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Sample records for automatic movement progress

  1. Automatic Chloroplast Movement Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Zeidler, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. This movement, regulated by the phototropin blue light photoreceptors phot1 and phot2, results in a decreased or increased transmission of light through the leaf. This way the plant is able to optimize harvesting of the incoming light or avoid damage caused by excess light. Here we describe a method that indirectly measures the movement of chloroplasts by taking advantage of the resulting change in leaf transmittance. By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time.

  2. Research into automatic recognition of joints in human symmetrical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-03-01

    High speed photography is a major means of collecting data from human body movement. It enables the automatic identification of joints, which brings great significance to the research, treatment and recovery of injuries, the analysis to the diagnosis of sport techniques and the ergonomics. According to the features that when the adjacent joints of human body are in planetary motion, their distance remains the same, and according to the human body joint movement laws (such as the territory of the articular anatomy and the kinematic features), a new approach is introduced to process the image thresholding of joints filmed by the high speed camera, to automatically identify the joints and to automatically trace the joint points (by labeling markers at the joints). Based upon the closure of marking points, automatic identification can be achieved through thresholding treatment. Due to the screening frequency and the laws of human segment movement, when the marking points have been initialized, their automatic tracking can be achieved with the progressive sequential images.Then the testing results, the data from three-dimensional force platform and the characteristics that human body segment will only rotate around the closer ending segment when the segment has no boding force and only valid to the conservative force all tell that after being analyzed kinematically, the approach is approved to be valid.

  3. Automatic movement error detection and correction processes in reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Brière, Julien; Proteau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Manual aiming movements can be amended during their execution. Recent evidence suggests that error detection and correction are based on automatic and even reflexive processing of afferent information. In this study, we wanted to determine whether these processes are affected by the occurrence of successive events requiring adjustments of the originally planned movement. To reach our goal, we used a video-aiming task. For a small proportion of the trials, the cursor moved by the participant was translated laterally by 15 mm (cursor jump) soon after movement initiation. For some of the cursor-jump trials, a second cursor jump occurred 100 ms after the first one and canceled or doubled the initial cursor translation. Results showed that participants were able to cancel or double the size of the correction in response to the second cursor jump. More importantly, in double-jump trials, the correction latency for the first and second cursor jumps did not differ from that of single-jump trials. Moreover, the correction for the second cursor jump blended seamlessly with the correction for the first cursor jump. These observations suggest that the processes leading of a correction for a cursor jump do not interfere with incoming visual information.

  4. From the seat of heat and intelligence to regular heart activity as automatic movement: progress in cardiology up to 1900 from a Dutch perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2009-01-01

    The development in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology is described from a Dutch perspective. The newly formed Republic in the 17th century, with its pragmatism and business-like character, became an ideal breeding ground for Descartes' new philosophy. His separation of body and soul provided a mechanistic model of body structure and formed a firm basis for anatomical and physiological research to become catalysts for a tempestuous growth and progress in medicine. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:130-5.19421357) PMID:19421357

  5. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function.

  6. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C; Frank, Mark G; Lee, Kang

    2014-03-31

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1-3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4-7]: a subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions, and a cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8-11]. However, machine vision may be able to distinguish deceptive facial signals from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here, we show that human observers could not discriminate real expressions of pain from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training human observers, we improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However, a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system's superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine expressions from faked expressions. Thus, by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling.

  7. Automatic recognition of facial movement for paralyzed face.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Dong, Junyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Shengke

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a common disease due to nerve damage. Most approaches for evaluating the degree of facial paralysis rely on a set of different facial movements as commanded by doctors. Therefore, automatic recognition of the patterns of facial movement is fundamental to the evaluation of the degree of facial paralysis. In this paper, a novel method named Active Shape Models plus Local Binary Patterns (ASMLBP) is presented for recognizing facial movement patterns. Firstly, the Active Shape Models (ASMs) are used in the method to locate facial key points. According to these points, the face is divided into eight local regions. Then the descriptors of these regions are extracted by using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to recognize the patterns of facial movement. The proposed ASMLBP method is tested on both the collected facial paralysis database with 57 patients and another publicly available database named the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for both paralyzed and normal faces.

  8. Progressive anomia with preserved oral spelling and automatic speech.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Julie S; Neary, David

    2003-01-01

    We report a patient, Newton, with a progressive classical anomia resulting from focal degeneration of the left hemisphere. In naming tasks Newton spelt aloud picture names that he could not retrieve, indicating a dissociation between orthography and phonology. Unusually, his writing and letter-pointing performance were impaired and spelling was achieved only through alphabet recitation. A study of automatic speech tasks demonstrated strikingly preserved naming performance on automatic compared to nominative tasks. We argue that automatic tasks provide phonological cues that facilitate phonological activation. With progression of disease Newton has shown increasing difficulty reading and repeating words, which we interpret in terms of a progressive elevation in the threshold for activation of phonology. Phonological cueing of picture names has yielded superior naming than word reading and even repetition, a finding consistent with the notion that task characteristics influence likelihood of phonological activation and naming success, but contrary to the notion that there exist separate task-specific output systems. We conclude that Newton exhibits a unique pattern of deficits, which have theoretical relevance for the debate on the relationship between phonology and orthography, the role of automatic speech and the relationship between naming, reading and repetition.

  9. Signal Characteristics of Spontaneous Facial Expressions: Automatic Movement in Solitary and Social Smiles

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Tian, Yingli

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display suggests that there may be universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial configuration. We show that smiles include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally consistent movement patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip corner movement during the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other facial movements, including dampening. These additional movements produced variation in both peak and offset duration. Both onsets and offsets had dynamic properties similar to automatically controlled movements, with a consistent relation between maximum velocity and amplitude of lip corner movement in smiles from two distinct contexts. Despite the effects of individual and social factors on facial expression timing overall, consistency in onset and offset phases suggests that portions of the smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced. PMID:14638288

  10. Automatic recognition and scoring of olympic rhythmic gymnastic movements.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Escalona, Merly; Olivieri, David N

    2014-04-01

    We describe a conceptually simple algorithm for assigning judgement scores to rhythmic gymnastic movements, which could improve scoring objectivity and reduce judgemental bias during competitions. Our method, implemented as a real-time computer vision software, takes a video shot or a live performance video stream as input and extracts detailed velocity field information from body movements, transforming them into specialized spatio-temporal image templates. The collection of such images over time, when projected into a velocity covariance eigenspace, trace out unique but similar trajectories for a particular gymnastic movement type. By comparing separate executions of the same atomic gymnastic routine, our method assigns a quality judgement score that is related to the distance between the respective spatio-temporal trajectories. For several standard gymnastic movements, the method accurately assigns scores that are comparable to those assigned by expert judges. We also describe our rhythmic gymnastic video shot database, which we have made freely available to the human movement research community. The database can be obtained at http://www.milegroup.net/apps/gymdb/.

  11. Automatic detection of EEG artefacts arising from head movements using EEG and gyroscope signals.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Simon; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of EEG signals by artefacts arising from head movements has been a serious obstacle in the deployment of automatic neurological event detection systems in ambulatory EEG. In this paper, we present work on categorizing these head-movement artefacts as one distinct class and on using support vector machines to automatically detect their presence. The use of additional physical signals in detecting head-movement artefacts is also investigated by means of support vector machines classifiers implemented with gyroscope waveforms. Finally, the combination of features extracted from EEG and gyroscope signals is explored in order to design an algorithm which incorporates both physical and physiological signals in accurately detecting artefacts arising from head-movements.

  12. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  13. Automatic Human Movement Assessment with Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    PubMed

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-07-14

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and latter use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0-12%).

  14. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  15. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements.

  16. Large-scale Chromosomal Movements During Interphase Progression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Csink, Amy K.; Henikoff, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of cell cycle progression on various levels of chromosome organization in Drosophila. Using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and DNA quantitation in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we detected gross chromosomal movements in diploid interphase nuclei of larvae. At the onset of S-phase, an increased separation was seen between proximal and distal positions of a long chromsome arm. Progression through S-phase disrupted heterochromatic associations that have been correlated with gene silencing. Additionally, we have found that large-scale G1 nuclear architecture is continually dynamic. Nuclei display a Rabl configuration for only ∼2 h after mitosis, and with further progression of G1-phase can establish heterochromatic interactions between distal and proximal parts of the chromosome arm. We also find evidence that somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes is disrupted during S-phase more rapidly for a euchromatic than for a heterochromatic region. Such interphase chromosome movements suggest a possible mechanism that links gene regulation via nuclear positioning to the cell cycle: delayed maturation of heterochromatin during G1-phase delays establishment of a silent chromatin state. PMID:9763417

  17. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients’ automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p’s ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients’ attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients’ strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor

  18. [Central Pattern Generators: Mechanisms of the Activity and Their Role in the Control of "Automatic" Movements].

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, I; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N

    2015-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are a set of interconnected neurons capable of generating a basic pattern of motor output underlying "automatic" movements (breathing, locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and so on) in the absence of afferent signals from the executive motor apparatus. They can be divided into the constitutive CPGs active throughout the entire lifetime (respiratory CPGs) and conditional CPGs controlling episodic movements (locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and others). Since a motor output of CPGs is determined by their internal organization, the activities of the conditional CPGs are initiated by simple commands coming from higher centers. We describe the structural and functional organization of the locomotor CPGs in the marine mollusk Clione limacina, lamprey, frog embryo, and laboratory mammals (cat, mouse, and rat), CPGs controlling the respiratory and swallowing movements in mammals, and CPGs controlling discharges of the electric organ in the gymnotiform fish. It is shown that in all these cases, the generation of rhythmic motor output is based both on the endogenous (pacemaker) activity of specific groups of interneurons and on interneural interactions. These two interrelated mechanisms complement each other, ensuring the high reliability of CPG functionality. We discuss how the experience obtained in studying CPGs can be used to understand mechanisms of more complex functions of the brain, including its cognitive functions.

  19. Status and Power Do Not Modulate Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Hand Movements

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Harry; Carr, Evan W.; Svartdal, Marita; Winkielman, Piotr; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    The tendency to mimic the behaviour of others is affected by a variety of social factors, and it has been argued that such “mirroring” is often unconsciously deployed as a means of increasing affiliation during interpersonal interactions. However, the relationship between automatic motor imitation and status/power is currently unclear. This paper reports five experiments that investigated whether social status (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or power (Experiments 4 and 5) had a moderating effect on automatic imitation (AI) in finger-movement tasks, using a series of different manipulations. Experiments 1 and 2 manipulated the social status of the observed person using an associative learning task. Experiment 3 manipulated social status via perceived competence at a simple computer game. Experiment 4 manipulated participants’ power (relative to the actors) in a card-choosing task. Finally, Experiment 5 primed participants using a writing task, to induce the sense of being powerful or powerless. No significant interactions were found between congruency and social status/power in any of the studies. Additionally, Bayesian hypothesis testing indicated that the null hypothesis should be favoured over the experimental hypothesis in all five studies. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for AI tasks, social effects on mimicry, and the hypothesis of mimicry as a strategic mechanism to promote affiliation. PMID:27096167

  20. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  1. American School Reform: Progressive, Equity, and Excellence Movements, 1883-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.

    This book examines three major school-reform movements in the United States that were shaped by outside societal forces and identifies their common characteristics. The first two chapters examine the history and influence of the progressive movement and chapter 3 is devoted to progressive education's chief philosopher and pragmatist, John Dewey.…

  2. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mahek; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sofi, Aamir; Tran, Canh; Jahangir, Ahad; Sultan, Sulaiman; Khan, Uzma; Viqar, Maria; Cho, Chi; Jahangir, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h) and infrequent (≤35/h). Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent), 108 (29%) progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50). Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168), patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205) had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01). Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is associated

  3. Automatic detection of rapid eye movements (REMs): A machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Yetton, Benjamin D.; Niknazar, Mohammad; Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Sattari, Negin; Mednick, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movements (REMs) are a defining feature of REM sleep. The number of discrete REMs over time, or REM density, has been investigated as a marker of clinical psychopathology and memory consolidation. However, human detection of REMs is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, reliable, automated REM detection software is a valuable research tool. New method We developed an automatic REM detection algorithm combining a novel set of extracted features and the ‘AdaBoost’ classification algorithm to detect the presence of REMs in Electrooculogram data collected from the right and left outer canthi (ROC/LOC). Algorithm performance measures of Recall (percentage of REMs detected) and Precision (percentage of REMs detected that are true REMs) were calculated and compared to the gold standard of human detection by three expert sleep scorers. REM detection by four non-experts were also investigated and compared to expert raters and the algorithm. Results The algorithm performance (78.1% Recall, 82.6% Precision) surpassed that of the average (expert & non-expert) single human detection performance (76% Recall, 83% Precision). Agreement between non-experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.65) is markedly lower than experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.80). Comparison with existing method(s) By following reported methods, we implemented all previously published LOC and ROC based detection algorithms on our dataset. Our algorithm performance exceeded all others. Conclusions The automatic detection algorithm presented is a viable and efficient method of REM detection as it reliably matches the performance of human scorers and outperforms all other known LOC- and ROC-based detection algorithms. PMID:26642967

  4. Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature.

    PubMed

    Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

    2010-10-01

    The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications.

  5. Recent progress in automatically extracting information from the pharmacogenomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Garten, Yael; Coulet, Adrien; Altman, Russ B

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical literature holds our understanding of pharmacogenomics, but it is dispersed across many journals. In order to integrate our knowledge, connect important facts across publications and generate new hypotheses we must organize and encode the contents of the literature. By creating databases of structured pharmocogenomic knowledge, we can make the value of the literature much greater than the sum of the individual reports. We can, for example, generate candidate gene lists or interpret surprising hits in genome-wide association studies. Text mining automatically adds structure to the unstructured knowledge embedded in millions of publications, and recent years have seen a surge in work on biomedical text mining, some specific to pharmacogenomics literature. These methods enable extraction of specific types of information and can also provide answers to general, systemic queries. In this article, we describe the main tasks of text mining in the context of pharmacogenomics, summarize recent applications and anticipate the next phase of text mining applications. PMID:21047206

  6. Illusory body-ownership entails automatic compensative movement: for the unified representation between body and action.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-03-01

    The sense of body-ownership involves the integration of vision and somatosensation. In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked for a short time synchronously as one's own unseen hand is also stroked causes the observers to attribute the rubber hand to their own body. The RHI may elicit proprioceptive drift: The observers' sense of their own hand's location drifts toward the external proxy hand. The current experiments examined the possibility of observing, not the proprioceptive drift, but the actual drift "movement" during RHI induction. The participants' hand, located on horizontally movable board, tended to move toward the rubber hand only while they observed synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation. Furthermore, even when the participants' hand was located on a fixed, unmovable board (that is, the conventional RHI paradigm), participants automatically administered the force toward the rubber hand. These findings suggest that since awareness of our own body and action are fundamental to self-consciousness, these components of "minimal self" are closely related and integrated into "one agent" with a unified awareness of the body and action.

  7. An improved algorithm for automatic detection of saccades in eye movement data and for calculating saccade parameters.

    PubMed

    Behrens, F; Mackeben, M; Schröder-Preikschat, W

    2010-08-01

    This analysis of time series of eye movements is a saccade-detection algorithm that is based on an earlier algorithm. It achieves substantial improvements by using an adaptive-threshold model instead of fixed thresholds and using the eye-movement acceleration signal. This has four advantages: (1) Adaptive thresholds are calculated automatically from the preceding acceleration data for detecting the beginning of a saccade, and thresholds are modified during the saccade. (2) The monotonicity of the position signal during the saccade, together with the acceleration with respect to the thresholds, is used to reliably determine the end of the saccade. (3) This allows differentiation between saccades following the main-sequence and non-main-sequence saccades. (4) Artifacts of various kinds can be detected and eliminated. The algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to human eye movement data (obtained by EOG) recorded during driving a car. A second demonstration of the algorithm detects microsleep episodes in eye movement data.

  8. Spoken language and the decision to move the eyes: to what extent are language-mediated eye movements automatic?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh K; Olivers, Christian N L; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Recent eye-tracking research has revealed that spoken language can guide eye gaze very rapidly (and closely time-locked to the unfolding speech) toward referents in the visual world. We discuss whether, and to what extent, such language-mediated eye movements are automatic rather than subject to conscious and controlled decision-making. We consider whether language-mediated eye movements adhere to four main criteria of automatic behavior, namely, whether they are fast and efficient, unintentional, unconscious, and overlearned (i.e., arrived at through extensive practice). Current evidence indicates that language-driven oculomotor behavior is fast but not necessarily always efficient. It seems largely unintentional though there is also some evidence that participants can actively use the information in working memory to avoid distraction in search. Language-mediated eye movements appear to be for the most part unconscious and have all the hallmarks of an overlearned behavior. These data are suggestive of automatic mechanisms linking language to potentially referred-to visual objects, but more comprehensive and rigorous testing of this hypothesis is needed.

  9. Francis Wayland Parker's Morning Exercise and the Progressive Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2010-01-01

    In the progressive era, the distinguished political scientist Robert Putnam explains, progressives invested heavily in "social capital," that is, in the stock of active connections, social networks, shared values, norms of reciprocity, trustworthiness, and friendship that bind people together (Putnam 2000, 395). They were, he argues,…

  10. Women's Rights Movements in the Nineteenth Century: Conflict and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Historical review of the function of social conflict in the nineteenth century women's rights movements. Considers whether suffrage and a move toward equality could have been accomplished without major philosophical differences. Differences between the Stanton and Anthony suffrage group and the Stone and Blackwell suffrage group are discussed.…

  11. Progress and perils in the juvenile justice and mental health movement.

    PubMed

    Grisso, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in the United States is experiencing a social movement aimed at responding to the mental and emotional problems of delinquent youths. Ironically, this movement arose in the wake of a decade of reform in juvenile justice that had set aside the system's 100-year tradition of rehabilitation for delinquents in the interests of their punishment and a primary emphasis on public safety. This article describes the recent juvenile justice and mental health movement, discusses the circumstances that motivated it, and provides examples of its progress. Now that the movement has taken hold, however, its future is threatened by several unintended consequences of the motives and strategies of those who succeeded in promoting the movement. Those potential perils are described with an eye to reducing their impact, thereby sustaining the movement and its potentially positive effects.

  12. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  13. A novel method for analyzing sequential eye movements reveals strategic influence on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2011-09-16

    Eye movements are an important data source in vision science. However, the vast majority of eye movement studies ignore sequential information in the data and utilize only first-order statistics. Here, we present a novel application of a temporal-difference learning algorithm to construct a scanpath successor representation (SR; P. Dayan, 1993) that captures statistical regularities in temporally extended eye movement sequences. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scanpath SR on eye movement data from participants solving items from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Analysis of the SRs revealed individual differences in scanning patterns captured by two principal components that predicted individual Raven scores much better than existing methods. These scanpath SR components were highly interpretable and provided new insight into the role of strategic processing on the Raven test. The success of the scanpath SR in terms of prediction and interpretability suggests that this method could prove useful in a much broader context.

  14. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  15. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  16. Hybrid EEG--Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Malik M Naeem; Kim, Shinjung; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kamran, M Ahmad

    2016-02-19

    Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI). In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA) and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data.

  17. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  18. Automatic Tracking Of Markers From 3D-Measurement Of Human Body Movements During Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Thomas; Meier, G.; Baumann, Juerg U.

    1989-04-01

    For human motion analysis, the spatio-temporal resolution of cinematographic registrations of body marker positions is still higher than the results of the best opto electronic systems available for this purpose today. So far, the need for manual digitization of several thousand marker positions per tested person has made this method unpractical for regular applications. An interactive and largely automated system for marker recognition and tracking from 16 mm film images based on progress in digital image processing has been developed and tested. Projected pictures are digitized with a high-resolution CCD-camera (1320x1035 pixel), processed, analyzed and serially evaluated with an interactive image analysis system SIGNUM IS200.

  19. Effect of lateral excursive movements on the progression of abfraction lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian David; Kassir, Ali Sabet Abbas; Brunton, Paul Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The theory of abfraction suggests that tooth flexure arising from occlusal loads causes the formation and progression of abfraction lesions. The current study investigated whether reducing occlusal loading by adjusting the occlusion on a tooth during lateral excursive movements had any effect on the rate of progression of existing abfraction lesions. Recruited were 39 subjects who had two non-carious cervical lesions in the maxillary arch that did not need restoration and were in group function during lateral excursive movements of the mandible. One of the teeth was randomly selected to have the excursive occlusal contacts reduced by using a fine grain diamond bur. Centric occlusal contacts were not reduced. Impressions of the lesion were taken over a 30-month period to enable monitoring of the wear rate, and duplicate dies were poured into epoxy resin to allow for sectioning. The size of the lesions was measured using stereomicroscopic analysis of the sectioned epoxy resin dies, and the results were analyzed using an Independent t-test. No statistically significant difference in wear rates between the adjusted and non-adjusted teeth was found (p > 0.05). Within the limitations of the current study, it was concluded that occlusal adjustment does not appear to halt the progression of non-carious cervical lesions; consequently, this procedure cannot be recommended.

  20. Overcoming the challenges: maternal movement and positioning to facilitate labor progress.

    PubMed

    Zwelling, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of maternal movement and position changes to facilitate labor progress have been discussed in the literature for decades. Recent routine interventions such as amniotomy, induction, fetal monitoring, and epidural anesthesia, as well as an increase in maternal obesity, have made position changes during labor challenging. The lack of maternal changes in position throughout labor can contribute to dystocia and increase the risk of cesarean births for failure to progress or descend. This article provides a historical review of the research findings related to the effects of maternal positioning on the labor process and uses six physiological principles as a framework to offer suggestions for maternal positioning both before and after epidural anesthesia.

  1. The Effectiveness of Weights and Links in Automatic Indexing. Project MEDICO Second Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan; Wolf, Edward H.

    This report describes work concerned with the statistical evaluation of the output of MEDICO automatic indexing procedure. The statistical tests were designed to examine the validity of the assumptions which formed the bases of the indexing algorithms with primary emphasis on the algorithm development for the computation of weights and links. Some…

  2. Automatic video detection of body movement during sleep based on optical flow in pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cuppens, Kris; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our work is to investigate whether the optical flow algorithm applied to video recordings can be used to detect movement during sleep in pediatric patients with epilepsy. The optical flow algorithm allocates intensities to pixels proportional to their involvement in movement of an object. The average of a percentage of the highest movement vectors was plotted as a function of time (R(t)). The used dataset contains video data acquired at the University Hospital of Leuven consisting of normal sleep movement and seizure movement. We investigated R(t), to make a distinction between movement and non-movement. We used the acquisition parameters (320 x 240 at 12.5 fps), derived from a previous study (Cuppens et al., Proceedings of the 4th European congress of the international federation for medical and biological engineering (MBEC 2008), ECIFBME 2008, Antwerp, Belgium, IFMBE Proceedings, vol 22, pp 784-789, 2008). Two experiments were concluded, one with global thresholds of R(t) in all datasets and one with a variable threshold in each dataset. The latter is obtained by inspecting a non-movement epoch and calculating the mean and standard deviations of R(t) over time. The variable threshold on R(t) was then obtained for each dataset by adding to the mean a fixed multiple of the standard deviation. Optimal thresholds were derived based on a three-fold cross-validation. The best result was achieved when using a variable threshold, which resulted in a sensitivity of one in all the test sets and a PPV of 1, 0.821, and 1, respectively, for the three test sets.

  3. How Do Movements to Produce Letters Become Automatic during Writing Acquisition? Investigating the Development of Motor Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Learning how to write involves the automation of grapho-motor skills. One of the factors that determine automaticity is "motor anticipation." This is the ability to write a letter while processing information on how to produce following letters. It is essential for writing fast and smoothly. We investigated how motor anticipation…

  4. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  5. The Women's Movement in the 1920s: American Magazines Document the Health and Progress of Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonard, Carolyn Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines magazine articles published in the 1920s to show that, contrary to common statements that the women's movement collapsed following getting the right to vote in 1920, the women's movement was a vibrant force that was shaping the beginning of a new social order and preparing women for assimilation into the political system. (SR)

  6. Affective states leak into movement execution: automatic avoidance of threatening stimuli in fear of spider is visible in reach trajectories.

    PubMed

    Buetti, Simona; Juan, Elsa; Rinck, Mike; Kerzel, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Approach-like actions are initiated faster with stimuli of positive valence. Conversely, avoidance-like actions are initiated faster with threatening stimuli of negative valence. We went beyond reaction time measures and investigated whether threatening stimuli also affect the way in which an action is carried out. Participants moved their hand either away from the picture of a spider (avoidance) or they moved their hand toward the picture of a spider (approach). We compared spider-fearful participants to non-anxious participants. When reaching away from the threatening spider picture, spider-fearful participants moved more directly to the target than controls. When reaching toward the threatening spider, spider-fearful participants moved less directly to the target than controls. Some conditions that showed clear differences in movement trajectories between spider-fearful and control participants were devoid of differences in reaction time. The deviation away from threatening stimuli provides evidence for the claim that affective states like fear leak into movement programming and produce deviations away from threatening stimuli in movement execution. Avoidance of threatening stimuli is rapidly integrated into ongoing motor behaviour in order to increase the distance between the participant's body and the threatening stimulus.

  7. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  8. Alcohol badly affects eye movements linked to steering, providing for automatic in-car detection of drink driving.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E; Cooper, Hannah L; Gilbey, Steven L; Watson, Jessica C; Mehta, Neena; Kaur-Mann, Daljit; Wilson, Mark; Keil, Damian

    2008-03-01

    Driving is a classic example of visually guided behavior in which the eyes move before some other action. When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside of the curve before turning the steering wheel. Eye and steering movements are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which allows the parts of the brain that move the eyes to assist the parts of the brain that control the hands on the wheel. We show here that this optimal relationship deteriorates with levels of breath alcohol well within the current UK legal limit for driving. The eyes move later, and coordination reduces. These changes lead to bad performance and can be detected by an automated in-car system, which warns the driver is no longer fit to drive.

  9. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    An obvious consequence of hydrate dissociation is the compression of reservoir matrix causing displacements in the surrounding area. The reservoir compression is a time-dependent process which depends on the production rate. The ground movements cause additional stresses in the overburden which may result in rock mass fracture and failure. Rock failure may cause rubble formation or bulking in the fracture zone. This in turn can cause an increase in permeability for gas flow which may offset the reduction in permeability caused by closure of existing fractures during reservoir compression. The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal changes during orthodontic tooth movement - work in progress

    PubMed Central

    ZIMBRAN, ADELA; DUDEA, DIANA; GASPARIK, CRISTINA; DUDEA, SORIN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. Methods Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment. The upper first premolars were extracted bilaterally due to severe crowding, and the canines were distalized using elastomeric chain with a net force of 100 cN. Ultrasonographic scans (US scans) were performed before, during and after retraction, in three distinct areas of the canines buccal surface: mesial, middle and distal. The reference point was the bracket, which appeared hyperechoic on the US scan. Four different dimensions were obtained: D1 (depth of the sulcus), D2 (thickness of the gingiva), D3 (length of the supracrestal fibers), D4 (width of periodontal space). Results An increase of D1 was observed in all three areas of the periodontium, during orthodontic treatment. D3 was strongly correlated before and immediately after force delivery only for the mesial area (r=0.828, p<0.05). In total, 228 variables were statistically analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, in order to demonstrate the relationship between periodontal findings during orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion High-resolution ultrasonography has the capability to obviate changes in periodontal ligament space and free gingiva during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:28246503

  11. NERI Project 99-119. A New Paradigm for Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architectures for Nuclear Power Plants. Phase-2 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, JA

    2002-01-15

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 2 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work.

  12. Choreography of molecular movements during ribosome progression along mRNA.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Riccardo; Sharma, Heena; Caliskan, Neva; Cunha, Carlos E; Peske, Frank; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-04-01

    During translation elongation, ribosome translocation along an mRNA entails rotations of the ribosomal subunits, swiveling motions of the small subunit (SSU) head and stepwise movements of the tRNAs together with the mRNA. Here, we reconstructed the choreography of the collective motions of the Escherichia coli ribosome during translocation promoted by elongation factor EF-G, by recording the fluorescence signatures of nine different reporters placed on both ribosomal subunits, tRNA and mRNA. We captured an early forward swiveling of the SSU head taking place while the SSU body rotates in the opposite, clockwise direction. Backward swiveling of the SSU head starts upon tRNA translocation and continues until the post-translocation state is reached. This work places structures of translocation intermediates along a time axis and unravels principles of the motions of macromolecular machines.

  13. Progress in elucidating the pathophysiological basis of nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: not yet informing therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Horváth, András; Papp, Anikó; Szűcs, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias. While sleep-disturbing factors have a clear precipitating effect, a genetic predisposition appears necessary in most cases. A candidate gene for sleepwalking has been identified on chromosome 20q12-q13.12 in one sleepwalking family. NREM parasomnias have a genetic and clinical link with nocturnal-frontal lobe epilepsies; possibly through an abnormality of the acetylcholine-related sleep-control system. The association of NREM parasomnias with the human leukocyte antigen system might be the sign of an autoimmune background to be further clarified. In the treatment of arousal parasomnias, the main tools are adequate sleep hygiene and the management of underlying conditions. Their pharmacotherapy has remained unresolved; the best options are clonazepam and some of the antidepressants, while a psychotherapy approach is also justified.

  14. Progress in elucidating the pathophysiological basis of nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: not yet informing therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, András; Papp, Anikó; Szűcs, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) or arousal parasomnias are prevalent conditions in children and young adults, apparently provoked by any medical, physical, mental, or pharmacologic/toxic agent disturbing normal biorhythm and causing sleep fragmentation or abundant amount of slow wave sleep. The nadir and the ascending slope of the first sleep cycle of night sleep are the typical periods when NREM parasomnias, especially sleepwalking may occur on sleep-microstructural level; microarousals are the typical moments allowing NREM parasomnias. While sleep-disturbing factors have a clear precipitating effect, a genetic predisposition appears necessary in most cases. A candidate gene for sleepwalking has been identified on chromosome 20q12-q13.12 in one sleepwalking family. NREM parasomnias have a genetic and clinical link with nocturnal-frontal lobe epilepsies; possibly through an abnormality of the acetylcholine-related sleep-control system. The association of NREM parasomnias with the human leukocyte antigen system might be the sign of an autoimmune background to be further clarified. In the treatment of arousal parasomnias, the main tools are adequate sleep hygiene and the management of underlying conditions. Their pharmacotherapy has remained unresolved; the best options are clonazepam and some of the antidepressants, while a psychotherapy approach is also justified. PMID:27022307

  15. Bilateral Movement Training and Stroke Motor Recovery Progress: A Structured Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cauraugh, James H.; Lodha, Neha; Naik, Sagar K.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to conduct a structured review and meta-analysis to determine the cumulative effect of bilateral arm training on motor capabilities post stroke. Forty-eight stroke studies were selected from three databases with 25 comparisons qualifying for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We identified and coded four types of bilateral arm interventions with 366 stroke patients. A random effects model using the standardized mean difference technique determined a large and significant effect size (0.734; SE = 0.125), high fail-safe N (532), and medium variability in the studies (I2 = 63%). Moderator variable analysis on the type of bilateral training revealed two large and significant effects: (a) BATRAC (0.842; SE = 0.155) and (b) coupled bilateral and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (1.142; SE = 0.176). These novel findings provide strong evidence supporting bilateral arm training with the caveat that two coupled protocols, rhythmic alternating movements and active stimulation, are most effective. PMID:19926154

  16. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  17. Matefin/SUN-1 phosphorylation is part of a surveillance mechanism to coordinate chromosome synapsis and recombination with meiotic progression and chromosome movement.

    PubMed

    Woglar, Alexander; Daryabeigi, Anahita; Adamo, Adele; Habacher, Cornelia; Machacek, Thomas; La Volpe, Adriana; Jantsch, Verena

    2013-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis I depends on the establishment of a crossover between homologous chromosomes. This requires induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), alignment of homologs, homolog association by synapsis, and repair of DSBs via homologous recombination. The success of these events requires coordination between chromosomal events and meiotic progression. The conserved SUN/KASH nuclear envelope bridge establishes transient linkages between chromosome ends and cytoskeletal forces during meiosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this bridge is essential for bringing homologs together and preventing nonhomologous synapsis. Chromosome movement takes place during synapsis and recombination. Concomitant with the onset of chromosome movement, SUN-1 clusters at chromosome ends associated with the nuclear envelope, and it is phosphorylated in a chk-2- and plk-2-dependent manner. Identification of all SUN-1 phosphomodifications at its nuclear N terminus allowed us to address their role in prophase I. Failures in recombination and synapsis led to persistent phosphorylations, which are required to elicit a delay in progression. Unfinished meiotic tasks elicited sustained recruitment of PLK-2 to chromosome ends in a SUN-1 phosphorylation-dependent manner that is required for continued chromosome movement and characteristic of a zygotene arrest. Furthermore, SUN-1 phosphorylation supported efficient synapsis. We propose that signals emanating from a failure to successfully finish meiotic tasks are integrated at the nuclear periphery to regulate chromosome end-led movement and meiotic progression. The single unsynapsed X chromosome in male meiosis is precluded from inducing a progression delay, and we found it was devoid of a population of phosphorylated SUN-1. This suggests that SUN-1 phosphorylation is critical to delaying meiosis in response to perturbed synapsis. SUN-1 may be an integral part of a checkpoint system to monitor establishment of the

  18. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  19. NERI PROJECT 99-119."A NEW PARADIGM FOR AUTOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY RELIABLE CONTROL ARCHITECTURES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS."PHASE-1 PROGRESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2000-08-29

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 1 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled ''Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants''. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL,) The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work. This research focuses on the development of methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements for the life of the plant. Our final goal is to ''capture'' the design requirements inside a ''control engine'' during the design phase. This control engine is, then, not only capable of designing automatically the initial implementation of the control system, but it also can confirm that the original design requirements are still met during the life of the plant as conditions change. This control engine captures the high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure). The control engine, then, is able to generate automatically the control-system algorithms and parameters that optimize a design goal and satisfy all requirements. As conditions change during the life of the plant (e.g. component degradation, or subsystem failures) the control engine automatically ''flags'' that a requirement is not satisfied, and it can even suggest a modified configuration that would satisfy it. This control engine concept is shown schematically in Fig. 1. The implementation of this ''control-engine'' design methodology requires the following steps, which are described in detail in the attachments to this report: (1) Selection of Design Requirements Related to Control System Performance; (2) Implementation of Requirements in

  20. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  1. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  2. Automatic and unbiased assessment of competence in colonoscopy: exploring validity of the Colonoscopy Progression Score (CoPS)

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Louise; Søndergaard Svendsen, Morten Bo; Søndergaard, Bo; Brink, Lene; Nordentoft, Tyge; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Colonoscopy is a difficult procedure to master. Increasing demands for colonoscopy, due to screening and surveillance programs, have highlighted the need for competent performers. Valid methods for assessing technical skills are pivotal for training and assessment. This study is the first clinical descriptive report of a novel colonoscopy assessment tool based on Magnetic Endoscopic Imaging (MEI) data and the aim was to gather validity evidence based on the data collected using the “Colonoscopy Progression Score” (CoPS). Methods: We recorded 137 colonoscopy procedures performed by 31 endoscopists at three university hospitals. The participants performed more than two procedures each (range 2 – 12) and had an experience of 0 – 10 000 colonoscopies. The CoPS was calculated for each recording and validity was explored using a widely accepted contemporary framework. The following sources of validity evidence were explored: response process (data collection), internal structure (reliability), relationship to other variables (i. e. operator experience), and consequences of testing (pass/fail). Results: Identical set-ups at all three locations ensured uniform data collection. The Generalizability coefficient (G-coefficient) was 0.80, and a Decision-study (D-study) revealed that four recordings were sufficient to ensure a G-coefficient above 0.80. We showed a positive correlation between CoPS and experience with Pearson’s r of 0.61 (P < 0.001). A pass/fail standard of 107 points was established using the contrasting group method to explore the consequences of testing. Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the validity of the CoPS for use in assessing technical colonoscopy performance in the clinical setting. Study registration: NCT01997177. PMID:27995182

  3. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Timothy L.; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E.; Warner, Joshua D.; Irazabal, Maria V.; King, Bernard F.; Torres, Vicente E.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. Methods We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland–Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Results Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼±100 mL. Conclusions Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In

  4. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  5. Movement and Movement Patterns of Early Childhood. [Complete Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Caroline

    This study investigated the progressive development in movement and movement patterns of children ages 2-6. Data were collected over a 3-year period at six-month intervals, based on films of 57 children performing 25 motor tasks. The results are presented along two dimensions: (1) Descriptive analysis of progress of young children in movement with…

  6. Insecticidal Effects on the Spatial Progression of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Movement of Its Whitefly Vector in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M; Riley, D G; Srinivasan, R

    2017-03-08

    Commercial management of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) typically relies on insecticide control of whitefly vectors as a first line of defense. We quantified this effect in crop tunnel studies, with validation in a tomato field setting. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-infected and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)-infested source plants were planted at the beginning of tunneled rows to serve as inoculum source, so that movement of whiteflies and TYLCV symptoms could be tracked down the length of the tunnel over time. Tunnel study results showed that proximity to the source plant was a more important factor than insecticide treatments. Insecticide-treated tomato transplants did tend to suppress whitefly incidence and slowed TYLCV movement in comparison with the untreated check; however, tomato plants planted closer to the source plant had higher incidence of whiteflies and TYLCV infection, regardless of treatment. In a large tomato plot study with a controlled inoculum source, insecticide treatments significantly reduced the spread of TYLCV. When uninhibited by insecticide treatment, 80% of the TYLCV spread was restricted to <15 m from the source plant (<11 m in the validation study), with insecticide treatment generally reducing the distance and magnitude of this spread.

  7. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  8. MOVEMENT IN THE CYANOPHYCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Paul R.

    1933-01-01

    The effect of pH upon the velocity of translatory movement of Oscillatoria formosa Bory in inorganic culture solutions was determined. Unhindered movement occurred in the range of about pH 6.4 to 9.5. Above and below these limits inhibition was marked. In the unfavorable acid and alkaline ranges inhibition was progressive with exposure time; in the favorable range continuous movement was maintained for 24 hours. PMID:19872745

  9. How CBO Estimates Automatic Stabilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Pamela Green , Kurt Seibert, Joshua Shakin, and Robert Stewart for technical assistance. The authors also thank Leah Loversky for outstanding research...ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract Federal receipts and outlays regularly respond to cyclical movements in the economy. When the economy is operating...Those “automatic stabilizers” thus tend to dampen the size of cyclical movements in the economy, by supporting or restraining private spending. (The

  10. Automatic Planning of Manipulator Transfer Movements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    composed of a finger and a " palm ", hold- ing P at the initial and final configuration. (b) In the initial configuration, the shaded area represents CO...81 )yer, C R, Rosenfeld, A and Samet, H. "Region Representation: Boundary Codes from Quadtrees," Communications of the ACAI 23, 3 (March 1980), 171...Representation: Quadtrees from Boundary Codes." Communications of the ACAI 23, 3 (March 1980), 163-170. (441 Simunovic, S N. "Force Information in Assembly

  11. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  12. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-15

    The principal developments during the fifth quarter of the project (October - December 1994) have been as follows. (1) Design fabrication and bench testing of new 24-v controller employing automatic photocell shut-off of motor. (2) Design, fabrication and bench testing of new 42-v controller employing automatic stop-ball and limit-switch shut-off of motor. (3) Design, fabrication, installation, operation and adjustment of prototype improved pool cover system in Denver. (4) Continued planning of installation, demonstration and evaluation of improved pool cover system at the Denver Skyland Recreation Center. (5) Improved mounting brackets. (6) Preparation of a comprehensive paper on swimming pool evaporation rates.

  13. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  14. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  15. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  18. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  1. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  2. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  3. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  4. Automatic tracking sensor camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

    2001-04-01

    We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  6. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions... manually, and which are so interconnected by means of electric circuits that their movements must...

  7. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  8. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  9. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  10. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  11. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  12. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress.

  13. Automated Detection of Stereotypical Motor Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Matthew S.; Intille, Stephen S.; Albinali, Fahd; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), we evaluated the use of wireless three-axis accelerometers and pattern recognition algorithms to automatically detect body rocking and hand flapping in children with ASD. Findings revealed that, on average,…

  14. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-03

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  15. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  16. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  17. The patient movement as an emancipation movement

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background  The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods  Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results  Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion  The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. PMID:18494955

  18. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  19. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  20. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  1. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  2. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  3. Using automatic generation of Labanotation to protect folk dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaji; Miao, Zhenjiang; Guo, Hao; Zhou, Ziming; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Labanotation uses symbols to describe human motion and is an effective means of protecting folk dance. We use motion capture data to automatically generate Labanotation. First, we convert the motion capture data of the biovision hierarchy file into three-dimensional coordinate data. Second, we divide human motion into element movements. Finally, we analyze each movement and find the corresponding notation. Our work has been supervised by an expert in Labanotation to ensure the correctness of the results. At present, the work deals with a subset of symbols in Labanotation that correspond to several basic movements. Labanotation contains many symbols and several new symbols may be introduced for improvement in the future. We will refine our work to handle more symbols. The automatic generation of Labanotation can greatly improve the work efficiency of documenting movements. Thus, our work will significantly contribute to the protection of folk dance and other action arts.

  4. Automatic detection of camera translation in eye video recordings using multiple methods.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2005-04-01

    A concern with video eye movement tracking is that movement of the camera headset relative to the head creates an artifact of eye movement in pupil-detection software. We describe the development of, and compare the results of, three automatic image processing algorithms to measure camera movement. The best of the algorithms has an average accuracy of 1.3 pixels, equivalent to 0.49 deg with our eye tracking system.

  5. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  6. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  7. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  8. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  9. Are Eyebrow Movements Linked to Voice Variations and Turn-Taking in Dialogue? An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guaitella, Isabelle; Santi, Serge; Lagrue, Benoit; Cave, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Following our work on the relationship between eyebrow movements and the fundamental frequency of the voice, this article presents the results of a study on this phenomenon, and also on the temporal location of rapid eyebrow movements with respect to speaking turns during dialogue. We used an automatic movement-acquisition system coupled with the…

  10. Automatic wire twister.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F

    1988-06-01

    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  11. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  12. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  13. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  14. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  15. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  16. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  17. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    GEORGIOU-KARISTIANIS, NELLIE; LONG, JEFFREY D.; LOURENS, SPENCER G.; STOUT, JULIE C.; MILLS, JAMES A.; PAULSEN, JANE S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington’s disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Methods Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Results Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. Conclusions With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution. PMID:24678867

  18. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action.

  19. Dance recognition system using lower body movement.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Travis T; Wiesner, Susan L; Bennett, Bradford C

    2014-02-01

    The current means of locating specific movements in film necessitate hours of viewing, making the task of conducting research into movement characteristics and patterns tedious and difficult. This is particularly problematic for the research and analysis of complex movement systems such as sports and dance. While some systems have been developed to manually annotate film, to date no automated way of identifying complex, full body movement exists. With pattern recognition technology and knowledge of joint locations, automatically describing filmed movement using computer software is possible. This study used various forms of lower body kinematic analysis to identify codified dance movements. We created an algorithm that compares an unknown move with a specified start and stop against known dance moves. Our recognition method consists of classification and template correlation using a database of model moves. This system was optimized to include nearly 90 dance and Tai Chi Chuan movements, producing accurate name identification in over 97% of trials. In addition, the program had the capability to provide a kinematic description of either matched or unmatched moves obtained from classification recognition.

  20. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  1. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  2. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  3. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  4. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  5. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  6. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  7. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  8. Automatic Language Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    the speech utterance is hypothesized. ter performance for his HMM approach than his static ap- Finally, Thyme -Gobbel et al. [47] have also looked...1998. [47] A.E. Thyme -Gobbel and S.E. Hutchins. On using prosodic cues in automatic language identification. In International Conference on Spoken

  9. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  10. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  12. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  13. Sensorimotor experience enhances automatic imitation of robotic action

    PubMed Central

    Press, Clare; Gillmeister, Helge; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has found that observation of human actions activates the ‘mirror system’ and provokes automatic imitation to a greater extent than observation of non-biological movements. The present study investigated whether this human bias depends primarily on phylogenetic or ontogenetic factors by examining the effects of sensorimotor experience on automatic imitation of non-biological robotic, stimuli. Automatic imitation of human and robotic action stimuli was assessed before and after training. During these test sessions, participants were required to execute a pre-specified response (e.g. to open their hand) while observing a human or robotic hand making a compatible (opening) or incompatible (closing) movement. During training, participants executed opening and closing hand actions while observing compatible (group CT) or incompatible movements (group IT) of a robotic hand. Compatible, but not incompatible, training increased automatic imitation of robotic stimuli (speed of responding on compatible trials, compared with incompatible trials) and abolished the human bias observed at pre-test. These findings suggest that the development of the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience, and that, in our species, it is biased in favour of human action stimuli because these are more abundant than non-biological action stimuli in typical developmental environments. PMID:17698489

  14. 3D position measurement using square marker for automatic mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji

    2010-11-01

    A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Many techniques of automatic control are proposed. A line tracer is one of the most popular robots. The line tracer goes along a white line on the floor. The authors developed a mobile robot which moves to indicated point automatically. All you have to do is to indicate a goal point. In this paper, we propose an automatic mobile robot system controlled by an invisible marker and remote indication using the augmented reality technology.

  15. Hypokinesia of associated movement in Parkinson's disease: a symptom in early stages of the disease.

    PubMed

    Hoshiyama, M; Kaneoke, Y; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Watanabe, S

    1994-08-01

    We compared the degrees of impairment between intended voluntary movement and its simultaneous automatic associated movement in Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied wrist dorsiflexion as a movement associated with grip in 20 patients with PD and in 20 normal controls. The patients showed a significantly smaller dorsiflexion as compared with the controls. The decrease in associated movement was related to the severity of clinical stage of the disease, while gripping was performed well in each stage. The temporal relationship between grip and associated movement was the same for both groups of subjects. The patients showed no disturbance of amplitude or velocity for a single motor act of wrist dorsiflexion. Persons with PD have a greater reduction of automatic associated movement than intended voluntary movement. This may be one of the bases of clinical symptoms of PD patients in early stages of the disease.

  16. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  17. Functional Movement Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ...

  18. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  19. Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

  20. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  1. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  2. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  3. Games for Social Change: Review of the Potential for Multi Player Online Gaming to Facilitate the Emergence and Growth of Progressive Movements for Social Change within Youth and Community Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Building on the use of the internet and social media as sites for activism, this paper highlights the emergence of political activism and collective protest in the online gaming environment. Referencing social movement theory and the rapidly evolving capacity of multiplayer online games to facilitate the development of strong group identities and…

  4. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  5. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  6. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  7. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  8. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  9. Automatic Retinal Oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

  10. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  11. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  12. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  13. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  14. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  15. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  16. The Quantified Self (QS) Movement and Some Emerging Opportunities for the Educational Technology Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The Quantified Self (QS) movement is a growing global effort to use new mobile and wearable technologies to automatically obtain personal data about everyday activities. The social and material infrastructure associated with the Quantified Self (QS) movement provides a number of ideas that educational technologists should consider incorporating…

  17. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  18. The history of surgery for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gildenberg, P L

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of movement disorders by interruption of pathways within the nervous system has been a goal of neurosurgeons for the past century. When human stereotactic surgery was introduced 50 years ago, a major advance was made in surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease and other disorders of the motor system. Since then, the field has experienced a period of progressive growth, then abrupt decline, and now is more active than ever before and continuing to grow rapidly. Recent progress in computer science, imaging techniques, neurophysiology, and stereotactic targeting has provided the fuel for future progress.

  19. Automatic Correction of Hand Pointing in Stereoscopic Depth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yalin; Sun, Yaoru; Zeng, Jinhua; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine whether stereoscopic depth information could drive fast automatic correction of hand pointing, an experiment was designed in a 3D visual environment in which participants were asked to point to a target at different stereoscopic depths as quickly and accurately as possible within a limited time window (≤300 ms). The experiment consisted of two tasks: “depthGO” in which participants were asked to point to the new target position if the target jumped, and “depthSTOP” in which participants were instructed to abort their ongoing movements after the target jumped. The depth jump was designed to occur in 20% of the trials in both tasks. Results showed that fast automatic correction of hand movements could be driven by stereoscopic depth to occur in as early as 190 ms. PMID:25501878

  20. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  1. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  2. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  3. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  4. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  5. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  6. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  7. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  8. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  9. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  10. Designing Preschool Movement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stephen W.

    This guide contains developmentally appropriate movement activities designed to help teachers of children ages 3 through 5 plan and administer a successful movement education program. The book is organized into three parts. The first part presents a model upon which teachers can base their selection of physical activities for children, addresses…

  11. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  12. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  13. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  14. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  15. Progressive Education and the "Indian New Deal".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper examines the progressive education movement and its effect on American Indian education. Progressive education became popular during the late 19th century during the period when American Indian children were being enrolled in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools. John Dewey, who is considered the father of progressive education,…

  16. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Disruption in the interaction between the central nervous system, nerves, and muscles cause movement disorders. These disorders can negatively affect quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been identified as a therapy for Parkinson disease and essential tremor that has significant advantages compared with medicinal therapies. Surgical intervention for these disorders before DBS included ablative therapies such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy. These procedures were not reversible and did not allow for treatment adjustments. The advent of DBS progressed therapies for significant movement disorders into the realm of being reversible and adjustable based on patient symptoms.

  17. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  18. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  19. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  20. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  1. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  2. Automatic change detection using mobile laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, M.; Hammer, M.; Gordon, M.; Arens, M.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic change detection in 3D environments requires the comparison of multi-temporal data. By comparing current data with past data of the same area, changes can be automatically detected and identified. Volumetric changes in the scene hint at suspicious activities like the movement of military vehicles, the application of camouflage nets, or the placement of IEDs, etc. In contrast to broad research activities in remote sensing with optical cameras, this paper addresses the topic using 3D data acquired by mobile laser scanning (MLS). We present a framework for immediate comparison of current MLS data to given 3D reference data. Our method extends the concept of occupancy grids known from robot mapping, which incorporates the sensor positions in the processing of the 3D point clouds. This allows extracting the information that is included in the data acquisition geometry. For each single range measurement, it becomes apparent that an object reflects laser pulses in the measured range distance, i.e., space is occupied at that 3D position. In addition, it is obvious that space is empty along the line of sight between sensor and the reflecting object. Everywhere else, the occupancy of space remains unknown. This approach handles occlusions and changes implicitly, such that the latter are identifiable by conflicts of empty space and occupied space. The presented concept of change detection has been successfully validated in experiments with recorded MLS data streams. Results are shown for test sites at which MLS data were acquired at different time intervals.

  3. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    PubMed

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-02-24

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  4. Automatic inoculating apparatus. [includes movable carraige, drive motor, and swabbing motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic inoculating apparatus for agar trays is described and using a simple inoculating element, such as a cotton swab or inoculating loop. The apparatus includes a movable carriage for supporting the tray to be inoculated, a drive motor for moving the tray along a trackway, and a swabbing motor for automatically swabbing the tray during the movement. An actuator motor controls lowering of the inoculating element onto the tray and lifting of the inoculating element. An electrical control system, including limit microswitches, enables automatic control of the actuator motor and return of the carriage to the initial position after inoculating is completed.

  5. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  6. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  7. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space.

  8. Counting the Cats of Zanzibar: Upton Sinclair and the Decline of the Muckraking Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Kares

    To study any social movement is ultimately to examine an intricate social drama. With the publication of "The Jungle" in 1906, Upton Sinclair emerged from the stormy background of the muckraking movement to become one of that movement's principal actors. But in the 1920s, long after the Progressive reformers dusted and put away their…

  9. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  10. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  11. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Movement and Coordination Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  12. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  13. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  14. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  15. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  16. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  17. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  18. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  19. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  20. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  1. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  2. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  3. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  4. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  5. Movement disorders and the osmotic demyelination syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    With the advent of MRI, osmotic demyelination syndromes (ODS) are increasingly recognised to affect varied sites in the brain in addition to the classical central pontine lesion. Striatal involvement is seen in a large proportion of cases and results in a wide variety of movement disorders. Movement disorders and cognitive problems resulting from ODS affecting the basal ganglia may occur early in the course of the illness, or may present as delayed manifestations after the patient survives the acute phase. Such delayed symptoms may evolve over time, and may even progress despite treatment. Improved survival of patients in the last few decades due to better intensive care has led to an increase in the incidence of such delayed manifestations of ODS. While the outcome of ODS is not as dismal as hitherto believed - with the acute akinetic-rigid syndrome associated with striatal myelinolysis often responding to dopaminergic therapy - the delayed symptoms often prove refractory to medical therapy. This article presents a review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, imaging, and therapy of movement disorders associated with involvement of the basal ganglia in ODS. A comprehensive review of 54 previously published cases of movement disorders due to ODS, and a video recording depicting the spectrum of delayed movement disorders seen after recovery from ODS are also presented.

  6. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  7. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  8. Perceptuo-motor interactions during prehension movements.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Lennart; Dijkerman, H Chris; Grol, Meike J; Toni, Ivan

    2008-04-30

    Adaptive behavior relies on the integration of perceptual and motor processes. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the cerebral processes underlying perceptuo-motor interactions evoked during prehension movements in healthy humans, as measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We manipulated the viewing conditions (binocular or monocular) during planning of a prehension movement, while parametrically varying the slant of the grasped object. This design manipulates the relative relevance and availability of different depth cues necessary for accurate planning of the prehension movement, biasing visual information processing toward either the dorsal visual stream (binocular vision) or the ventral visual stream (monocular vision). Two critical nodes of the dorsomedial visuomotor stream [V6A (anterior visual area 6) and PMd (dorsal premotor cortex)] increased their activity with increasing object slant, regardless of viewing conditions. In contrast, areas in both the dorsolateral visuomotor stream [anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv)] and in the ventral visual stream [lateral-occipital tactile-visual area (LOtv)] showed differential slant-related responses, with activity increasing when monocular viewing conditions and increasing slant required the processing of pictorial depth cues. These conditions also increased the functional coupling of AIP with both LOtv and PMv. These findings support the view that the dorsomedial stream is automatically involved in processing visuospatial parameters for grasping, regardless of viewing conditions or object characteristics. In contrast, the dorsolateral stream appears to adapt motor behavior to the current conditions by integrating perceptual information processed in the ventral stream into the prehension plan.

  9. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  10. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  11. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  12. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  13. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  14. Legacy of the Environmental Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to select an important contemporary social movement (the environmental movement) and to assess some of the important impacts it has had on the larger society. This review of the environmental movement indicates it may be following a path similiar to the life-cycle of previous movements. (Author/BT)

  15. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  16. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks... MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership... between the member and the Bank at the time of such conversion may continue. (b) Automatic membership...

  17. Study of Repetitive Movements Induced Oscillatory Activities in Healthy Subjects and Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Lee, Wai-Keung; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Hsu, Hao-Teng; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lee, Po-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive movements at a constant rate require the integration of internal time counting and motor neural networks. Previous studies have proved that humans can follow short durations automatically (automatic timing) but require more cognitive efforts to track or estimate long durations. In this study, we studied sensorimotor oscillatory activities in healthy subjects and chronic stroke patients when subjects were performing repetitive finger movements. We found the movement-modulated changes in alpha and beta oscillatory activities were decreased with the increase of movement rates in finger lifting of healthy subjects and the non-paretic hands in stroke patients, whereas no difference was found in the paretic-hand movements at different movement rates in stroke patients. The significant difference in oscillatory activities between movements of non-paretic hands and paretic hands could imply the requirement of higher cognitive efforts to perform fast repetitive movements in paretic hands. The sensorimotor oscillatory response in fast repetitive movements could be a possible indicator to probe the recovery of motor function in stroke patients. PMID:27976723

  18. Psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) can present with varied phenomenology that may resemble organic movement disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation with a supporting history and classic features on neurologic examination. Ancillary testing, such as imaging and neurophysiologic studies, can provide supplementary information but is not necessary for diagnosis. There is no standard protocol for the treatment of PMDs, but a multidisciplinary approach has been recommended. This review discusses the clinical characteristics of various PMDs as well as ancillary testing, treatment, and research in the pathophysiology of this complex group of disorders.

  19. Automatic control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.

    1989-01-01

    Inadequate Reynolds number similarity in testing of scaled models affects the quality of aerodynamic data from wind tunnels. This is due to scale effects of boundary-layer shock wave interaction which is likely to be severe at transonic speeds. The idea of operation of wind tunnels using test gas cooled to cryogenic temperatures has yielded a quantrum jump in the ability to realize full scale Reynolds number flow similarity in small transonic tunnels. In such tunnels, the basic flow control problem consists of obtaining and maintaining the desired test section flow parameters. Mach number, Reynolds number, and dynamic pressure are the three flow parameters that are usually required to be kept constant during the period of model aerodynamic data acquisition. The series of activity involved in modeling, control law development, mechanization of the control laws on a microcomputer, and the performance of a globally stable automatic control system for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) are discussed. A lumped multi-variable nonlinear dynamic model of the cryogenic tunnel, generation of a set of linear control laws for small perturbation, and nonlinear control strategy for large set point changes including tunnel trajectory control are described. The details of mechanization of the control laws on a 16 bit microcomputer system, the software features, operator interface, the display and safety are discussed. The controller is shown to provide globally stable and reliable temperature control to + or - 0.2 K, pressure to + or - 0.07 psi and Mach number to + or - 0.002 of the set point value. This performance is obtained both during large set point commands as for a tunnel cooldown, and during aerodynamic data acquisition with intrusive activity like geometrical changes in the test section such as angle of attack changes, drag rake movements, wall adaptation and sidewall boundary-layer removal. Feasibility of the use of an automatic Reynolds number control mode with

  20. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution.

  1. Grassroots Excellence: Problems and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    The educational "excellence" movement is hindered by inconsistencies between goals and action and by difficulties in translating national and state goals into local policy; nonetheless, progress has occurred. Examples of "voodoo excellence," in which proposed policies will likely work against their stated objectives, are…

  2. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  3. The Hopi Traditionalist Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    Traces development of Hopi Traditionalism since 1906 as a social movement within the context of Hopi culture and sociopolitical history. Discusses the role of ideology in mediating political and economic conditions of history and collective cultural consciousness. Offers conclusions about the political role of indigenous culture and culturally…

  4. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  5. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  6. Movement Disorders in 2012

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Standfirst Research in movement disorders in 2012 had led to advances in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease and to development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. Key advances include elucidating mechanisms of spreading neurodegenerative pathology, immunotherapy, stem cells, genetics and deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonisms and related disorders. PMID:23296342

  7. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  8. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  9. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  10. Frequent Bowel Movements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sanjoaquin MA, et al. Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: A cross-sectional study of 20,630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7:77. Evaluation of the GI patient. The Merck Manual Professional ...

  11. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  12. Semi-automatic pusher machine leveler bar control and method

    SciTech Connect

    Berenato, J.W. III; Raivel, E.L. Jr.; Strepelis, J.J.

    1985-11-26

    A leveler bar for a coke oven is controlled in its travel toward and away from the coke side of the oven by semi-automatic means to move the leveler bar during a ''cycle'' mode through half strokes and during the ''finish'' mode it performs four ''full'' strokes of which a full stroke can mean a 3/4 distance of full travel across the oven. Electrical circuitry which modifies or adds to prior art circuitry to accomplish this leveler bar movement is included herein.

  13. New insights into dynamic actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2011-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is essential for plants to survive under various environmental light conditions. Phototropins-plant-specific blue-light-activated receptor kinases-mediate the response by perceiving light intensity and direction. Recently, novel chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments have been identified as playing a pivotal role in the directional chloroplast photorelocation movement. Encouraging progress has recently been made in this field of research through molecular genetics and cell biological analyses. This review describes factors that have been identified as being involved in chloroplast movement and their roles in the regulation of cp-actin filaments, thus providing a basis for reflection on their biochemical activities and functions.

  14. Expert Knowledge-Based Automatic Sleep Stage Determination by Multi-Valued Decision Making Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Kawana, Fusae; Wang, Xingyu; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    In this study, an expert knowledge-based automatic sleep stage determination system working on a multi-valued decision making method is developed. Visual inspection by a qualified clinician is adopted to obtain the expert knowledge database. The expert knowledge database consists of probability density functions of parameters for various sleep stages. Sleep stages are determined automatically according to the conditional probability. Totally, four subjects were participated. The automatic sleep stage determination results showed close agreements with the visual inspection on sleep stages of awake, REM (rapid eye movement), light sleep and deep sleep. The constructed expert knowledge database reflects the distributions of characteristic parameters which can be adaptive to variable sleep data in hospitals. The developed automatic determination technique based on expert knowledge of visual inspection can be an assistant tool enabling further inspection of sleep disorder cases for clinical practice.

  15. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  16. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  17. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  18. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  19. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  20. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  1. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  2. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. Eye movements: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Kowler, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

  4. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  5. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  6. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W

    2014-02-01

    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  7. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  8. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K.; Stephens, Albert E.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  9. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  10. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  11. Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

  12. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  13. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    PubMed

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  14. Stability of Dynamic Trunk Movement

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; England, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Nonlinear systems analyses of trunk kinematics were performed to estimate control of dynamic stability during repetitive flexion and extension movements. Objective. Determine whether movement pace and movement direction of dynamic trunk flexion and extension influence control of local dynamic stability. Summary of Background Data. Spinal stability has been previously characterizedz in static, but not in dynamic movements. Biomechanical models make inferences about static spinal stability, but existing analyses provide limited insight into stability of dynamic movement. Stability during dynamic movements can be estimated from Lyapunov analyses of empirical data. Methods. There were 20 healthy subjects who performed repetitive trunk flexion and extension movements at 20 and 40 cycles per minute. Maximum Lyapunov exponents describing the expansion of the kinematic state-space were calculated from the measured trunk kinematics to estimate stability of the dynamic system. Results. The complexity of torso movement dynamics required at least 5 embedded dimensions, which suggests that stability components of lumbar lordosis may be empirically measurable in addition to global stability of trunk dynamics. Repeated trajectories from fast paced movements diverged more quickly than slower movement, indicating that local dynamic stability is limited in fast movements. Movements in the midsagittal plane showed higher multidimensional kinematic divergence than asymmetric movements. Conclusion. Nonlinear dynamic systems analyses were successfully applied to empirically measured data, which were used to characterize the neuromuscular control of stability during repetitive dynamic trunk movements. Movement pace and movement direction influenced the control of spinal stability. These stability assessment techniques are recommended for improved workplace design and the clinical assessment of spinal stability in patients with low back pain. PMID:16648732

  15. Acute alcohol consumption impairs controlled but not automatic processes in a psychophysical pointing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental "correction" condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target "jumped" to a new location. On these trials, the participants' task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a "countermanding" condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target "jumps". In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants' ability to correct movements "in flight", but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain.

  16. The Social Reform Movement Impacted Handiwork at Hindman Settlement School, of Hindman, Kentucky during 1902 to 1939.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Patricia Hymson

    The purpose of this qualitative, historical study was to investigate the impact of the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Settlement Movement, and the Progressive Education Movement on the handiwork at Hindman Settlement School (formerly W.C.T.U. Settlement School, 1902-1910) located in the eastern Kentucky Appalachian Mountain region. Three themes…

  17. Feature based volume decomposition for automatic hexahedral mesh generation

    SciTech Connect

    LU,YONG; GADH,RAJIT; TAUTGES,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-02-21

    Much progress has been made through these years to achieve automatic hexahedral mesh generation. While general meshing algorithms that can take on general geometry are not there yet; many well-proven automatic meshing algorithms now work on certain classes of geometry. This paper presents a feature based volume decomposition approach for automatic Hexahedral Mesh generation. In this approach, feature recognition techniques are introduced to determine decomposition features from a CAD model. The features are then decomposed and mapped with appropriate automatic meshing algorithms suitable for the correspondent geometry. Thus a formerly unmeshable CAD model may become meshable. The procedure of feature decomposition is recursive: sub-models are further decomposed until either they are matched with appropriate meshing algorithms or no more decomposition features are detected. The feature recognition methods employed are convexity based and use topology and geometry information, which is generally available in BREP solid models. The operations of volume decomposition are also detailed in the paper. The final section, the capability of the feature decomposer is demonstrated over some complicated manufactured parts.

  18. Recognizing People from Their Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loula, Fani; Prasad, Sapna; Harber, Kent; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Human observers demonstrate impressive visual sensitivity to human movement. What defines this sensitivity? If motor experience influences the visual analysis of action, then observers should be most sensitive to their own movements. If view-dependent visual experience determines visual sensitivity to human movement, then observers should be most…

  19. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  20. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  1. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  2. Chloroplast movement: dissection of events downstream of photo- and mechano-perception.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2003-02-01

    The study of chloroplast photorelocation movement is progressing rapidly now that mutants for chloroplast movement have become available in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, mechanistic approaches in cell biology still stand to elucidate the mechanisms and regulations of such movement. The fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the moss Physcomitrella patens are particularly suitable materials for analyzing the kinetics of intracellular chloroplast movement. In these plants, chloroplast movement is induced by red light as well as blue light, mediated by phytochrome and blue light receptor, respectively. In this paper, we review the unique force-generating system for chloroplast motility in P. patens. In addition to light-induced chloroplast movement, we also summarize mechanically induced chloroplast movement in these plants and the motility systems involved. Finally, the different dependency of mechano- and photo-relocation movement on external Ca(2+) is discussed.

  3. Manual and Automatic Lineament Mapping: Comparing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, D. A.; di Achille, G.; Barata, M. T.; Alves, E. I.

    2008-03-01

    A method for automatic lineament extraction using topographic data is applied on the Thaumasia plateau. A comparison is made between the results that are obtained from the automatic mapping approach and from a traditional tectonic lineament mapping.

  4. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  5. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  6. 8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 1205.1 Section 1205.1... REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 1205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition or self-petition made under section 204 of the Act and in...

  7. 8 CFR 205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 205.1 Section 205.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition...

  8. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  9. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  10. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  11. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  12. Adding Automatic Evaluation to Interactive Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Gonzalo; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Gómez-Estern, Fabio; De la Torre, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos; Dormido, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Automatic evaluation is a challenging field that has been addressed by the academic community in order to reduce the assessment workload. In this work we present a new element for the authoring tool Easy Java Simulations (EJS). This element, which is named automatic evaluation element (AEE), provides automatic evaluation to virtual and remote…

  13. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  14. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  15. Tracking a Movement: U.S. Milestones in Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Jahn, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidology and suicide prevention are relatively new fields of study in the United States, but they have made significant progress since their beginnings. This study aimed to identify the most impactful theories in the history of science and suicidology and the most impactful events in the suicide prevention movement. These theories and events…

  16. Eye-Movement Analysis Demonstrates Strategic Influences on Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Francois; Caissie, Andre F.; Bors, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account various models and findings pertaining to the nature of analogical reasoning, this study explored quantitative and qualitative individual differences in intelligence using latency and eye-movement data. Fifty-five university students were administered 14 selected items of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results…

  17. Semantic Evaluation of Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Carminati, Maria Nella; Cook, Anne E.; Majewski, Helen; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    An eye movement study of temporarily ambiguous closure sentences confirmed that the early closure penalty in a sentence like "While John hunted the frightened deer escaped" is larger for a simple past verb ("hunted") than for a past progressive verb ("was hunting"). The results can be explained by the observation that simple past tense verbs…

  18. Women of the Progressive Conservation Movement: 1900-1916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Carolyn

    1984-01-01

    Examines and compares accomplishments, objectives, and ideals of Isabella Bird, Mary Austin, Rachel Carson, and Annie Dillard. Also considers their interactions with males promoting conservation and the ideological framework they brought to their crusades and to conflicts that developed. (BC)

  19. The Critical Thinking Movement in Kazakhstan: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat

    2010-01-01

    Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…

  20. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales.

  1. Automatic Video System for Continues Monitoring of the Meteor Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we present current progress in development of new observational instruments for the double station video experiment. The Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser (MAIA) system is based on digital monochrome camera JAI CM-040 and well proved image intensifier XX1332. Both the observations as well as the data processing will be fully automatic. We are expecting the recorded data of better quality and both spatial and time resolution in comparison with currently used analogue system. The main goal of the MAIA project is to monitor activity of the meteor showers and sporadic meteor each night for the period of at least 3 years. First version of the system was already assembled and has been intensively tested in the optical laboratory. Optical properties were measured and the result confirmed our expectations according to image quality and resolution. First night sky observation was already carried out.

  2. Midsagittal jaw movements as a sleep/wake marker.

    PubMed

    Senny, Frédéric; Destiné, Jacques; Poirrier, Robert

    2009-02-01

    The seriousness of the Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome is measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the number of sleep apneas and hypopneas over the total sleep time (TST). Cardiorespiratory signals are used to detect respiratory events while the TST is usually assessed by the analysis of electroencephalogram traces in polysomnography (PSG) or wrist actigraphy trace in portable monitoring. This paper presents a sleep/wake automatic detector that relies on a wavelet-based complexity measure of the midsagittal jaw movement signal and multilayer perceptrons. In all, 63 recordings were used to train and test the method, while 38 recordings constituted an independent evaluation set for which the sensitivity, the specificity, and the global agreement of sleep recognition, respectively, reached 85.1%, 76.4%, and 82.9%, compared with the PSG data. The AHI computed automatically and only from the jaw movement analysis was significantly improved (p < 0.0001) when considering this sleep/wake detector. Moreover, a sensitivity of 88.6% and a specificity of 83.6% were found for the diagnosis of the sleep apnea syndrome according to a threshold of 15. Thus, the jaw movement signal is reasonably accurate in separating sleep from wake, and, in addition to its ability to score respiratory events, is a valuable signal for portable monitoring.

  3. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  4. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  5. Automatically scramming nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2004-10-12

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  6. Movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders.

  7. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their…

  8. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  9. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  10. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  11. Attention, Automaticity and Priority Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    paradiams is taken to indicate that processing remains under attentional control. This paper proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the...effects of practice and the development of automaticity, in visual search tasks. A connectionist simulation model implements this learning algorithm. Five...reliable finding from varied mapping studies is proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the effects of that reaction time increases roughly

  12. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  13. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  14. Automatic noise limiter-blanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.

  15. Progressive anterior operculum syndrome due to FTLD-TDP: a clinico-pathological investigation.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu; Mori, Fumiaki; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tatezawa, Yoshiharu; Tanigawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Ikuko; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2010-07-01

    Pathological investigation of progressive anterior operculum syndrome has rarely been reported. We describe clinico-pathological findings in a patient with progressive anterior operculum syndrome. A 74-year-old right-handed man had noticed speech and swallowing difficulties 1 year previously. Neurological examinations showed no abnormality other than a slight limitation of upward gaze and slow tongue movement without fibrillation. We investigated the patient using neuroimaging and neuropsychological examinations and observed him for 2 years until his death, at which point we obtained pathological findings. The patient's facial and masseteric muscles seemed hypotonic with drooling, but he could laugh and yawn normally, showing automatic voluntary dissociation. Palatal and pharyngeal reflexes were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy in the temporal lobes bilaterally. (123)IMP single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography showed decreased blood flow and activity in the frontotemporal lobes, predominantly on the left side. Neuropsychological examinations showed no aphasia, dementia or other neuropsychological abnormality. Intubation fiberscopy, laryngoscopy and video fluorography showed no abnormality. After 6 months his anarthria and dysphagia became aggravated. He died of aspiration pneumonia 2 years after onset. Postmortem examination revealed neuronal degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions in the frontal, temporal and insular cortices, consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP inclusions (FTLD-TDP). However, neuronal loss with gliosis was more prominent in the inferior part of the motor cortices, bilaterally. Progressive anterior operculum syndrome could be classified as a variant of FTLD-TDP.

  16. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  17. An automatic gore panel mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiver, John D.; Phelps, Norman N.

    1990-01-01

    The Automatic Gore Mapping System is being developed to reduce the time and labor costs associated with manufacturing the External Tank. The present chem-milling processes and procedures are discussed. The down loading of the simulation of the system has to be performed to verify that the simulation package will translate the simulation code into robot code. Also a simulation of this system has to be programmed for a gantry robot instead of the articulating robot that is presently in the system. It was discovered using the simulation package that the articulation robot cannot reach all the point on some of the panels, therefore when the system is ready for production, a gantry robot will be used. Also a hydrosensor system is being developed to replace the point-to-point contact probe. The hydrosensor will allow the robot to perform a non-contact continuous scan of the panel. It will also provide a faster scan of the panel because it will eliminate the in-and-out movement required for the present end effector. The system software is currently being modified so that the hydrosensor will work with the system. The hydrosensor consists of a Krautkramer-Branson transducer encased in a plexiglass nozzle. The water stream pumped through the nozzle is the couplant for the probe. Also, software is being written so that the robot will have the ability to draw the contour lines on the panel displaying the out-of-tolerance regions. Presently the contour lines can only be displayed on the computer screens. Research is also being performed on improving and automating the method of scribing the panels. Presently the panels are manually scribed with a sharp knife. The use of a low power laser or water jet is being studied as a method of scribing the panels. The contour drawing pen will be replaced with scribing tool and the robot will then move along the contour lines. With these developments the Automatic Gore Mapping Systems will provide a reduction in time and labor costs

  18. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided.

  19. The influence of Oxytocin on automatic motor simulation.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Lize; Mueller, Sven C; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Saedeleer, Lien; Brass, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Motor simulation is important for imitation, action understanding, and a wide range of social cognitive skills. Furthermore, the neuropeptide hormone Oxytocin (OT) has also been related to social information processing in humans, improving perception of social stimuli and increasing altruism and trust. Surprisingly, however, a direct link between OT and motor simulation has never been systematically investigated. The current study examined this question using the imitation-inhibition task, a paradigm used to investigate automatic imitation behaviour and motor simulation. In this task, participants carry out simple finger movements while observing irrelevant movements that either match (congruent condition) or do not match (incongruent condition) the instructed movements. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, male participants were administered either OT (N=24) or placebo (N=24), and subsequently performed the imitation-inhibition task. To ensure specificity of OT effects to imitative behaviour, participants additionally performed a Stroop colour-word interference task (adapted to optimize similarities with the imitation inhibition task) to rule out general effects on cognitive control. As predicted, OT selectively influenced the congruency effect in the imitation-inhibition task but not the congruency effect in the Stroop task. This effect showed that OT led to a larger congruency effect by slowing down reaction times on incongruent trials when observed and own actions did not match. The findings suggest that OT leads to a decrease of control over automatic imitative behaviour mediated by increased self-other merging. Thus, for the first time, a link between OT and motor simulation is demonstrated, providing a window into the role of OT in motoric aspects of social cognition.

  20. [Primary versus secondary stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Alvarez, E

    2004-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movements whose physiopathology and relations to other neurobehavioural disorders are still only poorly understood. In this paper our aim is to distinguish between primary stereotypic movements, which are the sole manifestation of an anomaly, while the complementary examinations, except for those involving molecular genetics, are normal; associated stereotypic movements, when they meet primary disorder criteria but there are other coexisting independent neurological signs, that is to say, they are neither the cause nor the consequence of the movement disorder; and secondary stereotypic movements, when they are the consequence of a lesion or acquired neurological dysfunction. Examples of primary stereotypic movements include episodes of parasomnia, such as head rocking, in subjects who are otherwise normal, and stereotypic movements due to emotional disorders, severe environmental deprivation or in institutionalised infants. Examples of associated stereotypic movements are those observed in Rett syndrome, in subjects with sensory defects or with mental retardation due to a variety of causes. And as instances of secondary stereotypic movements we have those that can be seen in infinite like syndrome caused by congenital cerebellar lesions. The purpose of the classification is to lay the foundations for the identification of new syndromes, which would without a doubt facilitate research into their physiopathology, their aetiology and the possible therapeutic attitude to be adopted.

  1. The Effect of an Eye Movement Recorder on Head Movements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    in several research settings. For example, the NAC Eye Mark (e Recorder system (an eye movement recorder that utilizes the cor- neal reflection...reported that the NAC system could be used with a large number of subjects and that normal eye movement patterns were not altered by the use of’ this...equipment (2,4); however, no mention has been made of the extent to which the NAC system alters normal head movement patterns. It has been shown that head

  2. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L.; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  3. Real Time 3D Facial Movement Tracking Using a Monocular Camera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanchao; Wang, Yanming; Yue, Jiguang; Hu, Zhencheng

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a robust framework for 3D facial movement tracking in real time using a monocular camera. It is designed to estimate the 3D face pose and local facial animation such as eyelid movement and mouth movement. The framework firstly utilizes the Discriminative Shape Regression method to locate the facial feature points on the 2D image and fuses the 2D data with a 3D face model using Extended Kalman Filter to yield 3D facial movement information. An alternating optimizing strategy is adopted to fit to different persons automatically. Experiments show that the proposed framework could track the 3D facial movement across various poses and illumination conditions. Given the real face scale the framework could track the eyelid with an error of 1 mm and mouth with an error of 2 mm. The tracking result is reliable for expression analysis or mental state inference. PMID:27463714

  4. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems.

  5. A Respiratory Movement Monitoring System Using Fiber-Grating Vision Sensor for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato

    2005-01-01

    A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ≤ 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan

  6. Jadidism as an Educational System and a Political Movement in Turkestan (Central Asia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldybekovich, Bazarbayev Kanat; Hazret, Tursun; Raikhan, Sadykova

    2013-01-01

    This article throws light upon the history of the national-progressive movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which is called Jadidism. The history of Jadidism and its evolution from enlightenment to a powerful political movement can be retraced in it. Jadidism became an alternative form of the intellectual renewal of Muslim society.…

  7. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  8. Automatic Robot Safety Shutdown System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lirette, M.

    1985-01-01

    Robot turned off if acceleration exceeds preset value. Signals from accelerometer on robot arm pass through filter and amplifier, eliminating high-frequency noise and hydraulic-pump pulsations. Data digitized and processed in computer. Unit controls other machines that perform repetitive movements, including rotary tables, tracked vehicles, conveyor lines, and elevators.

  9. Fetal movement and fetal presentation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamamuro, T

    1985-09-01

    Fetal movements were analyzed by means of ultrasonography in an attempt to clarify the causative factor of frank breech presentation. Fetal posture, position, presentation and movements, as well as posture of the extremities and the volume of amniotic cavity were analyzed by ultrasonography in 112 fetuses ranging from 12 to 42 weeks of gestation. There existed three different fetal states: inactivity; slow sporadic movements without changes of presentations; active whole body movements with changes of presentations. It appears likely that version of fetal presentation from breech to cephalic occurs as the fetus tries to accommodate itself to the shape of the uterus during the state of active whole body movements, and the frank breech presentation of the fetus might result when the whole body movements are weak or absent.

  10. Decoding intentions from movement kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    How do we understand the intentions of other people? There has been a longstanding controversy over whether it is possible to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements. Here, we show that indeed movement kinematics can form the basis for intention detection. By combining kinematics and psychophysical methods with classification and regression tree (CART) modeling, we found that observers utilized a subset of discriminant kinematic features over the total kinematic pattern in order to detect intention from observation of simple motor acts. Intention discriminability covaried with movement kinematics on a trial-by-trial basis, and was directly related to the expression of discriminative features in the observed movements. These findings demonstrate a definable and measurable relationship between the specific features of observed movements and the ability to discriminate intention, providing quantitative evidence of the significance of movement kinematics for anticipating others’ intentional actions. PMID:27845434

  11. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  12. Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Improve Pointing Efficiency with a Dual Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Chiang, Ming-Shan; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through a Dual Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (DCAPAP) with a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to intercept/detect mouse movement action). First,…

  13. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  14. Characteristics of a new automatic hail recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler-Mang, Martin; Schön, Dominik; Landry, Markus

    2011-06-01

    An automatic hail sensor was developed, based on signal production with microphones, a quick signal analysis and recording possibility. For this hail recorder (HARE) small piezo-electric microphones inside a Makrolon body are used to detect hailstones. The prototype has an octagonal shape, two microphones on the top and bottom plates situated in the middle of the device, and an electronic board. A hailstone striking the surface produces waves on the sensor body and a voltage in the piezo-electric microphones. Each hail event is stored in the internal memory including the time and date. The memory can be read out via a USB port at any time after one or more hail events. HARE was tested and calibrated with the help of a newly constructed pneumatic hail gun. The voltage signal at the top plate microphone of HARE increases linearly proportional to hailstone momentum, whereas at the bottom plate it increases linearly proportional to hailstone kinetic energy. For large hailstones the accuracy of HARE is in the order of 10%. Calibration of HARE is still in progress and it has not been tested in real hailfalls as yet. An online device as well as an autonomous one is available for a large number of possible applications. Lately there has been interest to use HARE at solar power plants in Southern Europe to prevent the expensive modules from becoming damaged. Perhaps HARE could also participate in new and existing hail observing networks.

  15. Physiology of Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary. PMID:20493708

  16. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  17. Preprosthetic movement of anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Melsen, B

    1982-05-01

    Preprosthetic movement of anterior teeth is often performed on patients with missing anterior teeth, providing a better basis for subsequent bridgework. This can often be achieved by horizontal tooth movements of a tipping or translatory art whilst other patients present problems of a vertical nature with a deep overbite inconsistent with a healthy periodontal status. Intrusive tooth movements are needed as changes in facial height are not tolerated. The importance of understanding the biological basis for tooth movements in the planning of the biomechanics is stressed. Forces should be monitored according to the amount of general and local bone loss.

  18. Automatic face detection and tracking based on Adaboost with camshift algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Long, JianFeng

    2011-10-01

    With the development of information technology, video surveillance is widely used in security monitoring and identity recognition. For most of pure face tracking algorithms are hard to specify the initial location and scale of face automatically, this paper proposes a fast and robust method to detect and track face by combining adaboost with camshift algorithm. At first, the location and scale of face is specified by adaboost algorithm based on Haar-like features and it will be conveyed to the initial search window automatically. Then, we apply camshift algorithm to track face. The experimental results based on OpenCV software yield good results, even in some special circumstances, such as light changing and face rapid movement. Besides, by drawing out the tracking trajectory of face movement, some abnormal behavior events can be analyzed.

  19. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  20. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  1. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  2. Realization of the ergonomics design and automatic control of the fundus cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chi-liang; Xiao, Ze-xin; Deng, Shi-chao; Yu, Xin-ye

    2012-12-01

    The principles of ergonomics design in fundus cameras should be extending the agreeableness by automatic control. Firstly, a 3D positional numerical control system is designed for positioning the eye pupils of the patients who are doing fundus examinations. This system consists of a electronically controlled chin bracket for moving up and down, a lateral movement of binocular with the detector and the automatic refocusing of the edges of the eye pupils. Secondly, an auto-focusing device for the object plane of patient's fundus is designed, which collects the patient's fundus images automatically whether their eyes is ametropic or not. Finally, a moving visual target is developed for expanding the fields of the fundus images.

  3. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  4. Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration.

    PubMed

    Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ≤13 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ≤17 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤ 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages.

  5. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  6. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  7. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  8. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  9. [Mechanisms of inhibition of viral replication in plants]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Progress is described concerning genetic mapping CMV movement genes for CMV coat protein in squash and ToMV gene in tomato. These gene products appear to be involved in resistance to squash and tomato mosaic viruses respectively.

  10. Automatic interpretation of digital maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Volker; Luo, Fen

    In the past, the availability and/or the acquisition of spatial data were often the main problems of the realization of spatial applications. Meanwhile this situation has changed: on one hand, comprehensive spatial datasets already exist and on the other hand, new sensor technologies have the ability to capture fast and with high quality large amounts of spatial data. More and more responsible for the increasing accessibility of spatial data are also collaborative mapping techniques which enable users to create maps by themselves and to make them available in the internet. However, the potential of this diversity of spatial data can only hardly be utilized. Especially maps in the internet are represented very often only with graphical elements and no explicit information about the map's scale, extension and content is available. Nevertheless, humans are able to extract this information and to interpret maps. For example, it is possible for a human to distinguish between rural and industrial areas only by looking at the objects' geometries. Furthermore, a human can easily identify and group map objects that belong together. Also the type, scale and extension of a map can be identified under certain conditions only by looking at the objects' geometries. All these examples can be subsumed under the term "map interpretation". In this paper it is discussed how map interpretation can be automated and how automatic map interpretation can be used in order to support other processes. The different kinds of automatic map interpretation are discussed and two approaches are shown in detail.

  11. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 μm and 189+/-34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  12. Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B A; Sansonetti, C J; Andrew, K L

    1978-08-01

    A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The accuracy attained is superior to that of an experienced operator using a semiautomatic comparator with a photoelectric setting device. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The software which controls the system embodies three innovations of special interest. (1) Data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to separate unknown from standard lines, to eliminate spurious lines, to identify blends of unknown with standard lines, to improve the accuracy of the measured positions, and to flag lines which require special examination. (2) Two classes of lines are automatically recognized and appropriate line finding methods are applied to each. This provides precision measurement for both simple and complex line profiles. (3) Wavelength determination using a least-squares fitted grating equation is supported in addition to polynomial interpolation. This is most useful in spectral regions with sparsely distributed standards. The principles and implementation of these techniques are fully described.

  13. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  14. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol(-1) and A=3 x 10(44) s(-1). Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162 ± 34 μm and 189 ± 34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  15. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  16. Automatic visible watermarking of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Braudaway, Gordon W.; Mintzer, Frederick C.

    1998-04-01

    Visible image watermarking has become an important and widely used technique to identify ownership and protect copyrights to images. A visible image watermark immediately identifies the owner of an image, and if properly constructed, can deter subsequent unscrupulous use of the image. The insertion of a visible watermark should satisfy two conflicting conditions: the intensity of the watermark should be strong enough to be perceptible, yet it should be light enough to be unobtrusive and not mar the beauty of the original image. Typically such an adjustment is made manually, and human intervention is required to set the intensity of the watermark at the right level. This is fine for a few images, but is unsuitable for a large collection of images. Thus, it is desirable to have a technique to automatically adjust the intensity of the watermark based on some underlying property of each image. This will allow a large number of images to be automatically watermarked, this increasing the throughput of the watermarking stage. In this paper we show that the measurement of image texture can be successfully used to automate the adjustment of watermark intensity. A linear regression model is used to predict subjective assessments of correct watermark intensity based on image texture measurements.

  17. A Review on Automatic Mammographic Density and Parenchymal Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R. E.; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. However, the exact cause(s) of breast cancer still remains unknown. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective way to tackle breast cancer. There are more than 70 common genetic susceptibility factors included in the current non-image-based risk prediction models (e.g., the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick models). Image-based risk factors, such as mammographic densities and parenchymal patterns, have been established as biomarkers but have not been fully incorporated in the risk prediction models used for risk stratification in screening and/or measuring responsiveness to preventive approaches. Within computer aided mammography, automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methods have been developed for estimation of breast tissue composition to facilitate mammographic risk assessment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methodologies developed over the past two decades and the evidence for risk assessment/density classification using segmentation. The aim of this review is to analyse how engineering advances have progressed and the impact automatic mammographic tissue segmentation has in a clinical environment, as well as to understand the current research gaps with respect to the incorporation of image-based risk factors in non-image-based risk prediction models. PMID:26171249

  18. On biometrics with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2016-04-07

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In the present article, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  19. Self-adaptive robot training of stroke survivors for continuous tracking movements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although robot therapy is progressively becoming an accepted method of treatment for stroke survivors, few studies have investigated how to adapt the robot/subject interaction forces in an automatic way. The paper is a feasibility study of a novel self-adaptive robot controller to be applied with continuous tracking movements. Methods The haptic robot Braccio di Ferro is used, in relation with a tracking task. The proposed control architecture is based on three main modules: 1) a force field generator that combines a non linear attractive field and a viscous field; 2) a performance evaluation module; 3) an adaptive controller. The first module operates in a continuous time fashion; the other two modules operate in an intermittent way and are triggered at the end of the current block of trials. The controller progressively decreases the gain of the force field, within a session, but operates in a non monotonic way between sessions: it remembers the minimum gain achieved in a session and propagates it to the next one, which starts with a block whose gain is greater than the previous one. The initial assistance gains are chosen according to a minimal assistance strategy. The scheme can also be applied with closed eyes in order to enhance the role of proprioception in learning and control. Results The preliminary results with a small group of patients (10 chronic hemiplegic subjects) show that the scheme is robust and promotes a statistically significant improvement in performance indicators as well as a recalibration of the visual and proprioceptive channels. The results confirm that the minimally assistive, self-adaptive strategy is well tolerated by severely impaired subjects and is beneficial also for less severe patients. Conclusions The experiments provide detailed information about the stability and robustness of the adaptive controller of robot assistance that could be quite relevant for the design of future large scale controlled clinical trials

  20. Neologistic speech automatisms during complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Bell, W L; Horner, J; Logue, P; Radtke, R A

    1990-01-01

    There are no documented cases of seizures causing reiterative neologistic speech automatisms. We report an 18-year-old right-handed woman with stereotypic ictal speech automatisms characterized by phonemic jargon and reiterative neologisms. Video-EEG during the reiterative neologisms demonstrated rhythmic delta activity, which was most prominent in the left posterior temporal region. At surgery, there was an arteriovenous malformation impinging on the left supramarginal gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Though intelligible speech automatisms can result from seizure foci in either hemisphere, neologistic speech automatisms may implicate a focus in the language-dominant hemisphere.

  1. "Are You an African?" The Politics of Self-Construction in Status-Based Social Movements.

    PubMed

    McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason

    2009-05-01

    Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.

  2. Uranus Cloud Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Time-lapse Voyager 2 images of Uranus show the movement of two small, bright, streaky clouds -- the first such features ever seen on the planet. The clouds were detected in this series of orange-filtered images taken Jan. 14, 1986, over a 4.6-hour interval (from top to bottom). At the time, the spacecraft was about 12.9 million kilometers (8.0 million miles) from the planet, whose pole of rotation is near the center of each disk. Uranus, which is tipped on its side with respect to the other planets, is rotating in a counterclockwise direction, as are the two clouds seen here as bright streaks. (The occasional donut-shaped features that show up are shadows cast by dust in the camera optics. The processing necessary to bring out the faint features on the planet also brings out these camera blemishes.) The larger of the two clouds is at a latitude of 33 degrees; the smaller cloud, seen faintly in the three lower images, lies at 26 degrees (a lower latitude and hence closer to the limb). Their counterclockwise periods of rotation are 16.2 and 16.9 hours, respectively. This difference implies that the lower-latitude feature is lagging behind the higher-latitude feature at a speed of almost 100 meters per second (220 mph). Latitudinal bands are also visible in these images. The faint bands, more numerous now than in previous Voyager images from longer range, are concentric with the pole of rotation -- that is, they circle the planet in lines of constant latitude. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  4. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  5. Implantable acoustic-beacon automatic fish-tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhue, R. J.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.; Richards, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A portable automatic fish tracking system was developed for monitoring the two dimensional movements of small fish within fixed areas of estuarine waters and lakes. By using the miniature pinger previously developed for this application, prototype tests of the system were conducted in the York River near the Virginia Institute of Marine Science with two underwater listening stations. Results from these tests showed that the tracking system could position the miniature pinger signals to within + or - 2.5 deg and + or - 135 m at ranges up to 2.5 km. The pingers were implanted in small fish and were successfully tracked at comparable ranges. No changes in either fish behavior or pinger performance were observed as a result of the implantation. Based on results from these prototype tests, it is concluded that the now commercially available system provides an effective approach to underwater tracking of small fish within a fixed area of interest.

  6. Building a Social Movement for Education in England: Policy and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the programmatic and strategic choices facing the progressive and left movement in education after the May general election. It draws a critical balance sheet of the education policies in Labour's election manifesto and of the strategy of attempting to influence them in a more progressive direction. An analysis of the…

  7. Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

  8. Automatic detection of diseased regions in knee cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Arish A.; Dam, Erik B.; Olsen, Ole F.; Nielsen, Mads; Christiansen, Claus

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation. A central problem in clinical trials is quantification of progression and early detection of the disease. The accepted standard for evaluating OA progression is to measure the joint space width from radiographs however; there the cartilage is not visible. Recently cartilage volume and thickness measures from MRI are becoming popular, but these measures don't account for the biochemical changes undergoing in the cartilage before cartilage loss even occurs and therefore are not optimal for early detection of OA. As a first step, we quantify cartilage homogeneity (computed as the entropy of the MR intensities) from 114 automatically segmented medial compartments of tibial cartilage sheets from Turbo 3D T 1 sequences, from subjects with no, mild or severe OA symptoms. We show that homogeneity is a more sensitive technique than volume quantification for detecting early OA and for separating healthy individuals from diseased. During OA certain areas of the cartilage are affected more and it is believed that these are the load-bearing regions located at the center of the cartilage. Based on the homogeneity framework we present an automatic technique that partitions the region on the cartilage that contributes to maximum homogeneity discrimination. These regions however, are more towards the noncentral regions of the cartilage. Our observation will provide valuable clues to OA research and may lead to improving treatment efficacy.

  9. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  10. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  11. "The Civil Rights Movement of the 1990s?": The anti-abortion movement and the struggle for racial justice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    In 1964, Claude and Jeanne Nolen, who were white, joined an interracial NAACP team intent on desegregating local restaurants in Austin, Texas as a test of the recently passed Civil Rights ACt. Twenty-five years later, the Nolens pleaded "no contest" in a courtroom for their continued social activism. This time the issue was not racial segregation, but rather criminal trespassing for blockading abortion clinics with Operation Rescue. The Nolens served prison sentences for direct action protests that they believe stemmed from the same commitment to Christianity and social justice as the civil rights movements. Despite its relationship to political and cultural conservatism, the anti-abortion movement since Roe v. Wade (1973) was also a product of the progressive social movements of the turbulent sixties. Utilizing oral history interviews and organizational literature, the article explores the historical context of the anti-abortion movement, specifically how the lengthy struggle for racial justice shaped the rhetoric, tactics, and ideology of the anti-abortion activists. Even after political conservatives dominated the movement in the 1980s, the successes and failures of the sixties provided a cultural lens through which grassroots anti-abortion activists forged what was arguably the largest movement of civil disobedience in American history.

  12. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  13. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  14. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  15. Automatic inspection of leather surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Niel, Albert

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the key elements of a system for detecting quality defects on leather surfaces. The inspection task must treat defects like scars, mite nests, warts, open fissures, healed scars, holes, pin holes, and fat folds. The industrial detection of these defects is difficult because of the large dimensions of the leather hides (2 m X 3 m), and the small dimensions of the defects (150 micrometers X 150 micrometers ). Pattern recognition approaches suffer from the fact that defects are hidden on an irregularly textured background, and can be hardly seen visually by human graders. We describe the methods tested for automatic classification using image processing, which include preprocessing, local feature description of texture elements, and final segmentation and grading of defects. We conclude with a statistical evaluation of the recognition error rate, and an outlook on the expected industrial performance.

  16. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  17. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  18. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  19. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  20. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  1. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  2. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  3. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  4. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.

  5. Movement disorders in systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian-Tehrani, Atbin

    2015-02-01

    Movement disorders, classically involving dysfunction of the basal ganglia commonly occur in neurodegenerative and structural brain disorders. At times, however, movement disorders can be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In this article we discuss the most common movement disorders which may present in infectious, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, metabolic and endocrine diseases. Management often has to be multidisciplinary involving primary care physicians, neurologists, allied health professionals including nurses, occupational therapists and less frequently neurosurgeons. Recognizing and treating the underlying systemic disease is important in order to improve the neurological symptoms.

  6. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  7. Automatic trajectory clustering for generating ground truth data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehrmann, Julia; Heidemann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach towards the creation of vision based recognition tasks. A lot of domain specific recognition systems have been presented in the past which make use of the large amounts of available video data. The creation of ground truth data sets for the training of theses systems remains difficult and tiresome. We present a system which automatically creates clusters of 2D trajectories. The results of this clustering can then be used to perform the actual labeling of the data, or rather the selection of events or features of interest by the user. The selected clusters can be used as positive training data for a user defined recognition task - without the need to adapt the system. The proposed technique reduces the necessary user interaction and allows the creation of application independent ground truth data sets with minimal effort. In order to achieve the automatic clustering we have developed a distance metric based on the Hidden Markov Model representations of three sequences - movement, speed and orientation - derived from the initial trajectory. The proposed system yields promising results and could prove to be an important steps towards mining very large data sets.

  8. Design and Fabrication of Automatic Glass Cutting Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, T. R.; Kadadevaramath, R. S.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Madhusudhan, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the automatic glass or mirror cutting machine. In order to increase the accuracy of cut and production rate; and decrease the production time and accidents caused due to manual cutting of mirror or glass, this project aims at development of an automatic machine which uses a programmable logic controller (PLC) for controlling the movement of the conveyer and also to control the pneumatic circuit. In this machine, the work of the operator is to load and unload the mirror. The cutter used in this machine is carbide wheel with its cutting edge ground to a V-shaped profile. The PLC controls the pneumatic cylinder and intern actuates the cutter along the glass, a fracture layer is formed causing a mark to be formed below the fracture layer and a crack to be formed below the rib mark. The machine elements are designed using CATIA V5R20 and pneumatic circuit are designed using FESTO FLUID SIM software.

  9. Pattern Recognition For Automatic Visual Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, K. S.

    1982-11-01

    Three major approaches to pattern recognition, (1) template matching, (2) decision-theoretic approach, and (3) structural and syntactic approach, are briefly introduced. The application of these approaches to automatic visual inspection of manufactured products are then reviewed. A more general method for automatic visual inspection of IC chips is then proposed. Several practical examples are included for illustration.

  10. Integrating Automatic Genre Analysis into Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauber, Andreas; Muller-Kogler, Alexander

    With the number and types of documents in digital library systems increasing, tools for automatically organizing and presenting the content have to be found. While many approaches focus on topic-based organization and structuring, hardly any system incorporates automatic structural analysis and representation. Yet, genre information…

  11. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  12. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  13. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  14. Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010388 TITLE: Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10378 thru ADPO10397 UNCLASSIFIED 69 TOWARDS MULTILINGUAL INTEROPERABILITY IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH...communication, we address multilingual interoperability (DARPA) [39, 5, 12, 40, 14, 43]. aspects in speech recognition. After giving a tentative

  15. Prospects for Automatic Recognition of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houde, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses problems with the development of technology permitting simultaneous automatic captioning of speech. It is concluded that success with a machine which will provide automatic recognition of speech is still many years in the future. (PHR)

  16. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be present when an automated unicom is in operation. (b) Unicoms operating in an automated mode must...

  17. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  18. An Experiment in Automatic Hierarchical Document Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Describes method of automatic document classification in which documents classed as QA by Library of Congress classification system were clustered at six thresholds by keyword using single link technique. Automatically generated clusters were compared to Library of Congress subclasses, and partial classified hierarchy was formed. Twelve references…

  19. Progressive supranuclear palsy: progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Weigand, Stephen D; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Hassan, Anhar; Eggers, Scott D; Höglinger, Günter U; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by postural instability and falls, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with poor levodopa response, pseudobulbar palsy, and frontal release signs. The natural history of the disease has been previously described. However, the time frame of appearance of clinical milestones and how these symptoms may relate to survival in PSP are unknown. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different stages of PSP and to estimate the time of appearance of clinical symptoms characteristic of the disease. Second, we determined the association between clinical symptoms and survival. We prospectively studied 35 PSP patients during assessments scheduled every 6 months for up to 2 years. We estimated symptoms prevalence and the association between symptoms and survival. The median age of onset was 65.9 years (IQR 60.6-70.0), and the median time from onset to first assessment was 3.0 years (IQR 2.4-3.9). The most commonly reported symptoms at baseline were: motor (100%) followed by cognitive/behavioral (89%), systemic and bulbar (80%), and sleep disturbances (60%). Slowness of movement, falls, neck stiffness and difficulty looking up/down had high prevalence from baseline, while balance and gait impairment were less common at baseline but increased in prevalence over time. The presence of sleep disturbances, and possibly hallucinations, was associated with increased death risk. Improved recognition of the clinical spectrum and milestones of PSP advances knowledge of the disease, helps earlier diagnosis, and allows prognostic predictions.

  20. A rehabilitation training system with double-CCD camera and automatic spatial positioning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Wei, Tzu-Chi; Lu, An-Tsung; Hung, San-Shan; Chen, Wei-Lung; Chang, Chia-Chang

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a computer game for machine vision integrated rehabilitation training system. The main function of the system is to allow users to conduct hand grasp-and-place movement through machine vision integration. Images are captured by a double-CCD camera, and then positioned on a large screen. After defining the right, left, upper, and lower boundaries of the captured images, an automatic spatial positioning technique is employed to obtain their correlation functions, and lookup tables are defined for cameras. This system can provide rehabilitation courses and games that allow users to exercise grasp-and-place movements, in order to improve their upper limb movement control, trigger trunk control, and balance training.

  1. Skilled forelimb movements and internal copy motor circuits.

    PubMed

    Azim, Eiman; Alstermark, Bror

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian skilled forelimb movements are remarkable in their precision, a feature that emerges from the continuous adjustment of motor output. Here we discuss recent progress in bridging the gap between theory and neural implementation in understanding the basis of forelimb motor refinement. One influential theory is that feedback from internal copy motor pathways enables fast prediction, through a forward model of the limb, an idea supported by behavioral studies that have explored how forelimb movements are corrected online and can adapt to changing conditions. In parallel, neural substrates of forelimb internal copy pathways are coming into clearer focus, in part through the use of genetically tractable animal models to isolate spinal and cerebellar circuits and explore their contributions to movement.

  2. The lesbian rights movement and feminism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park-Kim, Soo Jin; Lee-Kim, Soo Youn; Kwon-Lee, Eun Jung

    2006-01-01

    The lesbians' rights movement in South Korea has undertaken various projects for solidarity with feminist movement groups for over 10 years. In spite of these efforts, lesbian issues have been blatantly excluded from all the agendas of women's rights. The same thing has happened in Women's Studies. Some feminists express homophobic thoughts without understanding the reality of lesbians, and other young scholars take on a lesbian identity temporarily as a sign of being progressive and liberated; in neither situation are they committed to dealing with the oppression of lesbians or seeing lesbian rights as a feminist concern. In order to further lesbian rights there are two strategies possible: forming a movement only for lesbians or forming solidarity with feminists. In the latter case, a concern about lesbian rights will help achieve the goals of a true feminism as patriarchy is built upon heterosexism. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_11.

  3. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  4. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  5. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements of one side of the body are mirrored by involuntary movements ...

  7. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  8. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  9. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  10. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  11. Special Education as a Social Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, M. Stephen; Smith, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Social movements are defined, the extent to which special education fits common definitions of social movements is assessed, and the life cycle of social movements is examined with particular focus on implications for special education. (Author)

  12. Emergence and Development of Bulgaria's Environmental Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Uday; Snavely, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's environmental movement played a role in ending communist rule, but environmental issues were not completely resolved. Social movements may never achieve their objectives in totality but instead enter a new cycle of the movement. (SK)

  13. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies.

  14. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  15. Phosphodiesterases: Regulators of cyclic nucleotide signals and novel molecular target for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Kumar, Kushal; Deshmukh, Rahul; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2013-08-15

    Movement disorders rank among the most common neurological disorders. During the last two decades substantial progress has been made in understanding of the pathological basis of these disorders. Although, several mechanisms have been proposed, downregulation of cyclic nucleotide mediated signaling cascade has consistently been shown to contribute to the striatal dysfunctioning as seen in movement disorders. Thus, counteracting dysregulated cyclic nucleotide signaling has been considered to be beneficial in movement disorders. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of cyclic nucleotides and upregulation in PDE activity has been reported in various movement disorders. Thus, PDE inhibition is considered to be a novel strategy to restore cerebral cyclic nucleotide levels and their downstream signalling cascade. Indeed, various PDE inhibitors have been tested pre-clinically and were reported to be neuroprotective in various neurodegenerative disorders associated with movement disabilities. In this review, we have discussed a putative role of PDE inhibitors in movement disorders and associated abnormalities.

  16. Surgically treated movement disorders associated with heterotopia: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Jeffrey P; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Lee, Kendall H; Meyer, Fredric B; Stead, Matt

    2010-09-01

    Heterotopic gray matter has been implicated in epilepsy; however, not much is known regarding heterotopia beyond epilepsy. Here, the authors describe 2 pediatric patients with deep heterotopias contiguous with basal ganglia structures. These heterotopias appear to have manifested as movement disorders. One patient presented with a left-sided myoclonus and choreiform movements associated with a right caudate heterotopia; she experienced vast improvement after resection of periventricular heterotopia. The other patient presented with progressive dystonia and a ballistic movement disorder. Initial bilateral globus pallidus internus stimulation resulted in successful treatment of the dystonia; however, her movement disorder worsened. After an extensive workup, including STATISCOM (statistical ictal SPECT coregistered to MR imaging), the patient underwent cortical stimulation with improvement in her movement disorder. To the best of our knowledge, these cases are the first reported instances of heterotopic gray matter associated with movement disorders. Both patients experienced significant improvements following resection of their heterotopias.

  17. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  18. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  19. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  20. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal points that attract the animal's movements. (ii) Memory-based models are used to predict how accumulated experience translates into biased movement choices, employing reinforced random walk behaviour, with previous visitation increasing or decreasing the probability of repetition. (iii) Lévy movement involves a step-length distribution that is over-dispersed, relative to standard probability distributions, and adaptive in exploring new environments or searching for rare targets. Each of these modelling arenas implies more detail in the movement pattern than general models of movement can accommodate, but realistic empiric evaluation of their predictions requires dense locational data, both in time and space, only available with modern GPS telemetry. PMID:20566497

  1. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  2. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space–time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

  3. A quantitative analysis of the submentalis muscle electromyographic amplitude during rapid eye movement sleep across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Fulda, Stephany; Zucconi, Marco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    The current definition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia has no quantitative character, and cut-off values above which the level of electromyographic tone can be considered to be 'excessive' are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of chin electromyographic amplitude by means of an automatic approach in a large group of normal controls, subdivided into different age groups. Eighty-eight normal controls were included, subdivided into six age groups: preschoolers (≤6 years); schoolers (6-10 years); preadolescents (10-13 years); young adults (24-40 years); middle-aged (58-65 years); and old (>65 years). The average amplitude of the rectified submentalis muscle electromyographic signal was used for the computation of the REM sleep Atonia Index. Chin muscle activations were detected, and their amplitude, duration and interval analysed. REM sleep Atonia Index showed a progressive and rapid increase from the preschool age to school and preadolescent age, reaching the maximum in the young adult group; after this age a small decline was observed in the middle-aged and old subjects. Conversely, the number of movements per hour in REM sleep showed a 'U'-shaped distribution across these age groups, with the minimum in the preadolescent group and the two extremes (preschool age and old) showing similar average levels of activity. Our results show that REM sleep atonia develops continuously during the lifespan, and undergoes complex changes with different developmental trajectories for REM atonia and electromyographic activations during REM sleep. Different mechanisms might subserve these two phenomena and their differential developmental dynamics.

  4. Full-body gestures and movements recognition: user descriptive and unsupervised learning approaches in GDL classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachaj, Tomasz; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2014-09-01

    Gesture Description Language (GDL) is a classifier that enables syntactic description and real time recognition of full-body gestures and movements. Gestures are described in dedicated computer language named Gesture Description Language script (GDLs). In this paper we will introduce new GDLs formalisms that enable recognition of selected classes of movement trajectories. The second novelty is new unsupervised learning method with which it is possible to automatically generate GDLs descriptions. We have initially evaluated both proposed extensions of GDL and we have obtained very promising results. Both the novel methodology and evaluation results will be described in this paper.

  5. Automatic extraction and tracking of the tongue contours.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Y S; Kambhamettu, C; Stone, M

    1999-10-01

    Computerized analysis of the tongue surface movement can provide valuable information to speech and swallowing research. Ultrasound technology is currently the most attractive modality for the tongue imaging mainly because of its high video frame rate. However, problems with ultrasound imaging, such as noise and echo artifacts, refractions, and unrelated reflections pose significant challenges for computer analysis of the tongue images and hence specific methods must be developed. This paper presents a system that is developed for automatic extraction and tracking of the tongue surface movements from ultrasound image sequences. The ultrasound images are supplied by the head and transducer support system (HATS), which was developed in order to fix the head and support the transducer under the chin in a known position without disturbing speech. In this work, we propose a novel scheme for the analysis of the tongue images using deformable contours. We incorporate novel mechanisms to 1) impose speech related constraints on the deformations; 2) perform spatiotemporal smoothing using a contour postprocessing stage; 3) utilize optical flow techniques to speed up the search process; and 4) propagate user supplied information to the analysis of all image frames. We tested the system's performance qualitatively and quantitatively in consultation with speech scientists. Our system produced contours that are within the range of manual measurement variations. The results of our system are extremely encouraging and the system can be used in practical speech and swallowing research in the field of otolaryngology.

  6. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    PubMed

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  7. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  8. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease.

  9. Stability and Control of Constrained Three-Dimensional Robotic Systems with Application to Bipedal Postural Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Hichem

    Three classes of postural adjustments are investigated with the view of a better understanding of the control mechanisms involved in human movement. The control mechanisms and responses of human or computer models to deliberately induced disturbances in postural adjustments are the focus of this dissertation. The classes of postural adjustments are automatic adjustments, (i.e. adjustments not involving voluntary deliberate movement), adjustments involving imposition of constraints for the purpose of maintaining support forces, and adjustments involving violation and imposition of constraints for the purpose of maintaining balance, (i.e. taking one or more steps). For each class, based on the physiological attributes of the control mechanisms in human movements, control strategies are developed to synthesize the desired postural response. The control strategies involve position and velocity feedback control, on line relegation control, and pre-stored trajectory control. Stability analysis for constrained and unconstrained maneuvers is carried out based on Lyapunov stability theorems. The analysis is based on multi-segment biped robots. Depending on the class of postural adjustments, different biped models are developed. An eight-segment three dimensional biped model is formulated for the study of automatic adjustments and adjustments for balance. For the study of adjustments for support, a four segment lateral biped model is considered. Muscle synergies in automatic adjustments are analyzed based on a three link six muscle system. The muscle synergies considered involve minimal muscle number and muscle co-activation. The role of active and passive feedback in these automatic adjustments is investigated based on the specified stiffness and damping of the segments. The effectiveness of the control strategies and the role of muscle synergies in automatic adjustments are demonstrated by a number of digital computer simulations.

  10. Automatic transmission for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Sakakibara, S.

    1989-06-27

    An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft with an input end and an output end and an overdrive mechanism of planetary gear type having a reduction ratio smaller than 1, the input shaft and the output shaft of the auxiliary transmission being located close to and on the side of the hydraulic torque converter with respect to the auxiliary transmission, respectively, and being coupled with a planetary gear carrier and a ring gear of the overdrive mechanism, respectively, a one-way clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a sun gear of the overdrive mechanism, a clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a position radially and outwardly of the one-way clutch for engaging the disengaging the planetary carrier and the sun gear, a brake being provided between the transmission housing and the sun gear and positioned radially and outwardly of the clutch for controlling engagement of the sun gear with a stationary portion of the transmission housing, and the output end of the output shaft being disposed between the auxiliary transmission mechanism and the hydraulic torque converter.

  11. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  12. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, F. M.

    1986-05-01

    This thesis presents an algorithm for one-dimensional compaction of VLSI layouts. It differs from older methods in treating wires not as objects to be moved, but as constraints on the positions of other circuit components. These constraints are determined for each wiring layer using the theory of planar routing. Assuming that the wiring layers can be treated independently, the algorithm minimizes the width of a layout, automatically inserting as many jogs in wires as necessary. It runs in time 0(n4) on input of size n. Several heuristics are suggested for improving the algorithm's practical performance. The compaction algorithm takes as input a data structure called a sketch, which explicitly distinguishes between flexible components (wires) and rigid components (modules). The algorithm first finds constraints on the positions of modules that ensure enough space is left for wires. Next, it solves the system of constraints by a standard graph-theoretic technique, obtaining a placement for the modules. It then relies on a single-layer router to restore the wires to each circuit layer. An efficient single-layer router is already known; it is able to minimize the length of every wire, though not the number of jogs. As given, the compaction algorithm applies only to a VLSI model that requires wires to run a rectilinear grid. This restriction is needed only because the theory of planar routing (and single-layer routers) has not yet been extended to other models.

  13. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, E. M.

    1986-11-01

    This thesis presents an algorithm for one-dimensional compaction of VLSI layouts. It differs from older methods in treating wires not as objects to be moved, but as constraints on the positions of other circuit components. These constraints are determined for each wiring layer using the theory of planar routing. Assuming that the wiring layers can be treated independently, the algorithm minimizes the width of a layout, automatically inserting as many jogs in wires as necessary. It runs in time O(n4) on input of size n. Several heuristics are suggested for improving the algorithm's practical performance. The compaction algorithm takes as input a data structure called a sketch, which explicitly distinguished between flexible components (wires) and rigid components (modules). The algorithms first finds constraints on the positions of modules that ensure enough space is left for wires. Next, it solves the system of constraints by a standard graph-theoretic technique, obtaining a placement for the modules. It then relies on a single-layer router to restore the wires to each circuit layer.

  14. Automatic image cropping for republishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatle, Phil

    2010-02-01

    Image cropping is an important aspect of creating aesthetically pleasing web pages and repurposing content for different web or printed output layouts. Cropping provides both the possibility of improving the composition of the image, and also the ability to change the aspect ratio of the image to suit the layout design needs of different document or web page formats. This paper presents a method for aesthetically cropping images on the basis of their content. Underlying the approach is a novel segmentation-based saliency method which identifies some regions as "distractions", as an alternative to the conventional "foreground" and "background" classifications. Distractions are a particular problem with typical consumer photos found on social networking websites such as FaceBook, Flickr etc. Automatic cropping is achieved by identifying the main subject area of the image and then using an optimization search to expand this to form an aesthetically pleasing crop. Evaluation of aesthetic functions like auto-crop is difficult as there is no single correct solution. A further contribution of this paper is an automated evaluation method which goes some way towards handling the complexity of aesthetic assessment. This allows crop algorithms to be easily evaluated against a large test set.

  15. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  16. Automatic Machine For Spin Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Pais, Cassiano P.; Prina, Rogerio

    1989-01-01

    One of the bottle necks of the defence industry is the fuze testing. This task must be performed twice for each fuze. It is a 100% test, since all the fuzes must pass two tests. The arming test is performed at an high rotation speed, and it is necessary to guarantee that a minimum diameter is open. The non arming speed must guarantee that a too small aperture has not happened. The usual way to test the fuzes is the visual inspection by experienced operators. This method presents several problems and is always possible to have some faults. To solve this problem, it was developed a special purpose machine to perform this task in a completely automated way. The results of this development are presented in this paper. The optical system which incorporates a laser and the interface with the mechanics of the machine are analysed. The prototype is installed at INDEP and being used for the automatic testing of the fuzes. A description of the optical system and its characteristics are presented in detail.

  17. Automatic panoramic thermal integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail A.; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga N.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, the US Army has recognized the advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution: increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in support of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to improve situational awareness (SA) in many defense and offensive operations, as well as serve as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The ViperView is as an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS sensor suite include ancillary sensors, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

  18. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  19. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  20. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  1. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  2. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  3. Automatic Detection of Single Fluorophores in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mashanov, G. I.; Molloy, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in light microscopy enable individual fluorophores to be observed in aqueous conditions. Biological molecules, labeled with a single fluorophore, can be localized as isolated spots of light when viewed by optical microscopy. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy greatly reduces background fluorescence and allows single fluorophores to be observed inside living cells. This advance in live-cell imaging means that the spatial and temporal dynamics of individual molecules can be measured directly. Because of the stochastic nature of single molecule behavior a statistically meaningful number of individual molecules must be detected and their separate trajectories in space and time stored and analyzed. Here, we describe digital image processing methods that we have devised for automatic detection and tracking of hundreds of molecules, observed simultaneously, in vitro and within living cells. Using this technique we have measured the diffusive behavior of pleckstrin homology domains bound to phosphoinositide phospholipids at the plasma membrane of live cultured mammalian cells. We found that mobility of these membrane-bound protein domains is dominated by mobility of the lipid molecule to which they are attached and is highly temperature dependent. Movement of PH domains isolated from the tail region of myosin-10 is consistent with a simple random walk, whereas, diffusion of intact PLC-δ1 shows behavior inconsistent with a simple random walk. Movement is rapid over short timescales but much slower at longer timescales. This anomalous behavior can be explained by movement being restricted to membrane regions of 0.7 μm diameter. PMID:17208981

  4. Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual’s overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000–2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999–2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r2 = 0.94 in WSC and r2 = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and

  5. Design and validation of a periodic leg movement detector.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual's overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000-2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999-2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r² = 0.94 in WSC and r² = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and high

  6. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  7. On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

  8. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  9. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy.

  10. A Theatre Movement Bibliography, 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lynne

    Reference materials that deal with various aspects of theater movement are grouped in this partially annotated bibliography under the following headings: anatomy, kinesiology, and physiology; combat and martial arts; integrated approaches to movement; mime; miscellaneous acting and movement approaches; movement notations systems; movement…

  11. Automated regional analysis of B-mode ultrasound images of skeletal muscle movement.

    PubMed

    Darby, John; Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Costen, Nicholas; Loram, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    To understand the functional significance of skeletal muscle anatomy, a method of quantifying local shape changes in different tissue structures during dynamic tasks is required. Taking advantage of the good spatial and temporal resolution of B-mode ultrasound imaging, we describe a method of automatically segmenting images into fascicle and aponeurosis regions and tracking movement of features, independently, in localized portions of each tissue. Ultrasound images (25 Hz) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were collected from eight participants during ankle joint rotation (2° and 20°), isometric contractions (1, 5, and 50 Nm), and deep knee bends. A Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker was used to identify and track any distinctive and persistent features within the image sequences. A velocity field representation of local movement was then found and subdivided between fascicle and aponeurosis regions using segmentations from a multiresolution active shape model (ASM). Movement in each region was quantified by interpolating the effect of the fields on a set of probes. ASM segmentation results were compared with hand-labeled data, while aponeurosis and fascicle movement were compared with results from a previously documented cross-correlation approach. ASM provided good image segmentations (<1 mm average error), with fully automatic initialization possible in sequences from seven participants. Feature tracking provided similar length change results to the cross-correlation approach for small movements, while outperforming it in larger movements. The proposed method provides the potential to distinguish between active and passive changes in muscle shape and model strain distributions during different movements/conditions and quantify nonhomogeneous strain along aponeuroses.

  12. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  13. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

  14. Chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements

    PubMed Central

    WADA, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts move toward weak light to increase photosynthetic efficiency, and migrate away from strong light to protect chloroplasts from photodamage and eventual cell death. These chloroplast behaviors were first observed more than 100 years ago, but the underlying mechanism has only recently been identified. Ideal plant materials, such as fern gametophytes for photobiological and cell biological approaches, and Arabidopsis thaliana for genetic analyses, have been used along with sophisticated methods, such as partial cell irradiation and time-lapse video recording under infrared light to study chloroplast movement. These studies have revealed precise chloroplast behavior, and identified photoreceptors, other relevant protein components, and novel actin filament structures required for chloroplast movement. In this review, our findings regarding chloroplast and nuclear movements are described. PMID:27840388

  15. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  16. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  17. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  18. Automatic program timing profiles with FTN4

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.

    1980-09-01

    Design of a scheme for producing execution timing profiles of FORTRAN programs automatically is proposed with a recommendation to implement it as an option to the compiler. An experimental implementation on the LBL 7600 is also described. 1 figure.

  19. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  20. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  1. Clinical evidence of the role of the cerebellum in the suppression of overt articulatory movements during reading. A study of reading in children and adolescents treated for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ait Khelifa-Gallois, N; Puget, S; Longaud, A; Laroussinie, F; Soria, C; Sainte-Rose, C; Dellatolas, G

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that the cerebellum is involved in reading acquisition and in particular in the progression from automatic grapheme-phoneme conversion to the internalization of speech required for silent reading. This idea is in line with clinical and neuroimaging data showing a cerebellar role in subvocal rehearsal for printed verbalizable material and with computational "internal models" of the cerebellum suggesting its role in inner speech (i.e. covert speech without mouthing the words). However, studies examining a possible cerebellar role in the suppression of articulatory movements during silent reading acquisition in children are lacking. Here, we report clinical evidence that the cerebellum plays a part in this transition. Reading performances were compared between a group of 17 paediatric patients treated for benign cerebellar tumours and a group of controls matched for age, gender, and parental socio-educational level. The patients scored significantly lower on all reading, but the most striking difference concerned silent reading, perfectly acquired by almost all controls, contrasting with 41 % of the patients who were unable to read any item silently. Silent reading was correlated with the Working Memory Index. The present findings converge with previous reports on an implication of the cerebellum in inner speech and in the automatization of reading. This cerebellar implication is probably not specific to reading, as it also seems to affect non-reading tasks such as counting.

  2. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.

    2006-10-31

    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  3. [Progressive anarthria: one case without lingual apraxia].

    PubMed

    Infante, J; Sánchez Guerra, M; Polo, J M; Carril, J M; Berciano, J; Oterino, A

    2000-05-01

    Progressive anarthria is a focal cortical degenerative disorder characterized by a profound, progressive alteration in speech without impairment in other cognitive domains. The first symptoms consist of an alteration in the articulation of speech producing telegraphic speech. The disorder invariably progress towards anarthria by deprogramming of the phonation and orolingual movements (bucophonetic apraxia). This type of apraxia is usually associated with orolinguofacial apraxia and it has been anatomofunctionally correlated with frontal opercular involvement of left predominance. The patient presented as progressive anarthria in the absence of manifest orolingual apraxia associated with a predominance of cortical atrophy in the right frontal operculum. This semiological dissociation emphasizes the importance of bucophonatory apraxia in the pathophysiology of progressive anarthria.

  4. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  5. Emotional automaticity is a matter of timing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Majestic, Catherine; Cheng, Xi; Schechter, Julia; Blair, R James

    2010-04-28

    There has been a long controversy concerning whether the amygdala's response to emotional stimuli is automatic or dependent on attentional load. Using magnoencephalography and an advanced beamformer source localization technique, we found that amygdala automaticity was a function of time: while early amygdala responding to emotional stimuli (40-140 ms) was unaffected by attentional load, later amygdala response (280-410 ms), subsequent to frontoparietal cortex activity, was modulated by attentional load.

  6. Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/03/2007 – 30/11/2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition 5a. CONTRACT...14. ABSTRACT: This project created, implemented, and evaluated distributed computational mechanisms for automating composition and scheduling of...Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition Edmund H. Durfee, University of Michigan 1. Project Objectives: This project’s objectives were to

  7. Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

  8. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  9. Movement Perception and Movement Production in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Shiffrar, Maggie; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether motor difficulties documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are related to compromised visual abilities, this study examined perception and movement in response to dynamic visual environments. Fourteen males with AS and 16 controls aged 7-23 completed measures of motor skills, postural response to optic flow, and visual…

  10. Rapid eye movement dependent central apnea with periodic leg movements.

    PubMed

    Yüceege, Melike; Fırat, Hikmet; Kuyucu, Mutlu; Ardıç, Sadık

    2013-04-01

    Central sleep apnea is a period of at least 10 s without airflow, during which no ventilatory effort is present. Most of the central apneas occur in Non-Rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Central apnea occuring in Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is extremely rare. We present our patient who had a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in another sleep center since 2003. His Auto Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine was disrupted so he admitted to our center to renew his machine and for daytime sleepiness while using his machine. The polysomnography revealed central apneas ending with respiratory arousals and periodic leg movements in rapid eye movement (REM) stage. We found no cause for central apneas. The patient benefited from servo ventilator therapy. We present this case as an unusual form of central apnea with the review of the literatures. Even the patients diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnea should be analyzed carefully. The diagnosis and the therapeutic approach may change in the favor of the patient.

  11. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  12. Movement disorders and MDMA abuse.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, James Allen; Wilcox, Aidee Herrera

    2009-06-01

    This article present the cases of two young men with chronic MDMA abuse who later developed movement disorders typical of the Parkinson's syndrome. It is worth noting that both men bought the presumed MDMA from the same illicit source. Potential risks of MDMA use and movement disorders are discussed. The risks inherent from contaminants and similar factors associated with illegal drug manufacture are discussed. The authors conclude that as long as nonpharmaceutical-grade MDMA is illicitly produced, health risks will be associated with its use.

  13. Automatic effects of no-go instructions.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Degryse, Jasper; Theeuwes, Marijke

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that stimulus-response mappings that have been instructed but never applied overtly before can lead to automatic response biases when they are irrelevant. In the present study, we investigated whether the same applies to no-go instructions, which relate a stimulus to a no-go response. The results of 2 experiments suggest that a no-go instruction that has never been practiced overtly before can automatically bias responding when it is irrelevant. In addition, the automatic effect of a no-go instruction was similar in size to the automatic effect of a go instruction. Finally, the automatic effect of an unpracticed no-go instruction tended to be larger than the automatic effect of an overtly practiced no-go instruction. We propose that (a) associations between a stimulus and the requirement to stop can be formed on the basis of instructions and without overt practice, (b) these associations may be functionally equivalent to associations formed on the basis of go instructions, and (c) overtly practiced no-go instructions and unpracticed no-go instructions are represented in different formats. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Smooth pursuit detection in binocular eye-tracking data with automatic video-based performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Linnéa; Nyström, Marcus; Ardö, Håkan; Åström, Kalle; Stridh, Martin

    2016-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers record binocular eye-tracking signals from participants viewing moving stimuli, but the majority of event-detection algorithms are monocular and do not consider smooth pursuit movements. The purposes of the present study are to develop an algorithm that discriminates between fixations and smooth pursuit movements in binocular eye-tracking signals and to evaluate its performance using an automated video-based strategy. The proposed algorithm uses a clustering approach that takes both spatial and temporal aspects of the binocular eye-tracking signal into account, and is evaluated using a novel video-based evaluation strategy based on automatically detected moving objects in the video stimuli. The binocular algorithm detects 98% of fixations in image stimuli compared to 95% when only one eye is used, while for video stimuli, both the binocular and monocular algorithms detect around 40% of smooth pursuit movements. The present article shows that using binocular information for discrimination of fixations and smooth pursuit movements is advantageous in static stimuli, without impairing the algorithm's ability to detect smooth pursuit movements in video and moving-dot stimuli. With an automated evaluation strategy, time-consuming manual annotations are avoided and a larger amount of data can be used in the evaluation process.

  15. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes

    PubMed Central

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes. PMID:28123801

  16. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  17. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  18. Structuring Lecture Videos by Automatic Projection Screen Localization and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Wang, Jue; Wang, Haoqian; Dai, Qionghai

    2015-06-01

    We present a fully automatic system for extracting the semantic structure of a typical academic presentation video, which captures the whole presentation stage with abundant camera motions such as panning, tilting, and zooming. Our system automatically detects and tracks both the projection screen and the presenter whenever they are visible in the video. By analyzing the image content of the tracked screen region, our system is able to detect slide progressions and extract a high-quality, non-occluded, geometrically-compensated image for each slide, resulting in a list of representative images that reconstruct the main presentation structure. Afterwards, our system recognizes text content and extracts keywords from the slides, which can be used for keyword-based video retrieval and browsing. Experimental results show that our system is able to generate more stable and accurate screen localization results than commonly-used object tracking methods. Our system also extracts more accurate presentation structures than general video summarization methods, for this specific type of video.

  19. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Anthony J. E.; Hughes, Andrew D.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development within BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  20. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Andrew D.; Moy, Anthony J. E.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development with BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  1. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  2. Automatic Laser Glare Suppression in Electro-Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ritt, Gunnar; Eberle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Progress in laser technology has led to very compact but nevertheless powerful laser sources. In the visible and near infrared spectral region, lasers of any wavelength can be purchased. Continuous wave laser sources pose an especially serious threat to the human eye and electro-optical sensors due to their high proliferation and easy availability. The manifold of available wavelengths cannot be covered by conventional safety measures like absorption or interference filters. We present a protection concept for electro-optical sensors to suppress dazzling in the visible spectral region. The key element of the concept is the use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) in combination with wavelength multiplexing. This approach allows selective spectral filtering in defined regions of interest in the scene. The system offers the possibility of automatic attenuation of dazzling laser radiation. PMID:25569754

  3. The Importance of Automaticity for Developing Expertise in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Flor, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students become automatic at reading sub-skills, the indicators that can be used to determine whether a student is automatic, and the psychological mechanisms that allow students to perform complex skills automatically. Discusses implications of automaticity research for teaching reading. (RS)

  4. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  5. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  9. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  14. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  15. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  17. Toward Social Movement Activist Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Rhoda Rae; Lipman, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we grapple with possibilities and dilemmas of activist scholarship in the struggle for education justice and political power. As activists and scholars, our social movement praxis seeks to produce knowledge that shifts the dominant neoliberal policy discourse, exposes racism inherent in neoliberal education policies, and supports…

  18. Movement Exploration and Locomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 23 materials for teaching movement exploration and locomotor skills to handicapped students at all educational levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS…

  19. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  20. Human Movement: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph R.

    The study of human movement is presented from an integrated perspective influenced by the fields of motor learning, experimental psychology, neuropsychology, kinesiology, biomechanics, and human factors engineering. The level of presentation is directed toward upperclass undergraduate and graduate students in physical education and others pursuing…

  1. An Analysis of Overcorrection Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Pamela; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results suggested that although overcorrection is a valuable technique in reducing stereotyped behavior in profoundly retarded adults, the overcorrection responses (e.g., restitutional acts, positive practice, functional movement training) may not increase in the absence of specific reinforcement contingencies. (DLS)

  2. Movement in the Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Briana

    2007-01-01

    Associating movement with specific musical concepts is a natural way for people to broaden their musical understanding. Kinesthetic exercises in the choral rehearsal strengthen vocal technique and musicianship skills and enhance artistic expression. This approach helps all types of learners because it focuses attention and promotes active…

  3. Connecting with New Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the emergence of unions and social movements which provide opportunities for adult educators in forwarding their adult literacy campaigns. The author describes the recent World Social Forum (WSF), held at the end of January in Porto Alegre, that provides ample opportunities for adult educators to make…

  4. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  5. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  6. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database.

  7. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life- ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life- ...

  8. TracMouse: A computer aided movement analysis script for the mouse inverted horizontal grid test

    PubMed Central

    Niewiadomski, W.; Palasz, E.; Skupinska, M.; Zylinski, M.; Steczkowska, M.; Gasiorowska, A.; Niewiadomska, G.; Riedel, G.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, detection and quantification of motor impairments is difficult. The traction test (inverted grid with mice clinging to the underside) currently has no objective rating system. We here developed and validated the semi-automatic MATLAB script TracMouse for unbiased detection of video-recorded movement patterns. High precision videos were analyzed by: (i) principal identification of anatomical paw details frame-by-frame by an experimentally blinded rater; (ii) automatic retrieval of proxies by TracMouse for individual paws. The basic states of Hold and Step were discriminated as duration and frequency, and these principle parameters were converted into static and dynamic endpoints and their discriminating power assessed in a dopaminergic lesion model. Relative to hind paws, forepaws performed ~4 times more steps, they were ~20% longer, and Hold duration was ~5 times shorter in normal C57Bl/6 mice. Thus, forepaw steps were classified as exploratory, hind paw movement as locomotive. Multiple novel features pertaining to paw sequence, step lengths and exploratory touches were accessible through TracMouse and revealed subtle Parkinsonian phenotypes. Novel proxies using TracMouse revealed previously unidentified features of movement and may aid the understanding of (i) brain circuits related to motor planning and execution, and (ii) phenotype detection in experimental models of movement disorders. PMID:27982134

  9. TracMouse: A computer aided movement analysis script for the mouse inverted horizontal grid test.

    PubMed

    Niewiadomski, W; Palasz, E; Skupinska, M; Zylinski, M; Steczkowska, M; Gasiorowska, A; Niewiadomska, G; Riedel, G

    2016-12-16

    In rodents, detection and quantification of motor impairments is difficult. The traction test (inverted grid with mice clinging to the underside) currently has no objective rating system. We here developed and validated the semi-automatic MATLAB script TracMouse for unbiased detection of video-recorded movement patterns. High precision videos were analyzed by: (i) principal identification of anatomical paw details frame-by-frame by an experimentally blinded rater; (ii) automatic retrieval of proxies by TracMouse for individual paws. The basic states of Hold and Step were discriminated as duration and frequency, and these principle parameters were converted into static and dynamic endpoints and their discriminating power assessed in a dopaminergic lesion model. Relative to hind paws, forepaws performed ~4 times more steps, they were ~20% longer, and Hold duration was ~5 times shorter in normal C57Bl/6 mice. Thus, forepaw steps were classified as exploratory, hind paw movement as locomotive. Multiple novel features pertaining to paw sequence, step lengths and exploratory touches were accessible through TracMouse and revealed subtle Parkinsonian phenotypes. Novel proxies using TracMouse revealed previously unidentified features of movement and may aid the understanding of (i) brain circuits related to motor planning and execution, and (ii) phenotype detection in experimental models of movement disorders.

  10. An fMRI study of training voluntary smooth circular eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Raimund; Stadler, Cornelia; Wimmer, Sibylle; Matyas, Thomas; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-03-01

    Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement. Participants were able to improve within half an hour, typically demonstrating saccadic movement with progressively reduced amplitudes, which better approximated smooth circular movement. Activity in the inferior premotor cortex was significantly modulated and decreased during the progress of learning. In contrast, activations in dorsal premotor and parietal cortex along the intraparietal sulcus, the supplementary eye field and the anterior cerebellum did not change during training. Thus, the decrease of activity in inferior premotor cortex was critically related to the learning progress in visuospatial eye movement control.

  11. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  12. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning.

  13. Mass MOVEMENTS' Detection in Hirise Images of the North Pole of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanara, L.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Oberst, J.

    2016-06-01

    We are investigating change detection techniques to automatically detect mass movements at the steep north polar scarps of Mars, in order to improve our understanding of these dynamic processes. Here we focus on movements of blocks specifically. The precise detection of such small changes requires an accurate co-registration of the images, which is achieved by ortho-rectifying them using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). Moreover, we deal with the challenge of deriving the true shape of the moved blocks. In a next step, these results are combined with findings based on HiRISE DTMs from different points in time in order to estimate the volume of mass movements.

  14. Video assessment of finger tapping for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Criss, Kjersten; McNames, James

    2011-01-01

    Functional motor impairment due to Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders are currently assessed with visual rating scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). These methods rely on the subjective judgment of a rater to assign scores representing the extent of impairment while subjects perform prescribed activities. We describe a new model-based framework that uses statistical video processing to automatically track movement during prescribed activities. This approach has many advantages over traditional clinical rating scales. It can completely characterize movement during prescribed tasks over time objectively and precisely using hardware that is inexpensive and readily available. We demonstrate the potential of this framework with a simple statistical model applied to a paced finger tapping test. This technology could be deployed in a natural home environment for frequent assessments. This technology could ultimately improve both clinical practice and clinical trials.

  15. Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time and surface displacements can be directly utilized to provide early warning of slope movements and to study the behavior of the landslide, e.g. to predict timing and mechanisms of future failure. The Valoria landslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy was reactivated in 2001, 2005 and 2007 damaging roads and endangering houses. A monitoring system was installed in 2007-2008 in the frame of a civil protection plan aimed at risk mitigation. The system consists of an automatic total station measuring about 40 prisms located in the landslide to a maximum distance of 1.800 km; one double-frequency GPS receiver connects in streaming by wireless communication with 4 single-frequency GPS in side the flow. Until December 2007 the monitoring network was operated with periodic static surveying followed by the data post-processing. From September 2007 until March 2008 the landslide deformation was evaluated by periodic surveys with the total station and the GPS system. This first measure showed that the displacements were influenced by the rainfall events and by the snow melting. The total displacements measured vary from centimeter scale in the crown zone, where retrogressive movements were in progress, to over 50 m in the flow track zone. Starting in March 2008 data acquisition by the total station system and GPS were automated in order to allow continuous and near-real-time data processing. The displacement data collected in one and a half year of continuous operation show different acceleration and deceleration phases as a result of the pore water pressure distribution inside the

  16. Eye movements during listening reveal spontaneous grammatical processing

    PubMed Central

    Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H.; Spivey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension. PMID:24904450

  17. Balancing cognitive control: how observed movements influence motor performance in a task with balance constraints.

    PubMed

    Verrel, Julius; Lisofsky, Nina; Kühn, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the influence of observed movements on executed movements in a task requiring lifting one foot from the floor while maintaining whole-body balance. Sixteen young participants (20-30 years) performed foot lift movements, which were either cued symbolically by a letter (L/R, indicating to lift the left/right foot) or by a short movie showing a foot lift movement. In the symbol cue condition, stimuli from the movie cue condition were used as distractors, and vice versa. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and actual foot lifts were recorded using force plates and optical motion capture. Foot lift responses were generally faster in response to the movie compared to the symbol cue condition. Moreover, incongruent movement distractors interfered with performance in the symbol cue condition, as shown by longer response times and increased number of APAs. Latencies of the first (potentially wrong) APA in a trial were shorter for movie compared to symbol cues but were not affected by cue-distractor congruency. Amplitude of the first APA was smaller when it was followed by additional APAs compared to trials with a single APA. Our results show that automatic imitation tendencies are integrated with postural control in a task with balance constraints. Analysis of the number, timing and amplitude of APAs indicates that conflicts between intended and observed movements are not resolved at a purely cognitive level but directly influence overt motor performance, emphasizing the intimate link between perception, cognition and action.

  18. From body form to biological motion: the apparent velocity of human movement biases subjective time.

    PubMed

    Orgs, Guido; Bestmann, Sven; Schuur, Friederike; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    In two experiments, we investigated time perception during apparent biological motion. Pictures of initial, intermediate, and final positions of a single movement were presented, with interstimulus intervals that were constant within trials but varied across trials. Movement paths were manipulated by changing the sequential order of body postures. Increasing the path length produced an increase in perceived movement velocity. To produce an implicit measure of apparent movement dynamics, we also asked participants to judge the duration of a frame surrounding the stimuli. Longer paths with higher apparent movement velocity produced shorter perceived durations. This temporal bias was attenuated for nonbody (Experiment 1) and inverted-body (Experiment 2) control stimuli. As an explanation for these findings, we propose an automatic top-down mechanism of biological-motion perception that binds successive body postures into a continuous perception of movement. We show that this mechanism is associated with velocity-dependent temporal compression. Furthermore, this mechanism operates on-line, bridging the intervals between static stimuli, and is specific to configural processing of body form.

  19. Rethinking Progressive High School Reform in the 1930s: Youth, Mental Hygiene, and General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Progressive education was pluralistic and often contradictory in its missions, motives, and degrees of success as was progressivism in general. The larger political progressive movement with its genesis in the latter half of the nineteenth century peaked in the Progressive Era at the beginning of the twentieth century. Until Lawrence Cremin's…

  20. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... control of gait and balance, along with complex eye movement and thinking problems. One of the classic signs ... in the area of the brain that coordinates eye movements. Some individuals describe this effect as a blurring. ...