present an alternative view: that intermediate movements reflect uncertainty about movement goals. We show how intermediate movements are predicted by an optimal feedback control model that incorporates an ongoing decision about movement goals. According to this view, intermediate movements reflect an exploitation of compatibility between goals. Consequently, reducing the compatibility between goals should reduce the incidence of intermediate movements. In human subjects, we varied the compatibility between potential movement goals in two distinct ways: by varying the spatial separation between targets and by introducing a virtual barrier constraining trajectories to the target and penalizing intermediate movements. In both cases we found that decreasing goal compatibility led to a decreasing incidence of intermediate movements. Our results and theory suggest a more integrated view of decision-making and movement planning in which the primary bottleneck to generating a movement is deciding upon task goals. Determining how to move to achieve a given goal is rapid and automatic.

  12. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  13. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  14. The history of surgery for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gildenberg, P L

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of movement disorders by interruption of pathways within the nervous system has been a goal of neurosurgeons for the past century. When human stereotactic surgery was introduced 50 years ago, a major advance was made in surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the motor system. Since then, the field has experienced a period of progressive growth, then abrupt decline, and now is more active than ever before and continuing to grow rapidly. Recent progress in computer science, imaging techniques, neurophysiology, and stereotactic targeting has provided the fuel for future progress.

  15. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  16. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  17. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  18. Progress M-11M/43P Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-23

    ISS028-E-009377 (23 June 2011) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying three tons of fuel, air and supplies to the Expedition 28 crew. Progress 43 docked automatically to the aft port of the station's Zvezda service module via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 12:37 p.m. (EDT) on June 23, 2011.

  19. Progress M-11M/43P Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-23

    ISS028-E-009363 (23 June 2011) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying three tons of fuel, air and supplies to the Expedition 28 crew. Progress 43 docked automatically to the aft port of the station's Zvezda service module via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 12:37 p.m. (EDT) on June 23, 2011.

  20. Progress M-11M/43P Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-23

    ISS028-E-009387 (23 June 2011) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying three tons of fuel, air and supplies to the Expedition 28 crew. Progress 43 docked automatically to the aft port of the station's Zvezda service module via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 12:37 p.m. (EDT) on June 23, 2011.

  1. UAVs and Patient Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    determining factor and is often the deciding element between life and death. An examination of the evolution of patient movement to make the case...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UAVs and PATIENT MOVEMENT by Brian R Blanchard, Major, USAF Doctor...depth look at the evolution of patient movement and the utilization of advanced technologies from to ultimately decrease the time to care. Future

  2. Progressive Education and the "Indian New Deal".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper examines the progressive education movement and its effect on American Indian education. Progressive education became popular during the late 19th century during the period when American Indian children were being enrolled in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools. John Dewey, who is considered the father of progressive education,…

  3. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  4. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  5. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  6. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  7. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  8. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  9. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  10. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  11. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  12. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  13. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  14. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    PubMed

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-02-24

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  15. Automatic change detection using mobile laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, M.; Hammer, M.; Gordon, M.; Arens, M.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic change detection in 3D environments requires the comparison of multi-temporal data. By comparing current data with past data of the same area, changes can be automatically detected and identified. Volumetric changes in the scene hint at suspicious activities like the movement of military vehicles, the application of camouflage nets, or the placement of IEDs, etc. In contrast to broad research activities in remote sensing with optical cameras, this paper addresses the topic using 3D data acquired by mobile laser scanning (MLS). We present a framework for immediate comparison of current MLS data to given 3D reference data. Our method extends the concept of occupancy grids known from robot mapping, which incorporates the sensor positions in the processing of the 3D point clouds. This allows extracting the information that is included in the data acquisition geometry. For each single range measurement, it becomes apparent that an object reflects laser pulses in the measured range distance, i.e., space is occupied at that 3D position. In addition, it is obvious that space is empty along the line of sight between sensor and the reflecting object. Everywhere else, the occupancy of space remains unknown. This approach handles occlusions and changes implicitly, such that the latter are identifiable by conflicts of empty space and occupied space. The presented concept of change detection has been successfully validated in experiments with recorded MLS data streams. Results are shown for test sites at which MLS data were acquired at different time intervals.

  16. Population movement and sudden cardiac arrest location.

    PubMed

    Marijon, Eloi; Bougouin, Wulfran; Tafflet, Muriel; Karam, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Lamhaut, Lionel; Beganton, Frankie; Pelloux, Patricia; Degrange, Hervé; Béal, Guillaume; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Hagège, Albert A; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Desnos, Michel; Dumas, Florence; Spaulding, Christian; Celermajer, David S; Cariou, Alain; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-05-05

    Although the benefits of automatic external defibrillators are undeniable, their effectiveness could be dramatically improved. One of the key issues is the disparity between the locations of automatic external defibrillators and sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs). From emergency medical services and other Parisian agencies, data on all SCAs occurring in public places in Paris, France, were prospectively collected between 2000 and 2010 and recorded using 2020 grid areas. For each area, population density, population movements, and landmarks were analyzed. Of the 4176 SCAs, 1255 (30%) occurred in public areas, with a highly clustered distribution of SCAs, especially in areas containing major train stations (12% of SCAs in 0.75% of the Paris area). The association with population density was poor, with a nonsignificant increase in SCAs with population density (P=0.4). Occurrence of public SCAs was, in contrast, highly associated with population movements (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis including other landmarks in each grid cell in the model and demographic characteristics, population movement remained significantly associated with the occurrence of SCA (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.63; P<0.0001), as well as grid cells containing train stations (odds ratio, 3.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.66-5.36; P<0.0001). Using a systematic analysis of determinants of SCA in public places, we demonstrated the extent to which population movements influence SCA distribution. Our findings also suggested that beyond this key risk factor, some areas are dramatically associated with a higher risk of SCA. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027761 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  18. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12434 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  19. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027742 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  20. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12364 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a blue Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  1. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027798 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle (seen as a tiny object just left of center) approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  2. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027815 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  3. Automatic inoculating apparatus. [includes movable carraige, drive motor, and swabbing motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic inoculating apparatus for agar trays is described and using a simple inoculating element, such as a cotton swab or inoculating loop. The apparatus includes a movable carriage for supporting the tray to be inoculated, a drive motor for moving the tray along a trackway, and a swabbing motor for automatically swabbing the tray during the movement. An actuator motor controls lowering of the inoculating element onto the tray and lifting of the inoculating element. An electrical control system, including limit microswitches, enables automatic control of the actuator motor and return of the carriage to the initial position after inoculating is completed.

  4. Primary Progressive Speech Abulia.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicholas J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive language impairment. The three variants of PPA include the nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic types. The goal of this report is to describe two patients with a loss of speech initiation that was associated with bilateral medial frontal atrophy. Two patients with progressive speech deficits were evaluated and their examinations revealed a paucity of spontaneous speech; however their naming, repetition, reading, and writing were all normal. The patients had no evidence of agrammatism or apraxia of speech but did have impaired speech fluency. In addition to impaired production of propositional spontaneous speech, these patients had impaired production of automatic speech (e.g., reciting the Lord's Prayer) and singing. Structural brain imaging revealed bilateral medial frontal atrophy in both patients. These patients' language deficits are consistent with a PPA, but they are in the pattern of a dynamic aphasia. Whereas the signs-symptoms of dynamic aphasia have been previously described, to our knowledge these are the first cases associated with predominantly bilateral medial frontal atrophy that impaired both propositional and automatic speech. Thus, this profile may represent a new variant of PPA.

  5. Signatures of movement variability anticipate hand speed according to levels of intent.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elizabeth B

    2013-03-06

    Complex movement sequences are composed of segments with different levels of functionality: intended segments towards a goal and segments that spontaneously occur largely beneath our awareness. It is not known if these spontaneously-occurring segments could be informative of the learning progression in naïve subjects trying to skillfully master a new sport routine. To address this question we asked if the hand speed variability could be modeled as a stochastic process where each trial speed depended on the speed of the previous trial. We specifically asked if the hand speed maximum from a previous trial could accurately predict the maximum speed of a sub-sequent trial in both intended and spontaneous movement segments. We further asked whether experts and novices manifested similar models, despite different kinematic dynamics and assessed the predictive power of the spontaneous fluctuations in the incidental motions. We found a simple power rule to parameterize speed variability for expert and novices with accurate predictive value despite randomly instructed speed levels and training contexts. This rule on average tended to yield similar exponent across speed levels for intended motion segments. Yet for the spontaneous segments the speed fluctuations had exponents that changed as a function of speed level and training context. Two conditions highlighted the expert performance: broad bandwidth of velocity-dependent parameter values and low noise-to-signal ratios that unambiguously distinguished between training regimes. Neither of these was yet manifested in the novices. We suggest that the statistics of intended motions may be a predictor of overall expertise level, whereas those of spontaneously occurring incidental motions may serve to track learning progression in different training contexts. These spontaneous fluctuations may help the central systems to kinesthetically discriminate the peripheral re-afferent patterns of movement variability associated with

  6. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  7. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  8. Designing Preschool Movement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stephen W.

    This guide contains developmentally appropriate movement activities designed to help teachers of children ages 3 through 5 plan and administer a successful movement education program. The book is organized into three parts. The first part presents a model upon which teachers can base their selection of physical activities for children, addresses…

  9. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  10. Movement System Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Sant, Ann F

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the concept of movement system diagnoses (MSDxs), including an examination of the evolution of the ideas that are shaping the development of MSDxs. Ideas leading to development of the need for MSDxs are traced, and an overview of Diagnosis Dialog and points of consensus are provided. Four examples from areas of neurologic and pediatric practice where additional work is needed on movement system diagnosis are highlighted. The development and use of MSDxs are deemed critical to the future development of practice in pediatric and neurologic physical therapy. The prediction of treatment outcomes through research is dependent on homogeneous groups of patients with similar signs and symptoms of movement system disorders. Only by investigating homogeneous groups with refined MSDxs will it be possible to carefully examine and identify interventions that are appropriate to a specific diagnosis. Further, our ability to identify disordered movements, including inactivity and over-activity that could lead across time to disabling conditions presents a strong argument for establishing movement system diagnoses that forewarn of the risk of disordered movement poses to health. Such movement system diagnoses would guide interventions that deter the development of disabling conditions rooted in disordered movement.

  11. Designing Preschool Movement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stephen W.

    This guide contains developmentally appropriate movement activities designed to help teachers of children ages 3 through 5 plan and administer a successful movement education program. The book is organized into three parts. The first part presents a model upon which teachers can base their selection of physical activities for children, addresses…

  12. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  13. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  14. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  15. Effectiveness of an Automatic Tracking Software in Underwater Motion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhaes, Fabrício A.; Sawacha, Zimi; Di Michele, Rocco; Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Tracking of markers placed on anatomical landmarks is a common practice in sports science to perform the kinematic analysis that interests both athletes and coaches. Although different software programs have been developed to automatically track markers and/or features, none of them was specifically designed to analyze underwater motion. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a software developed for automatic tracking of underwater movements (DVP), based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker. Twenty-one video recordings of different aquatic exercises (n = 2940 markers’ positions) were manually tracked to determine the markers’ center coordinates. Then, the videos were automatically tracked using DVP and a commercially available software (COM). Since tracking techniques may produce false targets, an operator was instructed to stop the automatic procedure and to correct the position of the cursor when the distance between the calculated marker’s coordinate and the reference one was higher than 4 pixels. The proportion of manual interventions required by the software was used as a measure of the degree of automation. Overall, manual interventions were 10.4% lower for DVP (7.4%) than for COM (17.8%). Moreover, when examining the different exercise modes separately, the percentage of manual interventions was 5.6% to 29.3% lower for DVP than for COM. Similar results were observed when analyzing the type of marker rather than the type of exercise, with 9.9% less manual interventions for DVP than for COM. In conclusion, based on these results, the developed automatic tracking software presented can be used as a valid and useful tool for underwater motion analysis. Key Points The availability of effective software for automatic tracking would represent a significant advance for the practical use of kinematic analysis in swimming and other aquatic sports. An important feature of automatic tracking software is to require limited human

  16. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Movement Disorders: Update.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, Apameh; Tator, Charles H; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-05-01

    Association of repetitive brain trauma with progressive neurological deterioration has been described since the 1920s. Punch drunk syndrome and dementia pugilistica (DP) were introduced first to explain symptoms in boxers, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been used to describe a neurodegenerative disease in athletes and military personal with a history of multiple concussions. Although there are many similarities between DP and CTE, a number of key differences are apparent especially when comparing movement impairments. The aim of this review is to compare clinical and pathological aspects of DP and CTE with a focus on disorders of movement.

  17. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Disruption in the interaction between the central nervous system, nerves, and muscles cause movement disorders. These disorders can negatively affect quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been identified as a therapy for Parkinson disease and essential tremor that has significant advantages compared with medicinal therapies. Surgical intervention for these disorders before DBS included ablative therapies such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy. These procedures were not reversible and did not allow for treatment adjustments. The advent of DBS progressed therapies for significant movement disorders into the realm of being reversible and adjustable based on patient symptoms.

  18. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  19. Automatic Response to Intrusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    was to be demonstrated in a series of integrated feasibility demonstrations (IFD) showing increasing capabilities to respond to red team attack... red team from GTE to begin testing the ability of the system to survive attack. The IDIP infrastructure was able to track the GTE red team progress...and display these alerts at the Discovery Coordinator. A lesson learned from the red team exercise in this IFD was that a mechanism was needed to

  20. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  1. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  2. Progress M-65 (30P) arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-17

    ISS017-E-017404 (17 Sept. 2008) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 30 resupply craft launched on Sept. 10, 2008 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 17 crewmembers aboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Zvezda Service Module aft port on Sept. 17.

  3. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  4. Automatic infection detection system.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan Gustav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    An infected person may be contagious already before the first symptoms appear. This person can, in the period of disease evolution, infect several associated citizens before consulting a general practitioner (GP). Early detection of contagion is therefore important to prevent spreading of diseases. The Automatic Infection Detection (AID) System faces this problem through investigating the hypothesis that the blood glucose (BG) level increases when a person is infected. The first objective of the prototyped version of the AID system was to identify possible BG elevations in the incubation time that could be related to the spread of infectious diseases. To do this, we monitored two groups of people, with and without diabetes mellitus. The AID system analyzed the results and we were able to detect two cases of infection during the study period. The time of detection occurred simultaneous or near the time of onset of symptoms. The detection did not occur earlier for a number of reasons. The most likely one is that the evolution process of an infectious disease is both complicated and involves the immune system and several organs in the body. The investigation with regard to isolating the key relations is therefore considered as a very complex study. Nevertheless, the AID system managed to detect the infection much earlier than what is possible with today's early warning systems for infectious diseases.

  5. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  6. Automatic imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-22

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication.

  7. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  8. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  9. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  10. A photogrammetric method for monitoring sandbank movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhaohui; Takao, Shinichi

    2007-06-01

    An automatic stereopair exposure system (ASES), which employs non-metric digital camera and control bars, was developed aiming at monitoring sandbank movement in a way of non-contact, succession, low cost with satisfied accuracy. Control bars was placed in front of camera, replacing the conventional ground control points (GCPs); nonmetric digital camera, computer-controlled exposure without using total station at monitoring time, and automatically locating feature point serve a solution to non-contact monitoring. A theoretical experimentation for accuracy test showed that relative accuracy from 1/1500 to 1/20000 could be available, with the variation of space resection to calculate the exterior orientation parameters. In the practical application of Enshu-nada coast, estuary of Kiku River of Shizioka Prefecture, Japan, the method of fixing camera position provided height direction with an accuracies of 1/1442 and 1/7211, to the longest photographic distance and the shortest photographic distance, respectively, compared with total station (TS). The method is flexible and is accurate enough for monitoring sandbank movement.

  11. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  13. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  14. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space.

  15. Counting the Cats of Zanzibar: Upton Sinclair and the Decline of the Muckraking Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Kares

    To study any social movement is ultimately to examine an intricate social drama. With the publication of "The Jungle" in 1906, Upton Sinclair emerged from the stormy background of the muckraking movement to become one of that movement's principal actors. But in the 1920s, long after the Progressive reformers dusted and put away their…

  16. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  17. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  18. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  19. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  20. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  1. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  2. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Movement and Coordination Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  3. The "Children's Rights" Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    The author argues that the "children's rights" movement is an attack on the authority of parents and teachers and that it is undermining school discipline and traditional family roles. Condensed from "American Educator," Spring 1981, pp30-33. (SJL)

  4. Brain Mechanisms of Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Edward V.

    1979-01-01

    This article focuses on the mechanisms of the human brain which bring about body movements. Included is a discussion of the way in which the brain and spinal cord issue commands and receive signals. (Author/SA)

  5. Brain mechanisms for loss of awareness of thought and movement

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, David A.; Halligan, Peter W.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Deeley, Quinton

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness. Subjective ratings confirmed that suggestions were effective. At the neural level, our main findings indicated that loss of awareness for both thought and movement during automatic writing was associated with reduced activation in a predominantly left-sided posterior cortical network including BA 7 (superior parietal lobule and precuneus), and posterior cingulate cortex, involved in self-related processing and awareness of the body in space. Reduced activity in posterior parietal cortices may underlie specific clinical and cultural alterations in awareness of thought and movement. Clinically, these findings may assist development of imaging assessments for loss of awareness of psychological origin, and interventions such as neurofeedback. PMID:28338742

  6. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  7. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  8. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  9. Automatic welder control system

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, D.G.; Mumford, W.E.; Yajie Chen.

    1993-06-15

    A spot welder for joining a plurality of parts is described, said spot welder comprising: an electrode electrically coupled to a weld controller; a first cylinder assembly having a cylinder housing, a piston and piston rod attached thereto for linearly displacing said electrode; a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) for detecting the displacement of said piston rod relative to the first cylinder housing and generating a LVDT signal responsive thereto; a microprocessor controlled monitor cooperating with the weld controller for evaluating the LVDT signal occurring during each cylinder movement to determine proper part fit up and to compensate for electrode wear prior to the initiation of welding, for monitoring real time displacement of the electrode as a result of welding, in order to cooperate with the weld controller to vary weld duration responsive to the electrode displacement; and a second cylinder assembly for linearly displacing said first cylinder assembly between a retracted position to facilitate part removal and an extended position in which welding occurs.

  10. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks... MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership... between the member and the Bank at the time of such conversion may continue. (b) Automatic membership...

  11. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be...

  13. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be...

  14. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense and deactivating the...

  15. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 23.672 Section 23.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must...

  16. Grassroots Excellence: Problems and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    The educational "excellence" movement is hindered by inconsistencies between goals and action and by difficulties in translating national and state goals into local policy; nonetheless, progress has occurred. Examples of "voodoo excellence," in which proposed policies will likely work against their stated objectives, are…

  17. Perceptuo-motor interactions during prehension movements.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Lennart; Dijkerman, H Chris; Grol, Meike J; Toni, Ivan

    2008-04-30

    Adaptive behavior relies on the integration of perceptual and motor processes. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the cerebral processes underlying perceptuo-motor interactions evoked during prehension movements in healthy humans, as measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We manipulated the viewing conditions (binocular or monocular) during planning of a prehension movement, while parametrically varying the slant of the grasped object. This design manipulates the relative relevance and availability of different depth cues necessary for accurate planning of the prehension movement, biasing visual information processing toward either the dorsal visual stream (binocular vision) or the ventral visual stream (monocular vision). Two critical nodes of the dorsomedial visuomotor stream [V6A (anterior visual area 6) and PMd (dorsal premotor cortex)] increased their activity with increasing object slant, regardless of viewing conditions. In contrast, areas in both the dorsolateral visuomotor stream [anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv)] and in the ventral visual stream [lateral-occipital tactile-visual area (LOtv)] showed differential slant-related responses, with activity increasing when monocular viewing conditions and increasing slant required the processing of pictorial depth cues. These conditions also increased the functional coupling of AIP with both LOtv and PMv. These findings support the view that the dorsomedial stream is automatically involved in processing visuospatial parameters for grasping, regardless of viewing conditions or object characteristics. In contrast, the dorsolateral stream appears to adapt motor behavior to the current conditions by integrating perceptual information processed in the ventral stream into the prehension plan.

  18. Movement disorders and the osmotic demyelination syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    With the advent of MRI, osmotic demyelination syndromes (ODS) are increasingly recognised to affect varied sites in the brain in addition to the classical central pontine lesion. Striatal involvement is seen in a large proportion of cases and results in a wide variety of movement disorders. Movement disorders and cognitive problems resulting from ODS affecting the basal ganglia may occur early in the course of the illness, or may present as delayed manifestations after the patient survives the acute phase. Such delayed symptoms may evolve over time, and may even progress despite treatment. Improved survival of patients in the last few decades due to better intensive care has led to an increase in the incidence of such delayed manifestations of ODS. While the outcome of ODS is not as dismal as hitherto believed - with the acute akinetic-rigid syndrome associated with striatal myelinolysis often responding to dopaminergic therapy - the delayed symptoms often prove refractory to medical therapy. This article presents a review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, imaging, and therapy of movement disorders associated with involvement of the basal ganglia in ODS. A comprehensive review of 54 previously published cases of movement disorders due to ODS, and a video recording depicting the spectrum of delayed movement disorders seen after recovery from ODS are also presented.

  19. Automatic control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.

    1989-01-01

    Inadequate Reynolds number similarity in testing of scaled models affects the quality of aerodynamic data from wind tunnels. This is due to scale effects of boundary-layer shock wave interaction which is likely to be severe at transonic speeds. The idea of operation of wind tunnels using test gas cooled to cryogenic temperatures has yielded a quantrum jump in the ability to realize full scale Reynolds number flow similarity in small transonic tunnels. In such tunnels, the basic flow control problem consists of obtaining and maintaining the desired test section flow parameters. Mach number, Reynolds number, and dynamic pressure are the three flow parameters that are usually required to be kept constant during the period of model aerodynamic data acquisition. The series of activity involved in modeling, control law development, mechanization of the control laws on a microcomputer, and the performance of a globally stable automatic control system for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) are discussed. A lumped multi-variable nonlinear dynamic model of the cryogenic tunnel, generation of a set of linear control laws for small perturbation, and nonlinear control strategy for large set point changes including tunnel trajectory control are described. The details of mechanization of the control laws on a 16 bit microcomputer system, the software features, operator interface, the display and safety are discussed. The controller is shown to provide globally stable and reliable temperature control to + or - 0.2 K, pressure to + or - 0.07 psi and Mach number to + or - 0.002 of the set point value. This performance is obtained both during large set point commands as for a tunnel cooldown, and during aerodynamic data acquisition with intrusive activity like geometrical changes in the test section such as angle of attack changes, drag rake movements, wall adaptation and sidewall boundary-layer removal. Feasibility of the use of an automatic Reynolds number control mode with

  20. Automatic control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.

    1989-01-01

    Inadequate Reynolds number similarity in testing of scaled models affects the quality of aerodynamic data from wind tunnels. This is due to scale effects of boundary-layer shock wave interaction which is likely to be severe at transonic speeds. The idea of operation of wind tunnels using test gas cooled to cryogenic temperatures has yielded a quantrum jump in the ability to realize full scale Reynolds number flow similarity in small transonic tunnels. In such tunnels, the basic flow control problem consists of obtaining and maintaining the desired test section flow parameters. Mach number, Reynolds number, and dynamic pressure are the three flow parameters that are usually required to be kept constant during the period of model aerodynamic data acquisition. The series of activity involved in modeling, control law development, mechanization of the control laws on a microcomputer, and the performance of a globally stable automatic control system for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) are discussed. A lumped multi-variable nonlinear dynamic model of the cryogenic tunnel, generation of a set of linear control laws for small perturbation, and nonlinear control strategy for large set point changes including tunnel trajectory control are described. The details of mechanization of the control laws on a 16 bit microcomputer system, the software features, operator interface, the display and safety are discussed. The controller is shown to provide globally stable and reliable temperature control to + or - 0.2 K, pressure to + or - 0.07 psi and Mach number to + or - 0.002 of the set point value. This performance is obtained both during large set point commands as for a tunnel cooldown, and during aerodynamic data acquisition with intrusive activity like geometrical changes in the test section such as angle of attack changes, drag rake movements, wall adaptation and sidewall boundary-layer removal. Feasibility of the use of an automatic Reynolds number control mode with

  1. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  2. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  3. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  4. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  5. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  6. Study of Repetitive Movements Induced Oscillatory Activities in Healthy Subjects and Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Lee, Wai-Keung; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Hsu, Hao-Teng; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lee, Po-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive movements at a constant rate require the integration of internal time counting and motor neural networks. Previous studies have proved that humans can follow short durations automatically (automatic timing) but require more cognitive efforts to track or estimate long durations. In this study, we studied sensorimotor oscillatory activities in healthy subjects and chronic stroke patients when subjects were performing repetitive finger movements. We found the movement-modulated changes in alpha and beta oscillatory activities were decreased with the increase of movement rates in finger lifting of healthy subjects and the non-paretic hands in stroke patients, whereas no difference was found in the paretic-hand movements at different movement rates in stroke patients. The significant difference in oscillatory activities between movements of non-paretic hands and paretic hands could imply the requirement of higher cognitive efforts to perform fast repetitive movements in paretic hands. The sensorimotor oscillatory response in fast repetitive movements could be a possible indicator to probe the recovery of motor function in stroke patients. PMID:27976723

  7. After Progress Resupply Vehicle Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050949 (27 Jan. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank (right), Expedition 30 commander; Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Oleg Kononenko (center) and Anatoly Ivanishin (left background); and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, all flight engineers, take a moment for a photo in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station following the successful docking of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012.

  8. After Progress Resupply Vehicle Docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050946 (27 Jan. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank (right), Expedition 30 commander; Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Oleg Kononenko (center) and Anatoly Ivanishin (left background); and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, all flight engineers, take a moment for a photo in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station following the successful docking of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012.

  9. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  10. Legacy of the Environmental Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to select an important contemporary social movement (the environmental movement) and to assess some of the important impacts it has had on the larger society. This review of the environmental movement indicates it may be following a path similiar to the life-cycle of previous movements. (Author/BT)

  11. Using a noninvasive decoding method to classify rhythmic movement imaginations of the arm in two planes.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Patrick; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-03-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can help to overcome movement deficits in persons with spinal-cord injury. Ideally, such a BCI detects detailed movement imaginations, i.e., trajectories, and transforms them into a control signal for a neuroprosthesis or a robotic arm restoring movement. Robotic arms have already been controlled successfully by means of invasive recording techniques, and executed movements have been reconstructed using noninvasive decoding techniques. However, it is unclear if detailed imagined movements can be decoded noninvasively using electroencephalography (EEG). We made progress toward imagined movement decoding and successfully classified horizontal and vertical imagined rhythmic movements of the right arm in healthy subjects using EEG. Notably, we used an experimental design which avoided muscle and eye movements to prevent classification results being affected. To classify imagined movements of the same limb, we decoded the movement trajectories and correlated them with assumed movement trajectories (horizontal and vertical). We then assigned the decoded movements to the assumed movements with the higher correlation. To train the decoder, we applied partial least squares, which allowed us to interpret the classifier weights although channels were highly correlated. To conclude, we showed the classification of imagined movements of one limb in two different movement planes in seven out of nine subjects. Furthermore, we found a strong involvement of the supplementary motor area. Finally, as our classifier was based on the decoding approach, we indirectly showed the decoding of imagined movements.

  12. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  13. Semi-automatic pusher machine leveler bar control and method

    SciTech Connect

    Berenato, J.W. III; Raivel, E.L. Jr.; Strepelis, J.J.

    1985-11-26

    A leveler bar for a coke oven is controlled in its travel toward and away from the coke side of the oven by semi-automatic means to move the leveler bar during a ''cycle'' mode through half strokes and during the ''finish'' mode it performs four ''full'' strokes of which a full stroke can mean a 3/4 distance of full travel across the oven. Electrical circuitry which modifies or adds to prior art circuitry to accomplish this leveler bar movement is included herein.

  14. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  15. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  16. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  17. Conceptualizing movement by expert Bobath instructors in neurological rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Kara Patterson; Zabjek, Karl; Cott, Cheryl A

    2017-04-20

    Movement, a core aspect of physiotherapy practice, and integral to the clinical reasoning process has undergone limited theoretical development. Instead, research has focused on intervention effectiveness embedded within the positivist paradigm. The purpose of this study was to explore how expert neurorehabilitation therapists conceptualize movement as part of their clinical reasoning. A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews was used. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit members of the International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA) who are recognized experts in neurorehabilitation. Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was progressive, iterative, and inductive. Twenty-two IBITA instructors from 7 different countries volunteered to participate. They ranged in clinical experience from 12 to 40 years and instructor experience from 1 to 35 years. The conceptualization of movement by the IBITA instructors involves the following elements: (1) movement comprises the whole person and the whole body, not just individual body segments; (2) active alignment of body segments is integral to movement performance; and (3) efficient movement requires the relative integration of postural control/stability and selective movement/mobility. The IBITA instructors conceptualize movement from a person-centred perspective. The integration of postural control and selective movement, with alignment and variability as key components, forms the foundation of their understanding of movement. Further investigation into the role of postural control in movement recovery post central nervous system lesion is required. Likewise, the dimensions of movement critical to the conceptualization of movement are not well understood from the perspective of the physiotherapist or persons with neurological impairments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) can present with varied phenomenology that may resemble organic movement disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation with a supporting history and classic features on neurologic examination. Ancillary testing, such as imaging and neurophysiologic studies, can provide supplementary information but is not necessary for diagnosis. There is no standard protocol for the treatment of PMDs, but a multidisciplinary approach has been recommended. This review discusses the clinical characteristics of various PMDs as well as ancillary testing, treatment, and research in the pathophysiology of this complex group of disorders.

  19. Expert Knowledge-Based Automatic Sleep Stage Determination by Multi-Valued Decision Making Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Kawana, Fusae; Wang, Xingyu; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    In this study, an expert knowledge-based automatic sleep stage determination system working on a multi-valued decision making method is developed. Visual inspection by a qualified clinician is adopted to obtain the expert knowledge database. The expert knowledge database consists of probability density functions of parameters for various sleep stages. Sleep stages are determined automatically according to the conditional probability. Totally, four subjects were participated. The automatic sleep stage determination results showed close agreements with the visual inspection on sleep stages of awake, REM (rapid eye movement), light sleep and deep sleep. The constructed expert knowledge database reflects the distributions of characteristic parameters which can be adaptive to variable sleep data in hospitals. The developed automatic determination technique based on expert knowledge of visual inspection can be an assistant tool enabling further inspection of sleep disorder cases for clinical practice.

  20. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  1. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  2. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  3. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  4. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  6. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  7. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    PubMed

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  8. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  9. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  10. Movement Disorders in 2012

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Standfirst Research in movement disorders in 2012 had led to advances in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease and to development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. Key advances include elucidating mechanisms of spreading neurodegenerative pathology, immunotherapy, stem cells, genetics and deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonisms and related disorders. PMID:23296342

  11. Uranus Cloud Movement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    These time-lapse images of Uranus. taken by NASA Voyager 2 on Jan. 14, 1986, show the movement of two small, bright, streaky clouds -- the first such features ever seen on the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00369

  12. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  13. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  14. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  15. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  16. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  17. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  18. The Hopi Traditionalist Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    Traces development of Hopi Traditionalism since 1906 as a social movement within the context of Hopi culture and sociopolitical history. Discusses the role of ideology in mediating political and economic conditions of history and collective cultural consciousness. Offers conclusions about the political role of indigenous culture and culturally…

  19. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  20. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  1. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  2. Frequent Bowel Movements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sanjoaquin MA, et al. Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: A cross-sectional study of 20,630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7:77. Evaluation of the GI patient. The Merck Manual Professional ...

  3. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  4. Automatic gain-balancing circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhut, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    Energy reaching sensor is collected by telescope, modulated by chopper, spectrally filtered, and simultaneously directed onto two detectors. Gains through multiple signal paths are automatically balanced to 1 part in 10,000. Circuit compensates for slow changes in optical and electrical gains common to gas-filter correlation spectrometers.

  5. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  6. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  7. Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

  8. Operation of Automatic Anticorrosion Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-23

    and other components. Reliable operation of an automatic protective unit can be achieved by careful circuit adjustment and proper performance of its...transfer, the use of lead-tin gaskets or coating the contact surfaces with silicon vaseline containing metal powder is suggested. In the case of a screwed

  9. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  10. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  11. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  12. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  13. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K.; Stephens, Albert E.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  14. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  15. New insights into dynamic actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2011-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is essential for plants to survive under various environmental light conditions. Phototropins-plant-specific blue-light-activated receptor kinases-mediate the response by perceiving light intensity and direction. Recently, novel chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments have been identified as playing a pivotal role in the directional chloroplast photorelocation movement. Encouraging progress has recently been made in this field of research through molecular genetics and cell biological analyses. This review describes factors that have been identified as being involved in chloroplast movement and their roles in the regulation of cp-actin filaments, thus providing a basis for reflection on their biochemical activities and functions.

  16. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution. In the planning of a movement, the brain has the opportunity to delay the incorporation of accuracy requirements of the motor plan in order to reduce the reaction time by up to 100 ms (average: 32 ms). Such shortening of reaction time is observed here when the first phase of the movement consists of a transport phase. This forces us to reconsider the hypothesis that motor plans are fully defined before movement onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Progress 48P approaches for docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    ISS033-E-017605 (31 Oct. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Yuri Malenchenko (foreground) and Oleg Novitskiy, both Expedition 33 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 49 resupply vehicle. Progress 49 docked automatically to Zvezda’s aft port at 9:33 a.m. (EDT) on Oct. 31, 2012.

  18. Progress 48P approaches for docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    ISS033-E-017632 (31 Oct. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Yuri Malenchenko (foreground) and Oleg Novitskiy, both Expedition 33 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 49 resupply vehicle. Progress 49 docked automatically to Zvezda’s aft port at 9:33 a.m. (EDT) on Oct. 31, 2012.

  19. Progress M-11M/43P Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-23

    ISS028-E-009359 (23 June 2011) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying three tons of fuel, air and supplies to the Expedition 28 crew. Progress 43 docked automatically to the aft port of the station's Zvezda service module via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 12:37 p.m. (EDT) on June 23, 2011. Earth?s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  20. Progress 48P approaches for docking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    ISS033-E-016948 (31 Oct. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Yuri Malenchenko and Oleg Novitskiy, both Expedition 33 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 49 resupply vehicle. Progress 49 docked automatically to Zvezda’s aft port at 9:33 a.m. (EDT) on Oct. 31, 2012. NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, commander, is visible at top left.

  1. Automatic versus Voluntary Motor Imitation: Effect of Visual Context and Stimulus Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Bisio, Ambra; Stucchi, Natale; Jacono, Marco; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Automatic imitation is the tendency to reproduce observed actions involutarily. Though this topic has been widely treated, at present little is known about the automatic imitation of the kinematic features of an observed movement. The present study was designed to understand if the kinematics of a previously seen stimulus primes the executed action, and if this effect is sensitive to the kinds of stimuli presented. We proposed a simple imitation paradigm in which a dot or a human demonstrator moved in front of the participant who was instructed either to reach the final position of the stimulus or to imitate its motion with his or her right arm. Participants' movements were automatically contaminated by stimulus velocity when it moved according to biological laws, suggesting that automatic imitation was kinematic dependent. Despite that the performance, in term of reproduced velocity, improved in a context of voluntary imitation, subjects did not replicate the observed motions exactly. These effects were not affected by the kind of stimuli used, i.e., motor responses were influenced in the same manner after dot or human observation. These findings support the existence of low-level sensory-motor matching mechanisms that work on movement planning and represent the basis for higher levels of social interaction. PMID:20976006

  2. Acute alcohol consumption impairs controlled but not automatic processes in a psychophysical pointing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental "correction" condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target "jumped" to a new location. On these trials, the participants' task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a "countermanding" condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target "jumps". In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants' ability to correct movements "in flight", but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain.

  3. A comparison of accurate automatic hippocampal segmentation methods.

    PubMed

    Zandifar, Azar; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Pruessner, Jens; Collins, D Louis

    2017-07-15

    The hippocampus is one of the first brain structures affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). While many automatic methods for hippocampal segmentation exist, few studies have compared them on the same data. In this study, we compare four fully automated hippocampal segmentation methods in terms of their conformity with manual segmentation and their ability to be used as an AD biomarker in clinical settings. We also apply error correction to the four automatic segmentation methods, and complete a comprehensive validation to investigate differences between the methods. The effect size and classification performance is measured for AD versus normal control (NC) groups and for stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI) versus progressive mild cognitive impairment (pMCI) groups. Our study shows that the nonlinear patch-based segmentation method with error correction is the most accurate automatic segmentation method and yields the most conformity with manual segmentation (κ=0.894). The largest effect size between AD versus NC and sMCI versus pMCI is produced by FreeSurfer with error correction. We further show that, using only hippocampal volume, age, and sex as features, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reaches up to 0.8813 for AD versus NC and 0.6451 for sMCI versus pMCI. However, the automatic segmentation methods are not significantly different in their performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Feature based volume decomposition for automatic hexahedral mesh generation

    SciTech Connect

    LU,YONG; GADH,RAJIT; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-02-21

    Much progress has been made through these years to achieve automatic hexahedral mesh generation. While general meshing algorithms that can take on general geometry are not there yet; many well-proven automatic meshing algorithms now work on certain classes of geometry. This paper presents a feature based volume decomposition approach for automatic Hexahedral Mesh generation. In this approach, feature recognition techniques are introduced to determine decomposition features from a CAD model. The features are then decomposed and mapped with appropriate automatic meshing algorithms suitable for the correspondent geometry. Thus a formerly unmeshable CAD model may become meshable. The procedure of feature decomposition is recursive: sub-models are further decomposed until either they are matched with appropriate meshing algorithms or no more decomposition features are detected. The feature recognition methods employed are convexity based and use topology and geometry information, which is generally available in BREP solid models. The operations of volume decomposition are also detailed in the paper. The final section, the capability of the feature decomposer is demonstrated over some complicated manufactured parts.

  5. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  6. Manual and Automatic Lineament Mapping: Comparing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, D. A.; di Achille, G.; Barata, M. T.; Alves, E. I.

    2008-03-01

    A method for automatic lineament extraction using topographic data is applied on the Thaumasia plateau. A comparison is made between the results that are obtained from the automatic mapping approach and from a traditional tectonic lineament mapping.

  7. Eye movements: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Kowler, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

  8. Movement Coordination or Movement Interference: Visual Tracking and Spontaneous Coordination Modulate Rhythmic Movement Interference

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Coey, Charles; Schmidt, R. C.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    When an actor performs a rhythmic limb movement while observing a spatially incongruent movement he or she exhibits increased movement orthogonal to the instructed motion. Known as rhythmic movement interference, this phenomenon has been interpreted as a motor contagion effect, whereby observing the incongruent movement interferes with the intended movement and results in a motor production error. Here we test the hypothesis that rhythmic movement interference is an emergent property of rhythmic coordination. Participants performed rhythmic limb movements at a self-selected tempo while observing a computer stimulus moving in a congruent or incongruent manner. The degree to which participants visually tracked the stimulus was manipulated to influence whether participants became spontaneously entrained to the stimulus or not. Consistent with the rhythmic coordination hypothesis, participants only exhibited the rhythmic movement interference effect when they became spontaneously entrained to the incongruent stimulus. PMID:23028607

  9. Development and implementation of an automatic control algorithm for the University of Utah nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Kevan C.; Sandquist, Gary M.

    1990-07-01

    The emphasis of this work is the development and implementation of an automatic control philosophy which uses the classical operational philosophies as a foundation. Three control algorithms were derived based on various simplifying assumptions. Two of the algorithms were tested in computer simulations. After realizing the insensitivity of the system to the simplifications, the most reduced form of the algorithms was implemented on the computer control system at the University of Utah (UNEL). Since the operational philosophies have a higher priority than automatic control, they determine when automatic control may be utilized. Unlike the operational philosophies, automatic control is not concerned with component failures. The object of this philosophy is the movement of absorber rods to produce a requested power. When the current power level is compared to the requested power level, an error may be detected which will require the movement of a control rod to correct the error. The automatic control philosophy adds another dimension to the classical operational philosophies. Using this philosophy, normal operator interactions with the computer would be limited only to run parameters such as power, period, and run time. This eliminates subjective judgements, objective judgements under pressure, and distractions to the operator and insures the reactor will be operated in a safe and controlled manner as well as providing reproducible operations.

  10. Method: automatic segmentation of mitochondria utilizing patch classification, contour pair classification, and automatically seeded level sets.

    PubMed

    Giuly, Richard J; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H

    2012-02-09

    While progress has been made to develop automatic segmentation techniques for mitochondria, there remains a need for more accurate and robust techniques to delineate mitochondria in serial blockface scanning electron microscopic data. Previously developed texture based methods are limited for solving this problem because texture alone is often not sufficient to identify mitochondria. This paper presents a new three-step method, the Cytoseg process, for automated segmentation of mitochondria contained in 3D electron microscopic volumes generated through serial block face scanning electron microscopic imaging. The method consists of three steps. The first is a random forest patch classification step operating directly on 2D image patches. The second step consists of contour-pair classification. At the final step, we introduce a method to automatically seed a level set operation with output from previous steps. We report accuracy of the Cytoseg process on three types of tissue and compare it to a previous method based on Radon-Like Features. At step 1, we show that the patch classifier identifies mitochondria texture but creates many false positive pixels. At step 2, our contour processing step produces contours and then filters them with a second classification step, helping to improve overall accuracy. We show that our final level set operation, which is automatically seeded with output from previous steps, helps to smooth the results. Overall, our results show that use of contour pair classification and level set operations improve segmentation accuracy beyond patch classification alone. We show that the Cytoseg process performs well compared to another modern technique based on Radon-Like Features. We demonstrated that texture based methods for mitochondria segmentation can be enhanced with multiple steps that form an image processing pipeline. While we used a random-forest based patch classifier to recognize texture, it would be possible to replace this with

  11. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W

    2014-02-01

    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  12. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  13. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  14. Fretted Terrain Mass Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of a small mass movement in a fretted terrain valley in the Coloe Fossae region of Mars (see upper right quarter of the image). The term, mass movement, is usually applied to landslides, although it is unclear in this case whether the landform resulted from a single, catastrophic landslide, or the slow creep of ice-rich debris.

    Location near: 35.3oN, 303.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  15. Islamist Movements in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, one of its stated intentions was to inaugurate an era of Iraqi politics in which new kinds of democratic parties would emerge. However, one of the most dramatic effects of the U.S. invasion has been the boost it has given to the Islamist parties and movements that were banned under Saddam Hussein.…

  16. Adding Automatic Evaluation to Interactive Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Gonzalo; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Gómez-Estern, Fabio; De la Torre, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos; Dormido, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Automatic evaluation is a challenging field that has been addressed by the academic community in order to reduce the assessment workload. In this work we present a new element for the authoring tool Easy Java Simulations (EJS). This element, which is named automatic evaluation element (AEE), provides automatic evaluation to virtual and remote…

  17. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  18. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  19. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  20. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  1. 8 CFR 205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 205.1 Section 205.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition...

  2. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this... from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.3 (b) through (d) of Executive Order 12958, as...

  3. 20 CFR 225.56 - Automatic recomputation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Automatic recomputation. 225.56 Section 225.56... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Recomputing PIA's § 225.56 Automatic recomputation. Periodically, the Board... may request a recomputation before the automatic recomputation is processed. However, the effective...

  4. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 17.28 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject... specific information exempt from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.4 (b) and (d) of...

  5. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be... brief delay between the aircraft's interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3...

  6. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be... brief delay between the aircraft's interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3...

  7. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this... from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.3 (b) through (d) of Executive Order 12958, as...

  8. 20 CFR 225.56 - Automatic recomputation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic recomputation. 225.56 Section 225... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Recomputing PIA's § 225.56 Automatic recomputation. Periodically... may request a recomputation before the automatic recomputation is processed. However, the effective...

  9. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be... brief delay between the aircraft's interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. All... with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going...

  11. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 17.28 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject... specific information exempt from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.4 (b) and (d) of...

  12. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 17.28 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject... specific information exempt from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.4 (b) and (d) of...

  13. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this... from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.3 (b) through (d) of Executive Order 12958, as...

  14. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this... from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.3 (b) through (d) of Executive Order 12958, as...

  15. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be... brief delay between the aircraft's interrogating signal and the automatic unicom's response. (3...

  16. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 17.28 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject... specific information exempt from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.4 (b) and (d) of...

  17. 20 CFR 225.56 - Automatic recomputation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Automatic recomputation. 225.56 Section 225.56... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Recomputing PIA's § 225.56 Automatic recomputation. Periodically, the Board... may request a recomputation before the automatic recomputation is processed. However, the effective...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. All... with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going...

  19. 20 CFR 225.56 - Automatic recomputation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic recomputation. 225.56 Section 225... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Recomputing PIA's § 225.56 Automatic recomputation. Periodically... may request a recomputation before the automatic recomputation is processed. However, the effective...

  20. 28 CFR 17.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 17.28 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.28 Automatic declassification. (a) Subject... specific information exempt from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.4 (b) and (d) of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. All... with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. All... with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1405 - Automatic couplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic couplers. 75.1405 Section 75.1405... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1405 Automatic couplers. All... with automatic couplers which couple by impact and uncouple without the necessity of persons going...

  4. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  5. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  6. Adding Automatic Evaluation to Interactive Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Gonzalo; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Gómez-Estern, Fabio; De la Torre, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos; Dormido, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Automatic evaluation is a challenging field that has been addressed by the academic community in order to reduce the assessment workload. In this work we present a new element for the authoring tool Easy Java Simulations (EJS). This element, which is named automatic evaluation element (AEE), provides automatic evaluation to virtual and remote…

  7. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  8. Stability of Dynamic Trunk Movement

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; England, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Nonlinear systems analyses of trunk kinematics were performed to estimate control of dynamic stability during repetitive flexion and extension movements. Objective. Determine whether movement pace and movement direction of dynamic trunk flexion and extension influence control of local dynamic stability. Summary of Background Data. Spinal stability has been previously characterizedz in static, but not in dynamic movements. Biomechanical models make inferences about static spinal stability, but existing analyses provide limited insight into stability of dynamic movement. Stability during dynamic movements can be estimated from Lyapunov analyses of empirical data. Methods. There were 20 healthy subjects who performed repetitive trunk flexion and extension movements at 20 and 40 cycles per minute. Maximum Lyapunov exponents describing the expansion of the kinematic state-space were calculated from the measured trunk kinematics to estimate stability of the dynamic system. Results. The complexity of torso movement dynamics required at least 5 embedded dimensions, which suggests that stability components of lumbar lordosis may be empirically measurable in addition to global stability of trunk dynamics. Repeated trajectories from fast paced movements diverged more quickly than slower movement, indicating that local dynamic stability is limited in fast movements. Movements in the midsagittal plane showed higher multidimensional kinematic divergence than asymmetric movements. Conclusion. Nonlinear dynamic systems analyses were successfully applied to empirically measured data, which were used to characterize the neuromuscular control of stability during repetitive dynamic trunk movements. Movement pace and movement direction influenced the control of spinal stability. These stability assessment techniques are recommended for improved workplace design and the clinical assessment of spinal stability in patients with low back pain. PMID:16648732

  9. Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 1900-1916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Carolyn

    1984-01-01

    Examines and compares accomplishments, objectives, and ideals of Isabella Bird, Mary Austin, Rachel Carson, and Annie Dillard. Also considers their interactions with males promoting conservation and the ideological framework they brought to their crusades and to conflicts that developed. (BC)

  10. The Critical Thinking Movement in Kazakhstan: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat

    2010-01-01

    Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…

  11. The Critical Thinking Movement in Kazakhstan: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat

    2010-01-01

    Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…

  12. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  13. The Social Reform Movement Impacted Handiwork at Hindman Settlement School, of Hindman, Kentucky during 1902 to 1939.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Patricia Hymson

    The purpose of this qualitative, historical study was to investigate the impact of the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Settlement Movement, and the Progressive Education Movement on the handiwork at Hindman Settlement School (formerly W.C.T.U. Settlement School, 1902-1910) located in the eastern Kentucky Appalachian Mountain region. Three themes…

  14. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12361 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a sprinkling of small clouds over a blue Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  15. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  16. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  17. Axial movements in ideomotor apraxia

    PubMed Central

    Poeck, K; Lehmkuhl, G; Willmes, K

    1982-01-01

    Non-symbolic axial movements were examined and compared to oral and limb movements in a group of 60 aphasic patients (15 of each major subgroup) with exclusively left-sided brain damage. The contention in the literature that axial movements are preserved in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia was not confirmed. PMID:6186771

  18. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  19. Recognizing People from Their Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loula, Fani; Prasad, Sapna; Harber, Kent; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Human observers demonstrate impressive visual sensitivity to human movement. What defines this sensitivity? If motor experience influences the visual analysis of action, then observers should be most sensitive to their own movements. If view-dependent visual experience determines visual sensitivity to human movement, then observers should be most…

  20. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  1. Automatically scramming nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2004-10-12

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  2. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course.

  3. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  4. Automatic digitization of SMA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Mika; Tanskanen, Eija

    2017-04-01

    In the 1970's and 1980's the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array produced large amounts of excellent data from over 30 stations In Norway, Sweden and Finland. 620 film reels and 20 kilometers of film have been preserved and the longest time series produced in the campaign span almost uninterrupted for five years, but the data has never seen widespread use due to the choice of medium. Film is a difficult medium to digitize efficiently. Previously events of interest were searched for by hand and digitization was done by projecting the film on paper and plotting it by hand. We propose a method of automatically digitizing geomagnetic data stored on film and extracting the numerical values from the digitized data. The automatic digitization process helps in preserving old, valuable data that might otherwise go unused.

  5. AUTO: Automatic script generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Hom, Ivan; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This technical manual describes an automatic script generation system (Auto) for guiding the physical design of a printed circuit board. Auto accepts a printed circuit board design as specified in a netlist and partslist and returns a script to automatically provide all the necessary commands and file specifications required by Harris EDA's Finesse CAD system for placing and routing the printed circuit board. Auto insulates the designer from learning the details of commercial CAD systems, allows designers to modify the script for customized design entry, and performs format and completeness checking of the design files. This technical manual contains a complete tutorial/design example describing how to use the Auto system and also contains appendices describing the format of files required by the Finesse CAD system.

  6. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  7. Automatic Video System for Continues Monitoring of the Meteor Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we present current progress in development of new observational instruments for the double station video experiment. The Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser (MAIA) system is based on digital monochrome camera JAI CM-040 and well proved image intensifier XX1332. Both the observations as well as the data processing will be fully automatic. We are expecting the recorded data of better quality and both spatial and time resolution in comparison with currently used analogue system. The main goal of the MAIA project is to monitor activity of the meteor showers and sporadic meteor each night for the period of at least 3 years. First version of the system was already assembled and has been intensively tested in the optical laboratory. Optical properties were measured and the result confirmed our expectations according to image quality and resolution. First night sky observation was already carried out.

  8. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  10. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  11. A new automatic computerized deviometer.

    PubMed

    Campos, E C; Orciuolo, M; Schiavi, C

    1989-07-01

    An automatized computerized deviometer is presented based on an infrared TV camera, an image analyzer and a computer. With this instrument it is possible to follow step-by-step the various diagnostic procedures in strabismus and to answer the following questions: is there a strabismus? is it convergent, divergent or vertical strabismus? what is the angle of deviation? which is the paralytic or paretic muscle in the case of incomitant strabismus?

  12. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  13. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  14. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  15. Attention, Automaticity and Priority Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    with control elements that modulate the flow of of attention limited to being one thing at a time . However, with practice in consistent tasks, automatic...is presented to the network,apriontyvector senung non- attentional factors, plus (ii) search time S, which is evoked at the priority layer. The network... attentional companson (50 msec) from total reaction time for :ayer activaions by feedback from the comparator module, memory set size one (a) at Days

  16. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  17. Automatic noise limiter-blanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.

  18. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  19. Progressive anterior operculum syndrome due to FTLD-TDP: a clinico-pathological investigation.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu; Mori, Fumiaki; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tatezawa, Yoshiharu; Tanigawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Ikuko; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2010-07-01

    Pathological investigation of progressive anterior operculum syndrome has rarely been reported. We describe clinico-pathological findings in a patient with progressive anterior operculum syndrome. A 74-year-old right-handed man had noticed speech and swallowing difficulties 1 year previously. Neurological examinations showed no abnormality other than a slight limitation of upward gaze and slow tongue movement without fibrillation. We investigated the patient using neuroimaging and neuropsychological examinations and observed him for 2 years until his death, at which point we obtained pathological findings. The patient's facial and masseteric muscles seemed hypotonic with drooling, but he could laugh and yawn normally, showing automatic voluntary dissociation. Palatal and pharyngeal reflexes were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy in the temporal lobes bilaterally. (123)IMP single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography showed decreased blood flow and activity in the frontotemporal lobes, predominantly on the left side. Neuropsychological examinations showed no aphasia, dementia or other neuropsychological abnormality. Intubation fiberscopy, laryngoscopy and video fluorography showed no abnormality. After 6 months his anarthria and dysphagia became aggravated. He died of aspiration pneumonia 2 years after onset. Postmortem examination revealed neuronal degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions in the frontal, temporal and insular cortices, consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP inclusions (FTLD-TDP). However, neuronal loss with gliosis was more prominent in the inferior part of the motor cortices, bilaterally. Progressive anterior operculum syndrome could be classified as a variant of FTLD-TDP.

  20. Chloroplast movement: dissection of events downstream of photo- and mechano-perception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2003-02-01

    The study of chloroplast photorelocation movement is progressing rapidly now that mutants for chloroplast movement have become available in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, mechanistic approaches in cell biology still stand to elucidate the mechanisms and regulations of such movement. The fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the moss Physcomitrella patens are particularly suitable materials for analyzing the kinetics of intracellular chloroplast movement. In these plants, chloroplast movement is induced by red light as well as blue light, mediated by phytochrome and blue light receptor, respectively. In this paper, we review the unique force-generating system for chloroplast motility in P. patens. In addition to light-induced chloroplast movement, we also summarize mechanically induced chloroplast movement in these plants and the motility systems involved. Finally, the different dependency of mechano- and photo-relocation movement on external Ca(2+) is discussed.